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The Praxis Study Companion

General Science:
Content Knowledge
5435

www.ets.org/praxis

Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion

Welcome to The PraxisStudy Companion


Prepare to Show What You Know
You have been working to acquire the knowledge and skills you need for your teaching career. Now you are
ready to demonstrate your abilities by taking a Praxis test.
Using The Praxis Series Study Companion is a smart way to prepare for the test so you can do your best on test
day. This guide can help keep you on track and make the most efficient use of your study time.
The Study Companion contains practical information and helpful tools, including:
An overview of the Praxis tests
Specific information on the Praxis test you are taking
A template study plan
Study topics
Practice questions and explanations of correct answers
Test-taking tips and strategies
Frequently asked questions
Links to more detailed information
So where should you start? Begin by reviewing this guide in its entirety and note those sections that you need
to revisit. Then you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs
and how much time you have before test day.
Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your
test. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group dynamic. You may have more energy
early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. So use this guide to develop the
approach that works best for you.
Your teaching career begins with preparation. Good luck!

Know What to Expect


Which tests should I take?
Each state or agency that uses the Praxis tests sets its own requirements for which test or tests you must take for
the teaching area you wish to pursue.
Before you register for a test, confirm your state or agencys testing requirements at www.ets.org/praxis/states.

How are the Praxis tests given?


Praxis tests are given on computer. Other formats are available for test takers approved for accommodations (see
page 43).

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Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion

What should I expect when taking the test on computer?


When taking the test on computer, you can expect to be asked to provide proper identification at the test
center. Once admitted, you will be given the opportunity to learn how the computer interface works (how to
answer questions, how to skip questions, how to go back to questions you skipped, etc.) before the testing time
begins. Watch the What to Expect on Test Day video to see what the experience is like.

Where and when are the Praxis tests offered?


You can select the test center that is most convenient for you. The Praxis tests are administered through an
international network of test centers, which includes Prometric Testing Centers, some universities, and other
locations throughout the world.
Testing schedules may differ, so see the Praxis Web site for more detailed test registration information at www.
ets.org/praxis/register.

The Praxis Study Companion

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
The Praxis Study Companion guides you through the steps to success
1. Learn About Your Test.....................................................................................................5
Learn about the specific test you will be taking
2. F
 amiliarize Yourself with Test Questions.................................................................... 13
Become comfortable with the types of questions youll find on the Praxis tests
3. Practice with Sample Test Questions.......................................................................... 17
Answer practice questions and find explanations for correct answers
4. Determine Your Strategy for Success.......................................................................... 23
Set clear goals and deadlines so your test preparation is focused and efficient
5. Develop Your Study Plan.............................................................................................. 26
Develop a personalized study plan and schedule
6. Review Study Topics..................................................................................................... 30
Detailed study topics with questions for discussion
7. Review Smart Tips for Success..................................................................................... 41
Follow test-taking tips developed by experts
8. Check on Testing Accommodations............................................................................ 43
See if you qualify for accommodations that may make it easier to take the Praxis test
9. Do Your Best on Test Day.............................................................................................. 44
Get ready for test day so you will be calm and confident
10. Understand Your Scores............................................................................................. 46
Understand how tests are scored and how to interpret your test scores
Appendix: Other Questions You May Have .................................................................... 48

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Step 1: Learn About Your Test

1. Learn About Your Test


Learn about the specific test you will be taking

General Science: Content Knowledge (5435)

Test at a Glance
Test Name

General Science: Content Knowledge

Test Code 5435


Time

2.5 hours

Number of Questions 135


Format

Selected-response questions

Test Delivery

Computer delivered



Content Categories

Approximate Approximate
Number of
Percentage of
Questions Examination


I. Scientific Methodology, Techniques, and
I
V
History

15

11%

IV

II. Physical Science


III. Life Science

51
27

38%
20%

IV. Earth and Space Science

27

20%

V. Science, Technology, and Society

15

11%

II
III

About This Test


The General Science: Content Knowledge test is designed to measure the knowledge and competencies
necessary for a beginning teacher of secondary school General Science. Examinees have typically completed or
nearly completed a bachelors degree program with appropriate coursework in science and education. This test
may contain some questions that will not count toward your score.
The development of the test questions and the construction of the test reflect the National Science Education
Standards (NSES) and the National Science Teacher Association (NSTA) standards and recognize that there
are conceptual and procedural schemes that unify the various scientific disciplines. These fundamental
concepts and processes (systems; models; constancy and change; equilibrium; form and function) are useful in
understanding the natural world. Insofar as possible, then, the test questions will have the primary objective of
evaluating the content areas by using questions that focus on conceptual understanding, critical thinking, and
problem solving in science. The test content is developed and reviewed in collaboration with practicing high
school science teachers, teacher-educators, and higher education content specialists to keep the test updated
and representative of current standards.
The 135 selected-response questions include concepts, terms, phenomena, methods, applications, data analysis,
and problem solving in science, and include an understanding of the impact of science and technology on the
environment and human affairs. This also includes the ability to integrate basic topics from Chemistry, Physics,
Life Science, and Earth and Space Science which are typically covered in introductory college-level courses in
these disciplines, although some questions of a more advanced nature are included, because secondary-school

The Praxis Study Companion

Step 1: Learn About Your Test

teachers must understand the subject matter from


a more advanced viewpoint than that presented to
their students.
Examinees will not need to use calculators in taking
this test. The periodic table of the elements is available
as a Help screen, along with a table of information
that presents various physical constants and a
few conversion factors among SI units. Whenever
necessary, additional values of physical constants are
included with the text of a question.

C. Interpret and Draw Conclusions from Data



Presented in Tables, Graphs, Maps, and
Charts
1. Trends in data
2. Relationships between variables
3. Predictions based on data
4. Drawing valid conclusions based on the data

D. Procedures for Correct Preparation,



Storage, Use, and Disposal of Laboratory
Materials

Test Specifications

1. Appropriate and safe use of materials (e.g.,


chemicals, lab specimens)

Test specifications describe the knowledge and


skills measured by the test. Study topics to help you
prepare to answer test questions can be found in "6.
Review Study Topics" on page 30.

2. Safe disposal of materials

I. Scientific Methodology, Techniques, and


History
A. Methods of Scientific Inquiry and Design
1. Identifying problems based on observations
2. Forming and testing hypotheses
3. Development of theories, models, and laws
4. Experimental design, including independent
and dependent variables, controls, and sources
of error
5. Process skills including observing, comparing,
inferring, categorizing, generalizing, and
concluding
6. Nature of scientific knowledge

a. subject to change
b. consistent with evidence
c. based on reproducible evidence
d. includes unifying concepts and processes
(e.g., systems, models, constancy and
change, equilibrium, form and function)

B. Processes Involved in Scientific Data


Collectionand Manipulation
1. Common units of measurement (metric and
English) including unit conversion and prefixes
such as milli and kilo
2. Scientific notation and significant figures in
collected data
3. Organization and presentation of data
4. Basic data and error analysis including
determining mean, accuracy, precision, and
sources of error

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3. Appropriate storage
4. Preparation for classroom or field use (e.g., how
to prepare a solution of given concentration,
staining slides, labeling samples)

E. How to Use Standard Equipment in the


Laboratory and the Field
1. Appropriate and safe use (e.g., Bunsen burner,
glassware, GPS, microscope)
2. Appropriate storage (e.g., pH probes stored in
appropriate buffer solution, dissection
equipment, glassware)
3. Maintenance and calibration (e.g., cleaning
microscopes, calibration of balances)
4. Preparation for classroom or field use (e.g.,
prelaboratory setup, classroom
demonstrations, field research)

F. Safety and Emergency Procedures in the


Laboratory
1. Location and use of standard safety equipment
(e.g., eyewash, shower)
2. Laboratory safety rules for students
3. Appropriate apparel and conduct in the
laboratory (e.g., wearing goggles)
4. Emergency procedures (e.g., fires,
chemical spills, handling of injuries)

G. Major Historical Developments of Science


1. Accepted principles and models develop over
time
2. Major developments in science (e.g., atomic
theory, plate tectonics)
3. Contributions of major historical figures (e.g.,
Darwin, Newton)

Step 1: Learn About Your Test

II. Physical Science


A. Basic Principles
1. Structure of matter
a. Elements, compounds, and mixtures
b. Atoms, molecules, and ions
c. Basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases
2. Basic structure of the atom
a. Atomic models
b. Atomic structure including nucleus,
electrons, protons, and neutrons
c. Atomic number, atomic mass, isotopes
d. Electron arrangements (e.g., valence
electrons)
3. Basic characteristics of radioactive materials
a. Radioisotopes
b. Radioactive decay processes and half-life
c. Characteristics of alpha particles, beta
particles, and gamma radiation
d. Fission and fusion

4. Basic concepts and relationships involving


energy and matter
a. Conservation of energy (first law of
thermodynamics)
b. Entropy changes (second law of
thermodynamics)
c. Conservation of matter in chemical systems
d. Kinetic and potential energy
e. Transformations between different forms of
energy (thermal, chemical, radiant, nuclear,
mechanical, electrical, electromagnetic)
f. Differences between chemical and physical
properties/changes
g. Various temperature scales (Celsius,
Fahrenheit, Kelvin)
h. Transfer of thermal energy and its basic
measurement
conduction, convection, and radiation
specific heat capacity
calorimetry (e.g., predict heat transfer in
various systems)

i. Applications of energy and matter


relationships
trophic level
matter cycling (carbon, nitrogen, water)
energy flow in ecosystems
convection currents in atmosphere,
ocean, and mantle
conservation of mass in the rock cycle
chemical and physical changes in rocks
impact of solar radiation on Earth and life
energy transformations in living systems
(e.g., photosynthesis, cellular respiration)

B. Chemistry
1. Periodicity and states of matter
a. Periodic table of the elements
elements arranged in groups and periods
atomic number, atomic mass, and isotopic
abundance
symbols of the elements
trends in physical properties based on
position of elements on the periodic table
(e.g., atomic radius, ionization energy)
trends in chemical reactivity based on
position of elements on the periodic table
(e.g., metals, nonmetals, noble gases)
b. States of matter and factors that affect phase
changes
basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of
matter (e.g., particles in constant motion,
average speed of gas particles related to
temperature)
ideal gas laws (e.g., volume is proportional
to temperature, pressure is inversely
related to volume)
phase transitions and energy changes
(e.g., heat of vaporization, heat of
sublimation, phase diagrams, heating
curves)

2. Chemical nomenclature, composition, and


bonding
a. Name of simple compounds and their
chemical formulas
interpreting chemical formulas
naming compounds based on formula
writing formulas based on name
structural formulas (e.g., electron dot,
Lewis structures)
b. Types of chemical bonding
covalent and ionic
c. Mole concept and its applications
Avogadros number
d. Molar mass and percent composition

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3. Chemical reactions
a. Basic concepts involved in chemical
reactions
use and balance equations of simple
chemical reactions
balance equations
simple stoichiometric calculations based
on balanced equations

endothermic and exothermic reactions


factors that affect reaction rates (e.g.,
concentration, temperature, pressure,
catalysts/enzymes, activation energy)
factors that affect reaction equilibrium
(e.g., Le Chteliers principle)
types of reactions (e.g., combustion, single
or double replacement)
simple oxidation-reduction reactions

4. Acid-base chemistry
a. Simple acid-base chemistry
chemical and physical properties of acids
and bases
pH scale
neutralization
acid-base indicators (e.g., phenolphthalein,
pH paper, litmus paper)
5. Solutions and solubility
a. Different types of solutions
dilute and concentrated
saturated, unsaturated, supersaturated
solvent and solute
concentration terms (e.g., molarity, parts
per million (ppm))
preparation of solutions of varying
concentrations
b. Factors affecting the solubility of substances
and the dissolving process
effect of temperature, pressure, particle
size, and agitation on the rate of dissolving
effect of temperature and pressure on
solubility (e.g., solubility curves)
polar vs. nonpolar solvents and solutes
dissociation of ionic compounds such as
salts in water (e.g., ionization, electrolytes)
precipitation
freezing point depression

C. Physics
1. Mechanics
a. Description of motion in one and two
dimensions
speed, velocity, acceleration
displacement
linear momentum
vector and scalar quantities
b. Newtons three laws of motion
First law: inertia
Second law: F = ma (i.e., net force, mass,
and acceleration)
Third law: action-reaction forces
c. Mass, weight, and gravity
distinguish between mass and weight
gravitational attraction (force of attraction
between masses at various distances)
acceleration due to gravity
d. Analysis of motion and forces
projectile motion
inclined planes
friction
collisions (e.g., elastic, inelastic) and
conservation of linear momentum
circular motion (e.g., centripetal
acceleration, centripetal force)
center of mass
periodic motion (e.g., pendulums,
oscillating springs, planetary orbits,
satellites)
conservation of energy
work, energy, and power
basic fluid mechanics (e.g., buoyancy,
density, pressure)
e. Simple machines
mechanical advantage
types of simple machines (e.g., wedge,
screw, lever)
concept of torque

2. Electricity and magnetism


a. Electrical nature of common materials
electric charges
electrostatic force (attraction and
repulsion, Coulombs law)
conductivity, conductors, and insulators
b. Basic electrical concepts
DC and AC current
current, resistance, voltage, and power
Ohms law
analyze basic series and parallel circuits
voltage sources (e.g., batteries, generators)

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c. Basic properties of magnetic fields and


forces
magnetic materials
magnetic forces and fields (e.g., magnetic
poles, attractive and repulsive forces)
electromagnets

4. Major features of common animal cell types



(e.g., blood cells, muscle, nerve, epithelial,
gamete)
5. Prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes

(animals, plants, fungi, protists)
B. Key Aspects of Cell Reproduction and
Division

3. Optics and waves


a. Electromagnetic spectrum
nature of light (e.g., wave properties,
photons)
visible spectrum and color
electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., ultraviolet,
microwave, gamma)

1. Cell cycle
2. Mitosis
3. Meiosis
4. Cytokinesis

b. Basic characteristics and types of waves


transverse and longitudinal
wave characteristics and relationships
between them (e.g., frequency, amplitude,
wavelength, speed, energy)
c. Basic wave phenomena
reflection, refraction, diffraction, and
dispersion
absorption and transmission
interference, scattering, and polarization
total internal reflection
Doppler effect (e.g., apparent frequency,
moving source or observer, red/blue shift)
d. Basic optics
mirrors
lenses and their applications (e.g., the
human eye, microscope, telescope)
prisms
e. Sound
pitch/frequency and loudness/intensity
sound wave production, air vibrations, and
resonance (e.g., tuning forks)
application of the Doppler effect to sound

C. Basic Biochemistry of Life

1. Cellular respiration
2. Photosynthesis

D. Basic Genetics
1. Structure (double helix, single stranded,
and base pairs) and function of DNA and RNA
(replication, transcription, and translation)
2. Chromosomes, genes, alleles
3. Dominant and recessive traits
4. Mendelian inheritance (e.g., genotype,

phenotype, use of Punnett squares,
pedigrees)
5. Mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and

common genetic disorders
E.

1. Structure and function of cell membranes


(e.g., phospholipid bilayer, passive and active
transport)

2. Isolation mechanisms and speciation


3. Supporting evidence (e.g., fossil record,

comparative genetics, homologous
structures)
F.

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Hierarchical Classification Scheme

1. Classification schemes (e.g., domain, class,


genus)

2. Structure and function of animal and plant



cell organelles
3. Levels of organization (cells, tissues, organs,

organ systems)

Theory and Key Mechanisms of Evolution

1. Mechanisms of evolution (e.g., natural


selection)

III. Life Science


A. Basic Structure and Function of Cells and
Their Organelles

3. Biological molecules (e.g., DNA,


carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, enzymes)

2. Characteristics of bacteria, animals, plants,


fungi, and protists

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G. Major Structures of Plants and Their


Functions

IV. Earth and Space Science


A. Physical Geology

1. Characteristics of vascular and nonvascular


plants

2. Structure and function of roots, leaves, and


stems (e.g., stomata, xylem, phloem)

3. Asexual (budding) and sexual reproduction


(flowers, fruit, seeds, spores)

1. Types and basic characteristics of rocks and


minerals and their formation processes
a. The rock cycle
b. Characteristics of rocks and their formation
processes (i.e., sedimentary, igneous, and
metamorphic rock)
c. Characteristics of minerals and their
formation processes (e.g., classes of minerals,
crystals, hardness)

4. Growth (e.g., germination, elongation)


5. Uptake and transport of nutrients and water
6. Responses to stimuli (e.g., light, temperature,

water, gravity)
H. Basic Anatomy and Physiology of
Animals, including the Human Body

1. Response to stimuli and homeostasis


2. Exchange with the environment (e.g.,


respiratory, excretory, and digestive systems)

3. Internal transport and exchange (e.g., heart,



arteries, veins, capillaries)
4. Control systems (e.g., nervous and endocrine
systems)

5. Movement and support (e.g., skeletal and


muscular systems)
6. Reproduction and development

7. Immune system (e.g., antibodies,


autoimmune disorders)
I.

Key Aspects of Ecology

1. Population dynamics
a. growth curves and carrying capacity
b. behavior (e.g., territoriality)
c. intraspecific relationships (e.g., mating
systems, social systems, competition)
2. Community ecology
a. niche
b. species diversity
c. interspecific relationships (e.g., predatorprey, parasitism)

2. Processes involved in erosion, weathering,


and deposition of Earths surface materials
and soil formation
a. Erosion and deposition (e.g., agents of
erosion)
b. Chemical and physical (mechanical)
weathering
c. Characteristics of soil (e.g., types, soil profile)
d. Porosity and permeability
e. Runoff and infiltration
3. Earths basic structure and internal processes
a. Earths layers (e.g., lithosphere, mantle, core)
b. Shape and size of Earth
c. Geographical features (e.g., mountains,
plateaus, mid-ocean ridges)
d. Earths magnetic field
e. Plate tectonics theory and evidence
folding and faulting (e.g., plate
boundaries)
continental drift, seafloor spreading,
magnetic reversals
characteristics of volcanoes (e.g.,
eruptions, lava, gases, hot spots)
characteristics of earthquakes (e.g.,
epicenters, faults, tsunamis)
seismic waves and triangulation
4. The water cycle
a. Evaporation and condensation
b. Precipitation
c. Runoff and infiltration
d. Transpiration

3. Ecosystems
a. biomes
b. stability and disturbances (e.g., glaciation,
climate change, succession)
c. energy flow (e.g., trophic levels, food webs)
d. biogeochemical cycles (e.g., water, nitrogen,
and carbon cycles, biotic/abiotic interaction)

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B. Historical Geology

1. Historical geology
a. Principle of uniformitarianism
b. Basic principles of relative age dating (e.g.,
superposition, stratigraphic correlation, fossil
succession)
c. Absolute (radiometric) dating
d. Geologic time scale (e.g., age of Earth, scope
of time)
e. Fossil record as evidence of the origin and
development of life (e.g., fossilization
methods, mass extinctions, ice ages, meteor
impacts)
C. Earths Bodies of Water

1. Characteristics and processes of Earths


oceans and other bodies of water
a. Distribution and location of Earths water
b. Seawater composition
c. Coastline topography and topography of
ocean floor
d. Tides, waves, currents
e. Estuaries and barrier islands
f. Islands, reefs, and atolls
g. Polar ice, icebergs, and glaciers
h. Lakes, ponds, and wetlands
i. Streams, rivers, and river deltas
j. Groundwater, water table, wells, and aquifers
k. Geysers and springs
l. Properties of water that affect Earth systems
(e.g., density changes on freezing, high heat
capacity, polar solvent, hydrogen bonding)
D. Meteorology and Climate

1. Basic structure and composition of Earths


atmosphere
a. Layers (e.g., stratosphere)
b. Composition of atmosphere (e.g., percent
oxygen and nitrogen)
c. Atmospheric pressure and temperature
2. Basic concepts of meteorology
a. Relative humidity
b. Dew point
c. Wind (e.g., how it is generated and modified)
d. Cloud types and formation
e. Types of precipitation (e.g., hail, rain)
f. Air masses, fronts, storms, and severe
weather (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes)
g. Development and movement of weather
patterns

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3. Major factors that affect climate and seasons


a. Effects of latitude, geographical location,
and elevation (e.g., mountains and oceans)
b. Effects of atmospheric circulation (e.g., trade
winds, jet stream)
c. Effects of ocean circulation
d. Characteristics and locations of climate
zones (e.g., Tropics, Arctic)
e. Effect of the tilt of Earths axis on seasons
f. Effects of natural phenomena (e.g., volcanic
eruptions, solar radiation variations)
g. El Nio, La Nia
E.

Astronomy

1. Major features of the solar system


a. Structure of the solar system
b. Laws of motion (e.g., gravitation, planetary
orbits, satellites)
c. Characteristics of the Sun, Moon, and
planets
d. Characteristics of asteroids, meteoroids,
comets, and dwarf/minor planets
e. Theories of origin of the solar system
2. Interactions of the Earth-Moon-Sun system
a. Earths rotation and orbital revolution around
the Sun
b. Effect on seasons
c. Phases of the Moon
d. Effect on tides
e. Solar and lunar eclipses
f. Time zones
g. Effect of solar wind on Earth
3. Major features of the universe
a. Galaxies (e.g., definition, relative size, Milky
Way)
b. Characteristics of stars and their life cycles
life cycle of star, e.g., white dwarf, red
giant, supernova, nebulae, black holes
color, temperature, apparent brightness,
absolute brightness, luminosity
Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams
c. Dark matter
d. Theories about the origin of the universe
(e.g., Big Bang)
4. Contributions of space exploration and

technology to our understanding of the
universe
a. Remote sensing devices (e.g., satellites,
space probes, telescopes, spectral analysis)
b. Search for water and life on other planets

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C. Applications of Science and Technology


in Daily Life

V. Science, Technology, and Society


A. Impact of Science and Technology on the
Environment and Society

1. Air and water pollution (e.g., acid rain,


eutrophication, groundwater pollution)
2. Climate change and greenhouse gases
3. Irrigation
4. Reservoirs and levees

1. Chemical properties of household products


2. Communication (e.g., wireless devices, GPS,
satellites)

4. Water purification

5. Depletion of aquifers
6. Ozone layer depletion
7. Loss of biodiversity

5. Common agricultural practices (e.g.,


genetically modified crops, use of herbicides
and insecticides)

8. Space exploration

6. DNA evidence in criminal investigations

9. Waste disposal (e.g., landfills)

7. Nanotechnology
D. Impact of Science on Public Health
Issues

10. Recycling

3. Science principles applied in commonly used


consumer products (e.g., batteries, lasers,
polarized sunglasses, and fiber optic cables)

11. Environmentally friendly consumer products


(e.g., biodegradable materials)
B. Major Issues associated with Energy
Production and the Management of
Natural Resources

1. Renewable and nonrenewable energy


resources

1. Nutrition, disease, and medicine (e.g.,


vitamins, viruses, vaccines)

2. Biotechnology (e.g., genetic engineering, in


vitro fertilization)

3. Medical technologies (e.g., medical imaging,



X-rays, radiation therapy)

2. Conservation and recycling





3. Pros and cons of power generation based on


various resources including fossil and
nuclear fuel, hydropower, wind power, solar
power, geothermal power, and alternative
energy sources

4. Issues associated with the use and extraction


of Earths resources (e.g., mining, land
reclamation, deforestation)

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Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions

2. Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions


Become comfortable with the types of questions youll find on the Praxis tests
The Praxis Series assessments include a variety of question types: constructed response (for which you write a
response of your own); selected response, for which you select one or more answers from a list of choices or
make another kind of selection (e.g., by clicking on a sentence in a text or by clicking on part of a graphic); and
numeric entry, for which you enter a numeric value in an answer field. You may be familiar with these question
formats from taking other standardized tests. If not, familiarize yourself with them so you dont spend time
during the test figuring out how to answer them.

Understanding Computer-Delivered Questions


Questions on computer-delivered tests are interactive in the sense that you answer by selecting an option
or entering text on the screen. If you see a format you are not familiar with, read the directions carefully. The
directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond.
For most questions, you respond by clicking an oval to select a single answer from a list of options.
However, interactive question types may also ask you to respond by:
Clicking more than one oval to select answers from a list of options.
Typing in an entry box. When the answer is a number, you may be asked to enter a numerical answer.
Some questions may have more than one place to enter a response.
Clicking check boxes. You may be asked to click check boxes instead of an oval when more than one
choice within a set of answers can be selected.
Clicking parts of a graphic. In some questions, you will select your answers by clicking on a location (or
locations) on a graphic such as a map or chart, as opposed to choosing your answer from a list.
Clicking on sentences. In questions with reading passages, you may be asked to choose your answers by
clicking on a sentence (or sentences) within the reading passage.
Dragging and dropping answer choices into targets on the screen. You may be asked to select answers
from a list of options and drag your answers to the appropriate location in a table, paragraph of text or
graphic.
Selecting options from a drop-down menu. You may be asked to choose answers by selecting options
from a drop-down menu (e.g., to complete a sentence).
Remember that with every question you will get clear instructions.
Perhaps the best way to understand computer-delivered questions is to view the Computer-delivered Testing
Demonstration on the Praxis Web site to learn how a computer-delivered test works and see examples of
some types of questions you may encounter.

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13

Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions

Understanding Selected-Response Questions


Many selected-response questions begin with the phrase which of the following. Take a look at this example:
Which of the following is a flavor made from beans?
(A) Strawberry
(B) Cherry
(C) Vanilla
(D) Mint

How would you answer this question?


All of the answer choices are flavors. Your job is to decide which of the flavors is the one made from beans.
Try following these steps to select the correct answer.
1) L
 imit your answer to the choices given. You may know that chocolate and coffee are also flavors made
from beans, but they are not listed. Rather than thinking of other possible answers, focus only on the choices
given (which of the following).
2) E
 liminate incorrect answers. You may know that strawberry and cherry flavors are made from fruit and
that mint flavor is made from a plant. That leaves vanilla as the only possible answer.
3) V
 erify your answer. You can substitute vanilla for the phrase which of the following and turn the
question into this statement: Vanilla is a flavor made from beans. This will help you be sure that your answer
is correct. If youre still uncertain, try substituting the other choices to see if they make sense. You may want
to use this technique as you answer selected-response questions on the practice tests.

Try a more challenging example


The vanilla bean question is pretty straightforward, but youll find that more challenging questions have a
similar structure. For example:
Entries in outlines are generally arranged according
to which of the following relationships of ideas?
(A) Literal and inferential
(B) Concrete and abstract
(C) Linear and recursive
(D) Main and subordinate
Youll notice that this example also contains the phrase which of the following. This phrase helps you
determine that your answer will be a relationship of ideas from the choices provided. You are supposed to find
the choice that describes how entries, or ideas, in outlines are related.
Sometimes it helps to put the question in your own words. Here, you could paraphrase the question in this way:
How are outlines usually organized? Since the ideas in outlines usually appear as main ideas and subordinate
ideas, the answer is (D).

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14

Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions

QUICK TIP: Dont be intimidated by words you may not understand. It might be easy to be thrown by words
like recursive or inferential. Read carefully to understand the question and look for an answer that fits. An
outline is something you are probably familiar with and expect to teach to your students. So slow down, and
use what you know.

Watch out for selected-response questions containing NOT, LEAST, and EXCEPT
This type of question asks you to select the choice that does not fit. You must be very careful because it is easy
to forget that you are selecting the negative. This question type is used in situations in which there are several
good solutions or ways to approach something, but also a clearly wrong way.

How to approach questions about graphs, tables, or reading passages


When answering questions about graphs, tables, or reading passages, provide only the information that the
questions ask for. In the case of a map or graph, you might want to read the questions first, and then look at the
map or graph. In the case of a long reading passage, you might want to go ahead and read the passage first,
noting places you think are important, and then answer the questions. Again, the important thing is to be sure
you answer the questions as they refer to the material presented. So read the questions carefully.

How to approach unfamiliar formats


New question formats are developed from time to time to find new ways of assessing knowledge. Tests may
include audio and video components, such as a movie clip or animation, instead of a map or reading passage.
Other tests may allow you to zoom in on details in a graphic or picture.
Tests may also include interactive questions. These questions take advantage of technology to assess
knowledge and skills in ways that standard selected-response questions cannot. If you see a format you are
not familiar with, read the directions carefully. The directions always give clear instructions on how you are
expected to respond.

QUICK TIP: Dont make the questions more difficult than they are. Dont read for hidden meanings or tricks.
There are no trick questions on Praxis tests. They are intended to be serious, straightforward tests of
your knowledge.

Understanding Constructed-Response Questions


Constructed-response questions require you to demonstrate your knowledge in a subject area by creating
your own response to particular topics. Essays and short-answer questions are types of constructed-response
questions.
For example, an essay question might present you with a topic and ask you to discuss the extent to which you
agree or disagree with the opinion stated. You must support your position with specific reasons and examples
from your own experience, observations, or reading.
Take a look at a few sample essay topics:
 Celebrities have a tremendous influence on the young, and for that reason, they have a responsibility to
act as role models.
 We are constantly bombarded by advertisementson television and radio, in newspapers and
magazines, on highway signs, and the sides of buses. They have become too pervasive. Its time to put
limits on advertising.
Advances in computer technology have made the classroom unnecessary, since students and teachers
are able to communicate with one another from computer terminals at home or at work.

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15

Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions

Keep these things in mind when you respond to a constructed-response question


1) A
 nswer the question accurately. Analyze what each part of the question is asking you to do. If the
question asks you to describe or discuss, you should provide more than just a list.
2) A
 nswer the question completely. If a question asks you to do three distinct things in your response,
you should cover all three things for the best score. Otherwise, no matter how well you write, you will
not be awarded full credit.
3) A
 nswer the question that is asked. Do not change the question or challenge the basis of the
question. You will receive no credit or a low score if you answer another question or if you state, for
example, that there is no possible answer.
4) G
 ive a thorough and detailed response. You must demonstrate that you have a thorough
understanding of the subject matter. However, your response should be straightforward and not filled
with unnecessary information.
5) R
 eread your response. Check that you have written what you thought you wrote. Be sure not to
leave sentences unfinished or omit clarifying information.

QUICK TIP: You may find that it helps to take notes on scratch paper so that you dont miss any details. Then
youll be sure to have all the information you need to answer the question.
For tests that have constructed-response questions, more detailed information can be found in 1. Learn About
Your Test on page 5.

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16

Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

3. Practice with Sample Test Questions


Answer practice questions and find explanations for correct answers

Sample Test Questions


The sample questions that follow illustrate the kinds of questions
on the test. They are not, however, representative of the entire
scope of the test in either content or difficulty. Answers with
explanations follow the questions.

Directions: Each of the questions or statements below is

In an experiment to study the effect of a new


fertilizer on the growth of tall hybrid corn and
dwarf hybrid corn, from immediately after
germination to 10 days of growth, the data
below were obtained. Other growing
conditions such as water and sunlight were
the same for both groups.

followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select


the one that is best in each case.

1. Which of the following poses the greatest


safety risk while being heated in a school
laboratory?
(A) A mixture of iron and sulfur
(B) Mercury(II) oxide
(C) Sodium chloride
(D) Copper(II) sulfate hydrate
2. A piece of paper that appears blue in sunlight
is illuminated solely by a red light that is
passed through a green filter. What color does
the paper appear under this illumination?
(A) Blue
(B) Green
(C) Red
(D) Black
3. What quantity of oxygen, O2, contains very
nearly the same number of molecules as
36.0 grams of water, H2O?
(A) 64.0 grams
(B) 32.0 grams
(C) 16.0 grams
(D) 8.0 grams

4. Which of the following is the most reasonable


conclusion that can be drawn from the data
above?
(A) The new fertilizer influences the growth
of both corn varieties tested
(B) The new fertilizer causes faster growth
rate for both varieties than do other
fertilizers
(C) The new fertilizer improves the root
system of the tall hybrid to a greater
extent than it does that of the dwarf
hybrid
(D) The new fertilizer is effective in producing
faster growth for both varieties for the
first 10 days only

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Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

5. A person heterozygous for the recessive gene


for cystic fibrosis marries a person who does
not carry or have the trait (homozygous
dominant). What is the probability that the
couples first child will be a carrier?
(A) 0.0
(B) 0.25
(C) 0.50
(D) 1.0
6. Which of the following is matched with its
correct function?
(A) Ovule ..... production of pollen
(B) Vascular cambium ..... formation of apical
meristem
(C) Xylem ..... transport of sugars
(D) Guard cell ..... regulation of transpiration
rate
7. Scientists believe that a worldwide
catastrophic event occurred during the late
Cretaceous period and that this event likely
caused which of the following?

9. If each of the following meals provides the


same number of calories, which meal requires
the most land to produce the food?
(A) Red beans and rice
(B) Steak and a baked potato
(C) Corn tortilla and refried beans
(D) Lentil soup and brown bread
10. Which of the following is most likely to cause
a rise in the average temperature of Earths
atmosphere in the future?
(A) Atomic warfare
(B) CO2 from fossil fuels
(C) Dust clouds from volcanoes
(D) Depletion of Earths ozone layer
11. The symbol for a specific isotope of gold is
197
79 Au. Which of the following is consistent

with this symbol?


(A) 197 neutrons in the nucleus
(B) 79 neutrons in the nucleus

(A) The movement of aquatic animals onto


land

(C) 118 protons in the nucleus of each of its


atoms

(B) The sudden demise of the dinosaurs

(D) 79 electrons in a neutral atom

(C) The emergence of Homo sapiens on the


grasslands of Africa
(D) The first appearance of mammals
8. Earths seasons are caused by which of the
following?
(A) The tilt of Earths axis of rotation relative
to the ecliptic as Earth revolves around
the Sun
(B) The varying amount of sunspot activity
(C) Earths orbit about the Sun as an ellipse
rather than a circle
(D) The rotation of Earth during a 24-hour
day

12. Which of the following statements is correct


about a trophic structure in which a
leaf-eating grasshopper is eaten by a frog,
which in turn is eaten by a snake?
(A) The frog is a herbivore.
(B) The snake is a secondary consumer.
(C) The grasshopper is a primary consumer.
(D) The snakes outnumber the grasshoppers
in the community.
13. The accumulation of stress along the
boundaries of lithospheric plates results in
which of the following?
(A) Earthquakes
(B) Magnetic reversals
(C) Hurricanes
(D) Increased deposition of deep-sea
sediments

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Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

14. Which of the following graphs illustrates the


operation of Ohms law for a conductor that
has constant resistance?
(A) (B)

19. Animals in which of the following groups may


have a backbone and a spinal cord?
(A) Mollusks
(B) Chordates
(C) Invertebrates
(D) Echinoderms

(C) (D)

20. Polarized sunglasses are used to cut glare


from sunlight reflected at a glancing angle off
cars, water, and other surfaces. Such
sunglasses are a practical application of
which of the following physical principles?
(A) Brewsters law
(B) Lenzs law
(C) Coulombs law

15. Which of the following elements is a metal?


(A) S
(B) Se

(D) Snells law


21. Which of the following parts of the Sun is
easily visible only during a total solar eclipse?

(C) I

(A) Core

(D) Ga

(B) Photosphere

16. How many moles of HCl must be added to


sufficient water to form 3 liters of a 2 M HCl
solution?
(A) 1 mol
(B) 2 mol
(C) 3 mol
(D) 6 mol

(C) Sunspots
(D) Corona
22. If equal and opposite charges are placed on
the two plates of a parallel plate capacitor and
the plates are then moved apart, which of the
following remain(s) constant?

I. Voltage
II. Capacitance

17. When a gas turns into a liquid, the process is


called

III. Charge

(A) condensation

(A) I only

(B) evaporation

(B) II only

(C) deposition

(C) III only

(D) sublimation

(D) I and II only

18. When cool air flows from a high mountain


region to a region of lower elevation, the air
will
(A) increase in moisture content
(B) condense, forming large amounts of dew
(C) undergo adiabatic warming
(D) undergo adiabatic cooling

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19

Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

23. The true length of a block of wood is


1.010 cm. Three measurements of this block
produced the following values: 1.4 cm,
1.2 cm, and 0.9 cm. Which of the following
statements is true concerning these
measurements?

24. Which of the following items will be attracted


to the north pole of a permanent magnet by a
magnetic force?
(A) The north pole of another permanent
magnet

(A) They are precise and accurate.

(B) A piece of iron that is not a permanent


magnet

(B) They are precise but not accurate.

(C) A positively charged glass rod

(C) The are accurate but not precise.

(D) A negatively charged rubber rod

(D) They are neither precise nor accurate.

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20

Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

Answers to Sample Questions


1. The best answer is (B). Mercury(II) oxide breaks
down on heating to metallic mercury and oxygen.
Mercury vapor that is given off is highly toxic when
inhaled or absorbed through the skin, and
exposure to mercury in a school should be greatly
limited if not eliminated altogether.
2. The correct answer is (D). The green filter
absorbs all colors except green, which it passes.
Therefore, the red light will be absorbed by the
filter, which will pass no light. The paper will not be
illuminated, and so it will appear black, regardless
of its initial color.
3. The correct answer is (A). 36 grams of water is
2 moles (2 X 18 grams). A 2-mole sample of O2
contains the same number of molecules as does
2 moles of any other substance. A 2-mole sample
of O2 would have a mass of
2 X 32.0 grams = 64.0 grams.
4. The correct answer is (A). The graphs indicate
more rapid growth for the treated samples than for
the untreated samples in both corn varieties. The
other options describe results not tested in the
experiments and so not indicated by the data.
5. The correct answer is (C). One parent will have
the genotype CC and the other parent will have
the genotype Cc. The possible genotypes of the
offspring are, therefore, CC, CC, Cc, and Cc. Thus, 50
percent of the offspring will be homozygous
dominant and 50 percent will be heterozygous
and carriers.
6. The correct answer is (D). Stomata open and
close due to the changing shape of the guard cells.
Water exits freely through the stomata when they
are open.
7. The correct answer is (B). The sudden
disappearance of 90 percent of the dinosaur
species occurred about 60 million years ago.
Recent chemical evidence points to a catastrophic
event, such as a large impact, occurring at that
time.
8. The correct answer is (A). Seasons are best
explained as resulting from Earths axial tilt and not
from distance variations, sunspot activity,
atmospheric transparency, or rotation.

9. The correct answer is (B). Energy is lost as


matter is transferred from one trophic level to
another. It takes more land to produce the energy
in steak than it does to produce the same amount
of energy in food from plants. Therefore, (A), (C), and
(D) are incorrect because these foods are derived
from the primary producers (plants) only.
10. The correct answer is (B). Increased carbon
dioxide (a greenhouse gas) in the atmosphere will
probably result in global warming. Atomic warfare
would more likely result in a nuclear winter.
Volcanoes would probably cause cooling due to
high atmospheric dust absorbing the Suns rays so
they cannot reach the ground. The depletion of the
ozone layer will let more ultraviolet radiation
through the atmosphere but in itself should not
cause warming.
11. The correct answer is (D). The numbers before
the symbol for an element have the following
meanings:
Top number: isotopic mass = the sum of the
number of protons plus the number of neutrons in
the nucleus of each of its atoms.
Bottom number: atomic number = the number of
protons in the nucleus of each of its atoms.
Thus, each nucleus of this isotope contains 79
protons and 197 79 = 118 neutrons. In a neutral
atom, the number of electrons is equal to the
number of protons, 79 in this case.
12. The correct answer is (C). The grasshopper is
the herbivore and thus the primary consumer.
13. The correct answer is (A). Earthquakes are the
abrupt release of energy that occurs when a rock
under stress fractures and displacement occurs.
14. The correct answer is (C). Ohms law is stated
V = IR or I = V/R, which is the equation of a straight
line through the origin, with I increasing as V
increases.
15. The correct answer is (D). The element Ga is a
metal. S, Se, and I are nonmetals.
16. The correct answer is (D). A concentration of
2 M means there are 2 moles of HCl per liter of
water. So 6 moles of HCl must be added to
sufficient water to form 3 liters of a 2 M HCl
solution.
17. The correct answer is (A). When a gas turns into
a liquid, the process is called condensation.

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21

Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions

18. The correct answer is (C). When cool air flows


from a high mountain region to a region of lower
elevation, the air undergoes adiabatic warming.
Adiabatic warming occurs as the pressure of the air
is increased as it descends.
19. The correct answer is (B). Most chordates
posses a vertebral column (backbone) that
surrounds a dorsal nerve cord. Mollusks (e.g., clams
and mussels) and echinoderms (e.g., sea stars and
sea urchins) are invertebrates that lack a vertebral
column and dorsal nerve cord.
20. The correct answer is (A). According to
Brewsters law, reflected light will always be
polarized in a horizontal direction, parallel to the
reflecting surface. Polarized sunglasses are
constructed to block this reflected light and to
transmit light polarized only in the vertical
direction.
21. The correct answer is (D). The Suns corona has
extremely low density and is visible only during a
total solar eclipse.

The Praxis Study Companion

22. The correct answer is (C). The capacitance C of


a parallel plate capacitor decreases as the distance
between the plates increases. The charge Q on the
plates is isolated and will not change. By the
definition of capacitance, namely C = Q/V, the
voltage V will increase, since C decreases and Q
remains constant.
23. The correct answer is (D). The measurements
differ from the true length by 0.39 cm, 0.19 cm,
and -0.11 cm. Thus, the measurements are quite
different in value from the true value, which means
that they are not accurate. The measurements are
also quite different in value from one another (not
repeatable), which means that they are not precise.
24. The correct answer is (B). Iron is easily
magnetized. When iron is brought close to a
permanent magnet, the iron will become
magnetized in such a way as to be attracted to the
permanent magnet.

22

Step 4: Determine Your Strategy for Success

4. Determine Your Strategy for Success


Set clear goals and deadlines so your test preparation is focused and efficient
Effective Praxis test preparation doesnt just happen. Youll want to set clear goals and deadlines for yourself
along the way. Otherwise, you may not feel ready and confident on test day.

1) Learn what the test covers.


You may have heard that there are several different versions of the same test. Its true. You may take one
version of the test and your friend may take a different version a few months later. Each test has different
questions covering the same subject area, but both versions of the test measure the same skills and
content knowledge.
Youll find specific information on the test youre taking in "1. Learn About Your Test" on page 5, which
outlines the content categories that the test measures and what percentage of the test covers each topic.
Visit www.ets.org/praxis/testprep for information on other Praxis tests.

2) Assess how well you know the content.


Research shows that test takers tend to overestimate their preparednessthis is why some test takers
assume they did well and then find out they did not pass.
The Praxis tests are demanding enough to require serious review of likely content, and the longer youve
been away from the content, the more preparation you will most likely need. If it has been longer than a few
months since youve studied your content area, make a concerted effort to prepare.

3) Collect study materials.


Gathering and organizing your materials for review are critical steps in preparing for the Praxis tests. Consider
the following reference sources as you plan your study:
D
 id you take a course in which the content area was covered? If yes, do you still have your books or
your notes?
D
 oes your local library have a high school-level textbook in this area? Does your college library have a
good introductory college-level textbook in this area?
Practice materials are available for purchase for many Praxis tests at www.ets.org/praxis/testprep. Test
preparation materials include sample questions and answers with explanations.

4) Plan and organize your time.


You can begin to plan and organize your time while you are still collecting materials. Allow yourself plenty of
review time to avoid cramming new material at the end. Here are a few tips:
C
 hoose a test date far enough in the future to leave you plenty of preparation time. Test dates can be
found at www.ets.org/praxis/register/centers_dates.
Work backward from that date to figure out how much time you will need for review.
Set a realistic scheduleand stick to it.

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Step 4: Determine Your Strategy for Success

5) Practice explaining the key concepts.


Praxis tests with constructed-response questions assess your ability to explain material effectively. As a
teacher, youll need to be able to explain concepts and processes to students in a clear, understandable
way. What are the major concepts you will be required to teach? Can you explain them in your own words
accurately, completely, and clearly? Practice explaining these concepts to test your ability to effectively
explain what you know.

6) Understand how questions will be scored.


Scoring information can be found in "10. Understand Your Scores" on page 46.

7) Develop a study plan.


A study plan provides a road map to prepare for the Praxis tests. It can help you understand what skills and
knowledge are covered on the test and where to focus your attention. Use the study plan template on page
28 to organize your efforts.
And most importantget started!

Would a Study Group Work for You?


Using this guide as part of a study group
People who have a lot of studying to do sometimes find it helpful to form a study group with others who are
working toward the same goal. Study groups give members opportunities to ask questions and get detailed
answers. In a group, some members usually have a better understanding of certain topics, while others in the
group may be better at other topics. As members take turns explaining concepts to one another, everyone
builds self-confidence.
If the group encounters a question that none of the members can answer well, the group can go to a teacher or
other expert and get answers efficiently. Because study groups schedule regular meetings, members study in a
more disciplined fashion. They also gain emotional support. The group should be large enough so that multiple
people can contribute different kinds of knowledge, but small enough so that it stays focused. Often, three to
six members is a good size.
Here are some ways to use this guide as part of a study group:

P
 lan the groups study program. Parts of the study plan template, beginning on page 28 can help
to structure your groups study program. By filling out the first five columns and sharing the worksheets,
everyone will learn more about your groups mix of abilities and about the resources, such as textbooks, that
members can share with the group. In the sixth column (Dates I will study the content), you can create an
overall schedule for your groups study program.
P
 lan individual group sessions. At the end of each session, the group should decide what specific
topics will be covered at the next meeting and who will present each topic. Use the topic headings and
subheadings in the Test at a Glance table on page 5 to select topics, and then select practice questions,
beginning on page 17.
P
 repare your presentation for the group. When its your to turn present, prepare something that is
more than a lecture. Write two or three original questions to pose to the group. Practicing writing actual
questions can help you better understand the topics covered on the test as well as the types of questions
you will encounter on the test. It will also give other members of the group extra practice at answering
questions.

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Step 4: Determine Your Strategy for Success

T
 ake a practice test together. The idea of a practice test is to simulate an actual administration of the
test, so scheduling a test session with the group will add to the realism and may also help boost everyones
confidence. Remember, complete the practice test using only the time that will be allotted for that test on
your administration day.
L earn from the results of the practice test. Review the results of the practice test, including the
number of questions answered correctly in each content category. For tests that contain constructedresponse questions, look at the Sample Test Questions section, which also contain sample responses to
those questions and shows how they were scored. Then try to follow the same guidelines that the test
scorers use.
B
 e as critical as you can. Youre not doing your study partner(s) any favors by letting them get away with
an answer that does not cover all parts of the question adequately.
B
 e specific. Write comments that are as detailed as the comments about the sample responses. Indicate
where and how your study partner(s) are doing an inadequate job of answering the question. Writing notes
in the margins of the answer sheet may also help.
B
 e supportive. Include comments that point out what your study partner(s) got right.
Then plan one or more study sessions based on aspects of the questions on which group members performed
poorly. For example, each group member might be responsible for rewriting one paragraph of a response in
which someone else did an inadequate job.
Whether you decide to study alone or with a group, remember that the best way to prepare is to have an
organized plan. The plan should set goals based on specific topics and skills that you need to learn, and it
should commit you to a realistic set of deadlines for meeting those goals. Then you need to discipline yourself
to stick with your plan and accomplish your goals on schedule.

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Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan

5. Develop Your Study Plan


Develop a personalized study plan and schedule
Planning your study time is important because it will help ensure that you review all content areas covered on the
test. Use the sample study plan below as a guide. It shows a plan for the Core Academic Skills for Educators: Reading
test. Following that is a study plan template that you can fill out to create your own plan. Use the Learn about Your
Test and Test Specifications" information beginning on page 5 to help complete it.
Use this worksheet to:
1. Define Content Areas: List the most important content areas for your test as defined in chapter 1.
2. Determine Strengths and Weaknesses: Identify your strengths and weaknesses in each content area.
3. Identify Resources: Identify the books, courses, and other resources you plan to use for each content area.
4. Study: Create and commit to a schedule that provides for regular study periods.
Praxis Test Name (Test Code): Core Academic Skills for Educators: Reading (5712)
Test Date:
9/15/15

Description
of content

Content covered

How well do
I know the
content?
(scale 15)

What
resources do I
have/need for
the content?

Where can I
find the
resources I
need?

Dates I will
study the
content

Date
completed

Key Ideas and Details


Draw inferences and
implications from the
directly stated content
of a reading selection

Middle school
English
textbook

College library,
middle school
teacher

7/15/15

7/15/15

Determining Ideas

Identify summaries or
paraphrases of the main
idea or primary purpose
of a reading selection

Middle school
English
textbook

College library,
middle school
teacher

7/17/15

7/17/15

Determining Ideas

Identify summaries
or paraphrases of the
supporting ideas and
specific details in a
reading selection

Middle and
high school
English
textbook

College library,
middle and
high school
teachers

7/20/15

7/21/15

Middle and
high school
English
textbook

College library,
middle and
high school
teachers

7/25/15

7/26/15

Middle and
high school
English
textbook,
dictionary

College library,
middle and
high school
teachers

7/25/15

7/27/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/1/15

8/1/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/1/15

8/1/15

Close reading

Craft, Structure, and Language Skills


Interpreting tone

Determine the authors


attitude toward material
discussed in a reading
selection

Analysis of
structure

Identify key transition


words and phrases in a
reading selection and
how they are used

Analysis of
structure

Identify how a reading


selection is organized
in terms of cause/effect,
compare/contrast,
problem/solution, etc.

Authors purpose

Determine the role that


an idea, reference, or
piece of information
plays in an authors
discussion or argument

(continued on next page)

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Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan

Content covered

Language in
different contexts

Description
of content
Determine whether
information presented
in a reading selection
is presented as fact or
opinion

Contextual
meaning

Identify the meanings of


words as they are used in
the context of a reading
selection

Figurative
Language

Understand figurative
language and nuances in
word meanings

Vocabulary range

Understand a range
of words and phrases
sufficient for reading at
the college and career
readiness level

How well do
I know the
content?
(scale 15)

What
resources do I
have/need for
the content?

Where can I
find the
resources I
need?

Dates
I will
study the
content

Date
completed

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/1/15

8/1/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/1/15

8/1/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/8/15

8/8/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/15/15

8/17/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/22/15

8/24/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/24/15

8/24/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/27/15

8/27/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/28/15

8/30/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

8/30/15

8/31/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

9/3/15

9/4/15

High school
textbook,
college course
notes

College library,
course notes,
high school
teacher, college
professor

9/5/15

9/6/15

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas


Analyze content
presented in diverse
Diverse media and media and formats,
formats
including visually and
quantitatively, as well as
in words
Evaluation of
arguments

Identify the relationship


among ideas presented
in a reading selection

Evaluation of
arguments

Determine whether
evidence strengthens,
weakens, or is relevant
to the arguments in a
reading selection

Evaluation of
arguments

Determine the logical


assumptions upon
which an argument or
conclusion is based

Evaluation of
arguments

Draw conclusions from


material presented in a
reading selection

Comparison of
texts

Recognize or predict
ideas or situations that
are extensions of or
similar to what has been
presented in a reading
selection

Comparison of
texts

Apply ideas presented


in a reading selection to
other situations

The Praxis Study Companion

27

Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan

My Study Plan
Use this worksheet to:
1. Define Content Areas: List the most important content areas for your test as defined in chapter 1.
2. Determine Strengths and Weaknesses: Identify your strengths and weaknesses in each content area.
3. Identify Resources: Identify the books, courses, and other resources you plan to use for each content area.
4. Study: Create and commit to a schedule that provides for regular study periods.
Praxis Test Name (Test Code): ____________________________________________________________
Test Date:
_____________

Content covered

Description
of content

How well do
I know the
content?
(scale 15)

What
resources do I
have/need for
this content?

Where can I
find the
resources I
need?

Dates I will
study this
content

Date
completed

(continued on next page)

The Praxis Study Companion

28

Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan

Content covered

The Praxis Study Companion

Description
of content

How well do
I know the
content?
(scale 15)

What
resources do I
have/need for
the content?

Where can I
find the
resources I
need?

Dates I will
study the
content

Date
completed

29

Step 6: Review Study Topics

6. Review Study Topics


Detailed study topics with questions for discussion

Using the Study Topics That Follow


The General Science: Content Knowledge test is designed to measure the knowledge and skills necessary for a
beginning teacher.
This chapter is intended to help you organize your preparation for the test and to give you a clear indication of
the depth and breadth of the knowledge required for success on the test.
Virtually all accredited programs address the topics covered by the test; however, you are not expected to be an
expert on all aspects of the topics that follow.
You are likely to find that the topics below are covered by most introductory textbooks. Consult materials and
resources, including lecture and laboratory notes, from all your coursework. You should be able to match up
specific topics and subtopics with what you have covered in your courses.
Try not to be overwhelmed by the volume and scope of content knowledge in this guide. Although a specific
term may not seem familiar as you see it here, you might find you can understand it when applied to a real-life
situation. Many of the items on the actual test will provide you with a context to apply to these topics or terms.

Discussion Areas
Interspersed throughout the study topics are discussion areas, presented as open-ended questions or
statements. These discussion areas are intended to help test your knowledge of fundamental concepts and your
ability to apply those concepts to situations in the classroom or the real world. Most of the areas require you
to combine several pieces of knowledge to formulate an integrated understanding and response. If you spend
time on these areas, you will gain increased understanding and facility with the subject matter covered on the
test. You may want to discuss these areas and your answers with a teacher or mentor.
Note that this study companion does not provide answers for the discussion area questions, but thinking about the
answers to them will help improve your understanding of fundamental concepts and will probably help you
answer a broad range of questions on the test.

The Praxis Study Companion

30

Step 6: Review Study Topics

Study Topics
An overview of the areas covered on the test, along
with their subareas, follows.

I. Scientific Methodology, Techniques, and


History
A. Methods of Scientific Inquiry and Design

1. Identifying problems based on observations


2. Forming and testing hypotheses
3. Development of theories, models, and laws
4. Experimental design, including independent
and dependent variables, controls, and sources
of error
5. Process skills including observing, comparing,
inferring, categorizing, generalizing, and
concluding
6. Nature of scientific knowledge
a.
b.
c.
d.

subject to change
consistent with evidence
based on reproducible evidence
includes unifying concepts and processes
(e.g., systems, models, constancy and
change, equilibrium, form and function)

B. Processes Involved in Scientific Data


Collection and Manipulation

1. Common units of measurement (metric and


English) including unit conversion and
prefixes such as milli and kilo
2. Scientific notation and significant figures in
collected data
3. Organization and presentation of data
4. Basic data and error analysis including
determining mean, accuracy, precision, and
sources of error
C. Interpret and Draw Conclusions from
Data Presented in Tables, Graphs, Maps,
and Charts

1.
2.
3.
4.

Trends in data
Relationships between variables
Predictions based on data
Drawing valid conclusions based on the data

D. Procedures for Correct Preparation,


Storage, Use, and Disposal of Laboratory
Materials

1. Appropriate and safe use of materials (e.g.,


chemicals, lab specimens)
2. Safe disposal of materials
3. Appropriate storage
4. Preparation for classroom or field use (e.g.,
how to prepare a solution of given
concentration, staining slides, labeling
samples)
E.

How to Use Standard Equipment in the


Laboratory and the Field

1. Appropriate and safe use (e.g., Bunsen burner,


glassware, GPS, microscope)
2. Appropriate storage (e.g., pH probes stored in
appropriate buffer solution, dissection
equipment, glassware)
3. Maintenance and calibration (e.g., cleaning
microscopes, calibration of balances)
4. Preparation for classroom or field use (e.g.,
prelaboratory setup, classroom
demonstrations, field research)
F.

Safety and Emergency Procedures in the


Laboratory

1. Location and use of standard safety


equipment (e.g., eyewash, shower)
2. Laboratory safety rules for students
3. Appropriate apparel and conduct in the
laboratory (e.g., wearing goggles)
4. Emergency procedures (e.g., fires, chemical
spills, handling of injuries)
G. Major Historical Developments of
Science

1. Accepted principles and models develop over


time
2. Major developments in science (e.g., atomic
theory, plate tectonics)
3. Contributions of major historical figures (e.g.,
Darwin, Newton)
Discussion areas
What are the characteristics of a valid
scientific hypothesis?
Name a scientific law and explain why it is a
law rather than a theory.
Design an experiment and identify the
independent and dependent variable. Does
the experimental design include a control?

The Praxis Study Companion

31

Step 6: Review Study Topics

What is the difference between an


observation and an inference?
Compare information obtained from the
television, a newspaper article, a Web site,
and a scientific journal for accuracy, for
understandability, and for use in the
classroom setting.
1,000 kilometers is equivalent to how many
millimeters?
Express the number 0.002270 using scientific
notation. How many significant figures does
number have in decimal notation and in
scientific notation?
What is the density of a brass cube,
expressed to the correct number of
significant figures, if a side and the mass are
measured and recorded as 2.5 cm and
64.92 g?
Describe how to prepare 500 mL of
1 M HCl(aq) using 12 M HCl(aq) and distilled
water.
What is a volumetric flask used for?
What safety precautions should be taken
when preparing a dilute solution of HCl from
concentrated HCl?
What is the proper way to clean up a small
spill of concentrated HCl?
How have theories about the structure of the
solar system changed over time?

II. Physical Science


A. Basic Principles

1. Structure of matter
a. elements, compounds, and mixtures
b. atoms, molecules, and ions
c. basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases
2. Basic structure of the atom
a. atomic models
b. atomic structure including nucleus,
electrons, protons, and neutrons
c. atomic number, atomic mass, isotopes
d. electron arrangements (e.g., valence
electrons)

The Praxis Study Companion

3. Basic characteristics of radioactive materials


a. radioisotopes
b. radioactive decay processes and half-life
c. characteristics of alpha particles, beta
particles, and gamma radiation
d. fission and fusion
4. Basic concepts and relationships involving
energy and matter
a. conservation of energy (first law of
thermodynamics)
b. entropy changes (second law of
thermodynamics)
c. conservation of matter in chemical systems
d. kinetic and potential energy
e. transformations between different forms of
energy (thermal, chemical, radiant, nuclear,
mechanical, electrical, electromagnetic)
f. differences between chemical and physical
properties/changes
g. various temperature scales (Celsius,
Fahrenheit, Kelvin)
h. transfer of thermal energy and its basic
measurement
conduction, convection, and radiation
specific heat capacity
calorimetry (e.g., predict heat transfer in
various systems)

i. applications of energy and matter


relationships

trophic level
matter cycling (carbon, nitrogen, water)
energy flow in ecosystems
convection currents in atmosphere, ocean,
and mantle
conservation of mass in the rock cycle
chemical and physical changes in rocks
impact of solar radiation on Earth and life
energy transformations in living systems
(e.g., photosynthesis, cellular respiration)

Discussion areas
Compare and contrast liquids and gases in
terms of shape, volume, fluidity, and
compressibility.
What are the limitations of the Bohr model of
the atom?
What is the relationship between the
position of an element on the periodic table
and its electron configuration?

32

Step 6: Review Study Topics

Compare the mass and charge of alpha


particles and beta particles. How is gamma
radiation different from alpha and beta
radiation?
If a sample that initially contains 100 g of a
radioactive isotope contains 25 g of the
isotope after 4 days, what is the half-life of
the radioactive isotope?
Why is there lead mixed in with all deposits
of uranium ores?
How does the internal energy of a closed
system change when a gas expands?
What phase changes involve an increase in
entropy?
If 100 g of water at 20C absorbs 5 kJ of heat,
by what amount will the temperature of the
water increase?
B. Chemistry

1. Periodicity and states of matter


a. periodic table of the elements
elements arranged in groups and periods
atomic number, atomic mass, and isotopic
abundance
symbols of the elements
trends in physical properties based on
position of elements on the periodic table
(e.g., atomic radius, ionization energy)
trends in chemical reactivity based on
position of elements on the periodic table
(e.g., metals, nonmetals, noble gases)

b. states of matter and factors that affect


phase changes
basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of
matter (e.g., particles in constant motion,
average speed of gas particles related to
temperature)
ideal gas laws (e.g., volume is proportional
to temperature, pressure is inversely
related to volume)
phase transitions and energy changes (e.g.,
heat of vaporization, heat of sublimation,
phase diagrams, heating curves)

The Praxis Study Companion

2. Chemical nomenclature, composition, and


bonding
a. name of simple compounds and their
chemical formulas

interpreting chemical formulas


naming compounds based on formula
writing formulas based on name
structural formulas (e.g., electron dot,
Lewis structures)

b. types of chemical bonding


covalent and ionic

c. mole concept and its applications


Avogadros number

d. molar mass and percent composition


3. Chemical reactions
a. basic concepts involved in chemical
reactions
use and balance equations of simple
chemical reactions
balance equations
simple stoichiometric calculations based
on balanced equations
endothermic and exothermic reactions
factors that affect reaction rates (e.g.,
concentration, temperature, pressure,
catalysts/enzymes, activation energy)
factors that affect reaction equilibrium
(e.g., Le Chteliers principle)
types of reactions (e.g., combustion, single
or double replacement)
simple oxidation-reduction reactions

4. Acid-base chemistry
a. simple acid-base chemistry
chemical and physical properties of acids
and bases
pH scale
neutralization
acid-base indicators (e.g., phenolphthalein,
pH paper, litmus paper)

5. Solutions and solubility


a. different types of solutions

dilute and concentrated


saturated, unsaturated, supersaturated
solvent and solute
concentration terms (e.g., molarity, parts
per million (ppm))
preparation of solutions of varying
concentrations

33

Step 6: Review Study Topics

b. factors affecting the solubility of substances


and the dissolving process
effect of temperature, pressure, particle
size, and agitation on the rate of dissolving
effect of temperature and pressure on
solubility (e.g., solubility curves)
polar vs. nonpolar solvents and solutes
dissociation of ionic compounds such as
salts in water (e.g., ionization, electrolytes)
precipitation
freezing point depression

Discussion areas
List the elements H, He, Li, and Be in order of
increasing atomic radius.
How do the chemical properties of the
elements in a period change as you move
from left to right across the periodic table?
Compare and contrast the arrangement and
motions of molecules of a substance in the
solid, liquid, and gaseous states.
If a sample of gas is heated at a constant
pressure, what will happen to the volume of
the gas?

What is an example of a buffer solution? How


will the pH change as acid is added to the
buffer solution?
Why is ammonia gas very soluble in water
while oxygen is only slightly soluble?
Which of the following 1 M solutions will
have the lowest freezing point:
C2H5OH , KI, MgCl2 ?
C. Physics

1. Mechanics
a. description of motion in one and two
dimensions

speed, velocity, acceleration


displacement
linear momentum
vector and scalar quantities

b. Newtons three laws of motion


First law: inertia
Second law: F = ma (i.e., net force, mass, and
acceleration)
Third law: action-reaction forces

c. mass, weight, and gravity


distinguish between mass and weight

How many carbon atoms are in one mole of


propane?

gravitational attraction (force of attraction


between masses at various distances)

What information is provided in the formula


for calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 ?

acceleration due to gravity

Name each of the following compounds:


Na2O, Cu2O, P2O5 .
Write the electron dot and structural
formulas for formaldehyde, CH2O.
Balance the following equation:
Al + CuCl2 AlCl3 + Cu. What type(s) of
reaction is it?
Consider the following equilibrium reaction:
2 NO2(g) N2O4(g) + 58 kJ. Predict what
will happen to the equilibrium if the
temperature, pressure, or concentration of
one of the reactants is changed.
Is the following process an oxidation or
reduction: Ni2+ + 2 e Ni ?
If the pH of a solution decreases from 5 to 4,
by how much does the concentration of
hydrogen ions increase?

The Praxis Study Companion

d. analysis of motion and forces

projectile motion
inclined planes
friction
collisions (e.g., elastic, inelastic) and
conservation of linear momentum
circular motion (e.g., centripetal
acceleration, centripetal force)
center of mass
periodic motion (e.g., pendulums,
oscillating springs, planetary orbits,
satellites)
conservation of energy
work, energy, and power
basic fluid mechanics (e.g., buoyancy,
density, pressure)

e. simple machines
mechanical advantage
types of simple machines (e.g., wedge,
screw, lever)
concept of torque

34

Step 6: Review Study Topics

2. Electricity and magnetism


a. electrical nature of common materials
electric charges
electrostatic force (attraction and
repulsion, Coulombs law)
conductivity, conductors, and insulators

b. basic electrical concepts

DC and AC current
current, resistance, voltage, and power
Ohms law
analyze basic series and parallel circuits
voltage sources (e.g., batteries, generators)

c. basic properties of magnetic fields and


forces
magnetic materials
magnetic forces and fields (e.g., magnetic
poles, attractive and repulsive forces)
electromagnets

3. Optics and waves


a. electromagnetic spectrum
nature of light (e.g., wave properties,
photons)
visible spectrum and color
electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., ultraviolet,
microwave, gamma)

b. basic characteristics and types of waves


transverse and longitudinal
wave characteristics and relationships
between them (e.g., frequency, amplitude,
wavelength, speed, energy)

c. basic wave phenomena


reflection, refraction, diffraction, and
dispersion
absorption and transmission
interference, scattering, and polarization
total internal reflection
Doppler effect (e.g., apparent frequency,
moving source or observer, red/blue shift)

d. basic optics
mirrors
lenses and their applications (e.g., the
human eye, microscope, telescope)
prisms

e. sound
pitch/frequency and loudness/intensity
sound wave production, air vibrations, and
resonance (e.g., tuning forks)
application of the Doppler effect to sound

The Praxis Study Companion

Discussion areas
What is the difference between speed and
velocity?
What is meant by the term terminal
velocity?
What is the relationship between the
distance that separates two objects and the
force of gravitational attraction?
What is the direction of the centripetal force
acting on an object moving in uniform
circular motion?
A ball is dropped and another ball of smaller
mass is fired horizontally from the same
height. Which ball hits the ground first?
What forces are acting on a crate at rest on
an inclined ramp?
What variables affect the period of a
pendulum?
How does the conservation of momentum
apply to collisions?
Which requires more work: lifting a
100-kilogram sack a vertical distance of
2 meters or lifting a 50-kilogram sack a
vertical distance of 4 meters?
Explain mechanical advantage using a lever
as an example.
Why are metals good conductors of
electricity?
How are series circuits different from parallel
circuits?
What is the energy transformation that
occurs in a battery?
Describe the orientation of field lines of a bar
magnet.
What color light is transmitted through a
piece of blue glass?
Compare the energy and frequency of
gamma rays to that of microwaves.
What wave phenomena are involved in the
separation of white light into a spectrum of
colors by a prism?

35

Step 6: Review Study Topics

Does the size of the image in a plane mirror


change as the object moves away from the
mirror?

E.

1. Mechanisms of evolution (e.g., natural


selection)
2. Isolation mechanisms and speciation
3. Supporting evidence (e.g., fossil record,
comparative genetics, homologous
structures)

What happens to parallel rays of light when


they pass through a convex lens?
When you blow over a bottle, what happens
to the frequency as you fill the bottle with
water?

F.

A. Basic Structure and Function of Cells


and Their Organelles

B. Key Aspects of Cell Reproduction and


Division

1.
2.
3.
4.

G. Major Structures of Plants and Their


Functions

1. Characteristics of vascular and nonvascular


plants
2. Structure and function of roots, leaves, and
stems (e.g., stomata, xylem, phloem)
3. Asexual (budding) and sexual reproduction
(flowers, fruit, seeds, spores)
4. Growth (e.g., germination, elongation)
5. Uptake and transport of nutrients and water
6. Responses to stimuli (e.g., light, temperature,
water, gravity)
H. Basic Anatomy and Physiology of
Animals, including the Human Body

Cell cycle
Mitosis
Meiosis
Cytokinesis

1. Response to stimuli and homeostasis


2. Exchange with the environment (e.g.,
respiratory, excretory, and digestive systems)
3. Internal transport and exchange (e.g., heart,
arteries, veins, capillaries)
4. Control systems (e.g., nervous and endocrine
systems)
5. Movement and support (e.g., skeletal and
muscular systems)
6. Reproduction and development
7. Immune system (e.g., antibodies, autoimmune
disorders)

C. Basic Biochemistry of Life

1. Cellular respiration
2. Photosynthesis
3. Biological molecules (e.g., DNA, carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids, enzymes)
D. Basic Genetics

1. Structure (double helix, single stranded, and


base pairs) and function of DNA and RNA
(replication, transcription, and translation)
2. Chromosomes, genes, alleles
3. Dominant and recessive traits
4. Mendelian inheritance (e.g., genotype,
phenotype, use of Punnett squares, pedigrees)
5. Mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and
common genetic disorders

The Praxis Study Companion

Hierarchical Classification Scheme

1. Classification schemes (e.g., domain, class,


genus)
2. Characteristics of bacteria, animals, plants,
fungi, and protists

III. Life Science

1. Structure and function of cell membranes


(e.g., phospholipid bilayer, passive and active
transport)
2. Structure and function of animal and plant
cell organelles
3. Levels of organization (cells, tissues, organs,
organ systems)
4. Major features of common animal cell types
(e.g., blood cells, muscle, nerve, epithelial,
gamete)
5. Prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes
(animals, plants, fungi, protists)

Theory and Key Mechanisms of


Evolution

I.

Key Aspects of Ecology

1. Population dynamics
a. growth curves and carrying capacity
b. behavior (e.g., territoriality)
c. intraspecific relationships (e.g., mating
systems, social systems, competition)

36

Step 6: Review Study Topics

2. Community ecology
a. niche
b. species diversity
c. interspecific relationships (e.g., predatorprey, parasitism)
3. Ecosystems
a. biomes
b. stability and disturbances (e.g., glaciation,
climate change, succession)
c. energy flow (e.g., trophic levels, food webs)
d. biogeochemical cycles (e.g., water, nitrogen,
and carbon cycles, biotic/abiotic
interaction)
Discussion areas
What structures would you expect to find in
a typical plant cell but not in an animal cell?
What functions do these unique structures
carry out for the plant?
Compare and contrast the daughter cells
after mitosis and cytokinesis to the daughter
cells from the same parent cell after meiosis.
In general terms, what are the different
pathways that are involved in cellular
respiration under aerobic and anaerobic
conditions?
What is the percent likelihood that a
biological child of parents with the blood
types AB and O will have blood type A? What
are the genotypes for blood type A?
Why do more males have red-green colorblindness than females?
How are Mendels laws related to the
behavior of chromosomes during the
formation of gametes?
Explain the following concepts relative to
Darwins theory of the origin of species: a)
Descent with modification, b) Struggle for
existence, and c) Survival of the fittest.
How is genetic drift different from natural
selection?
What are some structures that organisms use
for locomotion?
What are the similarities and differences
between fungi and plants?

The Praxis Study Companion

Under what environmental conditions would


you expect the transpiration rate to be the
highest in a mature deciduous tree?
Describe how a germinating seed responds
to gravity and light.
What are the roles of insulin and glucagon in
the human endocrine system?
Why must the human body digest large
macromolecules into small monomers
before it can use them?
Of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, which
type of nutrient has the highest caloric value
per gram?
Relate the structural differences between the
three muscle types to their functions.
Under what conditions would a population
grow exponentially?
What are the possible outcomes when two
species strongly compete for the same
resources?
Compare the types of vegetation
encountered with increasing altitude (e.g.,
traveling up a mountainside) and with
increasing latitude (e.g., traveling toward the
North Pole).
What is the difference between primary and
secondary succession?
Create a food web, with organisms placed
within an appropriate trophic level, with the
following organisms: bald eagle, herring gull,
lake trout, phytoplankton, smelt (small fish),
and zooplankton. Based on the food web,
describe how the pesticide DDT would be
distributed through the ecosystem.

IV. Earth and Space Science


A. Physical Geology

1. Types and basic characteristics of rocks and


minerals and their formation processes
a. the rock cycle
b. characteristics of rocks and their formation
processes (i.e., sedimentary, igneous, and
metamorphic rock)
c. characteristics of minerals and their
formation processes (e.g., classes of
minerals, crystals, hardness)

37

Step 6: Review Study Topics

d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

tides, waves, currents


estuaries and barrier islands
islands, reefs, and atolls
polar ice, icebergs, and glaciers
lakes, ponds, and wetlands
streams, rivers, and river deltas
groundwater, water table, wells, and
aquifers
k. geysers and springs
l. properties of water that affect Earth systems
(e.g., density changes on freezing, high heat
capacity, polar solvent, hydrogen bonding)

2. Processes involved in erosion, weathering, and


deposition of Earths surface materials and soil
formation
a. erosion and deposition (e.g., agents of
erosion)
b. chemical and physical (mechanical)
weathering
c. characteristics of soil (e.g., types, soil profile)
d. porosity and permeability
e. runoff and infiltration
3. Earths basic structure and internal processes
a. Earths layers (e.g., lithosphere, mantle, core)
b. shape and size of Earth
c. geographical features (e.g., mountains,
plateaus, mid-ocean ridges)
d. Earths magnetic field
e. plate tectonics theory and evidence
folding and faulting (e.g., plate boundaries)
continental drift, seafloor spreading,
magnetic reversals
characteristics of volcanoes (e.g., eruptions,
lava, gases, hot spots)
characteristics of earthquakes (e.g.,
epicenters, faults, tsunamis)
seismic waves and triangulation

4. The water cycle


a. evaporation and condensation
b. precipitation
c. runoff and infiltration
d. transpiration
B. Historical Geology

1. Historical geology
a. principle of uniformitarianism
b. basic principles of relative age dating (e.g.,
superposition, stratigraphic correlation,
fossil succession)
c. absolute (radiometric) dating
d. geologic time scale (e.g., age of Earth, scope
of time)
e. fossil record as evidence of the origin and
development of life (e.g., fossilization
methods, mass extinctions, ice ages, meteor
impacts)
C. Earths Bodies of Water

1. Characteristics and processes of Earths oceans


and other bodies of water
a. distribution and location of Earths water
b. seawater composition
c. coastline topography and topography of
ocean floor

The Praxis Study Companion

D. Meteorology and Climate

1. Basic structure and composition of Earths


atmosphere
a. layers (e.g., stratosphere)
b. composition of atmosphere (e.g., percent
oxygen and nitrogen)
c. atmospheric pressure and temperature
2. Basic concepts of meteorology
a. relative humidity
b. dew point
c. wind (e.g., how it is generated and
modified)
d. cloud types and formation
e. types of precipitation (e.g., hail, rain)
f. air masses, fronts, storms, and severe
weather (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes)
g. development and movement of weather
patterns
3. Major factors that affect climate and seasons
a. effects of latitude, geographical location,
and elevation (e.g., mountains and oceans)
b. effects of atmospheric circulation (e.g., trade
winds, jet stream)
c. effects of ocean circulation
d. characteristics and locations of climate
zones (e.g., Tropics, Arctic)
e. effect of the tilt of Earths axis on seasons
f. effects of natural phenomena (e.g., volcanic
eruptions, solar radiation variations)
g. El Nio, La Nia
E.

Astronomy

1. Major features of the solar system


a. structure of the solar system
b. laws of motion (e.g., gravitation, planetary
orbits, satellites)
c. characteristics of the Sun, Moon, and
planets
d. characteristics of asteroids, meteoroids,
comets, and dwarf/minor planets
e. theories of origin of the solar system

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Step 6: Review Study Topics

2. Interactions of the Earth-Moon-Sun system


a. Earths rotation and orbital revolution
around the Sun
b. effect on seasons
c. phases of the Moon
d. effect on tides
e. solar and lunar eclipses
f. time zones
g. effect of solar wind on Earth
3. Major features of the universe
a. galaxies (e.g., definition, relative size, Milky
Way)
b. characteristics of stars and their life cycles
life cycle of star, e.g., white dwarf, red giant,
supernova, nebulae, black holes
color, temperature, apparent brightness,
absolute brightness, luminosity
Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams

c. dark matter
d. theories about the origin of the universe
(e.g., Big Bang)
4. Contributions of space exploration and
technology to our understanding of the
universe
a. remote sensing devices (e.g., satellites,
space probes, telescopes, spectral analysis)
b. search for water and life on other planets

Transpiration is most closely related to what


other process in the water cycle?
What are index fossils?
What appeared first in the fossil record:
angiosperms or insects?
How do the Sun and Moon influence tides?
Why in general do two high tides occur
every day even though the Moon is directly
above any given portion of Earths surface
only once a day?
Why do waves break as they approach the
shore?
What is the primary source of water in a lake?
List the layers of the atmosphere and
describe the temperature profile of each
layer.
How does the Sun influence global and local
winds?
What weather would you predict for the next
day if you observed a lowering sequence of
stratiform clouds over a day or two?

Discussion areas

How are air masses classified?

What are the source materials for the


ingredients of sedimentary rocks?

Why do tropical cyclones generally move in a


westward direction?

What properties are most commonly used by


geologists in the field to characterize
minerals?

What is the Coriolis effect and how does it


influence atmospheric and ocean
circulation?

What are the major agents of erosion?

How does a volcanic eruption affect both


regional and worldwide climate conditions?

What factors determine the amounts of


runoff and infiltration?
What does the behavior of seismic waves
reveal about the structure and physical
characteristics of Earths interior?
What information is represented on a
topographic map?
Describe the different tectonic processes
that lead to the formation of mountain
ranges.
Rift valleys are associated with what type of
tectonic plate motion?

Describe the orbits of the planets. What do


they have in common?
Compare the surface features and
atmospheres of the other terrestrial planets
to those of Earth.
How do the Sun and other stars generate
their energy?
Describe the temperature and length of the
day at the North Pole, the midlatitudes, and
the Equator on the summer and winter
solstices.
Why does the length of daylight change
from day to day?

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Step 6: Review Study Topics

List the common astronomical units of


length in order of increasing distance.
Use the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram to
describe the life cycle of the Sun.
What limitation of Earth-based telescopes
has been solved by the Hubble space
telescope?

V. Science, Technology, and Society


A. Impact of Science and Technology on
the Environment and Society

1. Air and water pollution (e.g., acid rain,


eutrophication, groundwater pollution)
2. Climate change and greenhouse gases
3. Irrigation
4. Reservoirs and levees
5. Depletion of aquifers
6. Ozone layer depletion
7. Loss of biodiversity
8. Space exploration
9. Waste disposal (e.g., landfills)
10. Recycling
11. Environmentally friendly consumer products
(e.g., biodegradable materials)
B. Major Issues associated with Energy
Production and the Management of
Natural Resources

1. Renewable and nonrenewable energy


resources
2. Conservation and recycling
3. Pros and cons of power generation based on
various resources including fossil and nuclear
fuel, hydropower, wind power, solar power,
geothermal power, and alternative energy
sources
4. Issues associated with the use and extraction
of Earths resources (e.g., mining, land
reclamation, deforestation)

5. Common agricultural practices (e.g.,


genetically modified crops, use of herbicides
and insecticides)
6. DNA evidence in criminal investigations
7. Nanotechnology
D. Impact of Science on Public Health
Issues

1. Nutrition, disease, and medicine (e.g., vitamins,


viruses, vaccines)
2. Biotechnology (e.g., genetic engineering, in
vitro fertilization)
3. Medical technologies (e.g., medical imaging,
X-rays, radiation therapy)
Discussion areas
What are the beneficial and adverse effects
on humans and the environment of
engineered structures such as dams, levees,
and canals used to control or divert water?
Give some reasons why electronic waste
such as computers should be recycled.
Compare the availability and limitation of the
following sources of power: geothermal,
nuclear, hydroelectric, solar, and fossil fuel.
Why do polarized sunglasses reduce glare,
while non-polarized sunglasses simply
reduce the total amount of light reaching
the eyes?
What technique enables forensic scientists to
be able to generate a DNA profile of a
suspect from a small sample of DNA
collected from a crime scene?
List some childhood diseases that are
commonly prevented through
immunization.
How has recombinant DNA technology been
used to treat diabetes?

C. Applications of Science and Technology


in Daily Life

1. Chemical properties of household products


2. Communication (e.g., wireless devices, GPS,
satellites)
3. Science principles applied in commonly used
consumer products (e.g., batteries, lasers,
polarized sunglasses, and fiber optic cables)
4. Water purification

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Step 7: Review Smart Tips for Success

7. Review Smart Tips for Success


Follow test-taking tips developed by experts
Learn from the experts. Take advantage of the following answers to questions you may have and practical tips
to help you navigate the Praxis test and make the best use of your time.

Should I Guess?
Yes. Your score is based on the number of questions you answer correctly, with no penalty or subtraction for an
incorrect answer. When you dont know the answer to a question, try to eliminate any obviously wrong answers
and then guess at the correct one. Try to pace yourself so that you have enough time to carefully consider
every question.

Can I answer the questions in any order?


You can answer the questions in order or skip questions and come back to them later. If you skip a question,
you can also mark it so that you can remember to return and answer it later. Remember that questions left
unanswered are treated the same as questions answered incorrectly, so it is to your advantage to answer every
question.

Are there trick questions on the test?


No. There are no hidden meanings or trick questions. All of the questions on the test ask about subject matter
knowledge in a straightforward manner.

Are there answer patterns on the test?


No. You might have heard this myth: the answers on tests follow patterns. Another myth is that there will never
be more than two questions in a row with the correct answer in the same position among the choices. Neither
myth is true. Select the answer you think is correct based on your knowledge of the subject.

Can I write on the scratch paper I am given?


Yes. You can work out problems on the scratch paper, make notes to yourself, or write anything at all. Your
scratch paper will be destroyed after you are finished with it, so use it in any way that is helpful to you. But make
sure to select or enter your answers on the computer.

Smart Tips for Taking the Test


1. S
 kip the questions you find extremely difficult. Rather than trying to answer these on your first pass
through the test, you may want to leave them blank and mark them so that you can return to them later.
Pay attention to the time as you answer the rest of the questions on the test, and try to finish with 10 or
15 minutes remaining so that you can go back over the questions you left blank. Even if you dont know
the answer the second time you read the questions, see if you can narrow down the possible answers, and
then guess. Your score is based on the number of right answers, so it is to your advantage to answer every
question.

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Step 7: Review Smart Tips for Success

2. K
 eep track of the time. The on-screen clock will tell you how much time you have left. You will probably
have plenty of time to answer all of the questions, but if you find yourself becoming bogged down, you
might decide to move on and come back to any unanswered questions later.
3. R
 ead all of the possible answers before selecting one. For questions that require you to select more
than one answer, or to make another kind of selection, consider the most likely answers given what the
question is asking. Then reread the question to be sure the answer(s) you have given really answer the
question. Remember, a question that contains a phrase such as Which of the following does NOT is
asking for the one answer that is NOT a correct statement or conclusion.
4. C
 heck your answers. If you have extra time left over at the end of the test, look over each question and
make sure that you have answered it as you intended. Many test takers make careless mistakes that they
could have corrected if they had checked their answers.
5. D
 ont worry about your score when you are taking the test. No one is expected to answer all of the
questions correctly. Your score on this test is not analogous to your score on the GRE or other tests. It doesnt
matter on the Praxis tests whether you score very high or barely pass. If you meet the minimum passing
scores for your state and you meet the states other requirements for obtaining a teaching license, you will
receive a license. In other words, what matters is meeting the minimum passing score. You can find passing
scores for all states that use The Praxis Series tests at
http://www.ets.org/s/praxis/pdf/passing_scores.pdf or on the Web site of the state for which you are
seeking certification/licensure.
6. U
 se your energy to take the test, not to get frustrated by it. Getting frustrated only increases stress
and decreases the likelihood that you will do your best. Highly qualified educators and test development
professionals, all with backgrounds in teaching, worked diligently to make the test a fair and valid measure
of your knowledge and skills. Your state painstakingly reviewed the test before adopting it as a licensure
requirement. The best thing to do is concentrate on answering the questions.

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Step 8: Check on Testing Accommodations

8. Check on Testing Accommodations


See if you qualify for accommodations that may make it easier to take the Praxis test
What if English is not my primary language?
Praxis tests are given only in English. If your primary language is not English (PLNE), you may be eligible for
extended testing time. For more details, visit www.ets.org/praxis/register/accommodations/plne.

What if I have a disability or other health-related need?


The following accommodations are available for Praxis test takers who meet the Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA) Amendments Act disability requirements:

E xtended testing time


Additional rest breaks
Separate testing room
Writer/recorder of answers
Test reader
Sign language interpreter for spoken directions only
Perkins Brailler
Braille slate and stylus
Printed copy of spoken directions
Oral interpreter
Audio test
Braille test
Large print test book
Large print answer sheet
Listening section omitted

For more information on these accommodations, visit www.ets.org/praxis/register/disabilities.

Note: Test takers who have health-related needs requiring them to bring equipment, beverages, or snacks into
the testing room or to take extra or extended breaks must request these accommodations by following the
procedures described in the Bulletin Supplement for Test Takers with Disabilities or Health-Related Needs (PDF),
which can be found at http://www.ets.org/s/disabilities/pdf/bulletin_supplement_test_takers_with_
disabilities_health_needs.pdf.
You can find additional information on available resources for test takers with disabilities or health-related needs
at www.ets.org/disabilities.

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Step 9: Do Your Best on Test Day

9. Do Your Best on Test Day


Get ready for test day so you will be calm and confident
You followed your study plan. You prepared for the test. Now its time to prepare for test day.
Plan to end your review a day or two before the actual test date so you avoid cramming. Take a dry run to the
test center so youre sure of the route, traffic conditions, and parking. Most of all, you want to eliminate any
unexpected factors that could distract you from your ultimate goalpassing the Praxis test!
On the day of the test, you should:
be well rested
wear comfortable clothes and dress in layers
eat before you take the test
bring an acceptable and valid photo identification with you
bring an approved calculator only if one is specifically permitted for the test you are taking (see Calculator
Use, at http://www.ets.org/praxis/test_day/policies/calculators)
be prepared to stand in line to check in or to wait while other test takers check in
You cant control the testing situation, but you can control yourself. Stay calm. The supervisors are well trained
and make every effort to provide uniform testing conditions, but dont let it bother you if the test doesnt start
exactly on time. You will have the allotted amount of time once it does start.
You can think of preparing for this test as training for an athletic event. Once youve trained, prepared, and
rested, give it everything youve got.

What items am I restricted from bringing into the test center?


You cannot bring into the test center personal items such as:
handbags, knapsacks, or briefcases
water bottles or canned or bottled beverages
study materials, books, or notes
p
 ens, pencils, scrap paper, or calculators, unless specifically permitted for the test you are taking (see
Calculator Use, at http://www.ets.org/praxis/test_day/policies/calculators)
any electronic, photographic, recording, or listening devices
Personal items are not allowed in the testing room and will not be available to you during the test or during
breaks. You may also be asked to empty your pockets. At some centers, you will be assigned a space to store
your belongings, such as handbags and study materials. Some centers do not have secure storage space
available, so please plan accordingly.
Test centers assume no responsibility for your personal items.

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44

Step 9: Do Your Best on Test Day

If you have health-related needs requiring you to bring equipment, beverages or snacks into the testing
room or to take extra or extended breaks, you need to request accommodations in advance. Procedures for
requesting accommodations are described in the Bulletin Supplement for Test Takers with Disabilities or
Health-related Needs (PDF).

Note: All cell phones, smart phones (e.g., Android devices, iPhones, etc.), and other electronic, photographic,
recording, or listening devices are strictly prohibited from the test center. If you are seen with such a device, you
will be dismissed from the test, your test scores will be canceled, and you will forfeit your test fees. If you are
seen using such a device, the device will be confiscated and inspected. For more information on what you can
bring to the test center, visit www.ets.org/praxis/test_day/bring.

Are You Ready?


Complete this checklist to determine whether you are ready to take your test.
Do you know the testing requirements for the license or certification you are seeking in the state(s) where
you plan to teach?
Have you followed all of the test registration procedures?
Do you know the topics that will be covered in each test you plan to take?
Have you reviewed any textbooks, class notes, and course readings that relate to the topics covered?
Do you know how long the test will take and the number of questions it contains?
Have you considered how you will pace your work?
Are you familiar with the types of questions for your test?
Are you familiar with the recommended test-taking strategies?
Have you practiced by working through the practice questions in this study companion or in a study
guide or practice test?
If constructed-response questions are part of your test, do you understand the scoring criteria for
these questions?
If you are repeating a Praxis test, have you analyzed your previous score report to determine areas where
additional study and test preparation could be useful?
If you answered yes to the questions above, your preparation has paid off. Now take the Praxis test, do your
best, pass itand begin your teaching career!

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Step 10: Understand Your Scores

10. Understand Your Scores


Understand how tests are scored and how to interpret your test scores
Of course, passing the Praxis test is important to you so you need to understand what your scores mean and
what your state requirements are.

What are the score requirements for my state?


States, institutions, and associations that require the tests set their own passing scores. Visit
www.ets.org/praxis/states for the most up-to-date information.

If I move to another state, will my new state accept my scores?


The Praxis Series tests are part of a national testing program, meaning that they are required in many states for
licensure. The advantage of a national program is that if you move to another state that also requires Praxis tests,
you can transfer your scores. Each state has specific test requirements and passing scores, which you can find at
www.ets.org/praxis/states.

How do I know whether I passed the test?


Your score report will include information on passing scores for the states you identified as recipients of your
test results. If you test in a state with automatic score reporting, you will also receive passing score information
for that state.
A list of states and their passing scores for each test are available online at www.ets.org/praxis/states.

What your Praxis scores mean


You received your score report. Now what does it mean? Its important to interpret your score report correctly
and to know what to do if you have questions about your scores.
Visit http://www.ets.org/s/praxis/pdf/sample_score_report.pdf to see a sample score report.
To access Understanding Your Praxis Scores, a document that provides additional information on how to read
your score report, visit www.ets.org/praxis/scores/understand.

Put your scores in perspective


Your score report indicates:
Your score and whether you passed
The range of possible scores
The raw points available in each content category
The range of the middle 50 percent of scores on the test
If you have taken the same test or other tests in The Praxis Series over the last 10 years, your score report also lists
the highest score you earned on each test taken.

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Step 10: Understand Your Scores

Content category scores and score interpretation


Questions on the Praxis tests are categorized by content. To help you in future study or in preparing to retake
the test, your score report shows how many raw points you earned in each content category. Compare your
raw points earned with the maximum points you could have earned (raw points available). The greater the
difference, the greater the opportunity to improve your score by further study.

Score scale changes


ETS updates Praxis tests on a regular basis to ensure they accurately measure the knowledge and skills that are
required for licensure. When tests are updated, the meaning of the score scale may change, so requirements
may vary between the new and previous versions. All scores for previous, discontinued tests are valid and
reportable for 10 years, provided that your state or licensing agency still accepts them.
These resources may also help you interpret your scores:
Understanding Your Praxis Scores (PDF), found at www.ets.org/praxis/scores/understand
T he Praxis Series Passing Scores (PDF), found at www.ets.org/praxis/scores/understand
State requirements, found at www.ets.org/praxis/states

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Appendix: Other Questions You May Have

Appendix: Other Questions You May Have


Here is some supplemental information that can give you a better understanding of the Praxis tests.

What do the Praxis tests measure?


The Praxis tests measure the specific knowledge and skills that beginning teachers need. The tests do not
measure an individuals disposition toward teaching or potential for success, nor do they measure your actual
teaching ability. The assessments are designed to be comprehensive and inclusive but are limited to what can
be covered in a finite number of questions and question types. Teaching requires many complex skills that are
typically measured in other ways, including classroom observation, video recordings, and portfolios.
Ranging from Agriculture to World Languages, there are more than 80 Praxis tests, which contain selectedresponse questions or constructed-response questions, or a combination of both.

Who takes the tests and why?


Some colleges and universities use the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educators tests (Reading, Writing, and
Mathematics) to evaluate individuals for entry into teacher education programs. The assessments are generally
taken early in your college career. Many states also require Core Academic Skills test scores as part of their
teacher licensing process.
Individuals entering the teaching profession take the Praxis content and pedagogy tests as part of the teacher
licensing and certification process required by many states. In addition, some professional associations and
organizations require the Praxis Subject Assessments (formerly the Praxis II tests) for professional licensing.

Do all states require these tests?


The Praxis Series tests are currently required for teacher licensure in approximately 40 states and United States
territories. These tests are also used by several professional licensing agencies and by several hundred colleges
and universities. Teacher candidates can test in one state and submit their scores in any other state that requires
Praxis testing for licensure. You can find details at www.ets.org/praxis/states.

What is licensure/certification?
Licensure in any areamedicine, law, architecture, accounting, cosmetologyis an assurance to the public that
the person holding the license possesses sufficient knowledge and skills to perform important occupational
activities safely and effectively. In the case of teacher licensing, a license tells the public that the individual has
met predefined competency standards for beginning teaching practice.
Because a license makes such a serious claim about its holder, licensure tests are usually quite demanding. In
some fields, licensure tests have more than one part and last for more than one day. Candidates for licensure
in all fields plan intensive study as part of their professional preparation. Some join study groups, others study
alone. But preparing to take a licensure test is, in all cases, a professional activity. Because a licensure exam
surveys a broad body of knowledge, preparing for a licensure exam takes planning, discipline, and sustained
effort.

Why does my state require The Praxis Series tests?


Your state chose The Praxis Series tests because they assess the breadth and depth of contentcalled the
domainthat your state wants its teachers to possess before they begin to teach. The level of content
knowledge, reflected in the passing score, is based on recommendations of panels of teachers and teacher

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48

Appendix: Other Questions You May Have

educators in each subject area. The state licensing agency and, in some states, the state legislature ratify the
passing scores that have been recommended by panels of teachers.

How were the tests developed?


ETS consulted with practicing teachers and teacher educators around the country during every step of
The Praxis Series test development process. First, ETS asked them which knowledge and skills a beginning
teacher needs to be effective. Their responses were then ranked in order of importance and reviewed by
hundreds of teachers.
After the results were analyzed and consensus was reached, guidelines, or specifications, for the selectedresponse and constructed-response tests were developed by teachers and teacher educators. Following these
guidelines, teachers and professional test developers created test questions that met content requirements and
ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness.*
When your state adopted the research-based Praxis tests, local panels of teachers and teacher educators
evaluated each question for its relevance to beginning teachers in your state. During this validity study, the
panel also provided a passing-score recommendation based on how many of the test questions a beginning
teacher in your state would be able to answer correctly. Your states licensing agency determined the final
passing-score requirement.
ETS follows well-established industry procedures and standards designed to ensure that the tests measure what
they are intended to measure. When you pass the Praxis tests your state requires, you are proving that you have
the knowledge and skills you need to begin your teaching career.

How are the tests updated to ensure the content remains current?
Praxis tests are reviewed regularly. During the first phase of review, ETS conducts an analysis of relevant state
and association standards and of the current test content. State licensure titles and the results of relevant
job analyses are also considered. Revised test questions are then produced following the standard test
development methodology. National advisory committees may also be convened to review and revise existing
test specifications and to evaluate test forms for alignment with the specifications.

How long will it take to receive my scores?


Scores for tests that do not include constructed response questions are available on screen immediately after
the test. Scores for tests that contain constructed-response questions or essays arent available immediately after
the test because of the scoring process involved. Official score reports are available to you and your designated
score recipients approximately two to three weeks after the test date for tests delivered continuously, or two to
three weeks after the testing window closes for other tests. See the test dates and deadlines calendar at www.
ets.org/praxis/register/centers_dates for exact score reporting dates.

Can I access my scores on the Web?


All test takers can access their test scores via My Praxis Account free of charge for one year from the posting
date. This online access replaces the mailing of a paper score report.
The process is easysimply log into My Praxis Account at www.ets.org/praxis and click on your score report. If
you do not already have a Praxis account, you must create one to view your scores.

Note: You must create a Praxis account to access your scores, even if you registered by mail or phone.
*ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness (2003, Princeton, NJ) are consistent with the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing,
industry standards issued jointly by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the
National Council on Measurement in Education (1999, Washington, DC).

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49

Your teaching career is worth preparing for, so start today!


Let the Praxis Study Companion guide you.

To search for the Praxis test prep resources


that meet your specific needs, visit:

www.ets.org/praxis/testprep

To purchase official test prep made by the creators


of the Praxis tests, visit the ETS Store:

www.ets.org/praxis/store

Copyright 2015 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ETS, the ETS logo, GRE,
PRAXIS II, PRAXIS, and THE PRAXIS SERIES are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS). MEASURING THE POWER OF
LEARNING is a trademark of ETS. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners. 19117