You are on page 1of 8



One of the turning points in the development of mankind was

the discovery of metal and its uses. Man has been using some plastic
deformation process or other for many centuries now to shape the
metal to suit his needs. But metal craft remained an artisans forte and
the final result depends on his judgment and expertise. Only in the last
One Hundred Twenty years or so systematic study of metal
deformation process has began and a vast amount of literature is now
available on this subject. Various theoretical and experimental studies
has been conducted to understand the mechanics of deformation
process. These theories have been helpful in extending process
capabilities and selecting equipment and process is so complicated
and is governed by so many factors that theories cannot predict the
process parameters accurately and a little judgment is still needed to
produce a highly successful product.
The products of various metal forming process have high
dimensional accuracy and surface finish to further improve the surface
finish. Various lubricant such as lubricants based on vegetable and
mineral oil.


The author has gone through a number of research papers relating to the
drawing process with tribological study. Hydrodynamic lubrication
prevails when film of lubricant fully seperates the die from the work piece.
Summery of some papers are summarized as:

Madhavian and Wilson [7] has been discussed the lubricant flow in
plastohydrodynamic work zone. This includes the effects of different
surface temperatures and shear heating within the lubricant film. Thermal
effects on the lubricant velocity and temperature profile traction and
volume flow rate are described. The difference in surface temperature
plays a dominate role in deciding the variation of lubricant film thickness
with position and time in metal forming operations.

Avitzer [9] analyze the wire drawing and extrusion through conical dies of
small cone angle. Analytical expressions are derived for the required front
pull for wire drawing, as well as the back push for extrusion. The effect of
each of the process variables on these forces is presented graphically. The
process variables are the cons semi angle () initial (R i) and final (Rf) wire
radius, material yield limit (o) at uniaxial load, back pull (xb) an front
pull (xf), coefficient of friction () or shear factor (m), die land (L), exit
velocity (vf) and entrance velocity (vi).

The power balanceis set for these powers: (1) internal power of
deformation of wire, (2) Power involved with the back force on the wire,

(3) Power involved with the front force on the wire, (4) Power losses due
to friction between the wire and the die.
By Susan M. Bloor*, D. Dowson and B. Parsons [12] has been analyzed
plasto-Hydrodynamic lubrication of the plane strain drawing process. In
recent years there has been an accumulation of evidence of hydrodynamic
lubrication in various metal forming processes. In the present paper the
possibility of hydrodynamic action in the plane strain drawing process is
explored in a theoretical analysis which takes account of the variation of
lubricant viscosity with pressure and temperature and plastic deformation
of the strip. The generation of heat within the lubricant is considered and
linear heat flow in the rigid die is considered in the thermal analysis.
Wilson and Mohdavian [13] gave hydrodynamic Lubrication of
Hydrostatic Extrusion. An analytical model for the hydrodynamic
lubrication of hydrostatic extrusion is developed. This includes the effect
of viscous heating on the film formation process and the effect of viscous
and plastic heating on the friction and film thickness variation in the work
zone. Theoretical prediction of film thickness and extrusion pressure show
good agreement with experimental measurements for aluminium billets
lubricated with castor oil.
Avitzur [16] has been analyzed the wire drawing and extrusion through
conical dies of large cone angle. This work is a direct extension of
reference [9].

2.2 Problem Definition

This present work is an exploratory attempt to evaluate the effect of

different parameters such as yield strength of work piece material,
viscosity of lubricant, pressure coefficient of viscosity on lubricant film
thickness, shear stress, pressure developed in lubricant film and
temperature of the strip, lubricant film and die surface in strip drawing
process. For this author has taken different work materials and different
values of lubricant viscosity and pressure coefficient of viscosity and has
analyzed the effect by changing one parameter on other parameters
involved in strip drawing process.
Aim of Thesis

Main themes of thesis is a study of the theoretical film thickness which

could be developed under representative practical drawing condition this
quantity gives a good indication of the potential of the system for
hydrodynamic lubrication action when compared with the surface quality
of die and strip. We also include the effect of changing the work material,
lubricant viscosity, pressure coefficient of viscosity on the pressure, shear
stress and temperature of die, lubricant film and strip.




3.1 Process Analysis

The process consists of strip passing through die of conical shape. The
lubricant film introduced during the process completely separates the die
from work piece material. The film can be divided into three regions.

The inlet zone

The working zone
The outlet zone

In the inlet zone the lubricant is drawn into the space between strip and die
by hydrodynamic wedge action. The lubricant pressure rises rapidly until
the work piece yields at the inlet of working zone. In deformation zone the
strip material yields plastically. In the outlet zone the strip again become
rigid it provides stability in work piece and pressure almost remains
constant in this zone. Process is shown in Fig.




From this present work following conclusions are drawn:



Effective hydrodynamic pressure generation is restricted to a

very small portion of the inlet region.
In the zone of plastic deformation the film thickness
decreases steadily in proportion to the reduction in strip
Predicted film thickness suggests that hydrodynamic action
might be important under many modern drawing conditions.
Film thickness is more for low yield stress work material in
comparison to high yield stress work material.
Film thickness comes out to be more highly viscous lubricant
in comparison to low viscous lubricant.
Viscous heating effect is more than heating due to strip
deformation in case of highly viscous oil.
Film pressure decays relatively slowly through the plastic

Suggestion for Future Work


Some suggestions for future work are given below:


The analysis can be extended to include thermal effect in

inlet region.
Thermal conductivity may be considered as a variable.
Effect of work hardening characteristics of work piece
material in hydrodynamic lubricant can be considered.
Lubricant may be considered as Non-Newtonian fluid.





Day, L., The validity of some approximate solution to the

Renolds equation, Journal of lubricant Technology Vol 101, P
365, July 1979.
Yang C.T., On the mechanics of wore drawing, Trans ASME,
Ser. B, Vol. 83, P 523, 1961.
Ramackers, J.A.H. and Kals, J.A.G., Mathematical
representation of friction in metal forming analysis, Annals of
the CRIP Vol. 35/1/1986, Page 137, 1986.
Dow, T.A., Kannel, J.W. and Bupara S.S., A hydrodynamic
lubrication theory for strip rolling including thermal effects@,
Trans. ASME, Journal of lubrication technology, Page 4,1975.
Wilson,W.R.D., The film thickness Variation in the work Zone
of Hydro dynamically lubricant continuous deformation process,
Trans. ASME, Journal of lubrication technology P. 541, Oct.
Ghosh, A. and Mallik, A.K., Manufacturing science, Affiliated
East West Press Private Limited, New Delhi, 1988.
Wilson, W.R.D. and Mahdavian, S.M., Lubricant flow in a
plasto hydrodynamic work zone Trans. ASME Journal of
lubrication technology, P.16, Jan 1976.
Raghavan, V., Material Science and Engineering, Hall of India
Private Limited 1990.





Betzalel Avitzur, Analysis of wire drawing and Extrusion

through conical dies of small cone angle Trans. ASME, Journal
of Engineering for Industry, P. 89, Feb., 1963.
Avitzer, B., Metal forming process and analysis, Mc. Graw Hill
Book Co., 1968.
Pinkus Oskar Theory of lubrication Mc. Graw Hill Book Co.
New York, 1961.
Suson M. Bloor, Dowson D. and parsons B., An Elasto-plasto hydrodynamic lubrication analysis of the plane strain drawing
process Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science Vol. 12, No.
3, P.178, 1970.
Wilson, W.R.D. and Mahdavian, S.M., Hydrodynamic
lubrication of hydrostatic lubrication analysis of the plane strain
drawing process Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science Vol.
12, No. 3, P. 178, 1970.
Gameron, A. Basic lubricant theory Second edition Halsted
Press. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1976.
Kudo, H., Isubouchi, M., Takada, H. and Okamura K., An
investigation into plasto hydrodynamic lubrication with a cold
sheet drawing test Annals of the CIRP Vol. 31/1/1982 Page 175,
Avitzer, B., Analysis of wire drawing and extrusion through
conical dies of large cone angle, Trans. ASME, Journal of
Engineering for Industry, P. 305, Nov. 1964.
Sastry, S.S.,Introduction methods of numerical analysis Second
edition Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi 1994.
Holman, J.P. Heat transfer Fifth edition, Mc Graw Hill
International book Co. 1985.