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PIM-SU-2505-N

CARBON STEEL PIPING FABRICATION

APPLICATION: ONSHORE

This document is the confidential property of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Neither


the whole nor any part of this document may be disclosed to any third
party without the prior written consent of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Neither the
whole nor any part of this document may be reproduced, stored in any
retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic,
mechanical, reprographic, recording, or otherwise) without the prior
written consent of Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
Rev

Date

Author

Sponsor

04/1999

General revision

ZRomoda

ZRomoda

11/06

General revision

RSHC

RSHC

05/08

General revision

RSHC

RSHC

09/10

General revision

RGQP

LNSK

September 2010

Description

19992010 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All rights reserved.

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Carbon Steel Piping Fabrication

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CONTENTS

1.0

Scope ..........................................................................................................................3

2.0

References ..................................................................................................................3
2.1 ......Purchaser Documents ......................................................................................3
2.2 ......Industry Codes and Standards .........................................................................3

3.0

Acronyms ....................................................................................................................4

4.0

General ........................................................................................................................4

5.0

Material ........................................................................................................................5

6.0

Welding .......................................................................................................................5
6.1 ......General .............................................................................................................5
6.2 ......Fabrication Requirements ................................................................................6
6.3 ......Specific Process Limits ....................................................................................7
6.4 ......Filler Metals ......................................................................................................8
6.5 ......Hardness Testing .............................................................................................8
6.6 ......Miscellaneous Requirements ...........................................................................8

7.0

Bends ..........................................................................................................................8

8.0

Preheat and Heat Treatment .....................................................................................9


8.1 ......Preheat .............................................................................................................9
8.2 ......Heat Treatment ................................................................................................9
8.3 ......Method .............................................................................................................9

9.0

Examination and Testing .........................................................................................10


9.1 ......Positive Material Identification ........................................................................10
9.2 ......Visual ..............................................................................................................10
9.3 ......Radiography ...................................................................................................10
9.4 ......Hydrotesting ...................................................................................................11

10.0

Repairs ......................................................................................................................11

11.0

Documentation .........................................................................................................11

12.0

Packing for Shipment ..............................................................................................12

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1.0

PIM-SU-2505-N

SCOPE
1. This specification covers the fabrication and examination of carbon steel piping.
2. This specification does not cover stainless steel, carbon-moly, or chrome-moly piping
fabrication. Refer to PIM-SU-4770 and PIM-SU-4772, respectively, for those materials.
3. This specification supplements the fabrication requirements of ASME B31.1 and
ASME B31.3.

2.0

REFERENCES
1. The following documents are referenced herein and are considered part of this specification.
2. Use the latest edition of each document referenced below unless otherwise specified.

2.1

2.2

Purchaser Documents
PIM-SU-3541

Hydrotesting of Onshore Piping Systems

PIM-SU-4770

Stainless Steel Piping Fabrication

PIM-SU-4772

Low Alloy Steel Piping Fabrication

PIM-SU-5112

Piping Material Line Classes

PIM-DU-5138

Piping Design

PPL-SU-4737

Induction Bending

[PIM] GC-L34496

Standard Pipe Details and Construction Notes

[PIM] GD-L1057

Root Valve Installation

Industry Codes and Standards


American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
B31.1

Power Piping

B31.3

Process Piping

SFA-5.1

Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

SFA-5.17

Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc
Welding

SFA-5.18

Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc
Welding

SFA-5.20

Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC)


Section I, Rules for Construction of Power Boilers
Section V, Nondestructive Examination
Section IX, Qualification Standard for Welding and Brazing Procedures,
Welders, Brazers, and Welding and Brazing Operators

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Pipe Fabrication Institute (PFI)

3.0

ES3

Fabricating Tolerances

ES49

Guidelines for Installation of Integrally Reinforced Branch Connection


Outlet Fitting

ACRONYMS
AWSAmerican Welding Society
CMTRCertified Material Test Report
ERWElectric Resistance Welding
FCAW-GGas-Shielded Flux-Cored Arc Welding
FCAW-SSelf-Shielded Flux-Cored Arc Welding
GMAWGas Metal Arc Welding
GMAW-SGas Metal Arc Welding, Short Circuit Arc
GTAWGas Tungsten Arc Welding
NDENondestructive Examination
PMIPositive Material Identification
PQRProcedure Qualification Records
PWHTPost Weld Heat Treatment
SAWSubmerged Arc Welding
SMAWShielded Metal Arc Welding
UNSUnified Numbering System
WPQWelder Performance Qualification
WPSWelding Procedure Specification

4.0

GENERAL
1. Piping shall comply with this specification and with the latest edition of ASME B31.1 or
ASME B31.3 (as applicable).
2. When Figure 100.1.2(A) of ASME B31.1 requires that piping comply with the requirements of
Section I of ASME BPVC, materials purchased shall be accompanied by data reports,
inspection, and stamping.
a. Purchase orders for ASME BPVC Section I piping materials shall indicate that data
reports, inspection, and stamping are required.
b. Supplied materials shall also conform to ASME B31.1, Figure 100.1.2(A) and Paragraph
123.2.2.
3. In case of conflict between the applicable ASME codes and this specification, the more
restrictive document shall apply. Purchaser shall be notified of such conflicts.
4. Fabrication tolerances and piping details, unless specified otherwise, shall be in accordance
with GC-L34496.

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5. Use of the word Code in this specification shall mean ASME B31.1 or ASME B31.3 as
specified by Purchaser.
6. Opportunity to witness all or part of the work, including access to facilities to verify the
results, shall be provided to Purchaser.
7. Heating may be used by field fabricator or erector to correct piping misalignment after formal
plan is accepted by Purchaser. Degree of piping misalignment allowed shall be corrected and
heating methods shall be part of formal plan submitted to Purchaser.
8. Unless otherwise specified, tolerances for dimensions of fabricated pipe sections shall be in
accordance with PFI ES-3.
9. Pipe support systems shall be in accordance with PIM-DU-5138.
5.0

MATERIAL
1. Piping shall be in accordance with line class specifications. Substitutions shall be permitted
only with Purchasers written acceptance.
2. Material substitutions, including thicker wall materials, shall be permitted only with
Purchasers written acceptance.
3. Cast fittings shall not be used.
4. A marking system accepted by Purchaser shall be used to maintain material traceability.

6.0

WELDING

6.1

General
1. Weld procedures and welders shall be qualified in accordance with the rules of ASME BPVC,
Section IX.
2. Welding procedure specifications (WPS), welder performance qualifications (WPQ), and
procedure qualification records (PQR) shall be reviewed and accepted by Purchaser before
any welding is started.
3. Acceptable welding processes shall be shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), submerged arc
welding (SAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), and gasshielded flux-cored arc (FCAW-G) welding.
4. Electric resistance welding (ERW), flash welding, and pressure welding shall not be used.
5. Tack welds, whether removed or left in place, shall be made by a qualified welder following
the procedure detailed in ASME BPVC, Section IX.
6. Turbine steam supply and other piping requiring special cleaning shall have the root pass
deposited by GTAW.
7. Installation of root valves shall comply with GD-L1057.
8. Arc strikes on pipe and fitting surfaces shall be avoided. If arc strikes occur, they shall be
removed and visually inspected to ensure all defects have been removed.
9. Repairs to pipe and fitting surfaces shall not reduce the wall thickness below the minimum
required.
10. No welding shall be done when surfaces are wet or covered with ice, when snow is falling on
the surfaces to be welded, or during periods of high wind, unless the welders or welding
operators are properly protected.

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6.2

PIM-SU-2505-N

Fabrication Requirements
6.2.1

Fillet Welds
1. Pressure-containing fillet welds shall have two passes minimum. Refer to GC-L34496
for details.
2. Where painting of welds is required prior to hydrotest, both weld passes shall be
visible for inspection. Refer to GC-L34496 for details.

6.2.2

Butt Welds
1. Longitudinal welds shall be located at least 30 degrees above the bottom of the pipe
and as high above the centerline as possible, while maintaining weld edge distance
requirements with branch connections.
2. Intersection of branch welds with longitudinal seams shall be avoided.
3. When seam-welded pipes are joined by butt welding, the distance between the
centerline of longitudinal weld seams shall be 2 inches (50 mm) or three times the
nominal thickness of the materials being joined, whichever is greater.
4. Field butt-weld joints in shop-fabricated piping shall be prepared in accordance with
the appropriate figure shown in GC-L34496.
5. For field welding and heat treatment, locate butt welds where there is adequate
clearance.

6.2.3

Slip-On Flanges
1. Slip-on flanges shall be double welded in accordance with ASME B31.3 and
ASME B31.1, Figure 328.5.2B(1) and Figure 127.4.4(B)(a).
2. The toe of the inside fillet weld shall be 1/16 inch to 3/16 inch (1.5 mm to 5 mm) back
from the face of the flange.
3. Flange face shall be protected from weld spatter.
4. Use of slip-on flanges shall be restricted to Category D services. See ASME B31.3 for
definition of Category D services.
5. Use of slip-on flanges in space-restricted locations requires Purchaser acceptance for
other services.

6.2.4

Seal Welding
1. Seal welding of threaded joints shall be permitted only if specified by Purchaser.
2. Both male and female threads shall be free of oil and joint sealant, and the threads
shall be fully engaged.
3. Exposed threads shall be covered by the weld metal.
4. Seal welds are considered to be pressure-containing and shall meet GC-L34496
Note 4 requirements.
5. Seal welds shall be PWHT as required by Code per material or per process services.

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6.2.5

PIM-SU-2505-N

Branch Connections
1. Unless otherwise specified, the type of 90-degree branch connections shall be in
accordance with the branch connection chart in the applicable piping material
specification.
2. Unless otherwise specified, welding of unreinforced stub-ins shall be in accordance
with the Code, Figure 328.5.4D(2).
3. Attachment of integrally reinforced branch connections shall be by a full-penetration
weld and shall be filled out to the edge of the fitting weld bevel. Refer to standard
drawing GC-L34496 and PFI ES49.

6.2.6

Flanges
Unless otherwise specified, bolt holes of fixed flanges shall be oriented as follows:
1. Vertical flange faces: A pair of bolt holes shall straddle the vertical centerline.
2. Horizontal flange faces: A pair of bolt holes shall straddle the plant north-south
centerline.
3. Sloping flange faces: A pair of bolt holes shall straddle the plane defined by the
centerline of the pipe and a vertical line.

6.2.7

Orifice Runs
1. Welding neck orifice flanges shall have the same bore as the pipe.
2. Orifice runs shall not contain welds except at the flanges.
3. Welds at orifice flanges shall be ground or machined smooth and flush on the inside of
the pipe.

6.3

Specific Process Limits


6.3.1

Interrupted-Arc Gas Metal Arc Welding-Short Circuit Arc


1. The interrupted-arc (i.e., short-circuiting transfer) GMAW-S process may be used for
butt welds and shall not be used for weldolets and other attachments.
2. Root passes may be made in any direction, but filler and capping passes shall not be
made in the downhill direction below the 2 oclock position.
3. The interrupted-arc GMAW-S process shall be limited to groove welding base metal
thickness of 3/8 inch (10 mm) or less.
4. The interrupted-arc GMAW process may be used for root pass only for any qualified
base metal thickness.

6.3.2

Gas-Shielded Flux Cored Arc Welding


1. FCAW-G shall be used only with gas-shielded electrodes.
2. FCAW-G electrodes shall meet an H-4 or less diffusible hydrogen content.
3. Self-shielded flux cored arc welding (FCAW-S) shall not be used.
4. Electrode diameter shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).
5. Vertical downhill welding shall not be acceptable.
6. Wind velocity shall not exceed 5 mph (8 kph) in the weld area, unless the weld is
sheltered from the wind.

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6.4

PIM-SU-2505-N

Filler Metals
Table 1 shall be used to for determining American Welding Society (AWS) class and Unified
Numbering System (UNS) numbers.

Table 1:

AWS Classes with Matching UNS Numbers

Specification

Reference

ASME Table Title

ASME Section II C
SFA-5.1 - SMAW

Table 7

Chemical Composition Requirements for Weld Metals

ASME Section II C
SFA-5.17 - SAW
Electrodes and Fluxes

Table 1

Chemical Composition Requirements for Solid Electrodes

Table 2

Chemical Composition Requirements for Composite


Electrode Weld Metal

Table 1

Chemical Composition Requirements for Solid Electrodes


and Rods

Table 2

Chemical Composition Requirements for Weld Metal from


Composite Electrodes

Table 6

Base Metal for Test Assemblies

Table 1

Chemical Composition Requirements for Solid Electrodes


and Rods

Table 2

Chemical Composition Requirements for Weld Metal from


Composite Electrodes

Table 6

Base Metal for Test Assemblies

ASME Section II C
SFA-5.18 - GTAW &
GMAW

ASME Section II C
SFA 5.20 - FCAW-G
electrodes that need to
be accepted on a caseby-case basis.

6.5

Hardness Testing
1. At least 10 percent of production welds in each furnace heat-treated batch and 100 percent of
those that are locally heat treated shall be hardness tested.
2. At least 10 percent of the production welds shall be hardness tested.
3. Hardness tests shall be made with a Telebrineller-type portable hardness tester, or Purchaseraccepted alternative.
4. The maximum Brinell hardness of carbon steel shall be 200 BHN.

6.6

Miscellaneous Requirements
1. Backup strips or rings shall not be used.
2. Root gap inserts that are completely melted and fused in the weld bead shall be acceptable
provided they have the same nominal composition as the filler metal.
3. Any weld not identified by the welders identification stamp shall be rejected unless it is
shown to be of acceptable quality by radiographic inspection at the Suppliers expense.
4. Components shall be clean, dry, and free from dirt, slag, and other loose foreign materials
prior to welding and assembly.

7.0

BENDS
1. Bending procedures shall be submitted to Purchaser for review and acceptance prior to
fabrication.
2. Induction bends shall be made in accordance with PPL-SU-4737.

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8.0

PREHEAT AND HEAT TREATMENT

8.1

Preheat

PIM-SU-2505-N

1. Preheat shall be required when pipe is wet or when the ambient temperature is less than
50F (10C).
2. Preheat shall be per the following ASME B31.3 requirements:
a. 50F (10C) minimum for nominal wall thickness less than one inch.
b. 175F (79C) minimum for nominal wall thickness one inch and larger.
8.2

Heat Treatment
1. Welds shall be heat treated when specified by Purchaser or ASME B31.1 and ASME B31.3.
2. Welds, cold bends with a radius less than five times the pipe outside diameter, and hot bends
shall be heat treated in accordance with this specification.
3. Heat treatment, when specified, shall be at 1,100 to 1,200F (593 to 648C) for one hour per
inch of nominal wall thickness, but for not less than one hour. Cooling from the heat treatment
temperature shall be in still air outside the furnace.
4. Butt weld valves shall not be subject to furnace post weld heat treatment (PWHT) without
Purchaser acceptance.
5. Socket weld valves may undergo furnace PWHT in accordance with documented procedures
provided by the manufacturer under a cover letter referencing the project for which the valves
have been supplied.

8.3

Method
8.3.1

Preheat
1. Preheat may be applied by electrical resistance heating pads, induction heating coils,
or oxy-fuel rosebud heating torches.
a. If heating by the torch method, care shall be taken not to locally overheat the
material.
b. Flame residue shall be removed by solvent and cloth wipes prior to welding.
2. Preheat shall be measured with contact pyrometers or temperature indicators.

8.3.2

Post Weld Heat Treatment


1. PWHT shall be accomplished by furnace, local electrical resistance heating elements,
or induction heating equipment.
2. Thermocouples sufficient to monitor PWHT temperatures shall be attached to
representative welds by direct spot or resistance welding, peening, bolting, or welding
of a thermocouple pad. Thermocouples may be attached by bolting or welding of
thermocouple pad when accepted by Purchaser.
3. Flames shall not impinge on the metal surface.
4. Exothermic stress-relieving kits shall not be used without written Purchaser
acceptance.

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5. Fabricator shall submit a furnace PWHT procedure for Purchaser review and
acceptance. As a minimum, the procedure shall address the following:
a. Description of furnace.
b. Operating temperature range.
c. Dimensions of the temperature-calibrated working zone defining maximum load
size.
d. Calibration procedures used to ensure the maximum specified temperature
differential throughout the working zone.
e. Maximum period between calibration to recognized industry standards, as
follows:
1) One year for furnace.
2) Three months for controlling and recording instruments and thermocouples.
f.

Loading and spacing procedures.

g. Thermocouple placement requirements.


h. Heating procedures, holding times, and cooling procedures for each material type.
i.
9.0

Protection of flange faces to prevent scaling.

EXAMINATION AND TESTING


1. Purchaser shall retain the right to designate which piping shall be randomly tested.
2. External and accessible internal surfaces of joints and components to be examined shall be
free of rust, scale, weld flux or spatter, and paint.
3. Surfaces shall be ground, if necessary, to eliminate irregularities that can obscure or confuse
the interpretation of imperfections.
4. Qualification of inspection personnel shall be per ASME B31.3.

9.1

Positive Material Identification


1. Special heat-treated, impact-tested, or low temperature carbon steel requires verification, but
may need to rely on the Certified Material Test Report (CMTR) because these parameters
cannot be measured by typical alloy analyzers.
2. Carbon steels not listed above do not require positive material identification (PMI).

9.2

Visual
1. Visual examination shall be in accordance with the applicable ASME Code and specific line
classes in PIM SU-5112.
2. Visual examination, including any in-process examination, shall be performed and repairs
made before any other examinations are performed.

9.3

Radiography
1. Radiography shall be performed in accordance with ASME Code and specific line classes in
PIM-SU-5112.
2. If the ASME Code permits, and the Owner agrees, ultrasonic examination may be substituted
for radiography.

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3. For each procedure change requiring a separate welder qualification, the first two welds for
each welder shall be radiographed in addition to 5 percent of the order (or other specified
percentage).
4. Final radiography for acceptance shall be done following post weld heat treatment.
9.3.1

Acceptance Criteria
1. Acceptance criteria for radiography shall be in accordance with the appropriate
ASME Code.
2. Concurrence of Purchaser inspector shall be required in the interpretation of
radiographs.

9.3.2

Technique
Fluorescent intensifying screens shall not be used.

9.3.3

Progressive Examination
1. Progressive examination shall be in accordance with the ASME Code.
2. Additional radiography resulting from rejected welds shall be at fabricators expense
and shall not be included in the 5 percent (or other specified percentage).

9.4

Hydrotesting
1. Only potable water shall be used when hydrotesting is being performed.
2. Piping shall be completely drained and blown dry following testing.
3. Hydrotesting procedures shall be specified in accordance with PIM-SU-3541.

10.0

REPAIRS
1. Rejected welds shall be treated as follows:
a. Repaired promptly and reinspected at fabricators expense.
b. Re-tested with the same method that detected the defect.
2. Documentation shall include a description of the location and nature of repairs made as a
result of nondestructive examination (NDE) as well as testing results.
3. Unless otherwise accepted by Purchaser, repairs shall be limited to three attempted weld
repairs and two PWHTs.
4. Damaged machined surfaces shall be repaired, or the component shall be replaced.

11.0

DOCUMENTATION
1. Copies of certifications and records required by the applicable ASME Code shall be furnished
to Purchasers inspector.
2. During the course of fabrication, Supplier shall maintain the following documentation and
make it available to Purchaser for review:
a. As-built dimensional data and material substitutions on piping.
b. Mill test reports and other similar certifications for materials of construction.
c. Spool drawings documenting heat numbers and other similar component identification
numbers, to provide full material traceability.

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d. WPS, PQR, and WPQ documents.


e. Weld records coded to correspond with spool drawings, to identify the location of each
weld.
f.

Examiner certifications, NDE, PWHT data from furnace recorder, and other inspection
records and charts.

g. Pressure test procedures, reports, test certificates, and results.


h. Hardness test results.
i.

Other documentation required by project specifications.

3. Upon completion of testing, and prior to shipment of the applicable piping, Supplier shall
provide Purchaser with a complete quality control package for the piping, including both a
hard copy and an electronic copy of the documentation listed in item 2.
12.0

PACKING FOR SHIPMENT


1. Each section of fabricated piping shall be plainly marked with the order and spool number.
a. Marking shall be waterproof and clearly readable, with characters at least 1/2 inch
(13 mm) high.
b. Paint, ink, and marking material shall not contain chlorides, sulfur, lead, or other metals.
c. Markings shall be made once on each end of the spool, on opposite sides.
d. Proposals to use bar coding shall be submitted for review and acceptance.
2. Exposed flange faces shall be protected against corrosion and damage by applying suitable
grease, and by bolting wood or steel covers with at least four bolts.
3. Plastic snap-in end covers shall be acceptable.
4. Threaded connections shall be protected by thread protectors.
5. Beveled ends shall be protected by snug-fitting end protectors.

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