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8

COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW

In compressible fluid flow, the specific volume or density of the fluid

varies with pressure changes, which makes the solution of the energy

balance complicated.

u2 udu z2 g

P2

F -w

dz VdP

g

g

P1

c z1 c

u1

(8.1)

Friction term, F:

4fFu2

dL

L1 2gcD

L2

(8.2)

u2 udu z2 g

2

P2

L2

4fFu dL w

dz VdP

P1

L1 2gcD

u1 gc z1 gc

(8.3)

Notes:

the third term of equation 8.3. Often, this relationship may be

obtained by use of the ideal gas equation of state.

because there is no analytical expression that relates fu2 with L.

71

uniform cross-section.

G u

(8.4)

where

G

u GdV

du GdV

(8.5)

2 2

2

2

2 g

G2VdV

4fF G V dL w

dz VdP

gc

2gcD

1 gc

1

1

(8.6)

As suggested by the continuity equation, G is constant; therefore, for

isothermal flow of compressible gas in a pipeline:

P

4fFL

P12 P22 1 2 ln 2

D

P1G

P1

72

(8.7)

G 1

P1

2

P12 P22 MW

P12 P22

P2 RT 4fFL P

2

4fFL

ln

ln

D

D

P2

P

2

(8.8)

P

Since ln 2 is relatively small, equation 8.8 reduces to the Weymount

P1

equation:

(8.9)

4fFLRT

):

Heat transfer in isothermal flow ( Q

2

G 1 1

Q

2gc 22 12

(8.10)

Mach number is defined as the ratio of fluid velocity (u) at a point to the

velocity of sound

flow,

73

Ma u

MW

u

P

RT

where

Cp

Cv

1.40

(8.11)

To evaluate the velocity at one point in terms of the velocity at other point

using Mach numbers:

1 Ma12 2

Ma2

2Ma12 1

(8.12)

Ma < 1

subsonic flow

Ma = 1

sonic flow

Ma > 1

supersonic flow

The change in velocity and Mach number caused by area (A) changes can be

determined from

du

dA

1 Ma2

0

u

A

(8.13)

area

u2

1

Cp

dP

T

dS

Pressure gradient:

2

dx

V 1 Ma dx

74

(8.14)

Velocity gradient:

u2

2

C Ma

du

p

dS

u

T

2

dx

1 Ma dx

(8.15)

where dP/dx and du/dx are the pressure gradient and velocity gradient,

respectively, T is the absolute temperature, V is the specific volume, is the

volume expansivity, S is the entropy, and C p is the heat capacity of the fluid.

For subsonic flow (Ma2 < 1):

dP

0

dx

du

0

dx

(8.16)

Pressure gradient:

dP

u2

1 dA

dx VA 1 Ma2 dx

(8.17)

Velocity gradient:

du

u

1 dA

dx

A 1 Ma2 dx

(8.18)

75

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