Editing examples and exercises

英文編修/作業範例

I. Editing samples 1-23
一般修改:
包括拼字錯誤﹔文法及標點符
號錯誤﹔
文章內數字大小寫、複合字的
用法前
後一致﹔為了使意義清楚所作
的一些
換字修改。
大幅修改:
不僅提供一般修改的服務﹐還
包括簡
化重覆的文句﹔重寫部分或整
段不順
的文句﹔句中或整段的文句調
換。
II. Edited homework 24-291
研究/ 工作提案計畫(第一部
分):背景
研究/ 工作提案計畫(第二部
分):行動
問題描述
假設描述
摘要撰寫(第一部分):簡介
背景、目標及方法
摘要撰寫(第二部分:歸納希
望的結果及其對特定領域的貢

研究/工作提案撰寫
III. Editing exercises 292-303
I. Editing samples
一般修改:
包括拼字錯誤﹔文法及標點符
號錯誤﹔
文章內數字大小寫、複合字的
用法前
後一致﹔為了使意義清楚所作
的一些
換字修改。
大幅修改:
不僅提供一般修改的服務﹐還
包括簡
化重覆的文句﹔重寫部分或整
段不順
的文句﹔句中或整段的文句調
換。
1. (Business Management)
[NOTE: If you are resubmitting
this paper, add the following
sentence to 'Reply to reviewer's
comments': 'Grammatical and
writing style errors in the original
version have been corrected by
our colleague who is a native
English speaker.']
(NOTE: If you want to improve your
writing skills, check out my on-line
copyediting course at
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(Assessing OR An Empirical StudyStudy
of) the Influence of
Trust and TAM to on Mobile Businesses
(Correspondence and reprint requests
should be made to: OR To whom
correspondence and reprint requests
should be made )
ABSTRACT
This study An empirical study of the
influence of (assesses OR evaluates) how
trust and TAM to affect mobile business is
applied and developed for the Mobile
Commerce (M-Commerce; M-C) in this
paper. A complete picture of human
interaction with the B2C mechanisms in
mobile commerce [is the most important
portion of OR TRY consists
of/comprises/entails/encompasses the core
of] this IT research, especially[especially
OR particularly] in concerning relation
towith mobile business. [Current E-
Commerce is hopefully going to be the
business developed in the way of being
mobile, wireless in the near future
UNCLEAR TRY In the near future e-
commerce is expected to develop in the
directions of increased mobility, and
wirelessness]. [Former OR Previous] IT
[researches havehas OR TRY studies
have] [investigated OR studied] the
characteristics of E-C systems and their
systems interfaces, [that OR which] are
expected to [have influences on TRY
SIMPLY influence] the productivity.
While most of [past OR previous]
researches studies (emphasized/ stressed
OR paidy [a lot of OR considerable]
attention on to the technological
development of [hardware and software of
E-C systems OR TRY E-C system
hardware and software], recent research
has been instead focused on (the [impact
OR influence]s of consumers’ trust on E-
Commerce OR TRY how consumer trust
influences E-Commerce). Current
[research OR studies]es onregarding to the
mobile commerce of B2C E-business [is
OR are] [very OR OMIT?] likely to
bedeal with [how consumers are willing
TRY consumer willingness] to [go
shopping on the Web shops TRY SIMPLY
shop on-line], especially[especially OR
particularly] cooperating with the mobile
telecommunication. The tTrust and
technology acceptance are (all [very OR
extremely] important OR key) factors onin
the mobile business. This research [study
OR work OR investigation] has
[combined OR brought together] those
research streams by (placing users’
[characteristics of behavior of using TRY
behavior characteristics in using] mobile
on-line shopping systems into a TRY
including user behavior characteristics. .
.in a) model [with the context of
usefulness, ease of use and trust variables
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?]. The [primary OR main OR
key] goal (is based on [customer
relationship management OR TRY
managing customer relationships] in a
mobile environment NOTE Rather than
saying that the goal is based on could you
simply say what the goal is?). The Trust
and M-C Technology Acceptance Model
of M-C consumer behavior are is
included[NOTE Included in what
exactly?]. A survey [to investigating OR
SIMPLY of]e [the intension of using TRY
intention to use] M-C transaction or on-
line shopping [with factors of shoppers’
consumption behavior UNCLEAR What
exactly does the ‘with’ mean here? Could
you clarify?] is [conducted OR
performed]. Furthermore, Aan M-C model
is applied and developed on the basis
of[on the basis of OR based on] [former
OR previous] E-Commerce [research OR
studies]es. (It [It NOTE Avoid starting
sentences with words like ‘this’, ‘it’,
‘they’ and ‘that’, which do not have a
clear referent. Clarify the referent in all
cases.] proves to be not only excellent
predictors but also actually human
oriented UNCLEAR TRY XXX are not
only shown to be excellent predictors, but
are also demonstrated to be human
oriented).
Keywords: M-Commerce, Technology Acceptance
Model (TAM), pPerceived of usefulness,
pPerceived eEase of uUse, hHuman
interaction, cognition-based trust, [NOTE
Only the first keyword needs to be
capitalized. The others need not be
capitalized unless they are proper nouns
(i.e. names).]
INTRODUCTION
While most of past researches pay
much attention on the technological
development of [hardware and software of
E-C systems TRY E-C system hardware
and software] has been extensively
studied, recent researches care much about
the [impact OR influence]s of [trust of
consumers OR consumer trust] on Mobile
E-Commerce (M-C) has received
increasing attention. The tTrust and
technology acceptance are also very
important onsignificantly influence [the
OR OMIT?] mobile business. The
influence of perceived risk and distrust is
one of (the key issues [of in OR
determining] UNCLEAR TRY the main
causes of) the failure ofn iInternet
businesses. Therefore, customer’s
perceptions of risk and attitudes to trust
were integrated in the technology
acceptance model. [It’s supposed to gain
UNCLEAR What is supposed to do this?
Can you clarify referent of ‘it’?] provide
further insight into/provide a valuable
reference/clarify/elucidate/ shed light on a
better understanding of consumer’s
[intention behavior to accept UNCLEAR
TRY SIMPLY intention to accept] the
internet on-line shopping,
especially[especially OR particularly] in
intention of to useing mobile commerce.
Both trust and the Technology
Acceptance Model (TAM) [has have been
studied for years OR TRY have long been
studied] in the traditional, physically
commercial environment. In the marketing
and management literatures, trust is
[strongly OR closely] associated with
attitudes toward product/service and
purchasing behaviors. [The eExpected
overall trust onin the business
relationships about the behavior of the
companies and customers is discussed
UNCLEAR TRY This study discusses
expected overall trust in business
relationships involving company and
customer behavior] (Kumer et al., 1995a;
Kumer et al., 1995b; Gefen, 2002b, etc.).
There are sSome empirical online
researchesstudies have been conducted,
for examplee.g., an empirical research
studies ([in on OR of] on-line trust: a
review and critical assessment UNCLEAR
TRY reviewing and assessing online trust)
(Grabner-Kräuter, Kaluscha, 2003), [On-
line trust: concepts, evolving themes, a
model, UNCLEAR TRY and a model of
online trust, related concepts and evolving
themes] (Corritore, Kracher, Wiedenbeck,
2003)
Research Purpose
From the [standpoint OR
perspective] of [what is OR OMIT?] the
starting point of rational and non-rational
consumptions of mobile on-line shopping,
M-Commerce is a new marketplace [that
is full of curiosity, unfamiliarity and risk
UNCLEAR TRY that is curious,
unfamiliar and risky]. [Hence OR
Consequently], wethis [study OR work
OR investigation] analyzes the
characteristics of mobile on-line shopping
by applying TAM, Trust,
Familiarity[NOTE Why capitalized?],
[etc. OR and so on] into a mobile on-line
business model. This model is based on
the user acceptance of iInternet
applications, especially[especially OR
particularly] [on TRY in relation to] M-
Commerce. Users trust onin the e-vendor
and the facilities provided on the [Web-
site of vendor OR TRY the websites of
vendors] [through OR via] [the efficient
and useful
toolsaproaches/schemes/methods/procedur
es/means o of mobile on-line shopping
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?]. All of these factors that
interactively [affect OR influence]ing [the
intension of using mobile business OR
mobile business use intention] (are the
targets of this study[study OR work OR
investigation] OR TRY are studied here).
User acceptance of the new
information technology has being widely
studied [in the scope of UNCLEAR TRY
in relation to] Management Information
Systems[OK?]. [There were UNCLEAR
TRY Areas of study include OR Subjects
of study include OR Something else?]
DSS, ESS, [the OR OMIT?] Intranet,
Extranet, and the Internet, [etc OR and so
on]. [Following is E-Commerce in the
latest past period and now rapidly
progressing is on M-Commerce
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning? TRY Previously the focus was
on E-Commerce, and more recently the
focus has shifted to M-Commerce]. An
Internet-based information system [is not
the same as TRY differs from] a
standalone system, and does so an
Extranet system (You, Chang, Tsay, Lin,
2001). Now, mMobile commerce with
infrastructure is being so [dramatically
TRY significantly] changed that [a
different user behavior can surely be
expected TRY user behavior is expected to
differ].
Based on the theory of Planned E-C
consumer Behavior and the M-C
Technology Acceptance Model, we this
[study OR work OR investigation]
appliesy an integrated model of E-C
Trust /TAM and [develops OR designs] [a
combined model of M-C Trust and TAM
model UNCLEAR TRY a combined
model based on the M-C Trust and TAM
models]. A survey is [conducted OR
completed] [to investigate OR
investigating] [the intenstion to use TRY
usage intention of] the on-line M-C
shopping [with factors UNCLEAR Not
really clear how this relates to the rest of
the sentence. What does the ‘with’ mean?]
[of affecting OR influencing]
consumption behaviors and implementing
procedures [of performing UNCLEAR
TRY relating to the performance of]
shopping jobs.
Regarding to the theoretical
basis[NOTE Of what?], this study[study
OR work OR investigation] attempts to
revise the inadequacy of [former OR
earlier] related researches studies [which
are heavily only on technological
development UNCLEAR Could you
clarify meaning?]. Moreover, human
interaction with the B2C mechanisms
[according to OR based on] the
characteristics of network, fashion
shopping and [physically UNCLEAR
Physically what? Could you clarify
meaning?] [use “actual on-line shopping”
is expected UNCLEAR Could you
clarify?]. [A complete picture of factors
that affect Internet- shopping behaviors is
relevant UNCLEAR Could you clarify
relevant how? Clarify the exact
relevance.]. [In the past OR Previously],
the verification for shoppers’ behaviors
[did not conclude an identical result
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?]. This study[study OR work OR
investigation] [is not going to TRY does
not OR does not seek to] analyze and
make clearclarify [the OR OMIT?]
causality in on-line M-C shopping. The
Furthermore, actual consumption because
ofowing to fashion is not discussed in this
[study OR work OR investigation]paper.
However, the intension of to use mobile
commerce [is a factor covered in this topic
UNCLEAR TRY is covered in this study].
The [primary OR main OR key] goal
is to apply, design and implement a model
[of using B2C system UNCLEAR TRY
for the application of B2C systems] in a
mobile environment [at this moment OR
OMIT?], especially[especially OR
particularly] [mobile customer
relationship management UNCLEAR
TRY the management of mobile customer
relationships]. The [main OR key]
problems of hard-wear and soft-wear of
system development are for example as
the followings:
(1) How much higher than customer
expectations are the mobile function fees
than customers’ expectation?
(2) How slow is [the speed of OR OMIT?]
data transmission through mobile phone?
(3) [How is limited size of UNCLEAR
TRY How limited is the size of] miniature
databases on [the mobile phone TRY
mobile phones]?
How is are the synchronization between
processes [on TRY between] different
platforms?
How is[NOTE Could you further clarify
meaning of ‘how is’?] the
telecommunication cooperation among
various facility parties?
[How are the searching engines working
UNCLEAR What exactly do you mean
here by this ‘how are’?] including
separate portals on M-C shopping
operation?
[How is the smoothness of data linkage
from a platform to another UNCLEAR
TRY How smooth is the data linkage
between platforms]?
The M-CRM system is expected to help
customers obtain information [at any time
and fat rom any remote place TRY
regardless of time and space constraints].
It [It NOTE Avoid starting sentences with
words like ‘this’, ‘it’, ‘they’ and ‘that’,
which do not have a clear referent. Clarify
the referent in all cases. TRY This system]
is an application of the established M-
CRM system and ERP databases in the
mobile environment.
A more complete picture of More
thoroughly understanding human
interaction with the B2C mechanisms is in
the important portion of tis essential to he
future IT research, especially[especially
OR particularly] research [concerning OR
on] mobile business. The behavior control
mechanisms typically used in traditional
teams[NOTE What type of ‘traditional
teams’? Can you further clarify?] [have a
significant negative effect on TRY
significantly and negatively affect] trust in
virtual teams (Piccoli and Ives, 2003).
[Former OR Previous] IT research has
[investigated OR examined] the systems
interface and characteristics of systems
that are expected to have an influence
oninfluence productivity. This [study OR
work OR investigation] research has
combined these research streams by
placing user behavior characteristics [of
using TRY relating to the use of] M-C on-
line shopping systems into a context of
usefulness, ease of use and trust variables.
Acknowledgment
The authors would like to thank the
National Science Council of the Republic
of China, Taiwan for financially
supporting this research under Contract
No. NSC___________.
[NOTE Where I have deleted and
otherwise changed your original text I
am fixing grammatical or other
mistakes, or rewriting more concisely.
If you choose not to accept my changes
in such places then you must be sure to
have good reasons. Where I say ‘TRY’
I feel the original may have a problem
and am strongly suggesting that you
make a change (either making the
suggested change or rewriting
yourself). Where I say ‘OR’ I am merely
offering an alternative word with the
same (or similar) meaning. Sometimes
‘OR’ also indicates a choice between
different possible modifications
(perhaps with different meanings). ‘OR
SIMPLY’ indicates a simpler and more
concise alternative with the same (or
similar) meaning. ‘OK?’ is simply a
reminder to you to double check that
my change expresses your intended
meaning. But please remember to
double check everything anyway.
‘UNCLEAR’ indicates that I feel the
original is unclear in meaning, and you
probably need to rewrite.]
2. (Business Management)
[NOTE: If you are resubmitting this paper,
add the following sentence to 'Reply to
reviewer's comments': 'Grammatical and
writing style errors in the original version
have been corrected by our colleague who
is a native English speaker.']
(NOTE: If you want to improve your
writing skills, check out my on-line
copyediting course at
www.cc.nctu.edu.tw/~tedknoy )
Research on(NOTE: Avoid title openers
with common words or phrases such as
‘Research on’ ‘Studies on’ ‘Investigations
of’ ‘A’ ‘The’ ‘An” since it makes it more
difficult to locate your research on an
information retrieval system.) Elucidating
the Relationship between Utility of
Information Disclosure and Stock Return
iIn the Taiwan Stock Markets
(Correspondence and reprint requests
should be made to: OR To whom
correspondence and reprint requests
should be made )
Abstract
[The financial information indexes in
the stock market UNCLEAR TRY Stock
market indices BUT Where specifically?
Which ones?] are [disclosed UNCLEAR
In what sense?] and organized into five
groups of financial ratios in this [study OR
work OR investigation] [paper according
to OR based on] [the divisions of business
diagnosis in practice UNCLEAR Could
you further clarify meaning?]. They[They
NOTE Avoid starting sentences with
words like ‘this’, ‘it’, ‘they’ and ‘that’,
which do not have a clear referent. Clarify
the referent in all cases. TRY These
index/indices data/datum criteria/criterion]
are useful for [evaluating OR assessing]
the corporate performance. This empirical
study[study OR work OR investigation]
[is to examines OR studies] the utility of
financial information indexes and to
seeexamines the [prediction of the OR
predicted] relationship of the utility of
financial information indexes and stock
return from the value-based [view OR
perspective]. (A total [number OR
OMIT?] of 142 OR TRY Some 142)
electronic industry firms listed on Taiwan
stock markets [that had full set of data
from 1997 to 2002 TRY for which full
data was available from 1997 to 2002
BUT What data? Stock price data?
Something else?] in the electronic industry
of Taiwan stock markets are used to
identify as many available firms as
manyas as possible. [The data of firms are
to obtain TRY Firm data is used to obtain]
[the OR OMIT?] estimates of the
relationship of the stock returns and the
five groups of information indexes
disclosed by [corporations in the stock
market TRY listed firms] to see if [these
NOTE Can you clarify referent?] become
the important criteria to thefor investors
and stakeholders. The methods of
mMultiple regression analysis, and time
series cross sections (TSCS) pooling
regression analysis are used. This finding
The [results NOTE Best to specify what
type of ‘results’ you are talking about. (i.e.
analytical results, experimental results,
observation results, measurement results,
etc.). Try ‘analytical results’ here.]
supported the predictions that five groups
of information indices/indexes are related
to the stock return and [are therefore OR
thus are] critical managerial decision-
making variables. [Moreover OR
Furthermore], [they NOTE Can you
clarify referent?] are associated with
higher expected returns on equity [of firm
valuations NOTE Rather unclear how this
relates to the previous. Could you further
clarify?], and appear to be to be more
important [factors in driving OR TRY
drivers of] firm value and the stock returns
than only earnings growth. The empirical
proof [provides the evidence of OR TRY
demonstrates OR indicates] the
relationship [between OR among] the five
groups of information indexes and the
stock return. Further more, it ’sis possible
tofor [evaluateing OR assess] corporate
strategies and the rational decisions
madeking .of by the investors.
Key Words: iInformation disclosure, utility of
information, stock returns, five groups of
information indexes, time series cross
sections (TSCS) pooling regression
[NOTE The first keyword needs to be
capitalized. The others need not be
capitalized unless they are proper nouns
(i.e. names).]
INTRODUCTION
The quality of business operations is
[presented OR indicated] [through OR
via] the financial indexes, and the required
information is provided to the relevant
[people OR persons OR individuals]. The
market value of firmFirm market value is
[an important concern OR a key concern].
[To maximize the value of stakeholders
TRY Maximizing stakeholder value] is
one of the main objectivities from the
standpoints perspective of managers. [To
maximize OR Maximization of] [the
values of stakeholders and investors TRY
stakeholder and investor value] [by
running OR via OR through] [good
quality of business operations UNCLEAR
Could you further clarify meaning? Too
vague. . .What does ‘good quality’ mean
specifically?] [for the corporations OR
OMIT?] [from the standpoint of managers
UNCLEAR TRY from a managerial
perspective] is [shown OR displayed] on
and presented through the indexes of
financial reports and other required
information in [the OR OMIT?] stock
markets. The perspectives of [getting the
predictions of the stock trend out of
UNCLEAR TRY obtaining stock trend
predictions based on] [the financial
indexes of information disclosure
UNCLEAR TRY publicly (disclosed OR
available) information] [and being
relevant to stock return UNCLEAR What
exactly being relevant to? Could you
clarify meaning? OR relevance to stock
return] are common [needs to thein
investment management OR TRY
investment management needs] for both
general investors and stakeholders of
[public corporations in the stock markets
UNCLEAR TRY publicly listed
corporations].
The cCorporate financial
performance [improves OR enhances]
corporate reputation, [which is concerned
for UNCLEAR MAYBE which is a
concern for] both managers and investors
(Rose, 2004). The eEssential financial
data are provided to the investors [though
OR via OR based on] [the information
disclosure of public OR information
publicly disclosed by] [corporations OR
firms]. [It Notably OR Clearly],is seen
that the information disclosure [of OR on
OR related to] [the quality of business
operations OR business operation quality]
relevant to stock returns is [regarded
importantly for UNCLEAR TRY
considered important for] the public
companies and general investors. A key
question is whetherCan [the financial
indexes of information disclosure
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?] [be responded to TRY can
respond to] [the stock returns of public
companies OR TRY public company stock
returns].? [Hence OR Consequently], the
utility of [the OR OMIT?] information
disclosure through financial indexes
[becomes OR is] [vitally important OR
SIMPLY TRY vital OR crucial] to
stakeholders and investors.
[Hence OR Consequently], the
relationships between the financial
indexes of the information disclosure and
the stock returns [are worthy of OR merit
OR deserve further] being studyied.
Further moreA further important matter to
thefor investors is [how the financial
indexes of public companies are relevant
to TRY the relevance of public company
financial indexes to] stock returns. [Hence
OR Consequently], the financial ratios of
information disclosure in the stock
markets are organized into financial
indexes groups in this study[study OR
work OR investigation] [according to OR
based on] [the divisions of five forces in
the consulting business UNCLEAR TRY
the division of the consulting business into
five sources OR Something else?].
Important questions include whetherCan
the information disclosure [be responds
OR can respond]ed to the market values of
public companies?, and whether Can the
utilities of information indexes related to
the stock returns can bebe supplied
[through OR via] the information
disclosure.? [Hence OR Consequently OR
Accordingly], [the relationship between
the utilities of financial indexes and stock
returns is studied OR TRY this study
examines the relationship between the
utilities of financial indexes and stock
returns].
Research Intention
Because the financial statements has
beenare [one of the most important tools
for OR TRY a key tool for] managers,
management authorities uses itthem to
communicate with the stakeholders,
investors, and all of the parties [who are
OR OMIT?] relevant to [the business
activities within or outside of a
corporation TRY internal or external firm
business activities] [all the time
UNCLEAR What does the ‘all the time’
refer to here? The making available of the
statements? Could you clarify?]. The
valuation of information statement reports
should include financial and non-financial
information metrics [of OR dealing with
OR relating to OR Something else?]
performance measurements, as well as
historical and future, cross section and
time series data.
A studystudy was [conducted OR
performed] [which takes a fresh look at
OR SIMPLY examining OR investigating]
the quality of communication between
[the management and the stakeholders of
the firm OR TRY firm management and
stakeholders] and [to investigatinge OR
examining OR studying] the influence of
financial variables (Baker, 1992).
Information transfers associated with the
sign and magnitude of the changes in
earnings expectations conveyed by
management forecasts are also
documented (Baginski, 1987).
The value of intangible assets
[becomes the great portion of the
valuation of enterprise UNCLEAR Could
you further clarify meaning? TRY
dominates enterprise valuation], which [is
corresponding to the stock-price
eventually TRY eventually corresponds to
the stock price OR TEY eventually is
reflected in the stock price]. Empirical
results [indicate OR demonstrate] that the
importance of intangible assets [increases
recently TRY has recently increased]
owing to [the rapidly evolutionary change
of UNCLEAR TRY rapid evolutionary
change in] economic structure. It [It seems
that traditional financial reports fail to OR
TRY Traditional financial reports
apparently fail to] address the [important
OR key OR main] value drivers in the
new economy. The wWell-organized
reporting statements [will OR OMIT?]
provide a better understanding for the
users and [motivate OR can motivate]s
enterprises to [re-evaluate OR TRY
reassess] the submitted information with
which have submitted. The revised
information is able to[is able to OR can]
[show OR demonstrate] how short-term
and long-term value creation and value
[retain UNCLEAR TRY retention OR
preservation] activities that managers
perform [to enhance the possibility of
value achievement in order toto improve
the transparent problems UNCLEAR
Could you further clarify meaning? And
clarify the relation to the previous part of
the sentence. I don’t see how this relates
to the previous ‘how’.]. [Moreover OR
furthermore], [it also develops TRY this
study also develops] [a specific report
along with industry instead of traditional
one UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?].
Conventionally, many[many OR
numerous] indices [are TRY have been]
[adopted OR used] [to conduct OR
SIMPLY for] financial analyses. Through
computation and observation, we this
[study OR work OR investigation] obtains
[the understanding to judge UNCLEAR
TRY an understanding for (judging OR
assessing)] the corporate performance.
Some factors [to measure OR used to
measure] [its financial situation and nature
NOTE Financial situation and nature of
what?] [from OR based on] [the practice
of financial management OR TRY
financial management practices] are all
considered as parts of the corporate
performance. These factors [are OR
include] firm [profit-gaining ability TRY
profitability], [potential of growth OR
TRY growth potential], [activities NOTE
What activities?], [effectiveness
UNCLEAR In what sense?], efficiency,
and stability of the corporate. [Usually OR
Generally], these financial figures
represent the management achieveness
achievements and [economy UNCLEAR
Could you further clarify meaning?] of
[the OR OMIT?] corporate performance.
Utilities of Information Disclosure
Groth (1992) [studied OR examined
OR investigated] [the OR OMIT?]
financial information, risk, and share
value[UNCLEAR In relation to what?].
Moreover, Whittington (1988) [analyzed
OR examined OR studied] the usefulness
of accounting data [in OR for] measuring
[the economic performance of firms TRY
firm economic performance].
Furthermore, Hardouvelis (1987) [studied
OR examined] the response of stock
prices to the announcements of some
representative macroeconomic variables,
[focusing on OR TRY and focused on] the
distinction between monetary and non-
monetary news[UNCLEAR Could you
clarify meaning? ‘distinction’ in what
sense? Could you clarify?]. Four stock
[price OR OMIT?]s indexes are examined:
1. the Standard & Poor's 500 index, 2. the
AMEX Major Market index, 3. the Value
Line index, and 4. the New York Stock
Exchange Financial index[NOTE Why in
red?]. [Can the financial indexes of
information disclosure is responded to
stock returns of public companies?
UNCLEAR TRY This study asks whether
the financial indexes of information
disclosure respond to (the stock returns of
public companies OR TRY public
company stock returns)] [The financial
indexes of information disclosure become
vital important or not depend on the
utilities of information UNCLEAR TRY
The importance of financial indexes of
information disclosure depends on
information utility].
The [management authorities' ability
TRY ability of management authorities
NOTE Some journals do not allow the use
of apostrophes. If your journal is one of
these then you should remove all
apostrophes.] reflects to [enhance value
on the stock market UNCLEAR TRY
(enhanced OR increased OR improved)
market value] if the management activity
[coveys good news UNCLEAR Could you
further clarify meaning?]. [There is a
signal to the investors and stock market no
matter what is good news or bad
UNCLEAR Could you rewrite and clarify
meaning?]. [If the information disclosure
is good enough and the stock markets are
efficient UNCLEAR TRY Given good
information disclosure and efficient stock
markets], [the OR OMIT?] shareholders
perceive that managers who will [do their
best OR strive] to [show OR demonstrate]
[their management capability and activity
to enhance corporate value UCLEAR TRY
that they are capable and active managers
and are enhancing corporate value]. The
managerial level of [the corporate
UNCLEAR What ‘corporate’? Could you
further clarify meaning?] [needs more
urgently to measure its financial situation
and nature from the practice of financial
management UNCLEAR TRY needs to
more urgently measure its financial
situation and nature based on financial
management practice]. This study[study
OR work OR investigation] [on the
application of financial ratio analysis onto
business diagnosis for firms in Taiwan
Listed & OTC stock markets is provided
UNCLEAR TRY examines the application
of financial ratio analysis to diagnosing
the businesses of firms listed on the
TAIEX and OTC markets in Taiwan].
Business Diagnosis
[Measuring financially based
outcomes on Diagnosis Related Group
(DRG) is the center main work of business
diagnosis TRY Business diagnosis mainly
concerns measuring financially based
outcomes on. . . BUT What exactly do you
mean here by ‘outcomes on’? Could you
further clarify meaning?]. Copies of the
Wall Street Journal Index were examined
for the period 1978-1983 to [obtain OR
provide] a sample of management
forecasts by Baginski (1987). The [results
NOTE Best to specify what type of
‘results’ you are talking about. (i.e.
analytical results, experimental results,
observation results, measurement results,
etc.). Try ‘analytical results’ here.] suggest
that share price reactions of for non-
forecasting firms are positively associated
with [the change in OR changed] earnings
expectations conveyed by [a management
forecast of earnings TRY management
earnings forecasts] in terms of both sign
and magnitude. The [results NOTE Best
to specify what type of ‘results’ you are
talking about. (i.e. analytical results,
experimental results, observation results,
measurement results, etc.). Try ‘analytical
results’ here.] [support the proposition that
OR (indicate OR suggest) that]
information contained in the management
forecast drives observed price reactions
(Baginski, 1987).
A method for [the determination of
TRY determining] objective weights is
based on the quantification of [2 two
NOTE Write integers ten and under as
words and use digits for other numbers.
The exceptions to this rule are integers
that appear at the start of a sentence
(write these as words), and integers
referring to scientific quantities (write
these as digits)] fundamental notions of
MCDM[- the contrast intensity and the
conflicting character of the evaluation
criteria is proposed by Diakoulaki (1995)
UNCLEAR What does this mean and
more importantly how does it relate to the
previous? Are there actually two notions
here?]. The latter notion is [of great
importance in TRY extremely important]
inter-firm comparisons because the
financial indices used are often[often OR
frequently] highly correlated. The central
message is not that financial indicators are
unimportant but rather that, in an
increasingly complex world, knowledge
work and intangible assets, [such as OR
for example] relationships with customers
and suppliers, and the ability to manage
complex supply chains, [can become in
some circumstances UNCLEAR TRY
SIMPLY can sometimes become] [of
equal, if not more, importance UNCLEAR
TRY equally important to, if not more
important, than XXX] (Rolf Visser, 2001).
[Multiple quantitative indicators of
financial analysis will be employed and
sorted out the figurative output
UNCLEAR TRY This study employs
multiple. . .and sorts out the figurative
outputs NOTE Of what exactly?]. [From
them performed by the corporate
management, we may therefore observe,
analyze, and understand the managerial
characteristics of the corporate
UNCLEAR Could you clarify meaning?
TRY Firm managerial characteristics can
be observed, analyzed and understood
based on management performance]. Five
forces analysis [is OR involves] such
analysis in the characteristics of [the
managerial achieve-ness UNCLEAR
Could you further clarify meaning?].
Five groups of financial indexes
analysis can [in-depth be used in
UNCLEAR TRY be used in depth for]
diagnosing the the internal, external, and
allother aspects of the corporate entity. It
[It NOTE Avoid starting sentences with
words like ‘this’, ‘it’, ‘they’ and ‘that’,
which do not have a clear referent. Clarify
the referent in all cases.] can further shoot
the real problematic. We may
improveSuch analysis can improve the
nature of the a corporatione by doing so,
and [then OR thus] firmly enhance the
performance of the corporate
performance.
In tThis study[study OR work OR
investigation], we conducted business
diagnoses [about OR regarding] [the
financial performance of a corporate
UNCLEAR TRY corporate financial
performance] by means of[by OR via OR
through OR using] analyzing its
managerial characteristics from five
financial facets. The five groups of
financial indexes [are OR include] earning
power, growth potential, activity,
productivity, and stability. [Normally OR
Generally], financial five groups of
financial indexes are used [like OR in a
similar manner to OR similarly to OR in a
manner resembling] five formulators [for
enterprises diagnoses UNCLEAR Could
you further clarify meaning?] for a lot of
management consultants.
Corporate governance [allows OR
enables] [a firm OR firms] to explore
better productive opportunities while
[taking advantage of OR exploiting]
synergies. By explicitly linking [the
strategies of the firm TRY firm strategies]
to the differences in size and productivity,
Gomes’s model provides a natural
laboratory [to investigate OR for
investigating OR for examining] several
aspects of the relationship between
corporate governance and performance.
[Specifically OR Restated], [it NOTE Can
you clarify referent?] [shows OR
demonstrates] that the model can
rationalize the evidence [on OR regarding]
[the OR OMIT?] corporate governance
and productivity (Gomes, 2004). (Can the
five groups of financial indexes be
provided to the relevant people [with OR
based on] the evidence of relationships
between five groups of information
indexes and stock returns. UNCLEAR Is
this a statement or a question? Or are you
stating what questions this study
examines?) Further more, it ’sis possible
tofor [evaluateing OR assess] corporate
strategies and the rational decisions
making .of the made by investors.
CONCLUSION
It is supported in tThis empirical
study[study OR work OR investigation]
[supports OR finds] that the predictions
[on OR regarding] five groups of financial
indexes [of information disclosure
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?] are related to the stock returns.
The empirical proofs of the financial five
groups model [imply OR indicate OR
suggest OR Something else?] that the link
between financial five forces and stock
returns [considerably should be paid more
attentions on it UNCLEAR TRY merits
significantly more attention BUT ‘more’
in relation to what? Can you clarify?].
The significant indexes of financial five
groups [are that they have UNCLEAR
TRY SIMP?LY have] been found for the
relationship between the five financial five
forces of information disclosure and the
stock return in supporting [the decision
making for of both the managers and
investors TRY manager and investor
decision-making].
Further research
Further studystudy may be [done OR
conducted];, for example, that the
study[study OR work OR investigation] of
the effects of [mix variables of
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?] scale efficiency, market value,
the ratio of market value to book value,
[etc OR and so on] with five forces on the
stock returns. [There might be the key
factors UNCLEAR TRY The above may
be key factors] [to determine OR in
determining] profitability, growth,
productivity, [etc. OR and so on], and
[have good relationships with UNCLEAR
TRY are closely related to/closely
correspond to/correlate well with ] stock
returns.
Acknowledgment
The authors would like to thank the
National Science Council of the Republic
of China, Taiwan for financially
supporting this research under Contract
No. NSC___________.
[NOTE Where I have deleted and
otherwise changed your original text I am
fixing grammatical or other mistakes, or
rewriting more concisely. If you choose
not to accept my changes in such places
then you must be sure to have good
reasons. Where I say ‘TRY’ I feel the
original may have a problem and am
strongly suggesting that you make a
change (either making the suggested
change or rewriting yourself). Where I say
‘OR’ I am merely offering an alternative
word with the same (or similar) meaning.
Sometimes ‘OR’ also indicates a choice
between different possible modifications
(perhaps with different meanings). ‘OR
SIMPLY’ indicates a simpler and more
concise alternative with the same (or
similar) meaning. ‘OK?’ is simply a
reminder to you to double check that my
change expresses your intended meaning.
But please remember to double check
everything anyway. ‘UNCLEAR’ indicates
that I feel the original is unclear in
meaning, and you probably need to
rewrite.]
3. (Business Management)
[NOTE: If you are resubmitting this paper,
add the following sentence to 'Reply to
reviewer's comments': 'Grammatical and
writing style errors in the original version
have been corrected by our colleague who
is a native English speaker.']
(NOTE: If you want to improve your
writing skills, check out my on-line
copyediting course at
www.cc.nctu.edu.tw/~tedknoy )
(NOTE: Avoid title openers with common
words or phrases such as ‘Research on’
‘Studies on’ ‘Investigations of’ ‘A’ ‘The’
‘An” since it makes it more difficult to
locate your research on an information
retrieval system.) ElucidatingT the
Relationshiphe Relationship between
[Financial Five Forces OR TRY Five
Financial Forces]
and Stock returns in Stock Markets
The - Taiwan Electronic Industry-
(Correspondence and reprint requests
should be made to: OR To whom
correspondence and reprint requests
should be made )
ABSTRACT
The effects of [some OR certain]
financial indexes or variables on the stock
returns have [been researched for a long
time OR TRY have long been the subject
of research]. However, the relationships
between [financial five forces of
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?] information disclosure and
stock returns have not yet been
empirically studied [yet in both fields of
practitioners and academics UNCLEAR
TRY by both practitioners and academics
OR in both the practical and academic
fields]. Former empirical studies [cover, at
most, OR cover a maximum of] [only OR
just] one or two of the relative constructs
of the financial five forces [with only few
accounting items of data UNCLEAR
MAYBE using few accounting data
items], e.g.[e.g. OR for example OR such
as], [most of them are the OR OMIT?]
profitability and growth rate. [Can their
relationships with stock returns based on
financial five forces model in this research
provide a application framework and
releases management implications for
evaluating corporate performance and
stock returns UNCLEAR Is this a
statement or a question? Is it a statement
regarding the questions this study will
attempt to answer? Can you clarify?]. A
total sample of 140 firms [with annual
data OR TRY for which annual data was
available] of covering [6six years OR a six
year period] from 1998 to 2003 are
identified [as manymany as possible firms
that have available, full data in electronic
industry of Taiwan stock markets
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?]. They[They NOTE Avoid
starting sentences with words like ‘this’,
‘it’, ‘they’ and ‘that’, which do not have a
clear referent. Clarify the referent in all
cases.] are used and [examined OR
studied] to obtain [predictions OR
forecasts] of for the relationships of
between [corporate financial five forces of
information disclosure UNCLEAR Could
you further clarify meaning?] and the
stock returns. The 62 indexes [with full
data OR for which full data was available]
are selected [out of OR from] the total of
71 indexes [are selected to be run for
significant score loading UNCLEAR
What does the ‘run for’ mean here? Can
you further clarify meaning?] [through
OR TRY using] the Principal Components
& and Varimax methods Factor Analysis
of the SAS program. Our examination of
Closely examining the cross-section data
of stock returns [reveals OR demonstrates]
significant factors[NOTE What type of
factors?] for the five forces of information
disclosure when forces are estimated
[from OR based on OR using] time-series
regressions of annual returns on the
annual returns on the factors-loading-
scores weighted financial indexes. We
This [study OR work OR investigation]
[conjectures OR hypothesizes OR posits]
that the regression results [of each index
directly using TRY for the situation where
each index directly uses] past data from
the data base are [affected OR influenced]
by [a selection bias of covariance among
indexes UNCLEAR Could you further
clarify meaning?]. The relationships
between [financial five forces OR TRY
the five financial forces] and returns are
significant and provide indirect
evidence[UNCLEAR Indirect evidence of
what exactly? Could you further clarify
meaning?]. [The multiple regression
analysis and time series cross section
(TSCS) pooling regression analysis are
applied in this paper OR TRY This study
applies multiple regression. . .]. It is
supported in tThis empirical study[study
OR work OR investigation] [supports OR
indicates] that the predictions [of OR
regarding OR for] financial five forces are
related to the stock returns. Therefore, the
critical managerial variables and
important criteria of decision-making are
[found OR identified OR determined] and
suggested for the investors and
stakeholders. [Moreover OR
Furthermore], the empirical proofs of the
financial five forces model also [imply
OR indicate] that the link between
[financial five forces OR the five financial
forces] and stock returns is [considerably
OR significantly] looser than presumed
assumed and [should be paid more
attentions on it UNCLEAR TRY thus
more attention should be paid to this area
OR thus should be paid more attention].
(The empirical study[study OR work OR
investigation] of financial five forces
model UNCLEAR Should it be ‘. . .of the
five financial forces model’?) releases the
evidence of the relationships between
[financial five UNCLEAR TRY the five
financial] forces and [the OR OMIT?]
stock returns. This empirical study[study
OR work OR investigation] provides a
conceptual and operational framework not
only for [evaluating OR assessing]
corporate performance and stock return,
but also for further [evaluating OR
assessing] corporate strategies and rational
decisions making making for the
investors.
Keywords: Iinformation disclosure, financial five
forces, stock return, multiple regression
analysis, Time Series Cross Section
(TSCS) model. [NOTE The first keyword
needs to be capitalized. The others need
not be capitalized unless they are proper
nouns (i.e. names).]
Our The present [examination OR study]
of [the cross-section of NOTE What cross
section exactly? Could you further clarify
meaning?] stock expected returns [reveals
OR indicates] significant factors for five
forces when forces are estimated [from
TRY based on] time-series regressions of
annual returns on the annual return on the
factors-loading-scores weighted financial
indexes. We This [study OR work OR
investigation] [conjectures OR
hypothesizes] that [past each index
regression results UNCLEAR TRY past
regression results for each index] using
[direct data from the data base UNCLEAR
What does ‘direct data’ mean?] are
affected by a selection bias of covariance
among indexes, and provide indirect
evidence[NOTE Evidence of what
exactly? Could you further clarify
meaning?]. [The relationships between
financial five forces and returns are
significant TRY The five financial forces
are significantly related to returns].
INTRODUCTION
(The relationships between [financial
five forces OR the five financial forces]
and stock returns are covered in this
study[study OR work OR investigation]
OR TRY This study examines. . .) to [see
OR clarify OR identify] the relationship of
thebetween firm performance of
corporation withand stock price. [No
matter OR Regardless of] how frequently
the [financial five forces OR five financial
forces] are used in the business
diagnoses[NOTE ‘diagnoses’ of what
exactly? Could you further clarify your
meaning?] or other related areas, the
utility of financial information indexes
[from TRY based on] [the financial reports
of stock markets TRY stock market
financial reports] is needsed to be studied
and applied [in a proper way OR
properly]. However, Tthe relationships
between five forces and stock returns,
however, have not yet been discussed in
details [in both fields of practice and
academic UNCLEAR TRY in relation to
the practical and academic realms].
Former empirical studies cover[, at most,
OR a maximum of NOTE : For simplicity,
it is a good idea to rewrite to avoid
unnecessary commas (as I have done
here).] only one or two of the relative
constructs of the [financial five OR five
financial] forces, with [some only single
or few accounting items of data
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?]. For example, [most of them
UNCLEAR Most of what? Could you
clarify? The most important?] are [the OR
OMIT?] profitability and growth rate.
To maximize [the values of
stakeholders and investors TRY
stakeholder and investor value] from the
[standpoint OR perspective] of managers,
[the quality of running NOTE Could you
further clarify the meaning of ‘quality of
running’?] business operations is
presented through the indexes of financial
reports and [the required information in
the stock markets UNCLEAR MAYBE
the information required to be disclosed
by listed companies]. [The perspectives of
getting the predictions of the stock trend
out of the financial indexes of information
disclosure and being relevant to stock
return are common needs to the
investment management for both general
investors and stakeholders of public
corporations in the stock markets
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning? What ‘perspectives’ are you
talking about? What are you saying about
these perspectives? TRY XXXX
perspectives are required by both general
investors and stakeholders of public
corporations for managing their
investments]. The eEssential financial data
are provided to [the UNCLEAR Could
you further clarify meaning?] investors
though [the information disclosure of
public corporations OR TRY information
disclosure by public corporations]. (Can
the financial indexes of information
disclosure [be responded to TRY respond
to] stock returns of public companies?
TRY A further question is whether the
financial indexes of information
disclosure can respond to [the stock
returns of public companies OR public
company stock returns]) [Hence OR
Consequently], the relationships between
the financial indexes and the stock returns
are worthy of being studyied. Further
more, [important matter to the investors is
how the financial indexes of public
companies relevant to stock returns
UNCLEAR TRY the relevance of the
financial indexes of public companies to
stock returns is important to investors]. A
key question is whether Can tthe
relationship between stock returns and
[the financial five forces of indexes can
effectively release the management
implications to support the decisions
making to by the managers and investors?
Theoretically and practically, [there
doesn’t have studied TRY no previous
studies have examined] the relationship
between stock returns and [financial five
forces OR TRY the five financial forces].
The integrated model of five forces has
not yet been found. No matter
what[NOTE Not so clear. . . Regardless of
what exactly? I don’t really understand
what this is all in relation to.], the
relationships between the stock returns
and five forces are [examined OR studied
OR investigated] and tested (to [see OR
determine] [if OR whether] they are
significantlysignificantly correlative or not
OR TRY for any significant correlation).
[Hence OR Consequently], thethis
study[study OR work OR investigation] is
going to be done to see iexaminesf
[whether the model is
significantlysignificantly fit or not
UNCLEAR TRY whether or not
significant model fit exists BUT ‘fit’ in
relation to what exactly? Could you
clarify?].
CONCLUSION
This [study OR work OR
investigation] [paper intends to OR
attempts to] establish the relationships
between productivity, profitability, etc and
so on, and of stock returns. By building
the complete structure[NOTE What
complete structure? Structure of what?],
[it will be made clear that UNCLEAR
TRY it is clearly demonstrated that OR
this study clearly demonstrates that]
[might UNCLEAR TRY it might OR it
can] help [enhance OR improve] [the
performance of making OR SIMPLY the
process of making] important
management decisions for enterprises and
[get OR gain] the benefits from stock
returns. It is supported in tThis empirical
studystudy [supports OR indicates] that
the predictions of [financial five forces
OR five financial forces] [of information
disclosure NOTE Rather unclear how this
relates to the previous. Could you
clarify?] are related to the stock returns.
The empirical proofs of the [financial five
forces OR five financial forces] model
[imply OR indicate] that the link between
[financial five forces OR TRY the five
financial forces] and stock returns is
[considerably OR significantly] looser
than [presumed OR TRY assumed] and
[should be paid more attentions on it
UNCLEAR TRY thus more attention
should be paid to it OR thus should be the
subject of more attention].
The significant indexes of [financial
five forces TRY the five financial forces]
[are that they have been found for
UNCLEAR Could you further clarify
meaning?] the relationship between the
financial five forces of information
disclosure and the stock return in
supporting the decision making for both
the managers and investors. [Therefore
OR Consequently], the critical managerial
variables and important [criteria of for
decision-making TRY decision-making
criteria] are found for the investors and
stakeholders. The model of the [financial
five OR five financial] forces of
information disclosure provides a
conceptual and operational framework and
releases management implications for
[evaluating OR assessing] corporate
performance.
On the other hand, the result of
building the model using the three
methods of TSCS Pooling Regression
analysis is found to be better fit to the time
series data and higher R-squares. The
empirical result [indicates OR shows] that
[Parks estimation method OR the
estimation method of Parks] [offers OR
provides] better results then the others [on
the predictions of TRY for predicting OR
in predicting] the relationships between
the [financial five OR five financial]
forces of information disclosure and the
stock returns. [The OR OMIT?] higher
explanatory power [is available through
OR TRY can be obtained using] the TSCS
Pooling Regression Model for both the
respondent times[OK?] of t, t-1 period.
Further more, the a mix of financial
five forces [will be OR may be] possibly
provided for the trade-off choice among
alternatives [through the analysis of the
OR TRY by analyzing the] interactive
model. The interactive relationships of the
financial five forces model [is serveing
interactive strategies among UNCLEAR
Could you further clarify meaning?] the
forces [for being UNCLEAR TRY and
provide OR to provide] thea reference of
for strategic management and investment
decision making for by investors. The
interactive relationships [of TRY between]
the five forces and the stock returns are
expected [is that they have been the
UNCLEAR TRY to take the form of a]
trade-off [choice OR OMIT?] among
alternatives.
Research limitations and further
studystudy directions
[The scope of studythe study topic
TRY The scope of this study OR SIMPLY
This study] is limited to examininge the
relationships between the [five forces of
information disclosure OR TRY five
information disclosure forces] and the
stock returns. Further research studies
maycan [work on OR examine] the market
value [in steadl of OR rather than] stock
returns. (The interactive model is going to
be done in the future study[study OR work
OR investigation] and become the
UNCLEAR TRY Future studies will
establish an interactive model to provide
a) reference for [the decision making of
investment management OR TRY
investment management related decision
making] for the investors and corporation
strategic firm management of for running
good quality business.
Acknowledgment
The authors would like to thank the
National Science Council of the Republic
of China, Taiwan for financially
supporting this research under Contract
No. NSC___________.
[NOTE Where I have deleted and
otherwise changed your original text I am
fixing grammatical or other mistakes, or
rewriting more concisely. If you choose
not to accept my changes in such places
then you must be sure to have good
reasons. Where I say ‘TRY’ I feel the
original may have a problem and am
strongly suggesting that you make a
change (either making the suggested
change or rewriting yourself). Where I say
‘OR’ I am merely offering an alternative
word with the same (or similar) meaning.
Sometimes ‘OR’ also indicates a choice
between different possible modifications
(perhaps with different meanings). ‘OR
SIMPLY’ indicates a simpler and more
concise alternative with the same (or
similar) meaning. ‘OK?’ is simply a
reminder to you to double check that my
change expresses your intended meaning.
But please remember to double check
everything anyway. ‘UNCLEAR’ indicates
that I feel the original is unclear in
meaning, and you probably need to
rewrite.]
4. (Business Management)
Evaluating the Organization Performance
of theTaiwanese hHospitals for the related
industry in Taiwan: Using the Analytic
Hierarchy Process
(NOTE: Where’s your Abstract?)
Introduction
Enhanced The quality of lifeving
standards and educational levels have
improve consequently the people also
more and more take ownfostered a strong
public health consciousness. Therefore, it
also drivesfuelling the development of the
relevant industry of medical sector.
Effective If the hospitals operationsg is
very good, the definitely contribute to the
maturation of the home care, the
drugstorepharmaceutical or the healthy
food sectorsstore industry will can derive.
Therefore, these industriessuch sectors
must be have the capability not only to
evaluate the hospitals operating, and
understand the hospitalsassess the
operations and organizational performance
of hospitals. However, conventional
evaluation models for organizational
performance evaluate over rely on
oneselfare generally too subjective and
theyare aimed mainly at theireliminating
defects rather than providing information
regarding improve. They will not tell
somebody especially competition or
cooperationve sectors industry. Therefore,
competition or cooperation industry must
be understood the, knowledge of which
are vital to enhancing hospitals
organizational performance or
operationgs. According to the Department
of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan
statistics in the 1989, the number of
hospitals in Taiwan declined by 231 or
29.35%, from have 787 in 1989 to until
2004 the hospitals reduce 231 (2004 have
556) in 2004. The hospitals ratio is
-29.35%. BesidesAdditionally, the number
of public hospitals declined by 5 or
5.38%, from 93 in 1989 have 93 until
2004 reduce 5 (haveto 88) in 2004;
correspondingly, the number of and the
private hospitals declined by 126 or
32.56%, from 694 in 1989 have 694 until
2004 reduce 126 (2004 haveto 468), in
2004 the ratios of public and private
hospitals respective are -5.38 and -32.56.
TObviously, therefore, theis reduction in
hospitals reduce will be negatively impact
influence related industry. the medical
sector, such as Their products sales
volume will be influenced. If, tThe
inability of related industry (home care,
the drugstorepharmaceutical or the healthy
food store)sectors to not have ability
evaluateion the hospitals organizational
performance of hospitals makes it
impossible not only to ; they will not
understand the hospitals operationsg, but
also to and they will not select a good an
appropriate hospital to cooperate withor
reduce sales products for the hospitals.
Therefore, this sturdy provides the related
industry can evaluate the hospital
organization performance and through
organization performance understand the
hospitals operating. Based on the above,
we should develop presents an optimal
operating model capable of choosing an
effectively monitoring to adequately
implement an evaluate the hospitals the
organizational performance of hospitals in
model for the relatedion withto the
hospitals industry medical sector,
subsequently providing theenabling
administrators or decision- markers to
identify the most appropriate select a good
hospitals for cooperation or chooses
investment the in nearby new stores of
interest such as pharmacies or (Drugstore,
Hhealthy food stores) near the best
hospital. To do so, aA questionnaire can
be is designed by incorporating the basic
requirements of the Delphi Method.
Pertinent literature on First, we reviewed
aboutassessing the performance of the
hospitals performance study is as follow:s.
Kast and Rosenzweig(1974)suggested
opinion that the performance can use
efficiency and effectiveness analysis
should be incorporated in assessing
organizational performance. Peter
F .Drucker (1990) also saysstated that
nonprofit organizations should is not to
regard profit as thea motive. ( Therefore,
we can through productivity analysis. :
NOTE: I have no idea what this sentence
means and how it is related to the previous
one.) Venkatraman and
Ramanujam (1986 )opinioncontended
that organizational performance should
include financial Pperformance, business
Pperformance and organizational
effectiveness. Abernethy and Stoelwinder
(1991) categorized divide tthe
performance of the hospitals into
13thirteen areas kinds: patient satisfaction,
quality of care, professional development,
teaching, research, ability to attract
resources, meeting ofability to comply
with budget constraints, public image,
links with professional bodies, cost
containment, satisfaction of unit,
efficiency of unit and cooperation and
assistance of other units.
Donnabedian (1980 )opinionsuggested
that quality of the hospitals quality can be
enhanced through structure, process and
outcome measure. In the past,Previous
indicators of organizational performance
of the hospitals indicator that all the
evaluations are restricteding evaluations to
those of who are ccurrently employees at
the hospital,. because those data get are
Owing to the confidentiality of such data,
especially for thehospital financial
statements about the hospital, so we find
can easily be obtaineding data for such
indicators is relatively easy. (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) Then use the Delphi Method is
then adopted to summarize theexpert
opinions of experts in order to
completeing the (constructioned OR
proposed) model. Second, we use the
“analytic hierarchy process” (AHP) to
determine Next, the relative weights of
evaluative criteria are determined using
the analytical hierarchy process (AHP),
thenfollowed by ranksing of the
alternatives and selectsion of the optimum
hospitals for decision- makers ofin related
medical sectors to industry evaluate the
hospital. As anticipated, tThe AHP-based
decision-making method can provide
decision- makers in of related medical
sectorsindustry or hospital administrators
with a valuable reference for doing
decision-making and evaluationg the
hospitals organizational performance of
hospitals to identify the most appropriate
hospitals for cooperation or invest in
nearby stores of interest such as
pharmacies or health food stores. through
this model they will can understand the
hospitals performance and operating and
select good hospital cooperation or invest
store and increase or reduce produce. In
addition to the related industry can use the
AHP model avoiding unnecessary invest
risks? Importantly, tThe proposed model
can assist the medical sector helps related
industry to effectively evaluate the
hospitalsto assess the organizational
performance, of hospitals, markinging it
highly applicable for academia and related
industrycommercial purposes. (與醫院相
關的行業)
Methodology
AHP
AHP, As a decision method that
decomposes a complex multi-criteria
decision problem into a hierarchy (Saaty,
1980), AHP is also a measurement theory
that prioritizes the hierarchy and
consistency of the judgmental data
provided by thea group of decision-
makers. AHP incorporates the evaluations
of all decision- markers into a final
decision, without having to elicit their
utility functions on subjective and
objective criteria, by pair-wise
comparisons of the alternatives (Saaty,
1990). David P. Tarantino (2003) applied
AHP (to determine the performance of
management indicators using the
Balanced Scoreboard OR for Balanced
Scorecard measure performance
management indicators). AHP has thus
been successfully applied to a wide
variety diverse array of problems, with the
calculation procedure being as follows:
Establishment of pair-wise comparison
matrix A
Let C
1
, C
2
…..C
n
be denote the set of
elements, while a
ij
represents a quantified
judgment on a pair of elements C
i
, C
j
. The
relative importance of two elements is
rated using a scale with the values 1, 3, 5,
7, and 9, where 1 = for refers to “equally
important”, 3 =denotes “slightly more
important”, 5 = equals “strongly more
important”, 7 =represents “demonstrably
more important”, and 9 =denotes
“absolutely more important”. This yields
an n-by-n matrix A as follows:
1 2 n C C C L
[ ]
ij A a · ·

1
2



n
C
C
C
M
12 1
2
12

1 2
1
1
1
1 1
1
n
n
n n
a a
a
a
a a
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
M M M M
L
L
L
(1)
Where a
ij
=1 and a
ij
=
1
ij a , i,j =1,2…..,n. In
matrix A, the problem becomes one of
assigning to the n elements C
1
, C
2
…..C
n
a
set of numerical weights W
1
, W
2
…..W
n
that “reflects the recorded judgments.”
(NOTE: Be careful with your use of
parentheses, which implies a quotation to
which you must place a reference at the
end of the sentence since the source is not
yours.) If A is a consistency matrix, the
relations between weights W
i
and
judgments a
ij
are simply given by
j
ij
i
W
a
W
·
(for
i, j = 1, 2, 3,……, n).
Eigenvalue and eigenvector
Saaty (1990) suggested that the largest
eigenvale λmax will be: (NOTE: be
careful with your use of colons. You can
not use a colon unless you have stated a
complete
idea.)
is as follows:
consists of the following:
comprises the following:
can be expressed as
A denotes/represents/is B is C is
1
n
j
max ij
i
j
W
a
W
λ
·
·

(2)
If A is a consistency matrix, eigenvector X
can be calculated by:
( ) 0 max A I X λ − ·
(3)
Consistency test
Saaty (1990) proposed utilizing
consistency index (C.I.) and consistency
ratio (C.R.) to checkverify the consistency
of the comparison matrix. C.I. and R.I. are
defined as follows:
. .
1
max n
C I
n
λ −
·
− (4)
. .
. .
. .
C I
R I
R I
·
(5)
Where R.I. represents the average
consistency index over numerous random
entries of same order reciprocal matrices.
If C.R<0.1, the estimate is accepted, and;
otherwise, a new comparison matrix is
solicited until C.R <0.1.
Model
Evaluating the Organizational
Performance of theTaiwanese hHospitals
for the related industry in Taiwan (NOTE:
Why do you repeat the title of your paper
here?)
This AHP model for the related industry
evaluating the organizational performance
of the hospitals comprises the following
seven setueps:
Steup 1: dDefine the evaluative criteria for
organizational performance criteria and
sub-criteria for the hospitals.
etuep 2: eEstablish a hierarchical structure.
According toBased on the Delphi Method,
acquire important indicators into a
hierarchy of interrelated decision
elements, including criteria, sub-criteria
and alternatives.
etuep 3: eEstablish the pair-wise comparison
matrix using formula (1). Eachvery
decision- marker makes a pair-wise
comparison of the decision elements and
gives them relative scores.
etuep 4: cCalculate the eigenvalue and
eigenvector of each pair-wise comparison
matrix using formulae (2) to (3).
Setuep 5: tTest the consistency of each
comparison matrix using formulae (4) to
(5).
etuep 6: Aggregate the (related OR relative)
scores provided by all decision- makers
using the geometric mean method, and,
then, estimate the relative weights of the
elements of each level.
etuep 7: cCombine the relative weights of the
elements of each level to determine the
overall score of each performance of the
metropolitan hospitals performance of
accomplishments.
Application
This study has rBy revieweding the
evaluations of the hospitals organizational
performance of hospitalsevaluations and,
this study has constructed indicators to
evaluate primary organizational
performance evaluation indicators. We
then use tThe Delphi Mmethod is then
adopted to summarize the expert opinions
of experts in order to completing the
construction of an evaluation model to
assess the organizational performance
evaluation model for theof hospitals. With
all theBased on factors of theto evaluate
hospitals, i.e., quality, efficiency and
financial performance as the basis, we use
Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used
to illustrate the problems and combine the
three factors to establish the hierarchy
structure for the performance evaluation
ofin this studyresearch. We will also
calculateAdditionally, the weights of all
indicators within hierarchies are and
calculatecalculated, along with the weight
of the overall hierarchies. Finally, takes as
an example a famous educationa
renowned teaching hospital in Taiwan is
cited as an example in which and used this
evaluation model evaluationis applied to
the metropolitan hospitals of A, B, C and
D.
Evaluationg the Organizational
Performance for the hospitals inof
Taiwan.ese hospitals
Evaluating the Organizational
Performance of Taiwanese Hospitals
(NOTE: Why do you repeat the title of
your paper here?)Evaluating Organization
Performance of the hospitals for the
related industry in Taiwan
Step 1: dDefine the evaluative criteria and sub-
criteria used to evaluateing organizational
performance ofor the hospitals. Here, This
study applies the Delphi Mmethod is
applied to define the evaluation criteria
and sub-criteria. Murry and Hammons
(1995) suggested that the Delphi
Mmethod must summarize expert
opinions on a range from 10-30; therefore
we invite 15. Fifteen experts about the
hospital managers are then issued aimed
at pa preliminary questionnaire in which
extract three evaluation criteriaon and
eleven evaluation sub-criteriaon following
three criteria and eleven sub-criteriaare
incorporated.
1. Quality performance: includinges the three sub-criteriaon of
medical structure, process and outcome.
2. Efficiency performance: includinges the five sub-criteriaon of bed
turnover rate, total surgeries person-time,
Eemergency call visits, number of clinical
visits and (deduction OR deducted) rate of
NHI.
Bed turnover rate: the hospitals in order to
the NHI unit of payment must
be reducinge the average
length of stay; t. Therefore, advanced
resources are employed and increase
incomes are increased.
Total number of surgeries, Eemergency call
visits and Nnumber of clinical visits: the
hospitals' data is not easily obtainedto get.
Conversely, data on Ssurgeries,
Eemergency call visits and number of
clinical visits areis easily obtainedget.
Moreover, and the hospitals main source
of hospital income, moreover are the is an
important performance indicantsor.
Deducted) rate of NHI: It is one of thea peculiar
indicantsor in Taiwan. NHI paysremits a
certain amount of money to thea hospital
before declaring the date,.(NOTE: WHAT
date are you referring to?) and then the
hHospitals then returns the amount of
money deducted after the declarationing
date,. (NOTE: ‘the declaration date’ of
WHAT? What is being declared?)
tTherefore, a lower (deduction OR
deducted) rate smaller is more than better
desired.
3. Financial performance: includesing the three sub-(criteria OR
criterion) of instrumentation expenses,
medicines-related expenses, and personnel
expenses. If the hHospitals canpable of
efficacious controlling operational costs,
will improve their the financial
performance to be bound will provide
improve. Therefore, instrumentation,
medicines and personnel expenses must be
controlled.
Setuep 2: Establishing a hierarchical structure.
(Based on OR According to) the Delphi
Method, acquire commona general
consensus ofamong experts can be
acquired to establishing a hierarchical
structure: first that of achieving t.
(Ultimately, OR The ultimate goal of)
evaluating the ideal organizational
performance can be achieved, followed by
the three evaluation criteriaon, eleven sub-
criteriaon and finally the alternatives, as
shown in f (Figure. 1).
Figure 1
Hierarchical structure required to evaluate
the hospitals organizational performance.
of hospitals
Setuep 3: Establish the pair-wise
comparison matrix
This setup comprises two parts. The fFirst,
part applies "purposive sampling" is
applied to sample 11eleven respondents
from differentvarious hospital managers.
The weights of level 2 criteria and level 3
sub-criteriona weare then determined for a
sample group of 11 individuals martching
the above characteristics with eachvery
respondent marking a pair-wise
comparison of the decision elements and
assigning them relative scores. The
relative scores provided by 11eleven
experts are aggregated using the geometric
mean method, and. Table 1 describes the
aggregate pair-wise comparison matrix for
the criteria is listed in Table I, while Table
2 lists that for the sub-criteria is listed in
Table II in the second part, every.
(NOTE: ‘the second part’ of WHAT?)
Each decision marker in the metropolitan
hospitals makes a pair-wise comparison of
the performance of four metropolitan
Hhospitals performance under 11eleven
subjective sub-criteriaon and, then,
assigns them relative scores. Next, tThe
relative scores provided by the eleven
decision markers are then aggregated via
the geometric mean method, and . Table
III lists the aggregate pair-wise
comparison matrixces are listed as Table
III.
Table I.
Aggregate pair-wise comparison matrix
for criteria of level 2
Setutep 4: Calculateing the eigenvalue and
eigenvector
Using tThe comparison matrix ces ofin
Table I to III, are used to calculate the
eigenvectors were then calculated using
formulae (2) and (3). Table IV
summarizelists the results of eigenvectors
for the three criteriaon and eleven sub-
criteriaon.
etuep 5: The rResults of the consistency test and
the C.R. of the comparison matrix from
each of the 11eleven experts are all < 0.1,
indicating “consistency”. Furthermore, the
C.R. of the aggregate matrix is also < 0.1,
also indicating “consistency”.
Setup 6: Estimateing the relative weights
of the elements of each level.
The rRelative weights of the elements
offor each level are estimated from the
aggregated values of the eleven experts
using the eigenvector method, and. Table
IV lists the estimated results.
According to Table IV, for the quality
performance criteria, the weights obtained
for the three sub-criteria are ordered as
follows: medical structure (0.273),
medical process (0.413), and medical
outcome (0.314). Meanwhile, the weights
obtained for the five sub-criteriaon are
ordered of efficiency performance as
follows: bed turnover rate (0.269), total
number of surgeries (0.148), emergency of
clinical visits (0.106), number of clinical
visits (0.249), and (deduction OR
deducted) rate of NHI (0.227). Finally, the
weights obtained for the three sub-criteria
are ordered of financial performance as
follows: instrumentation expenses (0.296),
medicinesal expenses (0.302), and
Ppersonnel expenses (0.402).
The rank order with regard to quality
performance wais B, A, D, C. In the case
of For the efficiency performance, itthe
rank order wais D, B, A, and C. Finally,
financial performance wais D, A, B, C.
(see Table V)
Setuep 7: Calculate the weights of overall
levels
According to Table V, the respective
weights of the three evaluative criteria are
quality performance (0.411), efficiency
performance (0.285) and financial
performance (0.304). The overall scores of
each of the four metropolitan hospitals,
also called the relative weights, determine
the accomplishments with which each
hospital is evaluated. The pPriorities of
the four hospitals are as follows, Hospital
B (0.314), Hospital A (0.304), Hospital D
(0.281), and Hospital C (0.101).
Table IV
Eigenvectors and weights of four
Mmetropolitan hospitals under eleven
sub-criteriaon
Conclusions
This study presents an optimal operating
model capable of effectively monitoring
the organizational performance of
hospitals in relation to the medical sector,
enabling administrators or decision
makers to identify the most appropriate
hospitals for cooperation or invest in
nearby stores of interest such as
pharmacies or health food stores.
(Synthesis with report : MEANING? ) to
overall(NOTE: ‘overall’ WHAT?
‘scores’? You are missing a noun for this
adjective to modify.) are Mmedical
process (0.170) , Mmedical outcome
(0.129), Ppersonnel expenses (0.122),
Mmedical structure (0.112 ),
Mmedicinesal expenses (0.092 ),
Iinstrumentation expenses (0.090 ), Bbed
turnover rate (0.077 ), Nnumber of clinical
visits (0.071 ), (deduction OR Ddeducted)
rate of NHI (0.065 ), Ttotal number of
surgeries (0.042) and Eemergency call
visits (0.030). They were eEvidently, that
the Mmedical process, Mmedical outcome
and Mmedical structure are highly.
(NOTE: ‘highly’ WHAT? You are missing
a noun for this adjective to modify.)
They(NOTE: ‘They’ WHAT?) (form OR
weare) the sub-criteria forto assess the
quality performance. Although the quality
of performance of The hospitals
importance on quality performance are
differsent the from that of business, but
their intrinsic (NOTE: ‘intrinsic’ WHAT?
You are missing a noun for this adjective
to modify.) are the same. If you have not
quality theAs is well known, customers
turnover rate is high if will not return buy
your products quality is low. Therefore,
your , thus (negatively impacting OR
influencing) operationgal expenses or
generated revenuesincome will be
influenced. For example, if the good
product quality are good, it can increase
the number of patients subsequent patient
visits,. Additionally, and the hospitals
havewith a good reputation word of
mouth, whyexplain the importance of the
three indicators important main reason one
of these. (NOTE: Although I have
simplified this sentence, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
Now, the hHospitals are currently
expanding their scope of patient enlarge
services for the patients. Therefore, more
and more, explaining why an increasing
number of medical providers use theadopt
management waypractices to understand
how to increaseenhance both medical
quality and customer satisfaction. This has
shown too that theAdditionally, hospital
administrators attention to theheavily
emphasize quality performance, because
the bestoptimum product quality yields
brings the bestoptimum performance and
hospital operationsg to the hospitals.
Propose the related industry of
aAdministrators or decision- markers from
related medical sectors can use survey
results to determineunderstand which
hospital is best.
The pPersonnel expenses, medicinesal
expenses and instrumentation expenses
obviously form the evident were sub-
criteria for the financial performance. The
these three indicators are the important
costessential for the hospitals.
BesidesAdditionally, according to
research the personnel expenses accounts
for 50% of the hospital costs, especially
personnel expenses for the
doctorsphysicians, it was showed why it
was, making it more important than other
indicators. The cost can effective controls
the hHospitals capable of effectively
controlling operational costs will be have
achieve the best financial performance and
their operationsg will be better.
The pPriorities of quality performances
for the four hospitals are as follows,:
Hospital B (0.349), Hospital A (0.319),
Hospital D (0.244), and Hospital C
(0.089). The B hoHospital B is the best.
Because, the B hGiven that Hospital B is a
public hospital, the general person
willmost individuals choose to see
physicians atthe public hospitals to see the
doctor in Taiwan. Additionally, given
strong They have gogovernmental
subsidies depends on, theirhospital
resources are sufficient. Therefore,
explaining why nationals are confident of
the feel their quality of hospitalsare the
best. Their positive word of mouthpublic
image is better than that of private
hospitals.
The pPriorities of financial performance
for the four hospitals are as follows,:
Hospital D (0.309), Hospital A (0.299),
Hospital B (0.278), and Hospital C
(0.114). The D hospital is the best. With
respect to Tthe financial performance of
relatedions costs, we can see the
hHospitals D and A are better than
Hhospital B. Because,Given that the
hHospital B is thea public onehospital, the
public hospitals are not overly concerned
with operationalcare to the costs, thus
impacting erefore its financial
performance will be impact. (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) This reason isGiven that the
government provides considerable gives
them a lot of resources and hospitals are
subsequently not over concerned with
operational costscause them not to care
about it, so their financial performance is
worse than that of private hospitals.
Besides, both the hHospitals D and A are
the chainfranchise hospitals, the. As
public hospitals let alone, they can
(Jjointly purchase reduction of cost :
MEANING) but the; however, Hospital C
is not a private onehospital. Therefore, the
C hospital is the , explaining why it
performs the worst inamong the four
hospitals.
Synthesis with respoecrt to organizational
performance: the hHospital B (0.314),
hHospital A (0.304), hHospital D (0.281)
and hHospital C (0.101). Hospital B
(performs OR is) the best. Therefore, the
administrators or decision- makers of
thein related medical sectors industry
canshould select the B hHospital B either
for cooperation or investment. Finally, we
recommend that suggest administrators or
decision- makers of thein related
industrymedical sectors can use this model
to evaluate the organizational performance
of the hospitals select the best hospital to
for cooperation or investment purposes.
Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank the
National Science Council of the Republic
of China, Taiwan for financially
supporting this research under Contract
No. NSC__________________.
5. (Business Management)
Given intense Ccompetition in theamong
business market is more
intensecommercial sector recently, many
companies increasingly adopt advantage
business models to increase
incomegenerate revenues. As an
important business model, Cchain stores is
an important business model and has two
types in substance, one istake the form of
either a regular store or aand the other one
is franchiseing. A Rregular store is more
concerted infocuses on operationgs from
the perspective of a franchisoer, but by
investing to much financecapital and
personnel manpower, it will be obstruct to
ensure further development. (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) Moreover, independent to do
the business will face of risk.(NOTE: I
have no idea what this incomplete
sentence means. How about “Moreover, a
regular store can conduct business
operations independently while facing
commercial risks.”) A Cchain store
extend outlets extends the through
franchiseing is most general way, not only
by decreaseing overhead costs, but also by
achieving faster arrive toeconomies of
scale economicsmore (efficiently OR
quickly). As Cconvenient stores,
pharmacies and supermarkets awere
common examples of applied to
franchising corporations popularly, too
many franchise but extend great deal of
outlets unit not best way, on account of it
will negatively impact the generated
revenues of other attack franchisees in
existencebelonging to the same
corporation. Importantly, a franchiser
must limit its number of expanded outlets
to Ssecure franchisees income stable
revenues for existing franchisees and
economize theits use of corporateions
operating resources, the franchisor need to
limit outlets in specific trade area.
ButHowever, franchisoers lack an have
not objective means of fashion to selecting
the most promising franchisee hoping to
best one when there are two or upward
person will join the chain store.
Moreover, most studyies were focused
mainly on convenient retail stores, owing
to the lack of other franchise categories
such as lack for other chain industry, for
instance bedding. Frazer (NOTE: Put the
year of this study in parentheses behind
“Frazer”) contendedcommon theme was
that franchisees weredo not expending
enough adequate effort in
operatingrunning their businesses
efficiently, indicating that more care was
neededcaution must be taken in the
selectiong of franchisees and greater
incentives for potential were required for
franchisees to join, thus enhancing
corporate performance toperform at a
desirable level. According to a survey in
2004 of Taiwanese franchisers by Create
and Entrepreneurship mMagazine aimed
at Taiwan franchisors 2004 survey detect,
11.4% of those surveyed deemed
cooperation with franchisees as
unsatisfactory, with co-operate scale
lower and poor communication of e
difficultpriority concern. According to a
survey in 2000 conducted by the Civil
Services Administration of the
Doc(NOTE: WHAT is “Doc”? Do you
mean Department of Commerce), Ministry
of Economic Affairs, R.O.C. 2000 survey,
franchisers deem the inclination to work
hard-working inclination i as the most
desired characteristic ofimportant
franchisees characteristic. The inability of
If franchisoers to cannot select the most
appropriate franchisee objectively, makes
it impossible not only to choose the most
promising one should not choice the best
one accurately, but also to thoroughly and
cannot understand the behavioral patterns
of each franchisee behave.
(NOTE: Where is the paragraph
containing the literature review of this
study?
“Dogs have received extensive (interest
OR attention).” “Dogs have been
extensively studied.” “Dogs have
received increasing (interest OR
attention). “Dogs have been increasingly
studied.”)
Basic on the above, we should
developTherefore, this work presents a
franchisee selection model that adopts
which above several different important
scores criteria model, and enables provide
to franchisor for score, moreover, we will
know what franchisoers to includeattach
their most importancet desired
characteristics for a potential franchisee
toin the selection criteria. To do so, aA
questionnaire based on selection criteria
identified from pertinent literature and
exports interview, and can be constructed
hierarchy framework thanis sent to
selection team members. Next, aAnalytic
hierarchy process is used for a can be peer
to peer compareison of the criteria on an
important scale, and, then, be used to
analyze and rank major selection criteria.
Each franchisees sScores of each
franchisee would are counted, with the
highest and the best one were
choiceselected.
Analysis results indicate thats anticipated,
the proposed selection model can enables
franchisoers to execute choice franchisee
more objectively by allowing them to
operateing effectively. The proposed
model iscan also be applied to other brand
bedding retail company, subsequently
enhancing their business operations.
The rest of this paper is organized as
follows. Section 2 introduces…. Section
3 then presents…. Next, Section 4
describes…. Additionally, Section 5
summarizes… Conclusions are finally
made in Section…
6. (Nuclear Science – Radiotechnology)
The rResults of the voxel-based study
arecan be summarized as follows (1).
First, the distribution of ischemia areas
can be differentiated as penumbra, normal
and severely stroke area. Notably, the
importance of the HMPAO uptake
threshold is based on the blood flow, that
isi.e., the most normal voxed area can be a
purplish colored as purple. (2)Second,
although the correlations between the
stroke and the normal sizes arehave a
similar is shape, but each has its own
function,. iIf the blood flow (exceeds OR
is more than) 50%, the irreversibley
damaged tissue would not be recovery,
compared with the neurology, t. These
results are consistent with our hypotheses.
Additionally, there are good agreement
between both ECD and HMPAO method
(closely correspond to OR correlate well
with) each other. (3)Third, Bbased on the
reports in 1999, the sStroke Journal. We
are easily aware of, the function of
SPECT scan is well known. The voxel-
based thresholds can be applied for a
visual type of SPECT image analysis.
According to the latest century study
onabout ischemia, the 40% threshold for
HMPAO SPECT is much goodquite
reliabileity in stroke management, and; it
is also a very convenient means of
visually analyzingsis of stroke data. It is
believed the (As widely recognized, ) with
brief medical computer analysis aboutof
another abnormal tissue, with using the
same analyses method. T, the results
wouldill be more accurately than with
direct scanning.
According to our To our studying from
neurology results, compared withing
SPECT and MRI or PET data sets
withallows us to either selectchoosing
different threshold values, or chooseing
different colors to stand forrepresent the
how the (seriousness OR severity) of
the ischemia area. Doing so Not only
inenables us not only to obtaining both
acute-stage SPECT and follow-up MRI,
but also in to ensureing the an adequate
correlation of another data sets, such
asincluding echo or cell culture.
We believed that normal infracted
voxels can be explained by a purpleish
color, and. Additionally, the irreversibley
damaged tissue noninfarcted voxels can be
explained by the yellowish color.
ButHowever, based on some practical
theory, the effects of misclassification
within the affected region can not be
(determined OR measured). In clinical
mythologypractice, some volunteers in the
study participating in about PET and echo
scan would have theincurred side effects
with brain bleeding from the brain,.
ButHowever, concerned with the
conclusion of our plan, the side effects are
not of priority concern in this studyif
unimportant. (NOTE: Although I have
simplified this sentence, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
How did we use distinguished methods to
reduce these erroars, with some
experiences. (NOTE: I have no idea what
this sentence means. How about “Of
priority concern is how to ) We can
significantly modify sSome clinical results
can be significantly (modified OR
altered). A statistical methodology
containing ical issue can insert some
abnormal data can be adopted to reduce
the bleeding areas.(NOTE: Although I
have made this sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) ButHowever,
such these methods require much are in
need of great rtyle computer expertise,
only if the professors can apply for a lot of
supporting sources.
The intersecting areas of bleeding or
ishemia are essential the successful points
to reduceing computer noiseinterference.
The origin of tThis problem lies in the
method used here to reduce edge artifacts,
which is in some casesoccasionally leads
to the misclassification of basal ganglia
voxels in severe brain stroke patients.
According to threshold number analysis,
hypoperfused voxels belonging to the
basal ganglia, although identified with
both the automatic and the visual
analyses. We areOf priority concerned
about is the accuracy of the normal
threshold ranges, it is so-calledcommonly
referred to as reference ranges.
BecauseThis is owing to that the artifact
reduction procedure automatically
suppresseds all unassociated voxels.
After theFollowing management of color
table calibration, the side effects
aboutinvolving a large amount of
undistinguished areas will be the same as
thein a normal tissue. According theto
Ueda data reports,(NOTE: Cite a
reference if you are referring to previous
literature.) the ECD uptake threshold
studied may not be necessarily applyied to
white matter,; it standsrepresents the
standardized color voxels of abnormal
brain. However, our voxel-based
methodology could in the future be
applied to white matter or gray matter to
modify the reference range of threshold
for HMPAO analysis.
(As for completion of OR To the ending
ofcomplete) the procedure,(NOTE:
WHAT procedure?) our results (confirm
OR demonstrate OR support) the validity
of the HMPAO uptake threshold chosen.
Although purpleish voxels were found in
some cases, the average, almost 85% were
ultimately infracted. As already
mentioned aboveearlier, severe brain
stroke patients contained athere were
substantial amount of ultimately
noninfarcted irreversible damaged tissues
voxels in severe brain stroke patients.
Its(NOTE: What does ‘It’ refer to?) may
be correlated with misclassification (via
OR by) the automatic computer analysis.
Based on the further explanations of
purpleish areas, on the basis of a visually
inspectiong of the Amira 3.0 or Image J
calculation, indicateding that the artifact
reduction procedure did not remove all
fault edges. RegardingHow about the
reaction about upof takingincreasing
HMPAO to more than 80%, if volunteer
patients have the images of contralated
voxels, it is concernment to explain 6
hours are required after the stroke onset,
with 9.8% of normally perfused voxels
turneding into infarction. Although this
finding may represent statistical
(interference OR noise) in image slice, it
also reflect that image quality control is
necessary for the preventiong the of image
default. RegardingThe other points about
penumbral voxels, is that if we defined
HMPAO uptake is defined between 40%
and 80%, it describes that a sample in
whichthat part of the voxels is classified
as penumbral were not at risk for
infarction because of owing to moderately
reduced perfusion.
All thesebove findings
indicateconcerning the facts that if 3three
directional images were visualized, the
voxel is will consistent with previous
hypotheses and the volume blood ratio of
abnormal brain tissue. If aAll of the
experimental results are the same,
regardless of whether larger or smaller the
ischemia areas are larger or smaller.
AtDuring the final stage of the stroke, the
blood flow will support the validity of the
threshold that we choose chosen
previously. In fact, we didan not attempt
was not made to a systematically search
for the most accurate threshold, ourwith
the objective of aims are to reduceing the
artifacts and (interference OR noise).
WithBecause a decade hasving passed, the
image quality is still under- controlled.
Here, an attempt is made Tto establish a
method for evaluating and particular
threshold of interest in view offor clinical
applications. The significant
estimatedpredictive value of the sizes of
the tissue sizes clasesis defined (based on
OR according to) these reference ranges
of thresholds for stroke patient recovery,
and; the results of volume sizes iscan be
validiablted as well. Making associated
conclusions,For the definition, can be said
that thea larger the irreversibley damaged
tissue relative to the hypoperfused area,
the implies a worse the recovery, and; in
addition, a the larger the penumbral
component, the implies a better the
recovery. Physiological changes areing is
also predictable with some figure
explanations of the figures.
AssumingConsume that mean normal
cerebral blood flow is around 50ml/100g,
our infarction threshold of 40% would
correspond to 20ml/100g.
Compared withing the PET scan and
MRI, reveals that in the PET study,
cerebral blood flow threshold valvue for at
risk tissue and irreversible damaged tissue
are about 23ml/100g and 10ml/100g,
respectively, but. However, with
perfusion HRI, the results were similar,
with the values were near 30% and 18%,
respectively. In the HMPAO SPECT scan
study, cerebral blood flow is aroundabout
30ml/100g. In pPrevious studies confer
reports, conclusions are respectable that
with HMPAO, the resituated degree of
uptake reduction is higher than the degree
of the hemorrhagic transformation.
(NOTE: Cite a reference since you are
referring to previous literature.) Some
pathological journals have the same
results.(NOTE: Cite a reference since you
are referring to previous literature.) That
isRestated, in a 5hour time window of five
hours, determined that the risk of
thrombolysis-related hemorrhagic riskng
is extremelyvery high in patients with
HMPAO uptake of 40% of contra lateral
value. We are also aware that
inAdditionally, during the first 6 hours
after stroke onset, HMPAO uptake could
accuratelywas highly predictive of the size
of the final infarct,. TThey(NOTE: What
does “They” refer to?) are independently
of the time interval between the onset of
the serious stroke. If HMPAO uptake ifs
smaller than 45%, these discrepancies
between reported PET and SPECT
thresholds might be explained byowing to
an overestimation. It is explained that
Notably, HMPAO uptake in a special
interval time reflectsreveals that both
perfusion and cell function needs tomust
be consideredtaken into account.
Our results suggest that HMPAO uptake
can also reflect neuronal viability and
HMPAO SPECT could be a useful means
of for the detectiong of a potential
hemorrhage and whether it is true thata
potential salvageable tissue and
irreversible damage occurs,. Under this
circumstance, the tissue could be saved
within 12hrtwelve hours of stroke onset.
This widely applicable technology could
be used in thea clinical setting for speedy
decision making in the choice ofwhen
acute therapy is selected in the is chemic
group. Thus, our preliminary results are
encourageing for the progress ofmade in
the prevention of brain- bleeding field
and, hopefully increaseing the life
expectancy in theof stroke patients group.

7. (Business Management)
Evaluating Medical Information System
Vendors for Outsourcing Using Delphi
and AHP

According to a medical information
network handbook published by the
Department of Health, Executive Yuan,
ROC in 1996 was pointed the medical
information network guide handbook had
showed the, general clinicsthe quantity of
outpatient services in general clinics was
quantity compares the hospital lesserlow,
andwith investment in computerization e
funds also moreextremely limited.
(NOTE: Although I have made this
confusing sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.) (Therefore, clinics
unfit establishment exclusive information
room or else the information center. : I
HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THIS
SENTENCE MEANS.) GenerallyA clinic
can generally is able to (rely on OR trust)
thea computer vendorcompany by to
satisfy information technology clinic’s
requiredments or plan computerize-related
matters. ToAdditionally, appraiseing a the
clinic’s demand for computerizeation
involves demand, besides considersing the
clinic scale size and number of branches
of the clinic, as well as established the
individual budgetary constraints and
organizational goalsaspiration was still the
consideration key point. TheOutsourcing
information system needs outsource is
thus a significantmajor decision-making
task for medical organizations ((Lorence :
Spelling? Lawrence?) and Spink, 2004).
2. Literature review
This rResearch objects of this study are
divides into the two parts, one is the
primary clinics, and another one is the
medical information system vendors. Our
research meMethodsology involves
adopting the separate into two parts. First,
part one was applied Mmodified Delphi
Memethod to accumulatecollecting and
intergrateding expert group member
opinions and, then, finding(determining
and identifying) a normal evaluation
criterion. Additionally, the Second, part
two: employed AHP theory is utilized to
establish a model for selectiong vendor’s
model. This article utilized technique
theories are described as followsexplained
completely as follows:.
Part One: Delphi method and modified
Delphi method
In order to assist a private practitioner
can be take effective, systemize and
objective dDecision-making must be
effective, systematic and objective tofor
select an appropriate fit MIS vendor.
Therefore, we toward doctor’sa
physician’s perspective must be adopted to
determine viewpoint conception to
attempt to research key the major
evaluation factors in a criteria for MIS
outsourcing evaluate factors. Given
serious Due to the private practitioner the
time constraints that an organization
facesis extremely valuable; we utilized ,
the modified Delphi Method is adopted in
this study to devise a complete vital
criteria capable of screening qualified for
assess MIS outsourcing standard to select
vigorous vendors for outsourcing. The
Delphi method is Achieved through a
consensus among experts group’s
common consent andin decision-making
result, the Delphi method is belongs to a
traditionalconventional forecasting
approach that does not require sort and do
not need a greatlarge quantity of samples.
We can use tThe Delphi method can be
applied to generate a professional
consensus for an ambiguous, complicated
and contentiousdisputable topics (Sung,
2001). The Delphi method has been
employed At expert forecast nurse’s
research field, since 1970 in the nursing
field for investigation year the medical
services and health care question start to
apply Delphi method in study and doing
forecasting purposes. In recently years, in
the field o, with increasing use fin nursing,
health care management, and
administration of medical policies are
often quickly modified, and use the Delphi
method studies in this field are appear
increase with years (Chiou and Tsai,
1996).
The Delphi Method is a consensus-
based approach that requires continuous
technical conformity research technique,
in the study process can focus assume
topic to unceasingly written, discuss and
oral discussion and feedback among from
the anonymous experts on a particular
topic. All anonymous experts offer
propose professional experience,
knowledge skills-how, experience and
opinions, and exchange different views
each other, experts until set up the
uniform mutual recognitiona consensus is
reached (Hartman, 1981; Sung, 2001).
The comprehensive Delphi Mmethod
comprises the following stepshas five
procedures: (1). (1) Sselecting the experts,
(2). Carry on the; (2) perform a survey of
the first round, (3). Carry on; (3) perform
a the survey of the second round, (4).
Carry on the; (4) perform a survey of the
third round, (5). S; and (5) synthesize the
experts’ opinions and get to reach a
consensusmmon view. Usually repeatedly
carry on the sSteps (3) and (4) are
normally repeated until tends to thea
uniform result is achievedif our for a
particular topic don’t achieves the mutual
recognition (Huang, 1996; Sung, 2001).
Additionally, We can apply the literature
reviewverifies and with the expert
interviews canto (integrate OR synthesize)
the all common views ofrecurrent
opinions expressed in a survey, simplifies
the s. Step (2) is then simplified to
replace the conventionally
adoptedtradition opening style survey
methods. Simplifying thus the process is
called tThe modified Delphi method is a
simplification of the above procedure
(Sung, 2001). ThereforeSo, in this
study,this article is used the modified
Delphi method is adopted to determine the
evaluation criteria for finding the MIS
outsourcing MIS needs to information
technology vendor’s evaluate criteria, as is
determinedand through anonymous expert
interviews and a survey of the
outcome(NOTE: What kind of ‘outcome’
are you referring to?) directed towards
theto focusing in our research subject. In
1975, Delbecq, Van de Ven and Gustafson
(1975) point outsuggested five to nine
individuals as an appropriate number of
the suitable members ofin a Delphi
Method group is five to nine persons.
Therefore, our article had, explaining why
nine experts participatedory in the
decision-making group of the modified
Delphi method in this study. In theAs for
non-interference condition, collection
expert group consensus opinions among
the experts were collected, then synthesize
the with respect to the preferences among
physicians as to which all doctor’s expert
common views to get the key factors
related theare important in selecting
vendors ofin order to devise the evaluation
criteria. (Due to the scientific gauging
device to performs the subjective factor
the quantification to achieve the objective
goal. : THIS SENTENCE MAKES NO
SENSE AND I DON’T UNDERSTAND
HOW IT IS RELATED TO THE
PREVIOUS SENTENCE.)
Part two: analytic hierarchy process
(AHP)
Among tThe available evaluation
methods of thefor suppliers includehave
several kinds, such as the linear
programming, categorical method, cost-
ratio method, matrix method, decision
tree, Monte Carlo simulation and AHP.
However, these The above front six
methods comparatively have are too
subjectiveity, as well as unable and cannot
clearly defined each criteria the relative
importance of each criteria (NOTE: Do
you mean ‘criterion’?) and deficiencylack
of an effective weight qualitative
criterion. (NOTE: Although I have made
this confusing sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) AHP, As a
decision method that decomposes a
complex multi-criteria decision problem
into a hierarchy (Satty, 1980), AHP is also
a measurement theory that prioritizes the
hierarchy and consistency of the
judgmental data provided by thea group of
decision makers. AHP incorporates the
evaluations of all decision makers into a
(final decision OR general consensus),
without having to elicit their utility
functions on subjective and objective
criteria, by pairwise comparisons of the
alternatives (Satty, 1990). AHP has thus
been successfully applied to a wide
varietydiverse array of problems, with the
calculation procedure beingdescribed as
follows:.
2.1. Establish the hierarchy structure.
When deals Athe complex issue, we can
be addressed by performed decomposeing
the hierarchy structure. Given the
inability of Based on the humans to can
not compareison above the seven
categories simultaneouslykinds things at
the same time, so we must assume (the
hierarchy is assumed to not contain more
than seven elements OR each elements of
the hierarchy is assumed to not suitably
surpassesexceed seven elements). Under
this limited condition, it may carry on the
reasonablea reliable comparison and
easier ensure the consistency can be
ensured (Satty, 1980; Deng and Tzeng,,
1989). The first hierarchy of the structure,
that is we want to achieve (refers to the
OR focuses on the) targeted goal.
UnderBeneath the end hierarchy is the
choice projects or replacement
alternatives, as well as the each the
middle hierarchies, which (comprise OR
are) the appraisal factor or criteria.
(NOTE: Although I have made this
confusing sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.)
2.2. (Compute the element weight of
various hierarchies OR Various
hierarchies’ elements weight
computation).
(1) . Establish ment of ing pairwise
comparison matrix A
Based on an element of the upper
hierarchy that is an evaluationg standard,
going on thea pairwise comparison is
(made OR performed) forto each
elements. (NOTE: Although I have made
this confusing sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) If hashas Assume
that the n elements must make n(n-1)/2
elements of the pairwise comparison. Let
Cn C C ,..., 2 , 1
be the set of elements, while
ij
a

represents a (quantitative OR quantified)
judgment on a pair of elements
j i
C C ,
.
Gained aAn N by N matrix A can be
(gained OR derived) as follows:
[ ]
]
]
]
]
]
]

· ·
1 / 1 / 1
1 / 1
1
2 1
2 12
1 12
2
1
2 1

   




n n
n
n
n
ij
n
a a
a a
a a
C
C
C
a A
C C C
(1)
PuttingPairwise comparison results of
the n elements pairwise comparison result
are (inserted OR incorporated) into the
upper triangle of matrix A. (Principal
diagonal for the element oneself
comparison: THIS MAKES NO SENSE
BECAUSE THERE IS NO VERB
HERE.),; therefore its (outcome OR
result) is 1. The underlower triangle
values isare (partially relative positions of
the upper triangle values? OR the upper
triangle partial relative positions values),
(NOTE: Don’t put so many nouns
together; it confuses the reader.) that isi.e.,
ij
a
=1/
ij
a
. Where
ii
a
=1 and
ji
a
=1/
ij
a
,
i
,
j
=1,2,
…,n gives the(contains OR produces) two
elements (
j i
C C ,
) that becaome one
quantization value for an important
relative judgment. In matrix A, a set of
numerical weights
n
W W W ........, ,
2 1
that “reflects
the recorded judgments”the problem
becomes one of must be assigneding to
the n elements
n
C C C ,....., ,
2 1
a set of numerical
weights
n
W W W ........, ,
2 1
that “reflects the
recorded judgments.”. (NOTE: Putting
words in parentheses implies that you are
referring to previous literature. Therefore,
you must cite a reference. If not, then just
delete the parentheses.) If A is a
consistency matrix, the relations between
weights
i
W
and judgments
ij
a
are simply
given by
ij j i
a W W · /
(for
n j i ,....., 2 , 1 , , ·
) and matrix
A as follows:
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
n n n n
n
n
n
w w w w w w
w w w w w w
w w w w w w
C
C
C
A
C
/ / /
/ / /
/ / /
C C
2 1
2 2 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 1
2
1
n 2 1

   




(2)
(2) Calculating the E e igenvalue and
E e igenvector calculation.
Matrix A multiplyies the elements
weight vector (
x
) equal to
nx
, that is (
A
-
nI
)
x
=0, the
x
is the Eeigenvalue (
n
) of
Eeigenvector. Due toGiven that
ij
a

bedenotes the makers’ subjective
judgment of decision-makers (give
comparison and appraisal : I HAVE NO
IDEA WHAT THIS MEANS AND HOW
IT RELATES TO THE FIRST PART OF
THE SENTENCE.), with the trulyactual
value (
j i
W W /
) haveing the somea certain
level degree of (variation OR difference),
so that. Therefore,
x n Ax . ·
can not to be set
up. Satty (1990) suggested that the largest
eigenvalue
max
λ
be:

·
·
n
j
j
ij
Wi
W
a
1
max
λ
(3)
If A is a consistency matrix,
eigenvector X can be calculated by
formula (4):
0 ) (
max
· − X I A λ
(4)
(3) Performing the C c onsistency test
Saaty (1990) proposed utilizing consistency
index (
CI
) and consistency ratio (
CR
) to
checkverify the consistency of the
comparison matrix. CI and CR are defined
as follows:

) 1 /( ) (
max
− − · n n CI λ
(5)

CR CI CR / ·
(6)
Where RI represents the average consistency
index over numerous random entries of
same order reciprocal matrices. If
1 . 0 ≤ CR
,
the estimate is accepted, and; otherwise, a
new comparison matrix is solicited until
1 . 0 ≤ CR
.
2.3. Compute the Ooverall hierarchy
weight. computation
After the (weight is OR weights are?)
computedation for the various hierarchies
and elements, then compiles the overall
hierarchy weight is computedation, and
finally toultimately enabling decision-
makers to select de our goal of the most
suitable planappropriate strategy.
2.4. Implement the Aanalysis implement.
This paper used implement is Here,
Microsoft Excel 2003 and Super
Decisions 1.6.0 software are used to
process the data and (analytical methods
OR analysis tools).
Recently years, tThe medical sector
has, in recent years, increasingly adopted
industry gradually applies the AHP
method to resolve handle issues in the
solid service-related problems. Hokey et.
al. (1997) usingapplied the AHP
competitive benchmarking of Hhealth
Ccare Qquality in Korean Ccancer
Cclinics,. Rossetti et. al. (2001) then
compared robotsautomated and
humanmanual courier deliveriesy services
in a mid-size hospital by applying thein
AHP model to decision-making;. Sloane
et. al. (2003) utilized using the AHP as a
clinical engineering toolapproach to
facilitate an iterative, multidisciplinary,
microeconomic health technology
assessment,. More recently, Chang (2004)
combined case-based reasoning and the
AHP decision method to establish a
continuousing care information system
offor discharge planning。. Earlier, Yang
and Wu (2002) applied AHP way to the
investment and replacement of valuable
precious Mmedical
instrumentationequipment investment and
replacement by establisheding a decision-
making model, and this study point to.
Above studies point towards the
effectiveness of a model-AHP can bein
helping hospitals not only to
systematically and objectively analyzesis
multiple criteria decisions issue. Due to
above applied case in AHP for medical
industry, we know, this method already
can be help medical organization, but also
to establish (uniform OR standard) model
and solvemake decisions-making issues
efficiently. Therefore, in this study, we
can be able to execute the AHP model is
adopted to selecting the greatestmost
qualified MIS outsourcing vendor for
primary clinics.
3. Decision model application and results
Theis article established evaluatesion
model developed in this study was major
to divide(comprises OR consists of) into
two stages,. The first stage includes four
steps, and we through in which the
Modified Delphi Method is used to
(identify OR determine)can be discovers
the suitablemost appropriate evaluation
criterion.(NOTE: Don’t you mean
‘criteria’? Check intended meaning.)
Then, second stage (comprises OR
consists of)had six steps, we appliedin
which AHP theory is applied to calculate
the weight of the decision evaluation
criterion and establish evaluate the
effectiveness of the MIS vendor’s model.
These stages are described in detail as
follows.Therefore, this part is going to
explain set up and implement steps as
follows:
First stage: finding(Determining OR
Identifying) the critical evaluation
criterion(NOTE: Don’t you mean
‘criteria’?) through the Modified Delphi
Method
Step 1: d D esignat ion e the group of
primary medical expert ’ s group in the
primary clinic.
Nine physicians Selects 9 doctors
practicing in a primary clinic are selected
to form group of medical expert’s group
for our article expert member’s team,, in
which must conform to the following
conditions: (1). tThe primary clinic’s
business year at least above has been
operating for at least two years.; (2). tThe
clinic’sal physician doctor everhas
participated in the MIS decision-making
in the past,previously; and (3). The
doctors Physicians must be qualified to
practice in have one of western medicine
kind of qualification, the wWestern
medicine qualification, such as in
departments of Iinternal Mmedicine,
Ssurgery, Oobstetrics and G gynecology,
P and pediatrics…etc. The Our expert's
designation had various doctor formations,
among of group of nine physicians
included two internal medicine
department doctors physicians, one
surgical department doctor physician, two
gynecology department
doctors,physicians, two pediatrics
department doctorsphysicians, one
otolaryngology doctorphysician, and one
Family Medicine department
doctorgeneral practice physician. The
grand total has nine clinic’s doctors.
Step 2: Review pertinent literature on
major factors in selecting MIS selecting
vendor ’ s critical factor literature
collection and sort out the reference
materials .
The effectiveness and reliability of
software vendor’s viability and
survivability is the crux of the matter. are
of priority concern. Thus, the service life
of software and hardware for the user
(whether can be an orphan's factor : I
HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THIS MEANS.).
Only 10% of all nNewly had been
established computer companyies, are still
operating after its three years survival
percentage not to a 10%. (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) However, the computer
vendor’s specialized ability needs in thise
medical software market for more than
test over two years, then it can be tend to
maturely are generally viewed as stable
given their unique specialized skills.
(NOTE: Although I have made this
confusing sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.) Unfortunately,
regardless of the product or service
quality, the hospital ultimately suffers the
most when the outsourcing vendors
discontinue their operationsclosure
business, even if it has the best product
and the serviceability, forever we are the
loser. In tThis study article, we look
fordetermines the significant factors in a
criteria to ass related to the MIS
outsourcing vendor’s criteria.
ThoseLiterature on MIS evaluationg
criteria literature comes from the
information technology and medical
sectorindustry background sources and
conforms to the experts in the decision-
making group identified. Table 1
summarizes Therefore, we were finding
the (preliminary : OR OMIT) criteria for
selecting MIS vendor’s criteria in Table 1.

To effectively implement aMake use
of the medical information network guide,
and collaborate well with medical
organizations, future cooperate firm of the
computerMIS vendors must have
appropriate expertise in the medical
software design the design experience, as
well as thoroughly and owns the deep into
understanding research for the medical
care operations work and levying
procedures of medical feess charge
procedure (Department of Health,
Executive Yuan, ROC, 1996). Before
sSelecting the computeran MIS vendor,
we need to initially requires evaluateing
the vendor’s professional
abilityknowledge skills and technology
development expertiseability. These
abilitySuch expertise includes the
following: (1). The suppliervendor’s
expertise develop systems development
and implementation whether conforms to
technical or thcurrent technology is field
development tendency,trends and
practices; (2) tThe computer firm have
avendor complies with a clearly
definedrigorous development software
engineering standard, such as thea system
specification book, formula use handbook,
the system test plan and record,; (3) tThe
software product can be suitable for
theadheres to the clinical information
system’s computer requirementsdemand.
Additionally, MeanwhileAt the same time,
closely examining the customer status
investigate the computer firm’s customer
state of user; it can enable a computer firm
be help you more further to enhance its
realize the cooperative firm its
development abilitycollaborative
potential. Ast for service-related ability
factors side, the a computer firm can be
provided sufficiencyt human resources
quantity, richprofessional experience and
high level profession know-
howtechnological expertise.
FurthermoreMoreover, thea vendor
adheres to has a service management
system pattern and planning mechanism
is, which is equally as well important.
Besides, we can considera customer
thathad useds prestigious software
prestige for the supplied from a computer
firm, it can be assist us make an provides
an objective means of appraisaling the
firm’s effectiveness. (NOTE: Although I
have made this confusing sentence
correct, make sure that I have not changed
your intended meaning.) Then, don’t
forget think about the vendor’s
Furthermore, post-sale service that a
vendor offers can enable a firm to gain a
foothold whether or not enough andin a
particular service region has included our
clinic.
Since establishment of the National
Health Insurance scheme was established,
worth noting that is the medical software
market has expanded rapidlycompanies
increase suddenly, making it important to
so that we must carefully selecting the an
MIS vendor. Election the lLarge -scale
information technology firms have areas
of and it has the sspecializationed and
establisheddeveloped software
companyies can ensure guarantee the the
quality of software congenital quality
products and services. Furthermore, thea
software company musthas to had
continueously operate to remain
competitive forever of the business
ability. Our iInformation technology
equipment must also be maintained at
state-of-the-art levelscan not go so far as
to degenerate become an orphan. We can
judge by mMarket share, number of
customers quantity occupy rate and return
rate, scale size, specialized projects,
company brand recognitionprestige as
well as organization's and software
maintenance all contribute to the overall
appraisal of improve the vendor’s
management system, carry on the overall
appraisal. SimultaneouslyAppropriately
matchesing organizational your individual
demand with to choose the most
appropriate the candidate software
outsourcing companyfirm is also of
priority concern. With respect to attaining
a Whether of you decide to
comprehensive computerization systeme
ago, a you should be thoroughly
understanding of the software equipment
to be used will ensure the integrity, and
confirmed the future can be to expand
computer of such equipment to overcome
system will encounter to all sorts of
limitations. And the suggestion mMedical
clinics should closely follow be refer to
the successful examples of vendor
selection, reference the same level
healingalong with how clinics should use
the software equipment with users
situation, then takes advantage of this
understands its usability. Before selectsing
and purchases theing appropriate
computer hardware equipment, a medical
organization should realize that tthe most
effective he computer hardware is not
necessarily uses the newest machine
kindthe latest brand. However, strong
brand recognition But best selects the
prestige good for a particular software
product; it can guarantee theensure
product the quality and the post-sales
service. May also entrust theA software
firm tocan replace or purchase have the
brand the hardware equipment fit the
using the based on software
requirementsmatches. Besides considers
yourconsumer demand and the budget
constraints, may also has other important
consideration, such as the include stability,
the compatibility, the expansion, the
function, conformsity to the kinesiology
design, the perfectand post-sales service.
Step 3: u U se the Table 1 of all criterion
from Table 1 to increase the number of , or
omit deletion or increase the opinion s .
(NOTE: Whose opinions are you talking
about?)
Apply thThe Likert-type five scale is
useds to ensure that the meter criteria
weight surpasses four scales above, which
are to listed as the important reference
criterion. And took the finally recognized
and screened to suitablyAdditionally,
appropriate physicians are elicited to
select doctors chooses the vendors by
consideration the keying major
evaluationg factors.
Step 4: e E stablish an evaluat e ion criteria
model to select ing vendors for the MIS
outsourcing .
The cCommunity experts
finddetermine the criterion process forto
establish thean evaluateion model,
penetration modified Delphi method to
condenses thereach a consensus of
opinions among experts opinions and to
achievereaches the uniform recognition.
This study obtains thean essential criterion
after the three rounds of survey results (as
Figure. 1).
Second stage: To dDecided upon a MIS
outsourcing vendor using the selection
model for AHP evaluation criteria
selecting model.
Step 1: e E stablish a hierarchy structure .
As for ccording to the MIS vendor
outsourcing question, each evaluation
factors decomposed comprises several
levels, such as including the goal
hierarchy, criteria hierarchy, sub-criteria
hierarchy and alternatives hierarchy (like
fFigure. 1).
Step 2: e E stablish ment each factor s of the
pairwise comparison matrix .
OnceBase on the experts finally
assign weight values, use the geometry
mean value is used to computeing
comprehensive expertscomprehensive
decision-making community scores from
experts in order to formulate the standard
weight values to selecting MIS vendors
standard weight values. For instance, the
main criteria are formed as the sample,
likesuch as in Table 2. We using the
fFormulae (1) and (2) are used to
calculated the aggregate pairwise
comparison matrix.
Step 3: c C alculat e ing the eigenvalue and
eigenvector .
Using the comparison matrix (likesuch
as in Table 2), the eigenvectors weare
calculated by formulae (3) and (4). The
Table 3 listssummarizes the results of the
eigenvectors for each criteria and sub-
criteria.
Step 4: Perform the C c onsistency test .
According toBased on formulae (5)
and (6) calculated the, each hierarchy’sthe
criteria comparison matrix of consistency
is calculated for each hierarchy, such as in
Table 2. This paper rResults of the
consistency test and CR of the comparison
matrix from each of the 9nine experts, are
all smaller than “0.1”, indicating
“consistency”.
Step 5: Comput ation e the each levels
relative weight of the elements for each
level.
Table 3 summarizes the results for
each levelsthe relative weight of the
elements are showed Table 3 of each
level. According to Table 3 shows, we
can know the clinical physician doctor at
the selecting MIS vendors, their will
consider extent inthe proper order asre the
“Matching degree (0.262) >Contractor
and product quality (0.207) >Contractor
experience (0.164) > Contractor
serviceability (0.152) >Technology and
development ability (0.132) >Economy
factor (0.083)”. Describe tThe evaluation
results for the sub-criteria are described
evaluating results as follows:
The medical industrysector is thea semi-
closed organization, so . Therefore, the
supplier truly conservative the
organization service privacy for an
organization (0.561) is extremely
significant for the supplier. In
realitypractice, primary medical
organizations do not have thean
information technology department in
Taiwan and the doctors always busy.
Physicians are always occupied with the
highly specialized diagnoses and
treatment tasksworks.. Thus, from the
perspective of a physician in the doctor
viewpoint, if the supplier could
highlyclosely matching the primary
medical organization of the business
management strategy and culture, or
doctors user's demands of physicians
(0.439), the supplier’s matching degree is
became the most important factor for thea
private practitioner.

The pPrivate practitioners believe think the
that the second important criterion isare
the MIS supplier and the product quality,
among by thecriteria of software
performance, reliability, integrality, and
stability (0.404), which was the vital sub-
criterion, then. Next, the supplier's project
management skills of the supplierability
(0.316) and the supplier have the testcan
guarantee to a quality procedure (0.280).
Additionally, are also make the supplier
and the product quality have an
additionalng effect.
In theAs for a contractor’s experience aspect,
the supplier whethermust have knowledge
of and sensitivity towards mthe Medical
law and the hHealth Iinsurance Ssystem
knowledge and sensitivity (0.360) is the,
which is an important evaluation criteria,
next isfollowed by the supplier’s
experience with regarding similar
information system development
experience (0.339) and a supplier's
prestige and the public praisebrand
awareness (0.302).
The supplier provides post-sales service and
support efficiency (0.423), as well as the
original system education training and
plans for the arrangement (0.374) was the
doctors think that. Physicians believe that
the vendor’s serviceability performance is
thewith main influential sun-criterion.
Supplier's human resource quantity,
professional level and experience (0.203)
in the contractor serviceability washad the
lightest (NOTE: Do you mean ‘least’?)
proportion lightest.
Moreover, in the supplier’s “technology and
development ability” criterion, attach
importance is attached to the respective of
the supplier's hardware and software
technology ability (0.404), thenfollowed
by the supplier's ability to conformity
ability (0.329) and the technological
capability of the supplier's information
security technology ability (0.267).
Finally, the private practitioners final
consider that the evaluationg criterion of
software outsourcing is the economyic
factor; every yearthe annual system
maintenance price (0.529) is more
significant than the primary purchases of
the medical information system price
(0.471).
Step 6: Calculate the o O verall level s
hierarchy weight calculate for selecting
the optimum MIS vendor.
A primary clinic that must When the
medical industry faced with outsourceing
its MIS needs, during the screening
process, highly prioritizes decision-
making questions, the survivability of the
candidate computer firms is the important
screening condition for the primary
clinics. A newly formed computer
company which profession ability was
needed towith at least two years of
operating experience in the MIS market
test for two years it can be became a ripeis
considered as having sufficient expertise
experience. However, a the computer
firm that company business even
temporarily suspendeds its operations,
regardless of its even if it had the greatest
serviceability, could incur potentially great
losses for the clinic will cause the serious
consequences and loss. Therefore, we
should be carefully to inspecta close
examination must be made of the sales
record of the outsourcing vendor of the
sales achievement,, annual profits
situation, company scale size, in the
present existing thenumber of users on
information systems serviced quantity, the
existingcurrent customer's user appraisals
which the ability, the financial health of
the companyphysique, and how long the
company the company hads been
established time (Department of Health,
Executive Yuan, ROC, 1996). By theThe
above initialpreliminary evaluationg
conditions, we can list 3-5 can normally
yield three to five suppliers for the
primary directory in the alternatives at the
finallast level’s alternatives. Thus, in this
study, three supplier are selected based on
according to how long the company has
beenits established time, the number of
users on information systems
servicedexisting user quantity and (oral
traditions : WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
“references from other customers”?) to
select 3 suppliers for our study
alternatives. Also, a supplier must have
been operating at least And we designate a
clinic its business time smaller than two
years in order to be consideredtake the
case confirmation.
The case practitioner of the clinic applies
thise above standard pattern to carry on to
appraise the integrity of each candidate
the MIS vendor’s integrity appraisal. In
the fFinally, arranging priority of the
alternatives is arranged and giving the
highest scores are assigned to the make
this clinic of best MIS outsourcing vendor.
(NOTE: Make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) This study
sScores results are as follows: is the
vendor A (0.388), vendor B (0.334), and
vendor C (0.276), by the study
confirmation resultsing that vendor A is
the foremost suitable usefulmost
appropriate MIS software vendor for this
clinic, as theshown in Table 4.
4. Discussion and conclusion
Selecting an outsourced vendor to
service medical information system
requirementsoutsourcing vendor is bothan
extremely complex issue as well as the
maker usuallyand often subjective
decision. Especially in the medical
sectorindustry, the manager on the
business administrative order and medical
order hospital administrators lack can not
have the clearly objective decision-
making toolsprocedures and evaluationg
criteria. Moreover the majority makers
Additionally, most decision makers rely
mainly on the experience of the candidate
MIS vendorprinciple to make the
decision. Therefore, this paperstudy
suggestion matches theintegrates
mathematical quantitativefication tools
and methods into the evaluateion to
comply with can be discovered conforms
to the organizational needs in order to
identify the most itself demand finding
the appropriate vendorsupplier. We
adoptedThe modified Delphi method is
adopted to reach a consensus of opinion
among physiciansfind the doctor’s experts
consider the in order to form an essential
criteria for selecting the MIS vendor’s
choice. Then through the AHP method to
calculate, the criteria weight is calculated
and establish the evaluateion model
established, followed by use of the same
AHP model to select the finally using this
AHP model to decision the bestmost
qualified vendor for our clinic. The
study’sAnalysis results indicate that the
criteria of the discover the private
practitioners mostheavily stresses on
criteria in order is matching
degreecompatibility between the vendor
and the clinic’s software requirements,
contractor and product quality, contractor
experience of the candidate vendor,
contractor serviceability of the candidate
vendor, as well as technology and
devedevelopment skillsability,; and the
economyic factor is of least concernthe
relative comparatively less regard in the
criteriona. The pPrivate practitioners can
also considerbe rely on person’s individual
demands to add to the criteria, or evaluate
the actual data wrap in the AHP model,.
Finally, based on the highest lastly get
scores is the highest, an MIS vendor is
selected as an our outsourcing cooperate
partner. We realistic rely on aA clinic in
Taipei area to use has already adopted the
AHP model to selectfor decision-making
a MIS vendor’s choice, which is our
paper case proving. . Anticipated tThe
AHP model building can be help theassist
the primary practitioner for thein similar
muilt-criteria tasksquestions, have in an
objective and systematiczed method
manner when selecting the appropriate
information software firms in the future.
8. (Business Management)
Optimal location selection of location
forthat Taiwanese hospitals are established
of theto ensure a competitive advantage
advantage by using the Analytic Hierarchy
Process
Abstract
Implementation of Since 1995 after the
government carried out the National
Health Insurance, scheme in Taiwan since
1995 has intensified the domestic medical
competition in the local medical sectorhas
been becoming fiercer. Given elevated
living standards island wideWith the
prosperity of society and economy, people
in Taiwanese residents have become more
health conscious and attach increasing
importance to the medical quality and the
concept of medical H healthcare
gradually, explaining the heightened
consumer demand in the quality and scope
of and that imperceptibly expanded
people’s demand to the medical services
quality and quantity. In aAdditionally, the
medical service sectorindustry appeared
that they has gradually moved towards the
characteristic of has improved its
organizational structure and encouraged
maximization which lets many hospitals to
establishset up the management practices
that would increase their one after another
bringing the medical market very heavy
competitiveness pressure. In such an
intensely competitive environment,
selecting the optimal location selection of
competitive advantage becomes one of
important subjects when setting up a
hospitals to be established is of priority
concern. Therefore, this work presents an
AHP-based evaluation model… The main
construct of this research chose tAdopted
herein is the famousrenowned diamond
model introduced in from 1990 Porter’s
“Global Electronic Commerce (1990)”
that will influences the intricate relation
among thehow competitionve advantages,
especially with respect to developing and
(evaluating OR determining OR
measureing) the targetobjectives of the
optimal location selection, are related in
order to offer the location selectiondevise
a (standardized OR standard operational)
procedure (sop). This research adopts
theBesides a literature review, expert and
interviews with experts, this study also
adopts the Modified Delphi Method and
the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to
construct thean evaluationg patternmethod
, and regards onefor selecting the optimal
location of a regional hospital in Taiwan
as the research object, while setting up the
hospital, considered place was taken to
construct under the evaluating pattern, in
order to see whether the result does have
the differencedetermine its effectiveness.
Passing the result of studies, this research
will construct a evaluating pattern of the
optimal location selection established
hospitals of the competitive advantage to
take it as evaluating the standard
operational procedure (sop) of the optimal
location selection that hospitals are
established.The proposed evaluation
criterion provides a valuable reference for
hospital administrators and academics in
establishing a standardized means of
selecting the optimal location for new
medical care facilities.
Provides a valuable reference for/ provides
further insight into/ sheds light on /
elucidates/ clarifies.
Keywords: Competitive A a dvantage , optimal
location Sselection, Ddiamond Mmodel,
Modified Delphi Method, analytical
hierarchy process (AHP)
1. Introduction
Implementation of the National Health
Insurance scheme in Taiwan since 1995
has intensified competition in the local
medical sector. Given elevated living
standards island wide, Taiwanese residents
have become more health conscious and
attach increasing importance to quality
healthcare, explaining the heightened
consumer demand in the quality and scope
of medical services. Additionally, the
medical service sector has improved its
organizational structure and encouraged
hospitals to establish management
practices that would increase their
competitiveness. In such an intensely
competitive environment, selecting the
optimal location of hospitals to be
established is of priority concern. Since
1995 after the government carried out
National Health Insurance, the domestic
medical competition has been becoming
fiercer. With the prosperity of society and
economy, people in Taiwan attach
importance to the medical quality and the
concept of medical Healthcare gradually,
and that imperceptibly expanded people’s
demand to the medical service quality and
quantity. In addition, the medical service
industry appeared that they has gradually
moved towards the characteristic of
organization and maximization which lets
many hospitals set up the management
one after another bringing the medical
market very heavy competitive pressure.
In such competitive environment, the
optimal location selection of competitive
advantage becomes one of important
subjects when setting up a hospital. In its
early stageperiod, linear programming was
used abroad to solve the problems about
location selection-related problems.
(NOTE: Cite a reference since you are
referring to previous literature.) For
instance, previous studies attempted to
locate merly researching the optimal
position to establish a where the hospital
by set up only focused on utilizing
tradiconventional mathematics or the
statisticsal computational method to solve
the position’s problems. In the
establishment cconsiderationing where to
select a location, besides legislation
restrictions of the decree, the policy-
makers and business picture group's
seldom consider how decision is the main
viewpoint, not considering the criterion
whiselecting ch the optimal location
selectionduring the decision making
process could possibly affected under the
its competitiveness advantage.
“The A healthcare program—to prepare
for constructing the plan of the Medical
Care Website” was impelledlaunched in
1984, in order to balance theoffer medical
resources throughout Taiwan
proportionately. The Department of
Health of the Executive Yuan divides 63
sub-regions into 17 medical areas,
andwith each every sub-region to contain
a certain number of hospitals, as planneds
to establish the Department of Health in
advance. in order to continuously improve
As the require of compatriot’s living
standard and healthcare services and
living standards. improving, aAccording
to the Department of Health counting,
while there were 18,777 hospitals were
operating in 2003, that figure increased to
and there were 19,240 in 2004. This
shows that the quantity of national
hospital increases at the speed of , i.e., an
annual increase of more than 2,.47% for
every yearannually. In aAdditionally, the
global aging phenomenon is no exception
in of population is a problem that all
countries should face together at present.
Taiwan, with the island officially
becoming a rapidly aging society areas
completed population reforming in
198093, and the population has started the
accelerated aging from now on. according
to the World Health Organization
definition. Therefore, from a inspecting
the tendency of supplies from the market
demand perspective, viewpoint shows the
hugeTaiwan has enormous growth
potentialscope, received each kind of
benefit to urge, as evidenced by the
establishment of many hospitals set up
one after another, and the increasing
competitiveness in the medical care sector
situation has been already expanded from
inducted time to growth time. Given Tthe
excessive over saturatedion and fiercely
competition ofve medical service
resourcessector in Taiwan and the result
making, selecting the wrong location
selectionfor a new hospital could
significantly raise operational under the
competitive advantage can cause the
hospital costs to raise and reduce stymie
the hospital’s competitive advantage on
the competitive market that will create a
great influence to the hospital’s future
growth in the future.
In order to theSelecting the optimal
location selection of the competitive
advantage of thefor a hospital in terms of
competitiveness involves , aiming at the
differentvarious hospital types in Taiwan,
and ranks collects thedevising an
appropriate evaluatedion criteriona and
categorizing hospitals according to that
constructs the evaluation criteriaed level
structure.
Location theory has receivedbeen
extensively studied attention. (NOTE:
Cite a reference since you are referring to
previous literature.) Despite the
considerable attention paid to selecting an
Although many above studiesoptimal
location selection for medical care
facilities, theestablishing a hospital’s
establishment is under the restriction
based on must strictly comply with
governmental regulationsdecree, often
causing decision makers to overlook the
importance of because of that lets the
hospital ignore the location selectiong an
optimal location of its establishment. The
main construct of this study adopts the
renowned diamond model introduced in
Porter’s Global Electronic Commerce
(1990) that influences how competitive
advantages, especially with respect to
developing and (evaluating OR
determining OR measuring) the objectives
of optimal location selection, are related in
order to devise a (standardized OR
standard operational) procedure.research
chose the famous diamond model from
1990 Porter’s “Global Electronic
Commerce” that will influence the
intricate relation among the competition
advantages, develop and measure the
target of the optimal location selection, in
order to offer the location selection a
standard operational procedure (sop).
Besides a literature review and interviews
with experts, this study also adopts the
Modified Delphi Method and the
analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to
construct an evaluation method for
selecting the optimal location of a regional
hospital in Taiwan to determine its
effectiveness.This research adopts the
literature review, expert interview, the
Modified Delphi Method and the
analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to
construct the evaluating pattern, and
regards one regional hospital as the
research object, while setting up the
hospital, considered place was taken to
construct under the evaluating pattern, in
order to see whether the result does have
the difference. The proposed evaluation
criterion provides a valuable reference for
hospital administrators and academics in
establishing a standardized means of
selecting the optimal location for new
medical care facilities. The evaluating
pattern of the optimal location selection
hoped constructing competitive advantage
can effectively provide the best considered
place when the hospital is established. By
constructing the evaluating pattern, the
policy-maker who set up the hospital and
the academia can effectively make a sop
of the optimal location selection so that
offer the policymaker and the academia
make the best policy-making suggestion.
2. Literature review
2.1 Porter's D d iamond M m odel
The Porter’s diamond model model
comprises six elements:is based on four
country-specific determinants and two
external variables:, i.e., chance and
government, consisting of six elements as
shown in (Figure. 2.1). Porter's four
determinants and two outside forces
interact in the diamond of competitive
advantage, with the nature of a country's
internationalglobal competitiveness of a
country depending upon the type and
quality of these interactions. He
saysAccording to Porter, the four
determinants for a nationnation " . . .
shape the environment in which local
firms compete and promote or impede the
creation of competitive conditions."
(NOTE: Cite a reference since you are
referring to previous literature.)The four
determinants are:
Factor-related conditions: the nation's factors
of production-related factors of a
countrynation,, includinging natural
resources and created factors, such ase.g.,
infrastructure and skilled labor.
Demand-related conditions: the nature of
homedomestic demand for certain
products or services.
A Ffirm’s strategy, structure and rivalry: the
domestic rivalry ofamong domestic firms
and the conditions governinginfluencing
how companies are created, organized and
managed.
Related and supporting industries: the
presence or absence of supplier and
related industries that, themselves, are
internationallyglobally competitive.
Porter's two outsideexternal forces, i.e.,
chance and government, offerpresent
interesting contrastsing (perspectives OR
approaches). Government is clearly of
critical importance as an obviously
influences on a home nation'sthe
competitiveness of a countrynation
advantage. For instanceexample, to
penalize foreign firms,a government can
penalize foreign firms either throughuse
tariffs as a direct entry barrier, or it can
use through subsidies as an indirect
vehiclestrategy. - In both of which provide
cases domestic firms firms benefit
fromwith short-termrun competitive
advantages. Whereas suchThese
discriminatory governmental measures
actions can lead to shelter for domestic
firms, where shelter actuallydoing so
prevents the development of sustainable
(long-run) competitive advantages.
While there is a certain lack of
originality in the components of Porter's
diamond model are unoriginal, the model
it has exactly the correct perspective by
itsaccurately focuses on the strategies of
firms rather than those of
nationscountries. Porter stateys, ". . .
firms, not nations, compete in
international markets" In terms of To the
extent that he brings together thecreating
firm-specific linkages between the four
determinants and the two externaloutside
forces, hisPorter’s model is useful and,
potentially, an accurate predictiveor of
future trends. However, Porter's policy
recommendations to restrict thea nature of
government’s industrial and strategic trade
policy,ies and instead, to of opening
markets to foreign investment withoutand
have no arbitrary restrictions applied on
foreign investment, are also to be
welcomed. (NOTE: Although I have
simplified this confusing sentence, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
Figure 2.1: Porter's Ddiamond Mmodel
Sshowing Iinterdependent Vvariables that
Ddetermine the Competitiveness of an
Iindustryial competitiveness
2.2 lLocation theory
As the theory of the location selection
theory emergedbegan flourishing, Weber
(1909) proposed the position problems of
thea factory. The research of the eEarly
location theory focused mainly lay ion the
productiong area of raw materials and
selling to markets in order to determine
thea factory’s bestoptimal position by with
that could make the total transported cost
be minimumizing (transportation OR
operational) costs.
Plant location research can be
categorizeddivided into three perspectives.
The first perspective is: a) prescriptive,
i.e., describing how to make plant
location-related decisions should be made.
The second perspective is; b) nation
based, i.e., what a nation should do to be
more attractive for overseas firms to
locate plants in that countrydomestically.;
and The third perspective isc) business
customer –based business, i.e., what
criteria are actually usedadopted to make
plant location-related decisions. The
dDecision-making criteria for plant
locations are regarded as transitory and
evolving (Schmenner, 1982; Birch, 1984;
Duerken, 1985; Kotler and Haider, 1993).
The three perspectives are discussed
nextin detail as follows.
The first research stream is A)
pPrescriptive addresses— the research
deals with both how to organize plants
should be organized and where plants
should beto located them (Hammond and
Kelly, 1990; Bartmess, 1994; Haigh,
1989; Weber, 1987). For instanceexample,
some studiesresearchers have examined
what type of plant type to constructbuild.
In that arena, Schmenner (Schmenner,
1979) suggestsed that plants be
basedfocus on products, marketing area,
product-based marketing, processes, or
general purposefunctions. This list has
been modified by Ferdows (Ferdows,
1997) modified these items, who
suggestsing that foreign-owned plants
should be offshore factories (low cost),
source factories (offshore factories with
autonomy), server factories (national and
regional manufacturing), contributor
factories (national and regional
manufacturing with product and process
responsibility), outpost factories
(collectaccumulated information in
advanced markets), or lead factories (new
products and processes). In aAdditionally,
management researchersscientists have
determined(derived OR developed)
algorithms for selecting the optimal plant
location (Goldengorin et al., 1999).
Importantly, above investigations confer
on An issue that arises from this research
is the lack of diffusion ofamong these
models in practice.
B) Nation based exploresThe second
type of research addresses the broad
question of what makes locations and
nations attractive to manufacturers. For
exampleinstance, Kanter (Kanter, 1995),
Porter (Porter, 1990), and Kotler et al.
(Kotler et al., 1997) discussexamined
issues such as competitiveness, strategic
postures of nations and areas, nations’
strengths and weaknesses of nations,
strategic thrust, investment policies,
industrial portfolios, infrastructure,
institutions, and strategic implementation.
In ourthis context, the nation- and location
based strategies are less relevant as we
seek knowledge must be acquired
regarding about place-related marketing
practices of departmentscompanies in the
same region competing for customers.
C) Customer–based business The third
stream of research identifies factors that
firms use to make location-related
decisions. Kotler (Kotler and Haider,
(1993) suggested that decision making
related to plant location decision making
is based on 1. local labor markets; 2.
access to customer and supplier markets’;
3. availability of development sites,
facilities, and infrastructure’; 4.
transportation; 5. education and training
opportunities; 6. quality of life; 7.
business climate; 8. access to R&D
facilities; 9. capital availability; and
10. taxes and regulations.
Researchers have also suggested that
plant location-related factors are evolving
(Birch, 1984; Kotler and Haider, 1993;
Brush et al., 1999). For instance, qQuality
factors such as quality of workforce,
quality of life, quality of education and
quality of industrial freedom are becoming
more increasingly important.
To review aAbove-mentioned
documents and investigations confirm that
regard;less of whether in no matter the
manufacturing industry or the service
sectortrade, the factors such as , the
service stronghold and decisions regarding
of thea warehouse addressare all play
important roles. Hawing aCorrect
decisions in the correctregarding location
selection not only enable creates
enterprise’s to reduce operational costs
saving and increasethe profits raising, but
also enhances the competitive advantage
of the enterprises in the competitive
market, thus spurring future which will
have a great influence in the future to
enterprise’s growth, so will the hospital.
This also applies to the medical sector.
3. AHP Mmethodology
As a decision method that decomposes
a complex multi-criteria decision problem
into a hierarchy (Saaty, 1980), AHP is also
a measurement theory that prioritizes the
hierarchy and consistency of judgmental
data provided by a group of decision
makers. AHP incorporates the evaluations
of all decision makers into a final
decision, without having to elicit their
utility functions on subjective and
objective criteria, by pair-wise
comparisons of the alternatives (Saaty,
1990). Sinuany-Stern et al. (1995) applied
AHP to determine the location of a
hospital in a rural region. AHP has thus
been successfully applied to a diverse
array of problems, with the calculation
procedure as follows:
Establishment of pair-wise comparison
matrix A
Let C
1
, C
2
, … , C
n
denote the set of
elements, while a
ij
represents a quantified
judgment on a pair of elements C
i
, C
j
. The
relative importance of two elements is
rated using a scale with the values 1, 3, 5,
7, and 9, where 1 refers to “equally
important”, 3 denotes “slightly more
important”, 5 equals “strongly more
important”, 7 represents “demonstrably
more important” and 9 denotes
“absolutely more important”. This yields
an n-by-n matrix A as follows:
n
C C C 
2 1
[ ]
]
]
]
]
]
]

· ·
1 / 1 / 1
1 / 1
1
2 1
2 12
1 12
2
1

   



n n
n
n
n
ij
a a
a a
a a
C
C
C
a A

(1)
Where
1 ·
ij
a
and
. ,....., 2 , 1 , , / 1 n j i a a
ij ji
· ·
In matrix
A, the problem becomes one of assigning
to the n elements C
1
, C
2
, …, C
n
a set of
numerical weights W
1
, W
2
, …, W
n
that
reflects the recorded judgments. If A is a
consistency matrix, the relations between
weights W
i
and judgments a
ij
are simply
given by
ij j i
a W W · /
(for
n j i ,....., 2 , 1 , , ·
) and
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
n n n n
n
n
n
w w w w w w
w w w w w w
w w w w w w
C
C
C
A
/ / /
/ / /
/ / /
2 1
2 2 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 1
2
1

   



n
C C C 
2 1
(2)
Saaty (1990) suggested that the largest
eigenvalue λ
max
would be

·
·
n
j
j
ij
Wi
W
a
1
max
λ

(3)
If A is a consistency matrix, eigenvector X
can be calculated by

0 ) (
max
· − X I A λ
(4)
Saaty (1990) proposed utilizing
consistency index (C.I.) and consistency
ratio (C.R.) to verify the consistency of
the comparison matrix. C.I. and R.I. are
defined as follows:
) 1 /( ) (
max
− − · n n CI λ

(5)
CR CI CR / ·

(6)
Where RI represents the average
consistency index over numerous random
entries of same order reciprocal matrices.
If
1 . 0 ≤ CR
, the estimate is accepted:
otherwise, a new comparison matrix is
solicited until
1 . 0 ≤ CR
.
4. Case (Iimplementation OR study?)
ThisAn AHP-based evaluation model
can be developed for evaluatingselecting
the optimal location selection thatof
hospitals are established ofto ensure a
competitive advantage via the following
seven steps:
Step 1: Define the evaluative criteria for theto
select the optimal location selection thatof
hospitals are established ofto ensure a
competitive advantage.
Step 2: Establish a hierarchical structure. Based
on the Modified Delphi method, acquire
important indicators into a hierarchy of
interrelated decision elements, including
goal, criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives.
Step 3: Establish the pair-wise comparison matrix
using formula (1). Everyach decision
maker makes a pair-wise comparison of
the decision elements and givesassigns
them relative scores.
Step 4: Calculate the eigenvalue and eigenvector
of each pair-wise comparison matrix using
formulae (2) to (3).
Step 5: Test the consistency of each comparison
matrix using formulae (4) to (5).
Step 6: Aggregate the related scores provided by
all decision makers using the geometric
mean method, and, then, estimate the
relative weights of the elements of each
level.
Step 7: Combine the relative weights of the
elements of each level to determineselect
the optimal location selection thatfor
hospitals to ensure a are established of
competitive advantage.
This study constructs indicators Bbased
on y reviewing the evaluations of how to
select the optimal location selection thatof
hospitals to ensure a are established of
competitive advantage, this study has
constructed indicators to evaluate the
optimal location selection that hospitals
are established performance. The
Modified Delphi method is then adopted
to summarize the expert opinions in order
to construct an evaluation model to
assessselect the optimal location selection
that of hospitals are established ofto
ensure a competitive advantage. Based on
factors to evaluate hospitals, i.e., the
optimal location selection of competitive
advantage, the Aanalytic Hhierarchy
Pprocess (AHP) is used to illustrate the
problems and combine the six factors
from famous Porter’s diamond model the
six factors to establish the hierarchy
structure for the performance evaluation in
this study. Additionally, the weights of all
indicators within hierarchies are
calculated, along with the weight of the
overall hierarchies. Finally, Take some
regional hospitals in Taiwan are taken as
the research object in this study, wWhen
hospital establishment, considers locations
A, B and C are considered to establish a
hospital, (the wrap enters constructs under
the construction evaluation pattern,
whether the result does set up with the
present location A is same. : I HAVE NO
IDEA WHAT THIS SENTENCE
MEANS. REWRITE.)
5. Applying AHP for evaluatingto select
the optimal location selection thatof
hospitals to ensure a are established of
competitive advantage
Step 1: Define the evaluative criteria and sub-
criteria used to evaluateselect the optimal
location selection that of hospitals are
established ofto ensure a competitive
advantage. Here, the Modified Delphi
method is applied to define the evaluation
criteria and sub-criteria. Murry and
Hammons (1995) suggested that the
Modified Delphi method must summarize
expert opinions on a range from 10-30.
17Seventeen hospital
administratorsmanagers and
academicsscholar expert are then issued a
preliminary questionnaire in which 6six
evaluation criterion and 18eighteen
evaluation sub-criteriaon are incorporated.
Factor conditions:
Factor-related conditions means
thatrefer to a hospital’s investment in
production time, including capital labor
and land. (Porter, 1990)
Capital: building the hospital needsrequires
capital. (Bell, 1997; Gourley, 1997; Chase
&and Aquilano, 1994; Chapman &and
Walker, 1991; Stevenson, 1990;
Tompkins, 1984; Browning, 1980;
Moriarty, 1980; Dower, 1974; Smith,
1971).
Labor: the dDemand of the hfor hospital’s
manpower personnel, including
doctorphysicians, pharmacists, healthcare
personnel, dietitcians, registered
professional nurses, medical equipment
technicians, the talents of the medical care
talent and so on, as well as the quality and
quantity of and specialized talented
individualsperson’s quality and quantity.
(Bell, 1997; Gourley, 1997; Chase &and
Aquilano, 1994; Chapman &and Walker,
1991; Stevenson, 1990; Bowan, 1989;
Tompkins, 1984; Browning, 1980;
Moriarty, 1980; Dower, 1974; Smith,
1971).
Land:: including the position thathow the
lands obtained will affect the cost, the
plan as to how that the lands are is used
and the suitableappropriate disposition to
avoid a situation in which and so on with
that can avoid the land is unavailable
lacked when the hospital is expandedsion
occurs in the future. (Bell, 1997; Gourley,
1997; Chase &and Aquilano, 1994;
Stevenson, 1990; Browning, 1980;
Moriarty, 1980; Dower, 1974; Smith,
1971).
Demand-related conditions:
Factors The influence of theing
medical market demand include various
illnesses, mainly is used by the sickness
demand forms and special quality,
including population number, population
density and population age distribution.
(Porter, 1990)
Population number: The demand for medical
services varies according to the local
population number must have the
difference to the medical demand, like .
For instance, the demand for medical
services is greater in the metropolistan
areas to the medical demand are more than
to the countryside than in rural areas.
(Bell, 1997; Stevenson, 1990; Moriarty,
1980; Smith, 1971).
Population density: related hHospital scale,
and rank (district hospital regional
hospital, and medical center), must
correspond to the population density of
the region, such as like Taipei with the a
highly densitye population area suits to set
up aboe the hospital of the region. (Bell,
1997; Stevenson, 1990; Moriarty, 1980;
Smith, 1971).
Population age distribution: with hospital
tType of illness of hospital patients (acute,
chronic, faculty or synthesis) related,must
correspond to the distribution of
population age. For instance, (like the old
age population ratio low area suits to set
up the women and children hospital. : I
HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THIS
SENTENCE MEANS.) (Bell, 1997;
Stevenson, 1990; Moriarty, 1980; Smith,
1971).
For, sStrategy, structure and rivalry:
Hospital establishment, organization,
and management practices and
competitors condition and so on,
includingall influence management
objective, rank of competitiong hospitals
position and policymaker’s attitudes.
(Porter, 1990).
mManagement objective: Means that
mission which the hHospital
administrators establish a mission for
management must achieve, seeks the
hospital to continue forever the
management practices. (Porter, 1990).
Rank of competitiong hospitals position:
(mMedical centers 、, regional hospitals
and district hospitals for both Western and
) Region Chinese medicine hospital
(medical center, regional hospital and
district hospital) the, depending on their
number and the scale, will affect how
hospitals rank whether in this position
consideration. (Chapman & Walker, 1991;
Stevenson, 1990; Moriarty, 1980; Smith,
1971).
pPolicymaker’s attitude: Individuals include
means that the board of directors (chief)
(administrators), consultants (including
hospital management, and financial
personnel and so on)) and other related
professionals such as the architects and so
on by chance with thehave opinions
towards managements style, such as an
authoritative or a for example despotic,
the doctrine of the mean, is benevolent
one. (Chase & Aquilano, 1994; Gold,
1991; Smith, 1971).
Related and supporting industries:
The dDevelopment ofing the upper
echelons reachesof the medical sector and
assistedsupporting sectors industry in the
established hospital’s areas, includinge
“Practice of the medicine practiceand, the
medicinepharmaceutical industrysector “,
“Hhospital administration sector
industry” and “Hthe healthycare sector
industry”. (Porter, 1990).
Practice of medicine and medicine
industry:
1. The medicine practice and the
pharmaceutical sector
Practice of medicine industry The
medicine practice includesing
biochemistry technology, (medical reject :
MEANING?), cultivation of medical
personnel manpower cultivation and some
related industrial development; medicine
industry. The pharmaceutical sector
includesing medical
equipmentinstrumentation,
drugspharmaceuticals and medicineal
preparation, medicinal cosmetics and
related industrial development.
2. Hospital administration sectorindustry:
This area iIncludesing the
manage’sment consultants industry, the
information technology industry, flowing
material flowing and related industrial
development.
3. The healthcare sectorHealthy industry:
This area involves sustaining
community healthIncluding the keeping in
good health village, the nursed
familyhome caregivers, the looking after
for a long term caretime, the rresidential
caregiversing in the family to looking
after, the insurance enterprisesector and
related industrial development.
五. Government:
The key aspect that the utilization of the
gGovernmental policy towards
establishing is the hospitals in order to
establishment which may strengthen the
hospital’s superiority, their
competitiveness includesing “T the
qualifications of the hospital’s
establishment and the regulations of the
established standard”, “The plans to
efforts to push the promote a medical’s
network” and “Carrying on the work of
the promulgating tasks that require a
hospital’s judgment”.assessment (Porter,
1990).
The qQualifications of the hospital’s
establishment
This area Iincludesing establishment
of the hospital’s establishment,. aAfter
passing through the health controlling
organization toauthorities approve the
hospital permit, one can begin to applythe
construction license can be applied for
along with and related
establishmentgoverning laws complied
withaccording to the construction law.
(Hsiao et al., 1990).
Efforts to promote aThe plans to push the
medicall’s network
In order to promote the balanced
development of the medical resources,
dividing the medical regions and
establishing the graded medical
formulation, for examples, lacking the
regions to the medical resources and
rewarding the folk to establish medical
organizations. (Hsiao et al., 1990).
Carrying pm the work of the hospital’s
judgment
3. Promulgating tasks that require a
hospital’s assessment
In order to supervise the hospital tTo
strengthen the business management of
hospitals and guarantee the quality of
medical service, establishing the(an
accredited OR a graded) medical system
will influence whether individuals seek a
physicianaffect the consideration that
people go to see a doctor. (Hsiao et al.,
1990).
六 . Chance: (NOTE: Do you mean
‘Opportunity’ OR ‘Opportunities’ OR
‘Circumstances’?)
The hHospitals and the government can
not foresee circumstances that would
negatively impact the medical care
sectorare unable to expect in advance or
charge the accidental incidents, and it may
have the and possibly influence to the
existingcurrent market competitiveon
status or the other constructsive surface of
in the diamond theory, including
“(dramatic fluctuations in market demand
OR the market demand of the violent
change”,) “ (dramatic fluctuations in
production costs OR the violent changes
of the production costs”) and “(significant
changes in the financial market and
exchange rate OR the great change of the
financial market and the exchange rate”.
(Porter, 1990).
(Dramatic fluctuations in market demand
OR The mMarket demand of the violent
change ):
An increasing This region’s population
number increasing makesin this region has
increased both hospital bed capacity and
the number of illnesses, e.g., SARS the
sickbeds in crease and other causing
reason which sickness number increases,
and subsequently createsing a dramatic
fluctuation the violent change of in the
demand for the local medical market
demand such as SARS. (Porter, 1990).
(Dramatic fluctuations in production costs
OR The violent changes of the production
costs):
This iIncludesing the global rise in the
cost price rising of the international steel
and iron or events such as an energy crisis
and so on. (Porter, 1990).
Significant changes in the financial market
and exchange rateThe great change of the
financial market and the exchange rate:
The fFluctuations of in the debt-credit
interest rate of the banks or the influence
of the internationalglobal currency values
caused the costincur changes ofin the cost
of the medical equipmentsinstrumentation
and drugs.pharmaceuticals (Porter, 1990).
Step 2: Establish a hierarchical structure.
Based on the Modified Delphi method, a
general consensus among experts can be
acquiredreached to establish a hierarchical
structure. The ultimate goal of evaluating
tThe optimal location selection thatfor
hospitals can be selected and evaluatedare
established of competitive advantage can
be achieved, followed by 6 based on six
evaluation criterion, 18, eighteen
evaluation sub-criteriaon and, finally, the
alternatives (Fig.1).
Evaluating the Software Quality Using the
Analytic Hierarchy Process
Abstract-2
This (study OR work OR investigation)
presents a novel computing algorithm to
evaluate the quality of software. An
approach of software quality evaluation
model and its computing algorithm is
proposed in this paper. The software
support can reduce barriers to
implementingof application of MCDM
procedures. HereIn this study, we proposal
the software quality is determined
quantitativelymeasurement . Relevant
criteria of this model are derived from the
globally adopted ISO 9126-1 standard.The
relevant criteria of this model are derived
from the international norm ISO 9126-1.
As a measurement theory, the Analytic
Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a
measurement theory that prioritizes the
hierarchy and consistency of judgmental
data provided by a group of decision
makers. AHP incorporates the evaluations
of all decision makers into a final
decision, without having to elicit their
utility functions on subjective and
objective criteria, by pair-wise
comparisons of the alternatives. The
Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)-based
decision-making method can provide
decision makers or buyerprocurers with an
effective means of a valuable reference
for evaluating software quality.
Importantly, the proposed model can
assist users (NOTE: ‘consumers’ instead
of ‘users’?) and developers (NOTE:
Instead of ‘developers’, do you mean
‘software developers’?) in assessing
software quality, making it highly
applicable for academic and commercial
purposes.Importantly, the proposed model
can assist the user and developer to assess
the software quality, making it highly
applicable for academia and commercial
purposes.
Keywords: Software Qquality Ccharacteristics,
Ssoftware Qquality Mmodel, Evaluating
the Ssoftware Qquality evaluation,
Analytic Hierarchy Process, MADM
Introduction
Among the challenges encountered in
When the software development include
was devised, it would often encounter a
lot of problem, for example how to
develop thedevising quality good
software, unable to be accurately
controlling the softwareoverhead costs,
complying with a and progress schedule,
how to maintaining the software system,
how could dealcoping with iunstable
software systems, and satisfying consumer
demand with respect to user satisfaction to
the software and software quality, etc...
Above challenges may incur a These
problems may be result the crisis onin
software development if not effectively
addressedto produce. Therefore,Problems
within the software sector confronts
problems can be summed up as follows:
Can notInability to accurately forecast or
control the software costs.,
LowSubstandard quality, a, low reliability
and ambiguous requests andon how to
enhance software quality request is
fuzzy.,
Unnecessary Rrisks that will face while
offering and maintaining the quality
assurance., and
TheHigh personnel turnover rateflow fast,
leading to human error in results the
manpower fault phenomenon while the
software development.
To resolve the above problemsherefore,
develop an able to consider multi-attribute
characteristics or factors of software
quality characteristic or factor is worth
discussedmust be considered. Effective
management strategies in a technology
setting are thus essential In order to
resolve theing crisies ofin software
development, it can aim at the technology
and management cope with crisis. The
technological aspect refers to the side is
based on software technology adopted and
design expertise of a software
developersigner's own software designing
technique.
Extensively adoptedused in multi-
criteria decision -making, AHP has
successfully been applied to many
practical decision-making problems
(Saaty, 1988). Despite its popularity, this
method cannot adequately resolve the
inherent uncertainty and imprecision
associated with the mapping of a decision
maker’s perception to exact numbers
(Deng, 1999). In the tradiconventional
formulation of AHP, human judgment is
represented as exact numbers.
However, in many practical situations,
the human preference model is uncertain
and decision makers might be reluctant or
unable to assign exact numerical values to
makethe comparison judgments. For
instance, when evaluating variousdifferent
services, decision makers are often
uncertain of their level of preference due
to incomplete and unreliablecertain
information. Given the subjective and
qualitative nature of some service
evaluation criteria, a decision makers
finds it extremely difficult to express the
strength(NOTE: Do you mean ‘degree’
OR ‘extent’ instead of ‘strength’? Check
intended meaning.) of theirhis preferences
and to provide exact pair-wise comparison
judgments. Therefore, this study presents
a novel AHP-based method for resolving
the uncertainty and imprecision of service
evaluations during pre-negotiation stages,
where the decision-maker’s comparison
judgments of a decision-maker are
represented as fuzzy triangular numbers.
Also proposed herein is a fuzzy
prioritization method is also proposed,
whichcapable of derivesing crisp priorities
(criteria weights and scores of
alternatives) from consistent and
inconsistent fuzzy comparison matrices.
The fFuzzy modification of the AHP is
applied as an evaluation method, with its
effectiveness illustrated by a numerical
example.
As an effective means of constructing
an evaluation method, Tthe fuzzy analytic
hierarchy process (FAHP) - based
decision-making method to construct an
evaluation method c can provide decision
makers, users(NOTE: Do you mean
‘consumers’ instead of ’users’?) and
buyerprocurers with an effective means of
valuable reference for either evaluating
the software quality to identify the most
appropriate qualityies or factors in in
develops the software system
development. Importantly, the proposed
method can facilitate the software
researchers and user or buyerconsumers in
assessing the software quality, making it
highly applicable for academiac and
commercial purposes.
Software Quality
Generally speaking sSoftware quality
generally refers to the ability of a
particular means that the software to
comply with meets the degree of
user'sconsumer demand with respect to
function and characteristics(NOTE: Do
you mean ‘features’ instead of
‘characteristics’?) (degree of conforming
to requirements). Schulmeer and
McManus (1996) defined the software
quality as "wholeall functions and
characteristics(NOTE: Do you mean
‘features’ instead of ‘characteristics’?) of a
software product thatcan satisfy
establishedconsumer demand ability. The
International Standard Organization (ISO)
9000 (2001) series of standards of 2001
defines the software quality ias the totality
of features and characteristics(NOTE:
‘features’ and ‘characteristics’ are
redundant. Say one, but not both.) of a
software product that can bear on its
ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.
Rogers (2001) definesd the software
quality ias conformingance to with
explicitly stated functional and
performance requirements, explicitly
documented development standards, and
implicit characteristics that are expected
of all professional developed software.”
Ward and Ward and Venkataraman (1999)
suggested that summarize the software
quality includes asthe followsing: (a) Base
on uUser-based: evaluateding by users,
software quality (refers to OR is) the
degree of user expectation.; (b) Base on
pProduct delivery-based: evaluateding by
the product itself, software quality (refers
to OR is) the degree of system
effectiveness and program
maintainability.; (c) Base on
mManufacturing (process: OR OMIT)
-based: software quality is controlled by
the (development OR developing) process,
emphasizing quality control and
management.; and (d) Base on
oOrganizational control-based: software
quality (refers to OR is) the (plan of : OR
OMIT ) project costs, production time, and
resource control and risk management.
Deutsch and Willis (1998) categorized
software quality into two typeas “software
procedure quality” and ”software product
quality”, as (shown OR illustrated) in
Figure. 1. As a (feature OR characteristic)
of software product
development( process: OR OMIT )S,
software procedure quality is the
characteristic of software product
development process. It has five elements
(comprises OR consists of) the following
software engineering-related elements:,
including technology, tools, people,
organization and equipment. As a (feature
OR characteristic) of software product
release, Ssoftware product quality is the
characteristic of software product release,
includesing document clarity and integrity,
design trace-ability, program reliability
and test integrity.
Figure 1 Concept of software quality
(Deutach and Wills, 1998)
The ISO 9126-1 standard (2001) was
developed in 2001an attempt to identify
not only the keymajor quality attributes
for computer software and it standard
identifies, but also six keymajor quality
attributes as (showsn OR illustrated) in
Figure. 2. This proposal (NOTE: What
‘proposal’ are you referring to? Do you
mean ‘The proposed method’?)
adoptsuses the ISO 9126-1 model to
evaluatinge the software quality. Define
tThe (evaluation OR evaluative) criteria
and sub-criteria used to evaluate the
software quality are defined as followsing:
Functionality: The (extent OR degree)
to which the software satisfies stated
(requirements OR needs), and it
includesing the four sub-criteria(NOTE:
Don’t you mean ‘sub-criterion’ since this
is the singular form of a noun?) of
(adequacy OR appropriateness OR
suitability), accuracy, interoperability and
security..
(Adequacy OR Appropriateness OR
Suitability): (the capability of the software
OR software capability) to provide an
appropriate set of functions for specified
tasks and user objectives.
Accuracy: the cap(ability of the software OR
software capability) to provide (correct
OR right) or (conferred upon OR agreed)
results or effects.(NOTE: Can you omit
‘or effects’ without changing the
sentence’s overall meaning?)
Interoperability: (the capability of the
software OR software capability) to
interact with one or more specified
systems.
Security: (the capability of the software OR
software capability) to prevent (prohibited
OR unintended) access and (withstand OR
resist) deliberate attacks intended to gain
unauthorized access to confidential
information, or to make unauthorized
access.
Reliability: (How long OR The
amount of time that) the software is
available for use and; it includes the three
sub-criteria of maturity, fault tolerance,
and recoverability.
Maturity: (the capability of the software OR
software capability) to (avert OR avoid)
failure (owing to OR as a result of) (errors
OR faults) in the software(NOTE: OR
simply say ‘owing to software errors’).
Fault tolerance: (the capability of the
software OR software capability) to
maintain a specified level of performance
in cases of software (errors OR faults) or
infringement of its specified interface.
Recoverability: (the capability of the
software OR software capability) to re-
establish its level of performance and
recover the data directly affected (if a
failure occurs OR in the case of a failure).
Usability: The (extent OR degree) to
which the software is easily to
useimplemented and ; it includes the four
sub-criteria (NOTE: Don’t you mean
‘sub-criterion’?)of understandability,
learn-ability, operability and
attractiveness.
Understandability: (the capability of the
software product OR software capability)
to enable the users to understand whether
thethe appropriateness of a software is
suitable, and how its can be used for
particular tasks and conditions of use.
Learn-ing ability: (the capability of the
software OR software capability)product
to enable the users to learn its
application(s?).
Operability: (the capability of the software
product OR software capability) to enable
the users to operate and control it.
Attractiveness: the cap(ability of the
software product OR software capability)
to be liked by the ugain user acceptance.
Efficiency: (How OR The degree to
which OR The extent to which) the
software makes optimally uses of system
resources and; it includes the two sub-
criteria(NOTE: Don’t you mean ‘sub-
criterion’?) of time behavior and resource
behavior.
Time Bbehavior: (the capability of the
software OR software capability) to
provide appropriate responses and,
processing times and throughput rates
when (performing OR implementing?) its
function,(s?) under stated conditions.
Resource Bbehavior: (the capability of the
software OR software capability) to use
appropriate resources (in time : OR
OMIT ) when the software (implements
OR performs) its function(s?) under stated
conditions.
Maintainability: The ease with which
(repairs maycan be made to the software
OR the software can be serviced); and it
includes the four sub-criteria(NOTE:
Don’t you mean ‘sub-criterion’?) of
analyzability, changeability, stability and
testability.
Analyzability: (the capability of the software
product OR software capability) to be
diagnosed for deficiencies or causes of
failures in the software(, or for the parts to
be modified to be identified. ; otherwise,
the parts must be either modified or
identified.)
Changeability: (the capability of the
software product OR software capability)
to (implement a specified modification
OR enable a specified modification to be
implemented).
Stability: (the capability of the software OR
software capability) to minimize
unexpected effects(NOTE: I have no idea
what you mean by ‘unexpected effects’ in
the context of this sentence.) from
(software modifications OR modifications
of the software).
Testability: (the capability of the software
product OR software capability) to
(validate modified software OR enable
modified software to be validated).
Portability: The ease with which
theHow software can be easily transposed
from one environment to another and; it
includes the four sub-criteria(NOTE:
Don’t you mean ‘sub-criterion’?) of
adaptability, install ability, co existence
and replace ability.
Adaptability: (the capability of the software
OR software capability) to be modified for
different specified environments without
applying actions or means other than those
provided (for this purpose : OR OMIT )
for the software considered.
Install-ability: (the capability of the software
OR software capability) to be installed in
a specified environment.
Co-existence: (the capability of the software
OR software capability) to co-exist with
other independent software in a common
environment sharing common resources.
Replace-ability: the (capability of the
software OR software capability) to be
used in replace of other specified
software( in the environment of that
software : OR OMIT ).
Conclusions
This (workproposal OR study OR
investigation) presents an optimal
operating model and algorithm method
capable of effectively monitoring the
software in relation to (users and
purchasers OR users and procurers OR the
research and user or buyer), thus enabling
administrators or decision makers to
identify the most appropriate software
quality. Applying fuzzy theory to
(determine OR measure OR assess)
software product quality by quantifying its
attributes hcans the advantage of
reduceing the effect caused by ambiguity
and uncertainty properties of software
quality attributes. From Based on
measurementing results in this study,
software users and developers can not
only more thoroughlybetter understand the
strength and weaknessmerits and
limitations of the software products, but
also ultimately enhance and do some
necessary improvement to promote its
overall quality. Finally, wWe recommend
that administrators or decision makers in
user or buyer adopt thise measurement
results of this study to evaluate the
software quality.
9. (Business Management)
Evaluating the Quality of Infectionus
Medical Waste Disposal Firms Using the
Delphi Method and Analytic Hierarchy
Process
1. Introduction
Since Taiwan implemented the National
Health Insurance scheme was established
in Taiwan in 1995. All or different levels,
many hospitals have eliminated adopt
abandon type the use of medical
hygienewaste disposal equipment on their
premises in a great quantity, in order to
upgrade sanitary conditionshave fine
medical quality and getattract morenew
patients in hospitals concerned with a
hygienic environment. In practice,
Conventionshygienic equipment was
commonly used in Taiwanese hospitals
utilize high pressure tofor disinfecting
purposes to retrieve medical hygiene
equipment already independent of favor.
However, many hospitals have opted out
of using such A great quantity adopt
abandon type medical hygiene
equipment., leading to an increase in the
medical waste and rise in to increase, and
the waste cope with expenses in coping
with this growing amount of wastealso
increase (Hsiao, 2000). According to
statistics from Tthe Department of Health
of the Republic of China, have medical
statistical data exhibit, as of by the year
2003, the medical mechanismthe number
of medical organizations island wide
amounted to have 18,777,the while the
number of sick beds in hospitals reached
amount about 136,331, it is the mainwhich
are the primary production source of the
medical waste (Environmental wWhite
Paper Report book, 2004). According to
the The Department of eEnvironmental
pProtection Associationindicate of the
Republic of China, the medical waste
output aboutaround 300 metric tons of
medical waste are generated annually in
per diem, with 42.4 metric tons considered
among them infectionus medical waste
nearly occupy 42.4 metric tons,, i.e., an
amount have phenomenon increasing
annuallyyear by year. Regulation of the
eEnvironmental regulations protection
stipulateion, that medical organizations
can contract publicly owned or private
disposal firms to handle medical waste the
mechanism have product career waste, the
waste must to disposal , can entrust
publicly-owned or popular disposal firms
(Pan,1997). To effectively handleA
investigating study , to counter the
infectious mesdical wastes, handle fashion
with medical mechanism, find
aboutaround 62.5% of all public hospitals,
about 80% of hospital of legal person of
financial group , about and 75.8% of all
private hospitals, all entrust outsource this
work to disposal firms to deal with the
medical wastes (Hsiao,2000). (NOTE: I
have no idea what you mean by “about
80% of hospital of legal person of
financial group” means or how it fits in
this sentence. Do you mean “To
effectively handle infectious medical
wastes, around 62.5% of all public
hospitals and 75.8% of all private
hospitals (or a combined total of nearly
80% of all legally operating hospitals)
outsource this work to disposal firms
(Hsiao,2000).” Make sure that I have not
changed your intended meaning.)
Therefore, given the inevitability of the
waste growing expenditures in handling
medical wasteis unavoidable., The
medical organizations strive to minimize
costs, maintain high quality medical
mechanism hope have a low expenditure,
services quality friendly and lawful
disposale of infectious wastes legally firm.
Such concerns highlight the importance of
Consequently selecting qualified medical
waste disposal firms during
outsourcingexcellent firm is especially
important.
In sum, given the trend for This study
motive is the hospitals to eliminate the use
of medical waste disposal equipment on
their premises, adopt abandon type
medical hygiene equipment in a great
quantity, cope with increasing amounts of
make the medical waste to increase, and
rising treatment coststhe waste cope with
expenses also increase, and as well as
comply with environmental the laws
regulations, therefore the medical
organizations commonly outsource their
mechanism entrust the disposal firm
handle medical wastes treatment to
disposal firms (Hsiao, 2004). While many
The majority hospitals to select waste
disposal firms, hospital because of to
obstruct the relation on of management
ing is very difficult, consequentlyoften
selects a disposal firm based on its
professional general bottom experience
and a competitive bidnegotiated price to
select firm,. However, such a decision
process lacks objectivity and a but utilize
negotiated price to select firm is
insufficient, for the sake of avert these
wrong, f can pass quantitative means of
zation way , set up a way of evaluating
outsourcing candidatesmode., not
necessarily ensuring that the most
appropriate disposal firm is It can be
selected and not merely serve well ,
charge appropriatly and have good
disposal firm. Therefore, this work
presents a model based on the Delphi
method and analytic hierarchy process
(AHP) for selecting study purpose is to
establish disposal firms to treat infectionus
medical waste disposal firms discuss and
elect mode. ExerciseThe modified Delphi
method is adopted to marshalaccumulate
expert opinions and, based on that data,
establish an appropriate elected proper
assessment criterion. Additionally, the
AHP theory is utilized to establish a
model for selecting firms, and calculate
the weights. (NOTE: What are ‘the
weights’ you are referring to? ‘the
weights’ for what?) The proposed model
provides an expectation can provide a
objective, and effective means of thods to
selecting disposal firms to treat the
infectionus medical waste disposal firms.
2.Methodology
An attempt is made to Research objects
of this study are to select the most
appropriate candidate among disposal
firms that treat infectionus medical waste
disposal firms. Methodology adopting tIn
addition to adopting the modified Delphi
method to accumulate expert opinions and
identifying a normal evaluation criterion.
Additionall, this study also utilizes the
AHP theory is utilized to establish a
model for selecting firms. Theoriesetical
approaches adopted herein are described
as follows.
2.1 Delphi Method
In order to assist infections medical waste
administrator can be effective, systematic
and objective to select an aAppropriate
infectionus medical waste firms must be
selected effectively, systematically and
objectively to facilitate hospital
administrators in decision making.
Therefore, the Delphi Method is adopted
to enable in order to condense eexpert's to
reach a common consensus during short
time,efficiently, consequently adopting
Delphi Method to treat as a standards
withsubsequently providing administrators
with an objective means of to selecting
disposal firms to treat the infectionus
medical waste disposal firms. By
incorporating quantitative and qualitative
considerations, tThe Delphi method is a
secience and technology integrated
method with the quantification and
quality, can facilitate utilizes the way to a
discussion through in writing constantly
withamong anonymous experts, in order
to achieve performing the consistency in
approaching a topic underand to settle a
subject of debate. (Sung, 2001). (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) The Delphi method comprises
the following five steps: (1) selecting the
experts; (2) perform a questionnaire
survey inof the first round; (3) perform a
questionnaire survey inof the second
round; (4) perform a questionnaire ofin
the third round; and (5) to synthesize
expert opinions and to reach a common
consensus. If theFor experts unable to
reach a common consensus, the steps (3)
and (4) are repeated until a uniform result
is achieved (Huang, 1996; Sung, 2001).
Given that Tthe Delphi method have
exceptional factor in the certain study,
(NOTE: I have no idea what you mean by
“the Delphi method have exceptional
factor in the certain study”. How about
“Given that the Delphi method handles
exceptional factors in a particular
circumstance,” OK? Although this makes
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.)therefore the questionnaire
results must measured repeatedly
measuring, thus expending a considerable
amount of not only to waste time and
reducing the rate of recovery rate of the
questionnaires is reduced submitted
(Murry and Hammons,1995; Sung,
2001).Therefore, to correctremedy the
above limitations in the Delphi method,
immediately employ records andof expert
interviews are accumulated to
marshaldraw up a elementary basic
criterion, do instead of not gathering the
opinions of all arrange the whole experts
suggestion with openthrough a questions
and answers approach. (NOTE: Although
this makes this sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.)In this study
utilizes As an efficient means of gathering
expert opinions on a particular topic, the
modified Delphi method is used in this
study to develop perform a questionnaire
survey duringof the second round., in
which Modified Delphi method can to be
frugal time and enable expert direct to
gather the focus in the study topical.
Therefore, this study utilizes modified
Delphi method, have five experts
participate in the decision-making group.
A To collect the experts consensus opinion
is subsequently achieved in the non-
interference(NOTE: ‘the non-interference’
WHAT? You are missing a noun for this
adjective to modify. By placing a hyphen
between ‘non’ and ‘interference’ you have
made it an adjective and, therefore, are
missing a noun.) , andwith those results
gathereding the experts consensus
opinion. , Finally, subjective factors are
identified using an objective after that
employ measurement method to reach the
purpose that the subjective factor
objectifies.(NOTE: Do you mean
‘evaluation method’ OR ‘assessment
method’ instead of ‘measurement
method’?)
 2.2 Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP)
As a decision making method, the
Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)is a
decision method that decomposes a
complex multi-criteria decision problem
into a hierarchy (Saaty, 1980),. The
procedure for the applying AHP to thean
uncertainty condition in order to identify
an and the majority estimateion criterion
with thefor decision making purposes is
question ,the calculation procedure as
follows:. (NOTE: Although this makes
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
1. Establish thea hierarchy(NOTE:
‘hierarchical’?) structure.
  Deal with cComplex issues can be
addressed effectively through use of a
decompose capitalize the
hierarchy(NOTE: ‘hierarchical’?)
structure. Because of given the inability of
humans inability to compare more than
seven categories assumption(NOTE:
‘categories of ‘assumptions’? OR can you
simply say ‘categories’? Check intended
meaning.) simultaneously. TheA hierarchy
is inadvisable toshould not contain more
than exceed seven elements. Under this
limited condition, can carry ona rational
comparison can be made and the
consistency can be ensured as well.
(Satty,1980; Deng and Tzeng, 1989) 。.
The first hierarchy of thea structure is
goal.(NOTE: ‘purpose’ instead of ‘goal’?)
The end(NOTE: ‘final’?) hierarchy
involves the choiceselecting projects or
identifying (replacement : OR OMIT)
alternatives, andwhile the middle
hierarchiesy levels is the appraiseal certain
factors or conditions.
2. Compute the element weight of various
hierarchies
(1) Establishing pairwise comparison
matrix A.
Based on an element of the upper
hierarchy that is an evaluation standard, a
pairwise comparison is for each element.
While Assume have n elements are
assumed, must make n(n-1)/2 elements of
the pairwise comparison must be derived.
(NOTE: ‘derived’ instead of ‘made’?
Check intended meaning.) Let
Cn C C ,..., 2 , 1
bedenote the set of elements, while
ij
a
represents a judgment on a pair of
elements
j i
C C ,
. An n by n matrix A can be
expressed as follows:
[ ]
]
]
]
]
]
]

· ·
1 / 1 / 1
1 / 1
1
2 1
2 12
1 12
2
1

   



n n
n
n
n
ij
a a
a a
a a
C
C
C
a A
     (1)
Comparison results of tThe n
elements compare resultare inserted into
the upper triangle of pairwise comparison
matrix A. (NOTE: Although this makes
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.) (Principal diagonal for the
element oneself comparison, therefore it
is1 )(NOTE: Although this makes this
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
n
C C C 
2 1
that I did not change your intended
meaning.)The lowerunder triangle
(NOTE: ‘triangular’?) values are relative
positions for the reciprocal values of the
upper triangle’s partial relative positions
values reciprocal, (NOTE: Although this
makes this sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.)i.e.,
ij
a
= 1/
ij
a
.
Where
ii
a
=1 and
ji
a
=1/
ij
a
,
i
,
j
=1,2,…, n, two
elements (
j i
C C ,
) that become one
quantization value for an important
relative judgment. In matrix A, employ
ij
a

can be expressed, as a set of numerical
weights
n
W W W ........, ,
2 1
, that “reflectsin which
the recorded judgments” must be
assigned to the n elements
n
C C C ,....., ,
2 1
. If A is
a consistency matrix, the relations
between weights
i
W
and judgments
ij
a
are
simply given by
ij j i
a W W · /
(for
n j i ,....., 2 , 1 , , ·
) and
matrix A as follows:
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
n n n n
n
n
n
w w w w w w
w w w w w w
w w w w w w
C
C
C
A
/ / /
/ / /
/ / /
2 1
2 2 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 1
2
1

   



(2)
(2) Compute the eigenvalue and
eigenvector.
Matrix A multiplies the elements
weight vector (
x
) equal to
nx
, that isi.e., (
A
-
nI
)
x
=0, wherethe
x
is the eigenvalue (
n
) of
eigenvector. Given that
ij
a
denotes the
subjective judgment of decision-makers,
n
C C C 
2 1
with the actual value (
j i
W W /
) hasving a
certain degree of difference. Therefore,
x n Ax . ·
cannot be set up.(NOTE: Do you
mean ‘derived’ instead of ‘set up’? Check
intended meaning.) Satty (1990) suggested
that the largest eigenvalue
max
λ
be

·
·
n
j
j
ij
Wi
W
a
1
max
λ
        (3)
If A is a consistency matrix, eigenvector X
can be calculated by formula (4):
0 ) (
max
· − X I A λ
(4)
(3) Performing the consistency test.
Saaty (1990) propose utilizeding
consistency index (
CI
) and consistency
ratio (
CR
) to verify the consistency of the
comparison matrix. CI and CR are defined
as follows:

) 1 /( ) (
max
− − · n n CI λ
(5)

RI CI CR / ·

(6)
Where RI represents the average
consistency index over numerous random
entries of same order reciprocal matrices.
If
1 . 0 ≤ CR
, the estimate is accepted and;
otherwise, a new comparison matrix is
solicited until
1 . 0 ≤ CR
.
3. Compute the entirety hierarchy (NOTE:
‘hierarchical’?) weight.
After the computed for various
hierarchyies and element of weights are
computer, . Tthe entirety
hierarchy(NOTE: ‘hierarchical’?) weight
is computed, ultimately enabling decision-
makers to select the most appropriate
strategy. (NOTE: Although this makes
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
10. (Business Management)
Institutional background and literature
review of prior research
Health care systems in Taiwan
In Taiwan, medical care providers
mustWhile bereceiving certifification
fromed by the Department of Health on
the basedis of on size (i.e., number of beds
capacity), facilityies and missions, health
care providers in Taiwan are into four
different categorized as either es: medical
centers, regional hospitals, district
hospitals, and or local clinics. In
comparison to hospitals, lLocal clinics are
relatively smaller than hospitals and only
provide ambulatory outpatient services.
They do not provide hospitalization
without inpatient care services (Chang,
1998).
Before March 1995, 67% of the total
population inall Taiwanese residents fell
under had been covered by the 13thirteen
health insurance schemes operated by the
Central Trust of China and the Bureau of
Labor Insurance. Seven of these insurance
schemes operated were under a financial
deficits for many years. To reform the
health care system, the Taiwanese
government establishedset up a planning
committee to draft a universal health
insurance plan, i.e., called the National
Health Insurance Program, which
consolidated all of the 1the thirteen3
health insurance schemes into a single one
system (Department of Health, 1997).
The Taiwanese legislature, the Executive
Yuan, draftedis this program for review
draft was passed by the congress of
Taiwan in September 1994. It was tThen
known as the National Health Insurance
Act 1994. T, the Executive Yuanhe
Executive Yuan decided to implement
enacted this universal health insurance
program into law in March 1995. Since
then, this NHI program covers essentially
all people in Taiwanese residents.
Hospital ownership in Taiwan
Hospital ownership in Taiwan can be
broadlygenerally classified into two
principal groupsas either government or
publicly owned andor privately
operatedowned. There were 19,240 public
and private medical care institutions were
operating in Taiwan at the end of 2004.
Public medical care institutions include 24
hospitals for medical centers and, 72
(teaching OR general) hospitals and 359
local hospitalsclinics.
While legislation mandates that all
medical facilities must beare non-profit by
law, most private hospitals are owned and
controlled by physicians. These hospitals
latter are managed to maximize profits
similar to any other profit seeking
organizations. However, given that their
operations rely on Since public hospitals
are an operational unit of governmental-
subsidized funds, public hospitalsthey
typically do not have to assume the risk of
profits or deficits. Thus, relative to private
hospitals, pPublic hospitals may thus not
be as concerned about thewith
operationalg efficiencyies, either before or
after the implementation of the NHI
program, than private hospitals would.
Hence, explaining why the former has a
they are likely to have lower
operatingonal efficiency than the
latterrelative to the private hospitals.
(Previous research OR Related prior research
OR Pertinent literature)
Empirical research in the health care
industrysector has also provided mixed
support for these theories. Some studies
found public hospitals to be less ef-ficient
than private hospitalsones (Wilson and
Jadlow, 1982; Cowing and Holtmann,
1983; Robinson and Luft, 1985). ,
Meanwhile, other researcherss found
public hospitals to be more efficient than
private oneshospitals (Custer and Wilke,
1991; Menke, 1997). While studying New
York hospitals, Cowing and Holtmann
(1983) in a study of New York hospitals
found that private proprietary hospitals
had lower costs than non-profit
oneshospitals. Similarly, Sharp and
Register (1984) found differences in
performance
by ownership categories for a set of
Oklahoma hospitals. (Conversely, OR In
contrast,) Grannemann et al. (1986) found
that public hospitals had lower costs
than not-for-profit private ones
didhospitals. More recently, Burgess and
Wilson (1996) also found differences in
technical efficiency across that hospitals
with different ownership patterns differ in
technical efficiency.
Comparing three ownership forms of
hospitals–private, non-profit, and public,
Becker and Sloan (1985), for example,
doid not find that different ownership
patterns any differences
in hospital costs or profitability among
different ownership patterns. Based on
this evidence, they conclude that there is
no empirical support
for the standard property rights theory.
Some oOther studies have also found
insignificant differences in efficiency
between found that public and private
hospitals only slightly differ in efficiency
(Vita, 1990; Grosskopf and Valdmanis,
1987). Thus, (previous OR prior)
empirical work on relating hospital
ownership and performance has been
inconclusive.
Research model
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
Several studies have adopted DEA has
been used by several researchers to
assessstudy hospital performance.
According to Banker (1998), DEA is
based on a previous performance cross-
sectional view of several organizational
units in a given single period, as
(determined OR measured) by their
multiple inputs and outputs. The units are
classified into two groups,: scale
efficiency and technical efficiency. Ganley
and Cubbin (1992) indicated that, Aas a
nonparametric approach, DEA does not
require assumptions regarding the
functional form of the production
function. Sherman (1984) proposed an
effecive suggested as a means to helpof
identifying and (determining OR
measureing) hospital inefficiency as a
basis for directing management efforts
towards increasing efficiency and
reducing health care costs.
By solving a series of linear programming
optimizations, one for each DMU, DEA
can identify those DMUs that are efficient
(no the facets), as well as and the
remaining inefficient DMUs along with
along with their efficientcy (1962) The
operational procedure is simplified and
change in the dual model of minimization
is transformed into the model, which is
not linear as shown in (1):
Minimize
1 1
m s
k i r
i r
h s s θ ε
− +
· ·
| `
· − +

. ,
∑ ∑
Subject to
1
0
n
j ij ik i
j
x X S λ θ

·
− + ·

1,...., i m ·
(1)

1
n
j rj r rk
j
x S Y λ
+
·
− ·

1,..., r s ·

, , 0,
j i r
S S λ
− +


1,..., j n ·

1,...., i m ·

1..., r s ·
Where

ry
Y
denotes the amount of the
r
th
output produced by unit
j

r
u
represents the weight given to the
r
th output

ij
x
is the amount of
i
th input produced
by unit
j

i
v
denotes the weight given to the
r
th
output

,
i r
S S
− +
is slack and surplus
For the inefficient DUM
k
,(X
ik
,Y
rk
),if the
optimum solution of the Formula(1) is

( ) ( )
1 2
, , , , , ,...,
r i n
S S θ λ λ λ λ
∗ ∗ +∗ −∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
. Tthe improved direction is


( ), 1,...,
ik ik ik i
X X X S i m θ
∗ −∗
∆ · − − ·
(2)

( ), 1,...,
rik rk rk r
Y X Y S r s
+∗
∆ · − − ·

The DMU
k
can reduce the input quantity
of
ik
X ∆
, subsequently increasing the output
quantity of
rk
Y ∆
and increasing its relative
efficiency.
11. (Business Management)
Optimizing resource allocation via
integrated marketing communication—a
case study of credit card issuing
companies in Taiwan

Abstract
Credit cards are used pervasively
worldwide, as evidenced by strongfor
consumer’s demand, not only and the
diverse variety of financial services that
such card’s offer. Credit card issuing
companies must thus adopt effective
marketing strategies to kind become
variety, many passing card organization’s
marketing method is to emerge in an
endless stream too. So the passing card
organization want to attract new maintain
the customer’s and maintain their loyalty,
must have complete and correct marketing
strategy. Therefore, this work presents a
IMC-based resource allocation
optimization model thatThe proposed
model incorporates the modified Delphi
method to (accumulate OR collect) expert
opinions, determine the criteria of the
allocation optimization model and apply
the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to
evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed
model. Following a literature review and
interviews with experts in the field, the
Modified Delphi Method is adopted to
gather the group opinions of anonymous
experts. The hierarchy level of the
integrated marketing communication-
based resource allocation optimization
model is then constructed. Next, via the
analytic hierarchy process, each criteria
weight and the arrangement of importance
are determined. Additionally, major
factors of the resource allocation
optimization model are discussed. Results
of this study provide the domestic banking
sector with an valuable reference for
understanding of how to implement
integrate marketing communication in
areas of product design advertising, public
relations, promotion, direct marketing and
customer relationship management.
AdditionallyMoreover, the proposed
model can contribute to the
competitiveness of local banks by
encouraging them to carefully utilizeing
limited resources.
Key words : : Credit card, integrated
marketing communication, Delphi
method, analytic hierarchy process
3. Consistency Test
Saaty (1980) proposed utilizing
consistency index (
CI
) and consistency
ratio (
CR
) to verify the consistency of the
comparison matrix. Additionally,
CI
and
CR
are defined as follows:

) 1 /( ) (
max
− − · n n CI λ
(4)

RI CI CR / ·
(5)
Where
RI
denotes the average
consistency index over numerous random
entries of same order reciprocal matrices.
If
, 1 . 0 ≤ CR
the estimate is accepted; otherwise,
a new comparison matrix is solicited until
. 1 . 0 ≤ CR
Because the banking industry present still
not have a complete Given the lack of a
comprehensive and objective IMC-based
resource allocation optimization model,
therefore this study attempts to do so want
to construct one, this part divide into two
stages to proceed, t. The first stage
comprisesincludes four steps, in which the
Modified Delphi Method is used to
identify the most appropriate evaluation
criteria. The second stage consists of five
steps, in which AHP theory is applied to
calculate the weight of the decision
evaluation criterion and evaluate the
effectiveness of the IMC resource
allocation optimization model. These
stages are described in detail as follows.
Step 1: Form the Designate the group of
banking experts group from in the
primary bank managers in Taiwan.
13 middle to high level managers from
the credit card issuing sections of In the
Chinesea tTrust cCommercial bBank, Tai
sShin iInternational cCommercial bBank,
Cathay cCommercial bBank, Union
cCommercial bBank and E-sun
cCommercial bBank were selected to form
the first five passing card bank, choose
thirteen middle to high level manager to
be experts for group in this study, it must
conform to 1. under the following
criteria: a) each expert should behold a
managerial position in bankthe credit card
issuing department of a bank; 2.Tb) the
service year in bank to which the expert
belongs should have more than two be
over 2 years of experience in credit card
issuing services; and c) the expert should
be a 3.It should be upper Chief level’s
middle to high level banking manager ,.
Experts selected in this study
chooseincluded three managers from
Chinesea tTrust cCommercial bBank,
three people,from Tai sShin iInternational
cCommercial bBank three people,, three
from Cathay cCommercial bBank three
people, two from Union cCommercial
bBank two people and two from E-sun
cCommercial bBank two people, different
bank manager, total amount thirteen
people.
Step 2: Based on a Collect and sort
pertinent literature review, identify on
major factors in optimizing IMC resource
allocation optimization model, sift out the
final factor.
A literature review of local and
overseas studies is made to This study’s
factor information is refer to domestic and
foreign literature, initial find out identify
the factors of Oto optimizeing resource
allocation model, to do the and, then, to
devise a confirm criteria offor the
questionnaire survey submitted to expert’s
questionary,. tThe Likert-type five scale
is used to ensure that the criteria weight
surpasses four scales above, which are
listed as the(the most OR an) important
reference criterion, and become final
confirm and sift out factor,. (NOTE: “,
and become final confirm and sift out
factor” makes no sense and I don’t
understand its relation to the first part of
the sentence.) eEach level’s criteriona are
statedment as below:
Hsu (2004) proposed that with 51
credit card issuing banks in Taiwan, total
has as high as reach fifty-one card issuing
bank, credit card market ccompetition is
(stringent OR extremely volatile)violent,.
bBanks must thus adopt nothing is better
than using diversitye marketing
strategy,ies to gain strive in customer
loyalty. Given stringent competition and
an already saturated Because is not pure as
before, now competitor numerous, noise
more and more market, marketing efforts
must do more than just is not only single
aspect passingrelay information to
consumers, but also remain attune to
fluctuations in market trends and changes
in however is giving rise to the market
attention, arouse resonance, further to
obtain consumer’s accept and answer
preferences. Shi (2003) noted that as ever
mention now financial organizations tend
towards numerous stride into
grouplization (NOTE: WHAT does
‘grouplization’ mean?) and diversification
way toin their management practices, at
the same time, only the integration of
various marketing practices can yield
strength integrated can bring into biggest
energy and optimum benefits,. (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) from the financial holding
aspectIn this respect, integrated marketing
communication is having bright
prospectshighly promising.
ProductWhen we want to promote a
product usually need to proceed marketing
normally requires combining ation’s plan,
it is including factors of pProduct, Pprice,
Pplace and Ppromotion four parts. Given
that effectiveAmong promotion play the
important role ofinvolves communicating
with consumers, therefore promotion can
be viewed as a vital tool can named
marketing communication strategytool.
Afterward because eOwing to
environmental changes and fluctuations in
marketing develop trends involving the
developing IMC concept, thean effective
communication strategy consists of
perform divide into five communication
tool, include Aadvertising, pPublic
Rrelationship, event marketing events,
Ssales Ppromotion and Ddirect
Mmarketing etc. After collect expert’s
opinions are collected, in this study, here
Ppublic Rrelationship includes event
marketing events, besides add product
design and customer relationship
management to enhance the make model
more faultless. (NOTE: What “model”
are you referring to?) In pProduct design
includes the following three criterion, it’s
separately is:
(1) Product positioning and establishing of a
target market set : it means must proceed
market segmentation is (performed OR
proceeded with) to setestablish a target
market, according different. Based on
various target markets, then proceed
product positioning can be proceeded
with., fFor instanceexample, according to
data from Tai sShin iInternational
cCommercial bBank via information
investigate, discoverin contrast to males,
females that have a better credit history,
workmore stable work, lowera bed
amount of debt condition is less, and.
Additionally, perceptual appeal (NOTE:
Do you mean ‘promotional appeal’ instead
of ‘perceptual appeal’? Check intended
meaning.) more easily affects female
consumers is easier affect by perceptual
appeal, leading to a higher likelihood of
customer satisfactionfurther to generate
agreement. (NOTE: Although I have made
this confusing sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) Given the rise in
Add female consumer power, ability
unceasingly rise, Tai sShin Bbank predict
female credit card market will be very
large develop space, therefore takehas
established female consumer segmentation
to be the Tai shin bank credit card ‘sas a
target market in credit card issuing.;
(2) Increased functions of Ccredit cards
function strengthening: for example,s
include the ability to secure Has the
traveling safe insurance, and borrows the
cash in advance ),; and
(3)Increased preference for Ccredit card
userights and interests strengthening: for
example,s include preferential gives
favored treatment given to credit card
holders when to year expense, shopping
preferential benefit strengthening.
(NOTE: I have no idea what you mean by
“to year expense” in the context of this
sentence.)
In advertisement aspect mainly divide
intoCategorized as either creativity
strategy andor media strategy, advertising
consists of the following it is including:
six sub criteria: (NOTE: ‘criterion’
instead of ‘criteria’? Check intended
meaning.) , separately is (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
(1)Advertisementing creativity development:
the effectiveness of an it means develop a
advertisement in appealing to a
specificrepresent way that can touch target
group ., fFor instanceexample, Tai-Shin
bBank imprints use the slogan “An earnest
women is the most beautiful one.” on ato
mold r rose-colored credit card’s
temperament and unique personality to
appeal to the to obtain female target’s
agreement, further to apply rose card
group;
(2) Television advertisements: advertising
through via television media (, includeing
cable television and wireless television) to
proceed advertisement information
transmit, here means television plan and,
to encourage consumer purchases,. fFor
instanceexample, Visa Credit cCard
Corporation has, since the end of 2001,
successively promoteding two brand
image advertisements aimed at consumers
dining outside of the home and cinema
goers,”outside eating”and“outside watch
movie”,. For consumers dining outside of
the home, the target group is among
”outside eating”mainly focus on twenty to
forty20-40 years olds, whom are enticed
by slogans such as group that is talking an
opinion“Visa in hand, everything you
can”. Using the Chinese actressfamous
star Ziyi-Zhang to beas a company
spokesman, Visa Card in basic media
benefit considering, Taiwan choose
broadcasted the advertisements before
celebrating the Chinese calendar nNew
yYear. (, usually at the same time cause
tied shop manage time is short, and not the
peak period of credit card, however, it is
rush hour that consumer watch TV or
movie, : I HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THIS
MEANS. YOU NEED TO BREAK THIS
UP INTO TWO SHORTER
SENTENCES. ALSO, I CAN NOT SEE
HOW THIS IS CONNECTED TO THE
PREVIOUS SENTENCE. ) so
whenTherefore, when broadcasting the
advertisement, VisaISA Card first
broadcast the advertisement, specially
chooseaired Expectant golden period to
broadcast this the two minutes
advertisement during prime time ion all
twenty seven television channels during
the on that day and nighttime.;

(3)PlaneConventional media advertisement
: means plane media’s plans and
purchases, which includes advertisements
in newspapers, magazines,
manualbrochures and leafletsplaybill, etc.
For instanceexample, Tai-Shin bBank
extensively used newspaper advertising to
promote its Rose Card among expresses
the modern female’s as a gesture of
expressing their view point to modern
love, lifestyle and sexuality relationship
through newspaper and then create the
Rose card as the image of spokesman to
urban female. The mMagazine
advertisements play upon the exhilaration
that a uses womean’s feelsing who first
when receivesing roses to conveytransmit
the romantic naturecharacteristic of Tai-
Shin bBank’s Rose card and then build the
image of love spokesman to female.;
(4) NetworkInternet-based advertisement:
adopting means network’s plan
andstrategies to encourage online
purchase,ing which using network
advertisement let and keeping the
consumer aware of the latest products or
serviceskow the newest news or activity
information about product, f. For
exampleinstance, Taipei fFubon bBank
advertises on the front page of use
yYahoo’s! Taiwan first page, linking to its
website informing to connet the health
credit’s advertisement of credit card to tell
consumers ton know the content of new
project.the latest specials;
(5)Advertisement in oOutdoor areas and
transportation media advertisement:
marketing strategies aimed at consumer
means outdoor and transportation media’s
plan and purchases, including via
outdoorroadside billboards and advertising
on public transportation or buses inside’s
playbill let masses know the product or
service’s information, f. For
instanceexample, the Transportationat
present traffic b Bureau of the Taipei
cCounty gGovernment and Chinese tTrust
cCommercial bBank cooperatione toin
promote”ing Taipei county roadside park
expensean autopayment system for entry
to roadside parks in Taipei County using
credit cards”, through an the service via
Taipei county bus to do tight squeeze
advertising campaignement; and

(6)Radio advertisement: marketing strategies
aimed at consumer purchases through
means radio media’s plan and purchase,
which means usingradio broadcasting
stations to broadcast the function ofin
information and service-oriented formats.
For instanceexample ,via broadcast, now
“We are family” is equal to Chinese tTrust
cCommercial bBank’s promotes the
slogan “We are family” while pronoun,
after then Cathay United bBank’s
continuously broadcasts the slogan
“Enrich your life” is unceasingly
broadcast via television or radio, to mold
theirestablish a brand image.

In pPublic relationship aspect includes
the following six sub criterion,: which
separately is
(1)nNews releases and special column series
specialswriting: understand media
operation processes and characteristic,
clearly understand what demand of media
reporter,s that provide having news
valuable of product or service
informationnews release and special
column writing’s content;.
(2) Public welfare and supporting
Aactivityies: for eexamples, include
charitabley donatesions, the to education,
sports, medical health care, environmental
protection and so on related artaesthetic
activities.;

(3)The enterprise article proclaims of the
pProduct designs that promote the brand
image of the company: using various
marketing factor’s are adopted mix, take
thesefor a particular subject matter’s
content, in addition plan and design.;
(NOTE: Although I have made this
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
(4) Media relationship management: contacts
established with raise the deep
relationship with media reporters and
understand the reporter’sto fulfill
consumer demand to news, f. For
instanceexample, every year immobile
weave expense in holding annual press
conferences are held in which and give as
a small presents are given to attendees.;
(5)Event m Marketing events: Event
marketing is a activity that passing
through a special activitiesarrangement,,
such as usually is festival, the
celebration,anniversary celebrations, the
temple fairs or an exhibitions and so on
activity. For exampleinstance, aim at the
most popular thing that for family
gatherings or reunionsfriend have a chat
about old time in that often occur around
the Chinese Moon festival, Master cCard
iInternational organization offers a special
recommend platinum card special for
purchasing level enjoyment project about
meat burn store ”seven drogon”, preserve
health soup store, “health cook” chafing
dish and “COCA” Thailand dish and so on
suit to family, or friends choice,favorite
cuisine during the holidays favor different
and style diverse, and via these project to
. This promotional activity reminds
consumers the convenience of credit cards
during remind anyone who has master
card series, platinum card, commercial
card, and world card’s friend use over
valuable preferential project to enjoy
beautiful festival activitiestime; and
(NOTE: Although I have made this
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
.
(6)Crisis subject management: public
relation measures to for preventing and
handling include crisies handle before and
crisis handle after, the former is focus on
ordinarily public relationship, the latter is
after things happened, do thewith
compensation measures adopted after a
crisis occurs. (NOTE: Although I have
made this sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.)

InThe promotional aspect includes the
following six sub criterion,: which
separately is
(1) pPrize drawing activity:, for
exampleinstance, card feeding ten times in
a monthly, can join thea car prize drawing
activity to promote credit card use, in
which (2)Ccash is awarded or an
feedback, which is divide into three
way,1. expense-free credit card is
provided for a year.; (NOTE: Although I
have made this sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.)
2. Credit card holders can receive people
who hoding card increase cosume amount
can get specific rate’s cash rebatesfeed
back. for a certain amount spent on the
credit card. 3. people who
holdingAdditionally, credit card holders
just feed card in this month, (can directly
expense credit in consume bill : I HAVE
NO IDEA WHAT THIS MEANS AND
HOW IT IS RELATED TO THE FIRST
PART OF THE SENTENCE.) .; (NOTE:
Although I have made this sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)

(3)Complimentary gifts: it divide into two
kinds, one iseither in the form of bonus
credits changeor incentives for purchasing
in a particular store. Complimentary gift,
fFor exampleinstance, in the universal
credit card scheme of Chinesea tTrust
cCommercial bBank’s universal card just,
card holders that collect arrive 6,733
bonus points can receive a to give as a
present against dazzle light protect eye’s
unique desk lamp, that protects eye
visiona. Another example is for card
holders purchasing in a consuming in the
specific store, can immediately use
theaccumulated bonus points can
accumulate to offset the consume amount
this timereduce the purchased amount.,
fFor instanceexample, credit card holders
from JIH-sSun iInternational bBank can
simply card’s friend just use their bank
card consume in feeding card in theto
purchase Laurel travel products, can
choose b. (NOTE: Although I have made
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
Bonus points accumulated can lower the
retail priceto offset the consume amount
on the spot, everywith 100 points can
offset sixreducing 6 New Taiwanese
dollars from the purchase, with the highest
can offset total consume amount’s
deducted totalling 50% on that time; and

(4)Personnel sales: in here Personnel sale
has personally visited, keep a stall,booths
are maintained to encourage direct
promotion and commercial exhibitions
way to increase apply rate. (NOTE:
Although I have made this sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
In dDirect marketing aspect includes
the following three sub criterion:, which
separately is
(1) Directly sends the Ee-email marketing:
via directly sends the Ee-mails sent to to
know ccustomer’s various demand and
from this to do theas a form of
advertisementing promotion activity, offer
speedy sell service in order to build the
company image and encourage customer
relationship.;
(2) Telephone marketing: via telephone
visited, notify the new card information
and apply preferential to stimulate
potential consumers are contacted
regarding new card information to apply,
it’s a. This highly interactionve
communication strategy is tool, especially
effective when aimed at a specific when
the target is correct control, thus creating
will have more sales opportunitieschance,
and get the efficiency immediately and
filter customer and obtain potential
customer.; and
(3) Directly sends the letter mail: a before
directly sends the letter should be through
the name list is carefully selected, for
mailing to and resort by personal form, let
consumer or potential consumers feel
more respect. (NOTE: Although I have
made this sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.)
In the cCustomer relationship
management includes the following four
sub criterion, which separately is:
(1) customer database eEstablishment and
the integratedion of a customer database:
establishing an accurate correct and
clearly customer database establishment is
the firstinitial step of customer’s
relationship management, first must
proceed data warehouse, integrate bank
al. All customer information is integrated
into the database in a bank, followed by
and establish in the same database, then
can proceeding data mining to understand
customer’s behaviordevelop a model for
consumer behavior.;
(2) Customer analysis: an enterprise
attempting to adopt in the customer
relationship management, must first
identify need to figure out which
customers are potential customers, and
which customer have chance to promote
or to be the most valuable customers, or
some valuable and lost customer
opportunitiesperhaps miss, how to find the
indicate of becoming a valuable customer
from the huge. All of this is possible
through closely examining a tremendous
amount of customer’s information, and
earlier find the customer who will miss
immediately.;
(3) Centralizedthe customer service
central’s service: integrateding
communication channels, including verbal
communicationspeech sounds, faxes,
computer information, i from the Internet
and a database etc technique integrate
application, and in order to satisfy
consumer need to adopt use electronic
commerce’s assistance to strength
customer satisfy.; and (NOTE: Although
I have made this sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.)
(4)Constructs theAn interactiveon
website: an offer a iInternet sitepace can
satisfy customer needs without limitations
of that is fit time, fit channel, fit product
interacte with customer or location..
Step 3: eEstablish an oOptimizeding
resource allocation model via integrated
marketing communication
Group experts determine theidentify
the criterion to establish an Ooptimizing
resource allocation model, penetration
through use of the modified Delphi
method to reach a consensus of opinions
among experts and to achieve uniform
recognition. This study obtains an
essential criterion after three rounds of
survey results yield an essential criterion
(Fig. 1).
Second stage: aApply AHP to
determinecide each factor weight for the
IMC resource allocation model each
factor’s weight.
Step 1: Establish a (hierarchy OR
hierarchical) structure.
As for the IMC resource allocation model,
each evaluation factor comprises several
levels, including the goal hierarchy,
criteria hierarchy, and sub-criteria
hierarchy (Fig. 1).
Conclusion
Tthis work presents a IMC-based
resource allocation optimization model
that incorporates the modified Delphi
method to (accumulate OR collect) expert
opinions, determine the criteria of the
allocation optimization model and apply
the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to
evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed
model. Following a literature review and
interviews with experts in the field from
Chinese Trust Commercial Bank, Tai Shin
International Commercial Bank, Cathay
Commercial Bank, Union Commercial
bank and E-sun Commercial Bank, the
Modified Delphi Method is adopted to
gather the group opinions of anonymous
experts. The hierarchy level of the
integrated marketing communication-
based resource allocation optimization
model is then constructed. Next, via the
analytic hierarchy process, each criteria
weight and the arrangement of importance
are determined. Additionally, major
factors of the resource allocation
optimization model are discussed. This
study’s purpose is construct an credit card
optimized resource allocation model via
integrated marketing communication. First
via literature discuss the relative research
of credit card and integrated marketing
communication, then visiting with
managers who upper Chief level in
domestic first five bank in credit card
issuing involved (Chinese Trust
Commercial Bank, Tai Shin International
Commercial Bank, Cathay Commercial
Bank, Union Commercial bank and E-sun
Commercial Bank). Next, collected and
decide the hierarchy structure of credit
card optimized resource allocation model ,
the The priority sequence of each factor’s
weight ratio areis determined by analyzing
hierarchy process(AHP) Theory and
analysis software (Expert Choice 2,000).
Based on results of this study, we
conclude as the following:
According to our results, The
importance sort of six essential factors in
the first level separately is Pare
promotion, advertisement, customer
relationship management, direct
marketing, product design, and public
relationship, respectively.(NOTE: OK?)
From a promotional aspect, performance
aspect includes cash feedback,
complimentary gifts, prize drawing
activity, and personnel sale. The first three
separately isare cash feedback,
complimentary gift and prize drawing
activity, respectively, all belonging to
substantive benefits. It is to say mModern
consumers are attach a heavy importance
to the additional value of credit cards
additional value. (NOTE: You need to
change the terminology according to my
above corrections.) And iIn terms of
advertisement, the most important is
development of advertisement cring
creativity development, i. If no correct
and efficaciouseffective createive strategy
is available, subsequentafterward
strategyies will ineffective, and i. In terms
of media strategy aspect, credit card
issuing departments most attach the most
importance to is television advertisements,
and network advertisements, thus it can be
seen, b. Bank marketing personnelstaff
believe, first need to has thus prioritize
good creativity and correct advertisement
appeal, which could appeal to attracted
cutomer’s notice and generate the purpose
ofencourage purchaseing behavior. And
in the credit card’sAs for media resource
allocation ,of credit card issuing
companies, still choose the television
media rank first in terms of that most
often frequently makeing contacts and
have voice and sound efficiency become
number 1 , with consumers. nNetwork
advertisement promote to number 2 Win
the planeranks second, followed by
conventional media. With advances in
Follow the information technology
science’s develop and the
generalitypervasive use of the iInternet,
the Iinternet has become a popular
advertisement media, f. From the
perspective of customer relationship
management, the topfirst three ranking are
respectively is customer central’sized
customer service ,, establishing and
integrated customer database, as well as
customer analysis, respectively. above all
pPrimary considerations are customer
convenience, in which customers can
immediately contact with the customer
service center and responses to the
questions, and. The customer service
center can via establishing and
integratinge a customer database, which
can handle various to aim at different
customer and give different consumer
responses and handle .
In the twenty six sub criterion of in the
overall level, credit card issuing
companies the most attach the most
importance to separately is cash feedback,
advertisement creativity development, the
service of customer service center,
television advertisement and telephone
marketing. It can be seen Our results
further indicate that, for bankers
attempting to achieve maximum benefits
for think if want to make ththe credit
card’s benefit maximum, most importance
onis attached to promotional activity
.among c. In this category, cash feedback
can most attract the most customers,
second is followed by successful
advertisement creativity, third isservice
quality of service staff’s service quality,
fourth is strength and sharpen expose of
television advertisement, and telephone
marketing, respectively. because of
expense are Given relatively low
expenses, the company can directly
interact with customers, quickly
understand consumer demand, which iso
always is the most often using tool of
direct marketing strategy that by bankers
use.
The proposed model construct of this
study can lenot only tenable bankers to
understand the weight in each marketing
resource allocation, but also help bank
credit card issuing departments to
construct a systematic marketing
operation model,. bBesides its
appropriateness for use in the credit card
business can be suitable for use, the
proposed model can provide a valuable
reference for future different industry
marketing staff in different industries can
take this study to be a reference when
perform theattempting to adopt integrated
marketing communication.
12. (Business Management)
Optimal Selection of the Location
(NOTE: “Location” of what? Regional
Hospitals in Taiwan?) to Achieve a
Competitive Advantage by Using the
Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey
Relational Analysis
This (study OR work) presents Aan
evaluation model approach ofto select the
optimal location selection evaluation
model(NOTE: ‘optimal location’ of what?
regional hospitals in Taiwan?). and iIts
computing algorithm is proposed in this
paper(described OR derived) as well.
Increased recent years, Taiwanese living
standards in Taiwan in recent years have
made was to promote, Taiwanese
residents have become more health
conscious and attach increasingly
concerned with importance to quality
healthcare, explaining the heightened
consumer demand in thefor quality and
scope of medical services. The (relevant
whole structure : OR OMIT) criteria (for
OR of) this model are determinedrived
from a literature review and interviews
with a expert group of expertsinterview,
this study also adopts t. The Modified
Delphi Method is also adopted herein. The
proposed model includesorporates the
Aanalytic Hhierarchy Pprocess (AHP) to
determine the (evaluation weights OR
weights of evaluation). Grey Rrelational
Aanalysis (GRA) is then performed to
rankselect the optimal location Selection
of a regional hospital in Taiwan to
determine itsthe effectiveness of the
proposed evaluation model.
The evaluation procedure of this study
consists of several steps, as shown in Fig.
1. The evaluation procedure of this study
consists of several steps as shown in Fig.
1. FirstInitially, we identify the Optimal
Sselection of the Llocation of a regional
hospital in Taiwan is identified by
considering itsto C competitive
Aadvantage aspects. After constructing the
evaluation criteria hierarchy is
constructed, we calculate the criteria
weights are (calculated OR determined)
by applying the Aanalytic Hhierarchy
Pprocess (AHP) method. Finally, we
conductthe Technique for Order
Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution
(TOPSIS) is adopted to achieve the final
ranking results of candidate hospitals.
Thise proposed evaluation model for
evaluatingaimed at selecting the optimal
location selectionof regional hospitals in
Taiwan with respect to competitive
advantage of hospitals comprises the
following steps, as shown in the optimal
location selection to competitive
advantage measurement process in Fig. 2.
Figure 1 Evaluation framework of optimal
location selection to achieve a competitive
advantage
Figure 2 Optimal location selection to achieve a
competitive advantage measurement
process
Figure 3 Establishment of a One regional
hospital is establishing hospital, with
considersation of locations in the Eeast
district of Taichung City, Taiping City and
Dali City.
Figure 4 Hierarchical structure to select
and evaluate the optimal location for
regional hospitals in Taiwan with respect
to competitive advantage
Table 1 Aggregate pair-wise comparison matrix
for criteria of level 2
Table 2 Eigenvectors and weights of three
location selection areas under eighteen
sub-criterions
Table 3 Synthesis Vvalue of three
locations selection areas under eighteen
sub-criteriaon
Table 4 Evaluations of three locations
selection areas under sub-criterions in
relation to each criterion as averaged
13. (Business Management)
A Simplified Measurement Scheme for
Enhancement of Ddigital video recorder
systems using an AHP -based
measurement scheme

Abstract
The surveillance market includes various
dDigital video recorder (DVR) systems
are increasingly common given the
burgeoning popularity of the surveillance
market. This study evaluates the quality of
four digital video recorder systems using
an AHP-based simplified measurement
scheme for digital video recorder system.
Finally, aA case study is presented to
demonstrates the feasibility and
effectiveness of the proposed
methodscheme. Importantly, the proposed
measurementscheme can assist the
decision makers in assessing the
feasibility of DVRdigital video recorder
system, making it highly applicable for
academiac and commercial purposes.
Keywords: Digital video recorder system, software
evaluation, system evaluation, software
quality, Analytic Hierarchy Process,
MADM
Case Implementation
The Hsinchu City gGovernment of
northern Taiwan uses DVR systems to
managemonitor public spaces. According
to Taiwan’s governmental procurement
regulations, the regional governments
must considerselect at least five evaluators
andto review more than three firms in
assessingbefore selecting the best DVR
system.
By using tThe DVR system it can
prevent some of the con in
traditionalcompensates for the limitations
of conventional surveillance camera
systems. Among those limitations include
the con of the traditional surveillance
camera system arefollowing:
Lapse Forget to put the tapes in the recorder
or in the middle of recording owing to
operator neglect or machine errorthe tapes
got jammed.;
WDifficulty in locating the desired time
sequence after the hen the recorder
finishes recording, it'll be hard to find the
right moment of time that’s needed. is
completed;
Poor videoThe quality is low,that makes it
inadequate for use even if it is recoded on
film it still can't be used.; and
Difficulty in maintaining and preserving
Ttapes are hard to keep and to preserve,
it'll need a owing to the lack of an
adequately larger storage space to put
them and they are easy to grow
molenatural degradation of film quality.
The following considerations reflect
how Here are the nine comparisons
between the the digital Video Recorder
DVR Ssystem and differ from
conventional Traditional Ssurveillance
Ccamera Ssystems:
Changing of Ttapes: while
conventionaltraditional surveillance
camera systems require an operator to
needs someone to change the tapes every
few hours. By using, the DVR system
Digital Video Recorder System you don't
need to changedoes not require changing
tthe Hhard disk Ddrive everydaily.;
Editing: while conventionalusing the
traditional surveillance cameras have
difficulty in it can be hard to editing the
tapes and identifying particular cut out the
frames that you need it, using the digital
video recorder DVR system you can
easily retrieve a desired pull out the file
you need and cutidentify the desired
picture frames by fame by using
theediting tools that’s include in the
system software.;
Quality: while conventionalthe traditional
surveillance cameras uses recorded tapes
the recorder with it can makes that
deteriorates with the quality of the picture
quality very low afterover time, digital
video recorderDVR systems use a high
quality Ddots Pper Iinch (DPI) feature.
Moreover, the latter can reuse also the
Hhard Ddrive of a computer can be reuse
many timerepeatedly, so it won't
affectthus maintaining the picture quality,
it'll always keeps the picture quality clear
as new no matter regardless of the
frequency of how many time the Hhard
drive is been used.;
Visual channels: while conventional the
traditional surveillance camera systems
can only view 4four visual channels on
one television (TV) screen with the and
the size are limited on each channel.
Digital Video Recorded S, DVR systems
can view 1-16 visual channels one a
television screen in which images can be
TV the biggest size can be setamplified up
to 640x480 pixels.;
iImage search: while conventional
traditional surveillance cameras is usinges
tapes to recorded thetape images, that
require a considerable amount of time and
personnel to retrieved desired when some
images are needed to be find it'll takes up
a lot of time and people the search up the
needed images on the other hand, the
Digital Video Recorder S system can
efficiently search for desired the needed
images through a computer search based
on the time and dayte, day of the time, that
an event occurred, thus and just need one
person the search on the computer this
well saveing considerableyou time and
moneycapital.;
Saving Storage space: to save the image that
is recorded on the traditionalwhile
conventional surveillance camera systems
require many you need a lot of tapes to
record imagesthat can cost a lot of money,
even if you reuse the tapes, (with the
image quality of reused tapes oftenwell be
poor.), the Digital VR ideo camera system
saves the images on thea hard disk drive.
and its reusable and the iImage quality
staysremains the same regardless of even
you reuse the space many times,.
Additionally, a larger hard disk drive
implies a larger number of the bigger the
HD the more images you can stored and it
cost much less expense thean the
traditionalusing conventional surveillance
camera systems.;
Long distantce visual control: while the
DVR By using digital vide recorder
system enables you can use Watchdog’s
Web Sever tothe viewing of the images
online through a Watchdog Web Server,
any where Live with a computer.
Traditional Sconventional surveillance
camera systems does not have lack this
feature;
Changing of Iimageing Fformat Changing:
while conventional Traditional
surveillance camera systems can costs a
lot ofrequire considerable time and money
to change the image format with
traditional surveillance camera system and
it can cost lots of time and money it also
well cast the which often degrades image
quality to be poor. Using, the DVR
Digital Video Recorder Ssystem canto
change the image format inexpensively
are not only cheap to changing the format
it'll also keep while maintaining the
images quality high and save your time.;
and
Special Iimage Eediting feature: Traditional
Surveillance camera System do not has
this feature. Digital Video Recorderwhile
the DVR Ssystem can miniaturizeZoom in
and (enlarge OR amplify)Zoom out on
thean image to ensure and it can also
makes the image more clear to see and it
also can save any imagequality regardless
of the to any format for better use.,
conventional surveillance camera systems
lack this feature.
This study considers In this case have
four candidatealternative DVRs that are
common in the surveillance market: -
Firm 1 DVR system, Firm 2 DVR system,
Firm 3 DVR system and Firm 4 DVR
system – with strong presence in the
current surveillance market are considered
herein. Eleven experts will beare assigned
and rated on a nightne- paroint scale
against each criterion to assess the best
DVRs from among the four
participativecandidate firms. This
proposal for eEvaluating the DVR system
comprises the following steps, as shown in
Fig. 2.
*** Figure 2 Screening Optimum DVR
System Processes ***
Screening Appropriate DVRs
The AHP method can be adopted to
screen identify the most appropriate DVR
system from the four candidate firms.
Eleven experts will beare assigned and
rated on a night- partne-point scale against
each criterion to assess the best DVR
system from the four participative
candidate firms. The algorithm is as
follows.
Step 1: Establish a hierarchy framework.
The ultimate goal of evaluating the
ideal model can be achieved, followed by
six-evaluation criterion and finally the
alternatives (Fig. 3).
*** Figure 3 Screening Optimum DVR
System Model ***
Let evaluationg criteria C
1
, C
2
,
L
, C
6
denote functionality, reliability, usability,
efficiency, maintainability and portability.
Let evaluating alternative F
1
, F
2
,
L
, F
4
denote firm 1 DVR system, firm 2 DVR
system, firm 3 DVR system and firm 4
DVR system.
Step 2: (Select OR Choose) assessing
experts for assessments; define the
requirements of end users’ requirements;
(accumulate OR collect) information
regardingabout DVR system firms and use
the six criteria to assess each DVR
system.
Step 3: Establish the pair-wise comparison
matrix.
14. (Business Management)
Effectively managing senior
citizen residential communities

using the analytic hierarchical process
2. Literature review
2.1
S
enior citizen residential
communities
current
According to the World Health
Organization,
Taiwan became an
advanced aging society as of the end of
1993, with over 7% of its
population
65 years or older
. As ofUntil
the
end of September 2000, the
above old-ageelderly population
of 65 years or older in
Taiwan

region amounts toreached
1,900,000 population, havingor
8.6% of the entiretotal
population comparison to amount
to 8.6%,
to reveal at an annual growth
rate of
old-age population in
Taiwan

region average every year just to
grow up quickly with 4.5%
increment rate
(Ministry of the
iInterior (MOI), the Republic of China
2000)
.
Besides aAccording to
infer
estimates from the Council for
Economic Planning and
Development estimates, the
elderly population in
until
the end
of 2110year in
Taiwan
will reach
region the old-age population

amount
to 3,540,000 account for,
or 14% of totalentire population,
by 2110. and U
ntil
the end of
2121year in
Taiwan
region the old-
age population
amount
to
5,170,000, or accounts for 14%
of total population by 2121.
Given advances in
To reveal
in
recent 20 years,
in virtue of
the
medical hygiene
advancement
,
income and living standards over the past
two decades, to heighten
, the
population deathmortality rate
and birth rate have decreased
descend, with the population
segment of rapid rising of the 65
years or older growing
rapidlypopulation and the type of
the population structure will be
grown up the column form by the
pyramid a gradual change in the
future. Above trends reflect the
necessity for careful planning to
ensure The elder'sly welfare
related measure gradually
important
.
According to the MOI statisticsinistry of
the interior (1996), discoveredthe
proportion of the senior citizens only lives
togethering with their spouse or livesing
will alone the proportion to assume
condition of the increase. An Ministry of
the interiorOI survey (1999) revealed that
investigations demonstrated in
Taiwan36.7% of all individuals under 65
years old of the adult thinks sfeel that the
significance of the children, is to enjoys
family happiness to occupy the first to
account for 36.79%,, while 21.75 feel that
thought likes a family and strengthens
thea marriage and 16.97% feel that
children increase the intimacy between to
maintain causes the husbands and wives to
relate intimately occupies the seconds
separately accounts for 21.75% and
16.97%.spouses.
According toGiven above statisticsal
data and research in this
areademonstration, the traditional notion
in Taiwan that raising children is a means
of securing elderly housing and welfare is
gradually changing, as impacted by rising
Taiwan region old age population housing
condition along with obtained and
educational levels standard promotion,
raise children to provide against old age
idea change. Theis explains why the
proportion of elderly living with their
children is old person is willing
proportion which lives together with the
children to have reduced the
tendency.decreasing, while the tendency
to live along Choice with a spouse or live
alone together the proportion has tendency
of theis increaseing.
Revisions in the From 1997
eElderly wWelfare
lLaw
have
increased the options of
independent elderly livingrevises
to announce, the care and the
guarantee that has to the elder
more to
complete and perfect
. Revise
welfare
law
biggest change in
elder of back to change to,
specifically in the following five
areas for the welfare
organization:
A) Long-term care organizations to
careprovide solace for elderly
individuals with long-term chronic
diseases and need tofor cureative
the elder who protect the service
for purposes.;
B) Elderly residential facilities
Home
for the Aged
organization to take
focus on ensuring the quality of
life for the elderlylooking after
the life to take care of for oneself
the ability defection, damage and
serving the demanding elder
without the technique nursing
staff on dutyas the purpose.:
C) Rest homes offer to peaceful
caringe for individuals at their at
one's own expenses elder or,
relieving the relatives that did not
bring upof the obligation
person'sof caring for relatives on
a daily basis or bring up the
obligation has no elder who bring
up the ability for purpose.;
D)
Leisure centeres provide the
to take
holding the elelderly with the
recreation, literature, technical
skills,, continuing education
opportunities and thee
communicationother social
activitiesy as the purpose.; and
E) Service organizations with
provide the elder to look after for
daytime, and temporary care, for
the elderly in which take up
employment the information,
volunteers the service, serve in
the offer house cleaning, the
dining serves, the short-term
protection equips and even law
consultation services etc.
comprehensive sex serves for
purpose.
2.2 Porter's diamond model
In The Competitive Advantage of
Nations (1990), Michael Porter in the
Competitive Advantage of Nations(1990)
to point outcontended that the global
competitivenesson ability of
global eacha countries,y is
reflected in the strength of its an
environment of nation or system
can let all industries of that
country had the competition
abilityal infrastructure. Thus this
is a model viewsthat takes
particular industry as toa
measure of global
competitivenessthe unit. In
addition, the Porter also puts
forward the concept ofproposed
the diamond model, to measure
tool of the nationaldetermine
quantitatively the
competitiveness of a on ability of
the country. That mode points
out that influence the country
competitive advantage, which
includes the followingfour factors,
as follows:
A)
Factor-related conditions:
characterthe
techniquecal expertise level of
the human resources and the
quality of the originalraw
materials that industries requirey
need.;
B)
Demand-related conditions:
character
market demand for need that
points the products or rent
services.;
C)
Related and supporting industries:
an
character industry own the
industry of having theis
competitive based on its ability to
on ability or is or not other can
support related industriesy of
that particular industry.; and
D)
Firm strategy, structure and rivalry:
character strategy, structure and
current the competitivenesson
situation that wills influence the
wholeoverall competitive
advantage that a company
holdsstrong or weak..
15. (Business Management)
The hospital adopts oOutsourcing
introduction managedment model of
hospitals
While oOutsourcing can reduce design
of businesscommercial risks, market
opportunityies can be segmentedbreak the
whole up (into parts the labour when
disappearing, is it punish labour of surplus
, share market risk that slope work up by
oneself for worker to let : I HAVE NO
IDEA WHAT THIS MEANS.) (Ke
ZhiMing, 1993). Facing highly volatile
external factors in recent years, The
medical organizations heavily emphasize
how to institutes face the external violent
changes of environment in recent years,
hope to controlsustain medical quality and
reduce operational cost s.
Chen YaoMao (1982 ) thinks that there
are the following several points to carry
on the purpose wrapped upsuggested that
outsourcing has the following objectives:
1, reduce operational costs 2 , share
management ristks, 3. outsourcing can
keep its abilitymaintain operations in (an
equilibrium OR balance) 4 , and fully
utilize oneself to organize unexistent
mechanical equipmentmedical
instrumentation and technical
expertiseknow-how. Aertsen ( 1993) It is
to propose out the purpose wrapped up
contended that outsourcing, because 1.
conformsity with the expansion of
customer'sconsumer demand, 2.,
transforms enterprises through transform
(reengineering ) 3 . and enhances
strengthen benefit and efficiency
organizedational efficiency via the other
person's supplier's specializationty and
unique knowledge skills of individual
suppliers. It is aConsumer demand
ultimatelyfor reducesing the operationgal
costs, and accord with the demand for
improving theenhances customer service.
Montague (1981 ) described is managed to
U.S.A.'s hygieneic policy trends in the
United States contract (CM; Point out in
the growth relation thato Ccontract
Mmanagement (CM) practices , in which
utilize the hospitals utilizing of CM to
grow up inservices 383 families by 1979
from 150 in 1976, i.e., a growth rate of
increase is 250%. (NOTE: Although I
have made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
While surveying the Hospital Contract
Sservices that 1,185 hospitals outsourced,
Survey of 1993 of basis of Taylor (1993 )
has investigated 1185 hospitals, among
them there arefound that 55% of those
surveyedhospitals at least utilized CM,
i.e., an increase of and 10% over the
previous yearmore than the investigations
in 1992. Wu GuoJi (1993 )
investigatesfound an increasing trends
towards outsourcing for that the hospitals
with more than a the above-mentioned 50
beds capacity compares, Taiwanese
hospital uses the outsourcing trend with
increase on the tactics . (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) Chen HuiFang (1998 ) runs the
While sample of studying withing 231
hospitals (count 11eleven medical centers
, twenty eight regional hospitals28 ,
42forty two regional teaching hospitals ,
and 150 regional hospitals of hospitallocal
clinics), Chen (1998) foundfind that the
leading outsourcing services included it is
successively the offal treatment to charter
the top ten outside the hospitalsoftware
design and maintenance ( 65.8%),
computer software design maintain, sheet
washing of linen sheets (46.8% ) ,
maintenance of medical instrumentation
maintenance of equipment (40.7% ),,
washing of uniforms wash (35.5%), make
cloth washing of general hospital clothing
(32.9%), janitorial maintenance (32.5% )
to maintain to clean, provision of the
towels is had (31.6%) washing of and
patient's clothinges is washed ( 30.3% ) .
Therefore, the increasing trend of
outsourcing services in hospitals is
obvious adopts outsourcing and charters
and already becomes agitation .
Quote Analytic hierarch process (AHP)
has been increasingly adopted in the
medical sectorindustry gradually in recent
years,. Manuel D. Rossetti et al.
(2001),etc. attempted to devise convey the
business anddecision makeing
policypolicies in a and choose to convey
of the medium-sized hospital
automatically convey or artificially
convey set upby establishing an AHP level
structure to achieve desired goalsfor the
goal . While utilizing AHP in the medical
sector, Elliot B. Sloane et al. (2003),etc.
utilize AHP to help medical science and
technology to assess (conducted a hHealth
technology assessment; (HTA) to upgrade
and choose theselect appropriate
ventilation facilities which thefor a
children’s provided special care to the
ward , heavy ward . (NOTE: Although I
have made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
Chang et al. C.L. (2004 ) ,etc. quote the
adopted case type reasoning technology
(CBR ), set up the constant of to establish
a patient discharge planningschedule,
calculate the index weight of the
case(NOTE: What is ‘the case’ you are
referring to?) withusing AHP, to help to
choose and determine an appropriate plan
for patient discharges the suitable plan of
leaving hospital.
While examining local trends in Research
of choosing the medical sector, behavior
that domestic scholar Wang NaiHong
(1999 ) quotesdrew upon many attribute
decision methods (AHP ) and carries on
the people and to more thoroughly
understand how individuals seeks medical
advice . (NOTE: Although I have made
this confusing sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) Using AHP, Yang
YaTing (2005 ) uses AHP law to evaluated
how medical organizations clean
ooutsourceing their cleaning needs of
institutes and wrap up the supplier.
XinHong Wu (2002 ) also used AHP law
is it helpto assist hospitals in appropriately
make the investingment to in medical
valuable instrumentation through a with
newer to make decision making process
that would ensure that to come, enable the
investment of the valuable equipment of
hospital demands could be fully satisfied
to accord with the demand and can give
play to the greatest benefit . Above
investigations confer thatThis scholar
thinks AHP besides, in addition to offering
a relatively easy understanding on how to
and analyzesing the question skill
decisions, AHP the biggest characteristic
lies in the judged result amount that it can
solve the enables policymakers to turns
into the objectively assess medical-related
data, and pass making index of medicine
test, ensuring that enable having
priorityies in a proportion particular task
are ask the result of calculateding to have
convincingness even more precisely.
Given the above successful Learnt by the
eexamples of its use that the above AHP
uses in the medical sectorcircles, AHPthis
method must adjust to has already been
developed for many years but still newer
decisions method that hospital
administrators face.in the medical circles
use, the decision of In sum, AHP law can
really analyszed problems
quantitativelyzation and have
objectivelityy, it is verymaking it feasible
tofor used in increasing efficiency in
selecting suppliers for the outsourcing
needs of for going on or improving
decision of the tactic of the hospitals and
the supplier's assessment.
Delphi Method and (revisinged OR
modified) Delphi Method
(Delphi Method ) is that U.S.A.
Company developed out Developed in the
United States in the 1950s, used to predict
the likelihood of scientific and
technological incidents not
happening .occurring, the Delphi Method
regards a group of experts as respondents ,
usein which an intensive questionnaire
and proper feedback that controlled in
succession for several times, are used to
accumulatecollect their suggestions on the
incident in thelikelihood of future of
sciencetific and technologyical incidents
in order to reach a general consensusand
common understanding (Zhang ShaoXun,
2004). And Song WenJuan (2001 )
thinkscontended that Delphi Method is
that a kind of science and technology with
quantitativezation and qualitativey method
that (integrates OR combines) the research
approaches, to studying in the a course, to
the topic that is established, it is in which
anonymous experts, discuss through way
incontinuous writing constantly,. (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) Using this approach, the
lead(NOTE: Do you mean ‘leading’?)
expert can know with can understand the
speciality , experience and suggestions of
each member to reach a general consensus
set up the common understanding of
consistency, and then, enabling the group
to solve the complicateda complex topic
topic-related problem. (NOTE: Although
I have made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
Murry (NOTE: Do you mean ‘Murray’?)
and Hammons (1995 ) (is increased to
some and studied because of considering
specially, and: I HAVE NO IDEA WHAT
THIS MEANS.) WenJuan Song (2001 )
noted that mention becausethe Delphi
Method requires (several questionnaires
OR several rounds of aneed the
questionnaire OR numerous questionnaire
results) many times, thus consuming much
time and becoming a tedious
processstrenuous, . With an increasingly
lower (rate of recovery OR recovery rate)
more and more low, the (modified OR
revised) Delphi Method primitive practice
is more easily implemented, namely. That
is, an expert's interview withinvolves
relevant documents , in which replace the
step of gathering togetheraccumulating all
of the the whole expert's’ specific
suggestions with open questions (and
answer first time : I HAVE NO IDEA
WHAT THIS MEANS AND HOW IT IS
RELATED TO THE FIRST PART OF
THE SENTENCE.), develop. Next, firsta
structuraled questionnaire is made
directly, such an implementation involving
practice call that the Modified Delphi
Method. (NOTE: Although I have made
this confusing sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) Such a method
can save a lot ofa considerable amount of
time , letenabling experts can beto focused
on studying the theme induring the first
round. Research this aAdopting the
Modified Delphi Method, via a document
review in order with experts after the
interview, willenables the assessment of a
criterion to gather together and issuefor
the questionnaire that is givesn to the
anonymous expert group. (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) The Xu 's and Yang ZongXin
(2000 ) thinkingindicated that the Delphi
Method is experta predictiong method for
experts and is also considered a with is
one kind of group decision method too,.
(NOTE: Although I have made this
confusing sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.) Robbins (1994 )
suggested that thing thea group of experts
making a decision needrequires five
people or seven individualspeople, so
research. Therefore, in this study, five
individuals are selected as experts in
which the adopt Delphi Method is
adoptedexpert , five people to select.
(NOTE: Although I have made this
confusing sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.)
16. (Business Management)
2. Literature review
In sSection 2, we will introduces the
underlying concepts and types of the
credit cooperatives. In addition, we also
retrospect the past research aboutPrevious
literature is also reviewed with respect to
the characteristics of the financial
managesment.
What is a “cooperative”? In 1996
The International Cooperative
Alliance(ICA) in 1996 offered the
following have made the explanation in
the definition, values and principles of
thea credit cooperative.
Definition: A cooperative is an
autonomous association of (voluntary
individuals OR persons united voluntarily)
to (fulfill OR satisfy OR meet) their
(mutual OR common) economic, social,
and cultural needs and aspirations through
a jointly-owned and democratically and
democratically controlled enterprise.
Cooperative values: Cooperatives are
based on the values of self-help, self-
responsibility, democracy, equality, equity
and solidarity. InWhile following the
tradition of their founders, cooperative
members believe in the ethical values of
honesty, openness, social responsibility
and caring for others.
Cooperative principles: The cooperative
principles are guidelines by which
cooperatives put their values into practice.
1st PFirst principle: Voluntary and Oopen
Mmembership Cco-operatives are
voluntary organiszations, open to all
persons able to in which all individuals
can use their services and willingness to
accept the responsibilities of membership,
withoutregardless of gender, social, racial,
political, or religious discrimination.
Second 2nd Pprinciple: Democratic Mmember Ccontrol Cco-operatives are
democratic organiszations controlled by their members, who actively
participate in (establishing OR setting) their policies and making decisions.
Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the
membership. In primary co-operatives, members have equal voting rights
(one member, one vote), and co-operatives at other levels are also organiszed
in a democratically manner.
3rd PThird principle: Member EEconomic
Pparticipation Mmembers contribute
equitably to, and democratically control,
the capital of their co-operative. At least
poartion of that capital is usuallynormally
the commonunal property of the co-
operative. Members usuallygenerally
receive limited compensation, if any, on
capital subscribed as a condition of
membership. Members allocate surpluses
for any or all of the following purposes:
developing their co-operative, possibly by
setting up reserves, a portion of which is
part of which at least would be indivisible;
benefiting members in proportion to their
transactions with the co-operative; and
supporting other activities approved by the
membership.
Fourth4th pPrinciple: As autonomous,
self-help organizations controlled by their
members, Aautonomy(NOTE: Do you
mean ‘Autonomous’?) and Iindependence
(NOTE: Do you mean ‘independent’?)
Cco-operatives are autonomous, self-help
organizations controlled by their
members. If they enter into agreements
with other organiszations, including
governments, or; otherwise, they raise
capital from external sources, t. They do
so on terms thatto ensure democratic
control by their members and maintain
their co-operative autonomy.
Fif5th pPrinciple: Education, Ttraining
and Iinformation Cco-operatives provide
education and training for their members,
elected representatives, managers, and
employees so they can contribute
effectively to the development of their co-
operatives. They inform the general
public – particularlyespecially young
people individuals and opinion leaders -
about the nature and benefits of co-
operation.
Six6th Pprinciple: Co-operation Aamong
Cco-operatives Cco-operatives serve their
members most effectively and strengthen
the co-operative movement by working
togethercollaborating through local,
national, regional, and international
structures.
Seven7th Pprinciple: Concern for
Ccommunity Cco-operatives work for the
sustainable development of their
communities through memberpolicies
-approved policiesby their members.
As we understand the Definition of
tThe cooperative has been defined above.
Next, in the view offrom an economics
perspective, credit is a kind form of
purchasing. Therefore, credit can involve
the exchanges the of property and service.
For this reasonTherefore, on twith respect
to the debt-credit relation, credit can
changebe transformed into (essential OR
the essence) strength and produce(NOTE:
Do you mean ‘contain’ instead of
‘produce’?) a lot ofmany functions. For
exampleinstance, improvements can be
made to centralize the capital to be
centralized or help to regulate the
finances. Above functions Because of
credit have led to establishment of those
functions. Therefore, produce the banking
systems. However, low-income
individuals find But, the banking system
innapropriates not suitable for the poor
people. Therefore, the poor people and,
instead, utilize the cooperative method
and then establishingin which the “credit
cooperative” is established under
principles of in self-help, self-
responsibility, democracy, equality, equity,
and solidarity. (Yin, 1980).
The mModern credit cooperatives can
be categorized as divided into three kinds
by area, member andor notion. (Zhang,
1983).
First c1st City credit cooperative: In 1850,
Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch(1808-1883)
established the city credit cooperative in
1850. The mMembers of a city credit
cooperative arecomprise entrepreneurs,
laborers or bourgeois. SoTherefore, a city
credit cooperative provides the financial
services by thebased on credit. The
German form of this cooperative is called
Also calledthe Volks bank in Germany.
Second c2nd Country credit cooperative:
In 1862, Friedrich Wilhelm
Raiffeisen(1818-1888) established the
country credit cooperative in 1862, which
focuses mainly on . The purpose of
country credit cooperative is provide
theing funds for agricultureal purposes.
Third c3rd Credit union: In 1909,
Alphanee Desjardins(1854-1921), and
Edward A.Filene(1860-1937) established
the first credit union in 1909. With credit
unionThe members need to liveing in the
same area. And base on the notion of the
credit union, the members h, mutual help
is essential to ensure successeach other.
The purpose of this research isstudy
examines discussing the mangement
performance.(NOTE: Be more specific.
In what context of in what respect do this
study examine management
performance?) Therefore, we collect the
relevant studies in this partPertinent
literature is reviewed first.
(NOTE: You should not divide literature
review according to local and overseas.
You should treat all research
chronologically.)
In the part of Taiwanese scholars, Lin
(2004) study “The relationship
betweenexplored how corporate
governance and operating performance of
Taiwan’s bank industry” are related. Cai
(2004) study “The study onthen assessed
the management performance of
Taiwanese banks in Taiwan:by using
factor analysis approach”. And. Earlier,
Chen (2002) evaluated the study “The
merger and transformation of credit
cooperatives in Taiwan.
In the part of international scholars,
H. Fukuyama et al. (1999) studiedy the
“Eefficiency and ownership: evidence
from the perspective of Japanese credit
cooperatives”. Earlier, A. Bhattacharyya
et al. (1997) study “The impact
ofexamined how liberalization onhas
impacted the productive efficiency of
Indian commercial banks”. And I.More
recently, Isik and M. K. Hassan (2002)
study the “Texplored the technical, scale
and allocative efficiencies of the Turkish
banking industry.
3. Methodology
This study adopts three statistical
methods: research will use the factor
analysis, cluster analysis and MDS three
kind of statistic methods.. Those methods
are described as followsTherefore, we will
introduce the three kind of statistic
methods in the section.
The meaning of the faFactor analysis
attemptsis to reduceing a lot ofmany
proxy variables
) ( Xk X X ,....., 2 , 1
to become thea
few incubative factors
) ( Yj Y Y ,....., 2 , 1
.
) ( Xk X X ,....., 2 , 1
is also called behavior(al?)
variables. And we can observe to find In
addition to obtaining the behavior
variables. In the addition, we need to, this
study must also extract factors for
findderiving the incubative factors.

The meaning of the cCluster analysis
isattempts to transform making the
samples
) ( On O O ,....., 2 , 1
to set becomeinto some
groups
) ( Ci C C ,....., 2 , 1
by the criterion
) ( Yj Y Y ,....., 2 , 1
.
(NOTE: Although I have simplified this
sentence, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) Additionally,
The cluster analysis can make
theaccumulate homogenous variables into
collect in a group.
In using the
P
criteria, The meaning
of the MDS is making the
P
criteriaattempts to evaluate
M
objectives by
N
subjects. The result of MDS results can
be used to construct a manufacture the
perceptual map to proceed the with
benchmarking analysis, idea point
analysis, competitive situation analysis,
key factor evaluation, criterion correlation
analysis, strategy analysis, error analysis
and variation analysis for making
decisions.
17. Business Management
Optimizing resource allocation via
iIntegrated marketing communication
resource allocation optimization—An
Examplecase study of the credit card
issuing companies in Taiwan
Abstract
(NOTE: This abstract is too short. To
reach 200 – 225 words, you are missing
the setting, problem, methodology (at least
3-4 sentences) and main results.)
The purpose of this researchstudy
describes an integrated marketing
communication-based model to is for
construct a credit card Integrated
marketing communication resource
allocation optimizatione resource
allocation among credit modelcard
issuing companies. The proposed model
incorporates the first permeate modifyied
Delphi method to collect the expert
opinions, finddetermine the criterion
(NOTE: Do you mean ‘criteria’ (plural
form) OR ‘criterion’ (singular form)?
Check intended meaning.) of the
allocation optimization model, then and
apply the Aanalytic Hhierarchy pProcess
(AHP) to proceed the appraise ofevaluate
the effectiveness of the model benefit. By
this research’s rResult,s of this study can
provide the domestic banking
sectorindustry with an understanding of
how to implementood the core item of
executing I integrated marketing
communication (all six item: Thein areas
of product design, the advertisement,
theing, public relations, the promotion, the
ddirect marketing, the and customer
relationship management). Additionally,
the proposed model can contribute to the
competitiveness of local banks by
carefully utilizing and Carries out medhod
and its order of priority reference
information, adopt this model can use the
limited resources, to do the most effective
arrangement, promotes the bank’s
competitive ability.
Key words :Credit card 、I, integrated
marketing communication 、 , Delphi
method、, analytic hierarchy process
Introduction
Internet commerce increasingly
provides In recent years, the consumers
with no matter in domestic or overseas,
via the Internet transmission, can arrive
the security, the economical and the
convenience consume behavior., thus
gradually replacing the conventional
means of This classification to the
tradition cash cash transactions way, has
widely accepted by masses, and becomes
the as a mainstream means of commercein
today’s social deal way . According to(
Foresight mMagazine, (2,000) report,
Chinatrust Commercial Bank generated
annual profits of make 60 hundred million
profit at the time(NOTE: This should be
expressed in US dollars not NT since the
overseas reader does not know what the
NT is or its value.), with over 30% of that
amount coming thirty profits is come from
the credit card issuing
revenuesdepartment's contribution.
Therefore, the banking sector can not
neglect the importance of the credit card
issuing department as a significant source
of revenuepassing quantity to the banking
industry, is not allow to neglect. Given the
fierce And under the numerous card
publisher competition among credit card
issuing companiesin the nowadays, how to
construct the powerfuldeveloping an
effective brand image; and how to do that
can use the least with minimum overhead
costs , but yet yielding maximum obtains
the biggest benefits is of priority concern,
these to the credit card publisher ,has
become an important topic.
Li’s(2001)research pointed out that
While examining the effectiveness of
iIntegrated marketing communication, Li
(2001) indicated that, is a new concept,
according to Sales & Marketing
Management’s investigation shows that in
visitingamong 179 American enterprises
in American , only 53.6% adopted
Enterprise execute Iintegrated marketing
communication practices;. Of those
enterprises adoptingand in carrying out I
integrated marketing communication
process, majority enterprise although a
majority (74.9%) could an apply the
database, but the applications were is
mostly quite basic , such as generating
like using ofa customer's name list.
database Additionally, only 30% of the
enterprises could can analyzesis from
consumer's purchase habiting trends (to
separate with consumer’s type : I DON’T
KNOW WHAT THIS MEANS AND
HOW IT RELATES TO THE FIRST
PART OF THE SENTENCE.) (Chai and
Chen, 1998) . While examining
advertising in Taiwanese magazines, But
in domestic according to(Wang ,(2000) the
hundred viewpoint advertisement
magazine that point out Taiwanindicated
that only has 56% of all advertising
businessesman focus on pushing
implement Iintegrated marketing
communication concept,practices. This is
despite the fact that moreover, although
Taiwan's has 81% of all advertising
businesses were aware of man know tthis
concept, actually. In practice, only 60%
of all advertising have businesses owners
that not arrive sixty percent to carry out or
doing I adopted integrated marketing
communication ((Hsu,2001).)。
Therefore, this study describes an
integrated marketing communication-
based model to optimize resource
allocation among credit card issuing
companies.his research purpose
is:1.Construct the bank credit card
Integrated marketing communication
resource allocation optimization model, to
be a credit card marketing personnel’s
reference . Following a first through the
literature review and interviews with
experts in the field, visiting, viathe
Modified Delphi Method is adopted to
gathers the group opinions of anonymous
experts group opinion, constructs t. The
hierarchy level of Ithe integrated
marketing communication-based resource
allocation optimization model is then
constructed, then. Next, via the Aanalytic
Hhierarchy Pprocess decides, each criteria
weight and the arrangement of importance
arrange situationare determined..2.
Additionally, Discuss excuting key factor
of this major factors of the resource
allocation optimization model are
discussed,. hoped the research rResults of
this study provide a valuable can be a
important reference that provide thefor
domestic bank credit card issuing
departments in banks attempting to adopt
future carry out method and priority
importance of the Iintegrated marketing
communication.
Methodology
The methods consist of the modified
Delphi Techniquemethod and AHP are
adopted in this study, as described stated
below:.
Modified Delphi Technique
The Delphi Technique is a
conventionally adopted qualitative
forecasting method (Anderson et al.,
2001), which involves the systematic
solicitation and collation of experts on a
particular topic through a set of carefully
designed sequential questionnaires
interspersed with summarized information
and feedback of opinions derived from
earlier responses (Delbecq et al., 1975).
Originally developed by a research group
at the Rand Corporation, Delphi attempts
to forecast current trends through a group
consensus. Moreover, experts are
anonymous and do not meet each other in
person.
Murry (NOTE: Do you mean
‘Murray’?) and Hammons (1995)
modified the traditionalconventionally
adopted Delphi Techniquemethod by
eliminating the first-round questionnaire
containing unstructured questions. Besides
saving time and expenses, a structured
questionnaire allows the panel to
immediately focus on the study issues.
Therefore, this study adopts the modified
Delphi Technique based on results of
literature review and interviews with
experts to select the (probablye : OR
OMIT ) criteria. Although between five
and twenty experts should be used in
experts forecasting (Anderson et al.,
2001), group size influences the
effectiveness of group decision-making.
Therefore, the decision making group
probably should not be too large, i.e. a
minimum of five to a maximum of about
fifty (Robbins, 1994), the Delphi
Technique method work group of five to
nine members (Delbecq et al., 1975).
Therefore, this study invited nine experts
to participate in the modified Delphi
Techniquemethod group.
Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
AHP was developed in the early 1970s in
response to military contingency planning,
scarce resources allocation and the need
for political participation in disarmament
agreements, and AHP not only a . More
than a decision method that decomposes a
complex multi-criteria decision problem
into a hierarchy but, AHP is also a
measurement theory that prioritizes the
hierarchy and consistency of the
judgmental data provided by a group of
decision makers (Satty, 1980). The
calculation procedure is presented
bdescribed below.
18. (Business Management)
Evaluating the Quality of Infectionus
Medical Waste Disposal Firms Using the
Delphi Method and Analytic Hierarchy
Process
1. Introduction
Since Taiwan implemented the National
Health Insurance scheme was established
in Taiwan in 1995. All or different levels,
many hospitals have eliminated adopt
abandon type the use of medical
hygienewaste disposal equipment on their
premises in a great quantity, in order to
upgrade sanitary conditionshave fine
medical quality and getattract morenew
patients in hospitals concerned with a
hygienic environment. In practice,
Conventionshygienic equipment was
commonly used in Taiwanese hospitals
utilize high pressure tofor disinfecting
purposes to retrieve medical hygiene
equipment already independent of favor.
However, many hospitals have opted out
of using such A great quantity adopt
abandon type medical hygiene
equipment., leading to an increase in the
medical waste and rise in to increase, and
the waste cope with expenses in coping
with this growing amount of wastealso
increase (Hsiao, 2000). According to
statistics from Tthe Department of Health
of the Republic of China, have medical
statistical data exhibit, as of by the year
2003, the medical mechanismthe number
of medical organizations island wide
amounted to have 18,777,the while the
number of sick beds in hospitals reached
amount about 136,331, it is the mainwhich
are the primary production source of the
medical waste (Environmental wWhite
Paper Report book, 2004). According to
the The Department of eEnvironmental
pProtection Associationindicate of the
Republic of China, the medical waste
output aboutaround 300 metric tons of
medical waste are generated annually in
per diem, with 42.4 metric tons considered
among them infectionus medical waste
nearly occupy 42.4 metric tons,, i.e., an
amount have phenomenon increasing
annuallyyear by year. Regulation of the
eEnvironmental regulations protection
stipulateion, that medical organizations
can contract publicly owned or private
disposal firms to handle medical waste the
mechanism have product career waste, the
waste must to disposal , can entrust
publicly-owned or popular disposal firms
(Pan,1997). To effectively handleA
investigating study , to counter the
infectious mesdical wastes, handle fashion
with medical mechanism, find
aboutaround 62.5% of all public hospitals,
about 80% of hospital of legal person of
financial group , about and 75.8% of all
private hospitals, all entrust outsource this
work to disposal firms to deal with the
medical wastes (Hsiao,2000). (NOTE: I
have no idea what you mean by “about
80% of hospital of legal person of
financial group” means or how it fits in
this sentence. Do you mean “To
effectively handle infectious medical
wastes, around 62.5% of all public
hospitals and 75.8% of all private
hospitals (or a combined total of nearly
80% of all legally operating hospitals)
outsource this work to disposal firms
(Hsiao,2000).” Make sure that I have not
changed your intended meaning.)
Therefore, given the inevitability of the
waste growing expenditures in handling
medical wasteis unavoidable., The
medical organizations strive to minimize
costs, maintain high quality medical
mechanism hope have a low expenditure,
services quality friendly and lawful
disposale of infectious wastes legally firm.
Such concerns highlight the importance of
Consequently selecting qualified medical
waste disposal firms during
outsourcingexcellent firm is especially
important.
In sum, given the trend for This study
motive is the hospitals to eliminate the use
of medical waste disposal equipment on
their premises, adopt abandon type
medical hygiene equipment in a great
quantity, cope with increasing amounts of
make the medical waste to increase, and
rising treatment coststhe waste cope with
expenses also increase, and as well as
comply with environmental the laws
regulations, therefore the medical
organizations commonly outsource their
mechanism entrust the disposal firm
handle medical wastes treatment to
disposal firms (Hsiao, 2004). While many
The majority hospitals to select waste
disposal firms, hospital because of to
obstruct the relation on of management
ing is very difficult, consequentlyoften
selects a disposal firm based on its
professional general bottom experience
and a competitive bidnegotiated price to
select firm,. However, such a decision
process lacks objectivity and a but utilize
negotiated price to select firm is
insufficient, for the sake of avert these
wrong, f can pass quantitative means of
zation way , set up a way of evaluating
outsourcing candidatesmode., not
necessarily ensuring that the most
appropriate disposal firm is It can be
selected and not merely serve well ,
charge appropriatly and have good
disposal firm. Therefore, this work
presents a model based on the Delphi
method and analytic hierarchy process
(AHP) for selecting study purpose is to
establish disposal firms to treat infectionus
medical waste disposal firms discuss and
elect mode. ExerciseThe modified Delphi
method is adopted to marshalaccumulate
expert opinions and, based on that data,
establish an appropriate elected proper
assessment criterion. Additionally, the
AHP theory is utilized to establish a
model for selecting firms, and calculate
the weights. (NOTE: What are ‘the
weights’ you are referring to? ‘the
weights’ for what?) The proposed model
provides an expectation can provide a
objective, and effective means of thods to
selecting disposal firms to treat the
infectionus medical waste disposal firms.
2.Methodology
An attempt is made to Research objects
of this study are to select the most
appropriate candidate among disposal
firms that treat infectionus medical waste
disposal firms. Methodology adopting tIn
addition to adopting the modified Delphi
method to accumulate expert opinions and
identifying a normal evaluation criterion.
Additionall, this study also utilizes the
AHP theory is utilized to establish a
model for selecting firms. Theoriesetical
approaches adopted herein are described
as follows.
2.1 Delphi Method
In order to assist infections medical waste
administrator can be effective, systematic
and objective to select an aAppropriate
infectionus medical waste firms must be
selected effectively, systematically and
objectively to facilitate hospital
administrators in decision making.
Therefore, the Delphi Method is adopted
to enable in order to condense eexpert's to
reach a common consensus during short
time,efficiently, consequently adopting
Delphi Method to treat as a standards
withsubsequently providing administrators
with an objective means of to selecting
disposal firms to treat the infectionus
medical waste disposal firms. By
incorporating quantitative and qualitative
considerations, tThe Delphi method is a
secience and technology integrated
method with the quantification and
quality, can facilitate utilizes the way to a
discussion through in writing constantly
withamong anonymous experts, in order
to achieve performing the consistency in
approaching a topic underand to settle a
subject of debate. (Sung, 2001). (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) The Delphi method comprises
the following five steps: (1) selecting the
experts; (2) perform a questionnaire
survey inof the first round; (3) perform a
questionnaire survey inof the second
round; (4) perform a questionnaire ofin
the third round; and (5) to synthesize
expert opinions and to reach a common
consensus. If theFor experts unable to
reach a common consensus, the steps (3)
and (4) are repeated until a uniform result
is achieved (Huang, 1996; Sung, 2001).
Given that Tthe Delphi method have
exceptional factor in the certain study,
(NOTE: I have no idea what you mean by
“the Delphi method have exceptional
factor in the certain study”. How about
“Given that the Delphi method handles
exceptional factors in a particular
circumstance,” OK? Although this makes
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.)therefore the questionnaire
results must measured repeatedly
measuring, thus expending a considerable
amount of not only to waste time and
reducing the rate of recovery rate of the
questionnaires is reduced submitted
(Murry and Hammons,1995; Sung,
2001).Therefore, to correctremedy the
above limitations in the Delphi method,
immediately employ records andof expert
interviews are accumulated to
marshaldraw up a elementary basic
criterion, do instead of not gathering the
opinions of all arrange the whole experts
suggestion with openthrough a questions
and answers approach. (NOTE: Although
this makes this sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.)In this study
utilizes As an efficient means of gathering
expert opinions on a particular topic, the
modified Delphi method is used in this
study to develop perform a questionnaire
survey duringof the second round., in
which Modified Delphi method can to be
frugal time and enable expert direct to
gather the focus in the study topical.
Therefore, this study utilizes modified
Delphi method, have five experts
participate in the decision-making group.
A To collect the experts consensus opinion
is subsequently achieved in the non-
interference(NOTE: ‘the non-interference’
WHAT? You are missing a noun for this
adjective to modify. By placing a hyphen
between ‘non’ and ‘interference’ you have
made it an adjective and, therefore, are
missing a noun.) , andwith those results
gathereding the experts consensus
opinion. , Finally, subjective factors are
identified using an objective after that
employ measurement method to reach the
purpose that the subjective factor
objectifies.(NOTE: Do you mean
‘evaluation method’ OR ‘assessment
method’ instead of ‘measurement
method’?)
 2.2 Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP)
As a decision making method, the
Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)is a
decision method that decomposes a
complex multi-criteria decision problem
into a hierarchy (Saaty, 1980),. The
procedure for the applying AHP to thean
uncertainty condition in order to identify
an and the majority estimateion criterion
with thefor decision making purposes is
question ,the calculation procedure as
follows:. (NOTE: Although this makes
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
1. Establish thea hierarchy(NOTE:
‘hierarchical’?) structure.
  Deal with cComplex issues can be
addressed effectively through use of a
decompose capitalize the
hierarchy(NOTE: ‘hierarchical’?)
structure. Because of given the inability of
humans inability to compare more than
seven categories assumption(NOTE:
‘categories of ‘assumptions’? OR can you
simply say ‘categories’? Check intended
meaning.) simultaneously. TheA hierarchy
is inadvisable toshould not contain more
than exceed seven elements. Under this
limited condition, can carry ona rational
comparison can be made and the
consistency can be ensured as well.
(Satty,1980; Deng and Tzeng, 1989) 。.
The first hierarchy of thea structure is
goal.(NOTE: ‘purpose’ instead of ‘goal’?)
The end(NOTE: ‘final’?) hierarchy
involves the choiceselecting projects or
identifying (replacement : OR OMIT)
alternatives, andwhile the middle
hierarchiesy levels is the appraiseal certain
factors or conditions.
2. Compute the element weight of various
hierarchies
(1) Establishing pairwise comparison
matrix A.
Based on an element of the upper
hierarchy that is an evaluation standard, a
pairwise comparison is for each element.
While Assume have n elements are
assumed, must make n(n-1)/2 elements of
the pairwise comparison must be derived.
(NOTE: ‘derived’ instead of ‘made’?
Check intended meaning.) Let
Cn C C ,..., 2 , 1

bedenote the set of elements, while
ij
a

represents a judgment on a pair of
elements
j i
C C ,
. An n by n matrix A can be
expressed as follows:
     (1)
Comparison results of tThe n
elements compare resultare inserted into
the upper triangle of pairwise comparison
matrix A. (NOTE: Although this makes
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.) (Principal diagonal for the
element oneself comparison, therefore it
is1 )(NOTE: Although this makes this
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.)The lowerunder triangle
(NOTE: ‘triangular’?) values are relative
positions for the reciprocal values of the
upper triangle’s partial relative positions
n
C C C 
2 1
values reciprocal, (NOTE: Although this
makes this sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.)i.e.,
ij
a
= 1/
ij
a
.
Where
ii
a
=1 and
ji
a
=1/
ij
a
,
i
,
j
=1,2,…, n, two
elements (
j i
C C ,
) that become one
quantization value for an important
relative judgment. In matrix A, employ
ij
a

can be expressed, as a set of numerical
weights
n
W W W ........, ,
2 1
, that “reflectsin which
the recorded judgments” must be
assigned to the n elements
n
C C C ,....., ,
2 1
. If A is
a consistency matrix, the relations
between weights
i
W
and judgments
ij
a
are
simply given by
ij j i
a W W · /
(for
n j i ,....., 2 , 1 , , ·
) and
matrix A as follows:
(2)
(2) Compute the eigenvalue and
eigenvector.
Matrix A multiplies the elements
weight vector (
x
) equal to
nx
, that isi.e., (
A
-
nI
)
x
=0, wherethe
x
is the eigenvalue (
n
) of
eigenvector. Given that
ij
a
denotes the
subjective judgment of decision-makers,
with the actual value (
j i
W W /
) hasving a
certain degree of difference. Therefore,
x n Ax . ·
cannot be set up.(NOTE: Do you
mean ‘derived’ instead of ‘set up’? Check
intended meaning.) Satty (1990) suggested
that the largest eigenvalue
max
λ
be
n
C C C 
2 1

·
·
n
j
j
ij
Wi
W
a
1
max
λ
        (3)
If A is a consistency matrix, eigenvector X
can be calculated by formula (4):
0 ) (
max
· − X I A λ
(4)
(3) Performing the consistency test.
Saaty (1990) propose utilizeding
consistency index (
CI
) and consistency
ratio (
CR
) to verify the consistency of the
comparison matrix. CI and CR are defined
as follows:

) 1 /( ) (
max
− − · n n CI λ
(5)

RI CI CR / ·

(6)
Where RI represents the average
consistency index over numerous random
entries of same order reciprocal matrices.
If
1 . 0 ≤ CR
, the estimate is accepted and;
otherwise, a new comparison matrix is
solicited until
1 . 0 ≤ CR
.
3. Compute the entirety hierarchy (NOTE:
‘hierarchical’?) weight.
After the computed for various
hierarchyies and element of weights are
computer, . Tthe entirety
hierarchy(NOTE: ‘hierarchical’?) weight
is computed, ultimately enabling decision-
makers to select the most appropriate
strategy. (NOTE: Although this makes
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.)

19. (Business Management)
Optimizing resource allocation via
integrated marketing communication—a
case study of credit card issuing
companies in Taiwan

Abstract
Credit cards are used pervasively
worldwide, as evidenced by strongfor
consumer’s demand, not only and the
diverse variety of financial services that
such card’s offer. Credit card issuing
companies must thus adopt effective
marketing strategies to kind become
variety, many passing card organization’s
marketing method is to emerge in an
endless stream too. So the passing card
organization want to attract new maintain
the customer’s and maintain their loyalty,
must have complete and correct marketing
strategy. Therefore, this work presents a
IMC-based resource allocation
optimization model thatThe proposed
model incorporates the modified Delphi
method to (accumulate OR collect) expert
opinions, determine the criteria of the
allocation optimization model and apply
the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to
evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed
model. Following a literature review and
interviews with experts in the field, the
Modified Delphi Method is adopted to
gather the group opinions of anonymous
experts. The hierarchy level of the
integrated marketing communication-
based resource allocation optimization
model is then constructed. Next, via the
analytic hierarchy process, each criteria
weight and the arrangement of importance
are determined. Additionally, major
factors of the resource allocation
optimization model are discussed. Results
of this study provide the domestic banking
sector with an valuable reference for
understanding of how to implement
integrate marketing communication in
areas of product design advertising, public
relations, promotion, direct marketing and
customer relationship management.
AdditionallyMoreover, the proposed
model can contribute to the
competitiveness of local banks by
encouraging them to carefully utilizeing
limited resources.
Key words : : Credit card, integrated
marketing communication, Delphi
method, analytic hierarchy process

Methodology
Theis study are adopted modified
Delphi method is adopted here not only to
(accumulate OR collect) expert’s opinions,
but also to identifydecide the essential
(factors OR determinants) of the
integrated marketing communication-
based model, then apply. AHP is then used
to determine the decide(weight OR
criterion weight) of each essential factor’s
weight and rank of importance sort in this
study,. A thorough as description
followsbed below.
3. Consistency Test
Saaty (1980) proposed utilizing
consistency index (
CI
) and consistency
ratio (
CR
) to verify the consistency of the
comparison matrix. Additionally,
CI
and
CR
are defined as follows:

) 1 /( ) (
max
− − · n n CI λ
(4)

RI CI CR / ·
(5)
Where
RI
denotes the average
consistency index over numerous random
entries of same order reciprocal matrices.
If
, 1 . 0 ≤ CR
the estimate is accepted; otherwise,
a new comparison matrix is solicited until
. 1 . 0 ≤ CR
Because the banking industry present still
not have a complete Given the lack of a
comprehensive and objective IMC-based
resource allocation optimization model,
therefore this study attempts to do so want
to construct one, this part divide into two
stages to proceed, t. The first stage
comprisesincludes four steps, in which the
Modified Delphi Method is used to
identify the most appropriate evaluation
criteria. The second stage consists of five
steps, in which AHP theory is applied to
calculate the weight of the decision
evaluation criterion and evaluate the
effectiveness of the IMC resource
allocation optimization model. These
stages are described in detail as follows.
Step 1: Form the Designate the group of
banking experts group from in the
primary bank managers in Taiwan.
13 middle to high level managers from
the credit card issuing sections of In the
Chinesea tTrust cCommercial bBank, Tai
sShin iInternational cCommercial bBank,
Cathay cCommercial bBank, Union
cCommercial bBank and E-sun
cCommercial bBank were selected to form
the first five passing card bank, choose
thirteen middle to high level manager to
be experts for group in this study, it must
conform to 1. under the following
criteria: a) each expert should behold a
managerial position in bankthe credit card
issuing department of a bank; 2.Tb) the
service year in bank to which the expert
belongs should have more than two be
over 2 years of experience in credit card
issuing services; and c) the expert should
be a 3.It should be upper Chief level’s
middle to high level banking manager ,.
Experts selected in this study
chooseincluded three managers from
Chinesea tTrust cCommercial bBank,
three people,from Tai sShin iInternational
cCommercial bBank three people,, three
from Cathay cCommercial bBank three
people, two from Union cCommercial
bBank two people and two from E-sun
cCommercial bBank two people, different
bank manager, total amount thirteen
people.
Step 2: Based on a Collect and sort
pertinent literature review, identify on
major factors in optimizing IMC resource
allocation optimization model, sift out the
final factor.
A literature review of local and
overseas studies is made to This study’s
factor information is refer to domestic and
foreign literature, initial find out identify
the factors of Oto optimizeing resource
allocation model, to do the and, then, to
devise a confirm criteria offor the
questionnaire survey submitted to expert’s
questionary,. tThe Likert-type five scale
is used to ensure that the criteria weight
surpasses four scales above, which are
listed as the(the most OR an) important
reference criterion, and become final
confirm and sift out factor,. (NOTE: “,
and become final confirm and sift out
factor” makes no sense and I don’t
understand its relation to the first part of
the sentence.) eEach level’s criteriona are
statedment as below:
Hsu (2004) proposed that with 51
credit card issuing banks in Taiwan, total
has as high as reach fifty-one card issuing
bank, credit card market ccompetition is
(stringent OR extremely volatile)violent,.
bBanks must thus adopt nothing is better
than using diversitye marketing
strategy,ies to gain strive in customer
loyalty. Given stringent competition and
an already saturated Because is not pure as
before, now competitor numerous, noise
more and more market, marketing efforts
must do more than just is not only single
aspect passingrelay information to
consumers, but also remain attune to
fluctuations in market trends and changes
in however is giving rise to the market
attention, arouse resonance, further to
obtain consumer’s accept and answer
preferences. Shi (2003) noted that as ever
mention now financial organizations tend
towards numerous stride into
grouplization (NOTE: WHAT does
‘grouplization’ mean?) and diversification
way toin their management practices, at
the same time, only the integration of
various marketing practices can yield
strength integrated can bring into biggest
energy and optimum benefits,. (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) from the financial holding
aspectIn this respect, integrated marketing
communication is having bright
prospectshighly promising.
ProductWhen we want to promote a
product usually need to proceed marketing
normally requires combining ation’s plan,
it is including factors of pProduct, Pprice,
Pplace and Ppromotion four parts. Given
that effectiveAmong promotion play the
important role ofinvolves communicating
with consumers, therefore promotion can
be viewed as a vital tool can named
marketing communication strategytool.
Afterward because eOwing to
environmental changes and fluctuations in
marketing develop trends involving the
developing IMC concept, thean effective
communication strategy consists of
perform divide into five communication
tool, include Aadvertising, pPublic
Rrelationship, event marketing events,
Ssales Ppromotion and Ddirect
Mmarketing etc. After collect expert’s
opinions are collected, in this study, here
Ppublic Rrelationship includes event
marketing events, besides add product
design and customer relationship
management to enhance the make model
more faultless. (NOTE: What “model”
are you referring to?) In pProduct design
includes the following three criterion, it’s
separately is:
(1) Product positioning and establishing of a
target market set : it means must proceed
market segmentation is (performed OR
proceeded with) to setestablish a target
market, according different. Based on
various target markets, then proceed
product positioning can be proceeded
with., fFor instanceexample, according to
data from Tai sShin iInternational
cCommercial bBank via information
investigate, discoverin contrast to males,
females that have a better credit history,
workmore stable work, lowera bed
amount of debt condition is less, and.
Additionally, perceptual appeal (NOTE:
Do you mean ‘promotional appeal’ instead
of ‘perceptual appeal’? Check intended
meaning.) more easily affects female
consumers is easier affect by perceptual
appeal, leading to a higher likelihood of
customer satisfactionfurther to generate
agreement. (NOTE: Although I have made
this confusing sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) Given the rise in
Add female consumer power, ability
unceasingly rise, Tai sShin Bbank predict
female credit card market will be very
large develop space, therefore takehas
established female consumer segmentation
to be the Tai shin bank credit card ‘sas a
target market in credit card issuing.;
(2) Increased functions of Ccredit cards
function strengthening: for example,s
include the ability to secure Has the
traveling safe insurance, and borrows the
cash in advance ),; and
(3)Increased preference for Ccredit card
userights and interests strengthening: for
example,s include preferential gives
favored treatment given to credit card
holders when to year expense, shopping
preferential benefit strengthening.
(NOTE: I have no idea what you mean by
“to year expense” in the context of this
sentence.)
In advertisement aspect mainly divide
intoCategorized as either creativity
strategy andor media strategy, advertising
consists of the following it is including:
six sub criteria: (NOTE: ‘criterion’
instead of ‘criteria’? Check intended
meaning.) , separately is (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
(1)Advertisementing creativity development:
the effectiveness of an it means develop a
advertisement in appealing to a
specificrepresent way that can touch target
group ., fFor instanceexample, Tai-Shin
bBank imprints use the slogan “An earnest
women is the most beautiful one.” on ato
mold r rose-colored credit card’s
temperament and unique personality to
appeal to the to obtain female target’s
agreement, further to apply rose card
group;
(2) Television advertisements: advertising
through via television media (, includeing
cable television and wireless television) to
proceed advertisement information
transmit, here means television plan and,
to encourage consumer purchases,. fFor
instanceexample, Visa Credit cCard
Corporation has, since the end of 2001,
successively promoteding two brand
image advertisements aimed at consumers
dining outside of the home and cinema
goers,”outside eating”and“outside watch
movie”,. For consumers dining outside of
the home, the target group is among
”outside eating”mainly focus on twenty to
forty20-40 years olds, whom are enticed
by slogans such as group that is talking an
opinion“Visa in hand, everything you
can”. Using the Chinese actressfamous
star Ziyi-Zhang to beas a company
spokesman, Visa Card in basic media
benefit considering, Taiwan choose
broadcasted the advertisements before
celebrating the Chinese calendar nNew
yYear. (, usually at the same time cause
tied shop manage time is short, and not the
peak period of credit card, however, it is
rush hour that consumer watch TV or
movie, : I HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THIS
MEANS. YOU NEED TO BREAK THIS
UP INTO TWO SHORTER
SENTENCES. ALSO, I CAN NOT SEE
HOW THIS IS CONNECTED TO THE
PREVIOUS SENTENCE. ) so
whenTherefore, when broadcasting the
advertisement, VisaISA Card first
broadcast the advertisement, specially
chooseaired Expectant golden period to
broadcast this the two minutes
advertisement during prime time ion all
twenty seven television channels during
the on that day and nighttime.;

(3)PlaneConventional media advertisement :
means plane media’s plans and purchases,
which includes advertisements in
newspapers, magazines, manualbrochures
and leafletsplaybill, etc. For
instanceexample, Tai-Shin bBank
extensively used newspaper advertising to
promote its Rose Card among expresses
the modern female’s as a gesture of
expressing their view point to modern
love, lifestyle and sexuality relationship
through newspaper and then create the
Rose card as the image of spokesman to
urban female. The mMagazine
advertisements play upon the exhilaration
that a uses womean’s feelsing who first
when receivesing roses to conveytransmit
the romantic naturecharacteristic of Tai-
Shin bBank’s Rose card and then build the
image of love spokesman to female.;
(4) NetworkInternet-based advertisement:
adopting means network’s plan
andstrategies to encourage online
purchase,ing which using network
advertisement let and keeping the
consumer aware of the latest products or
serviceskow the newest news or activity
information about product, f. For
exampleinstance, Taipei fFubon bBank
advertises on the front page of use
yYahoo’s! Taiwan first page, linking to its
website informing to connet the health
credit’s advertisement of credit card to tell
consumers ton know the content of new
project.the latest specials;
(5)Advertisement in oOutdoor areas and
transportation media advertisement:
marketing strategies aimed at consumer
means outdoor and transportation media’s
plan and purchases, including via
outdoorroadside billboards and advertising
on public transportation or buses inside’s
playbill let masses know the product or
service’s information, f. For
instanceexample, the Transportationat
present traffic b Bureau of the Taipei
cCounty gGovernment and Chinese tTrust
cCommercial bBank cooperatione toin
promote”ing Taipei county roadside park
expensean autopayment system for entry
to roadside parks in Taipei County using
credit cards”, through an the service via
Taipei county bus to do tight squeeze
advertising campaignement; and

(6)Radio advertisement: marketing strategies
aimed at consumer purchases through
means radio media’s plan and purchase,
which means usingradio broadcasting
stations to broadcast the function ofin
information and service-oriented formats.
For instanceexample ,via broadcast, now
“We are family” is equal to Chinese tTrust
cCommercial bBank’s promotes the
slogan “We are family” while pronoun,
after then Cathay United bBank’s
continuously broadcasts the slogan
“Enrich your life” is unceasingly
broadcast via television or radio, to mold
theirestablish a brand image.

In pPublic relationship aspect includes
the following six sub criterion,: which
separately is
(1)nNews releases and special column series
specialswriting: understand media
operation processes and characteristic,
clearly understand what demand of media
reporter,s that provide having news
valuable of product or service
informationnews release and special
column writing’s content;.
(2) Public welfare and supporting
Aactivityies: for eexamples, include
charitabley donatesions, the to education,
sports, medical health care, environmental
protection and so on related artaesthetic
activities.;

(3)The enterprise article proclaims of the
pProduct designs that promote the brand
image of the company: using various
marketing factor’s are adopted mix, take
thesefor a particular subject matter’s
content, in addition plan and design.;
(NOTE: Although I have made this
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
(4) Media relationship management: contacts
established with raise the deep
relationship with media reporters and
understand the reporter’sto fulfill
consumer demand to news, f. For
instanceexample, every year immobile
weave expense in holding annual press
conferences are held in which and give as
a small presents are given to attendees.;
(5)Event m Marketing events: Event
marketing is a activity that passing
through a special activitiesarrangement,,
such as usually is festival, the
celebration,anniversary celebrations, the
temple fairs or an exhibitions and so on
activity. For exampleinstance, aim at the
most popular thing that for family
gatherings or reunionsfriend have a chat
about old time in that often occur around
the Chinese Moon festival, Master cCard
iInternational organization offers a special
recommend platinum card special for
purchasing level enjoyment project about
meat burn store ”seven drogon”, preserve
health soup store, “health cook” chafing
dish and “COCA” Thailand dish and so on
suit to family, or friends choice,favorite
cuisine during the holidays favor different
and style diverse, and via these project to
. This promotional activity reminds
consumers the convenience of credit cards
during remind anyone who has master
card series, platinum card, commercial
card, and world card’s friend use over
valuable preferential project to enjoy
beautiful festival activitiestime; and
(NOTE: Although I have made this
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
.
(6)Crisis subject management: public
relation measures to for preventing and
handling include crisies handle before and
crisis handle after, the former is focus on
ordinarily public relationship, the latter is
after things happened, do thewith
compensation measures adopted after a
crisis occurs. (NOTE: Although I have
made this sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.)

InThe promotional aspect includes the
following six sub criterion,: which
separately is
(1) pPrize drawing activity:, for
exampleinstance, card feeding ten times in
a monthly, can join thea car prize drawing
activity to promote credit card use, in
which (2)Ccash is awarded or an
feedback, which is divide into three
way,1. expense-free credit card is
provided for a year.; (NOTE: Although I
have made this sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.)
2. Credit card holders can receive people
who hoding card increase cosume amount
can get specific rate’s cash rebatesfeed
back. for a certain amount spent on the
credit card. 3. people who
holdingAdditionally, credit card holders
just feed card in this month, (can directly
expense credit in consume bill : I HAVE
NO IDEA WHAT THIS MEANS AND
HOW IT IS RELATED TO THE FIRST
PART OF THE SENTENCE.) .; (NOTE:
Although I have made this sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)

(3)Complimentary gifts: it divide into two
kinds, one iseither in the form of bonus
credits changeor incentives for purchasing
in a particular store. Complimentary gift,
fFor exampleinstance, in the universal
credit card scheme of Chinesea tTrust
cCommercial bBank’s universal card just,
card holders that collect arrive 6,733
bonus points can receive a to give as a
present against dazzle light protect eye’s
unique desk lamp, that protects eye
visiona. Another example is for card
holders purchasing in a consuming in the
specific store, can immediately use
theaccumulated bonus points can
accumulate to offset the consume amount
this timereduce the purchased amount.,
fFor instanceexample, credit card holders
from JIH-sSun iInternational bBank can
simply card’s friend just use their bank
card consume in feeding card in theto
purchase Laurel travel products, can
choose b. (NOTE: Although I have made
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
Bonus points accumulated can lower the
retail priceto offset the consume amount
on the spot, everywith 100 points can
offset sixreducing 6 New Taiwanese
dollars from the purchase, with the highest
can offset total consume amount’s
deducted totalling 50% on that time; and

(4)Personnel sales: in here Personnel sale
has personally visited, keep a stall,booths
are maintained to encourage direct
promotion and commercial exhibitions
way to increase apply rate. (NOTE:
Although I have made this sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
In dDirect marketing aspect includes
the following three sub criterion:, which
separately is
(1) Directly sends the Ee-email marketing:
via directly sends the Ee-mails sent to to
know ccustomer’s various demand and
from this to do theas a form of
advertisementing promotion activity, offer
speedy sell service in order to build the
company image and encourage customer
relationship.;
(2) Telephone marketing: via telephone
visited, notify the new card information
and apply preferential to stimulate
potential consumers are contacted
regarding new card information to apply,
it’s a. This highly interactionve
communication strategy is tool, especially
effective when aimed at a specific when
the target is correct control, thus creating
will have more sales opportunitieschance,
and get the efficiency immediately and
filter customer and obtain potential
customer.; and
(3) Directly sends the letter mail: a before
directly sends the letter should be through
the name list is carefully selected, for
mailing to and resort by personal form, let
consumer or potential consumers feel
more respect. (NOTE: Although I have
made this sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.)
In the cCustomer relationship
management includes the following four
sub criterion, which separately is:
(1) customer database eEstablishment and
the integratedion of a customer database:
establishing an accurate correct and
clearly customer database establishment is
the firstinitial step of customer’s
relationship management, first must
proceed data warehouse, integrate bank
al. All customer information is integrated
into the database in a bank, followed by
and establish in the same database, then
can proceeding data mining to understand
customer’s behaviordevelop a model for
consumer behavior.;
(2) Customer analysis: an enterprise
attempting to adopt in the customer
relationship management, must first
identify need to figure out which
customers are potential customers, and
which customer have chance to promote
or to be the most valuable customers, or
some valuable and lost customer
opportunitiesperhaps miss, how to find the
indicate of becoming a valuable customer
from the huge. All of this is possible
through closely examining a tremendous
amount of customer’s information, and
earlier find the customer who will miss
immediately.;
(3) Centralizedthe customer service
central’s service: integrateding
communication channels, including verbal
communicationspeech sounds, faxes,
computer information, i from the Internet
and a database etc technique integrate
application, and in order to satisfy
consumer need to adopt use electronic
commerce’s assistance to strength
customer satisfy.; and (NOTE: Although
I have made this sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.)
(4)Constructs theAn interactiveon
website: an offer a iInternet sitepace can
satisfy customer needs without limitations
of that is fit time, fit channel, fit product
interacte with customer or location..
Step 3: eEstablish an oOptimizeding
resource allocation model via integrated
marketing communication
Group experts determine theidentify
the criterion to establish an Ooptimizing
resource allocation model, penetration
through use of the modified Delphi
method to reach a consensus of opinions
among experts and to achieve uniform
recognition. This study obtains an
essential criterion after three rounds of
survey results yield an essential criterion
(Fig. 1).
Second stage: aApply AHP to
determinecide each factor weight for the
IMC resource allocation model each
factor’s weight.
Step 1: Establish a (hierarchy OR
hierarchical) structure.
As for the IMC resource allocation model, each
evaluation factor comprises several levels,
including the goal hierarchy, criteria
hierarchy, and sub-criteria hierarchy (Fig.
1).
Figure I Framework for optimization model of
Iintegrated marketing communication
resource allocation optimization model
framwork figure
Step 2: Establish each factor of the
pairwise comparison matrix.
Through adoption of the modified
Delphi technique, thirteen experts via join
modify Delphi technique focus on each
level’s criterion to proceed with pairwise
comparison, then use e. Each comparison
score via a geometric mean is then
collected to become the synthesis score,.
(NOTE: Is ‘synthesis score’ common
terminology in your field?) For instance,
via the first level, the main criteria are
formed as the sample, such as in Table 1.
Formulae (1) and (2) are used to calculate
the aggregate pairwise comparison matrix.
Table I first level main factor’s pPairwise
comparison of main factors at the first
level (NOTE: Although I have made this
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
Step 3: Calculate the eigenvalue and eigenvector.
Using the comparison matrix (such as
in Table 1), the eigenvectors are calculated
by formulae (3) and (4). The Table 2
summarizes the results of the eigenvectors
for each criteria and sub-criteria.
Step 4: Perform the consistency test.
Based on formulae (5) and (6), the
criteria comparison matrix of consistency
is calculated for each hierarchy, such as in
Table 1. Results of the consistency test
and CR of the comparison matrix from
each of the nine experts are all smaller
than “0.1”, indicating “consistency”.
Step 5: Compute the relative weight of the
elements for each level.
According to By tTable 2 may know,
the aspect ofas for the element of the first
level , which the banker’s respect , in
order is ranks "the promotion"(0.232) as
first, next isfollowed by "the
advertisement"(0.195), "The ccustomer
relationship management" (0.189)," direct
marketing" (0.182),"P product design"
(0.105), and "Ppublic relationship"
(0.097);. In the sub-criterion of product
design part, the importance inof order is
strengthening the function of credit cards
function strengthening (0.365),
strengthening of Ccredit card rights and
interests strengthening( (0.356),
establishing the Pproduct position and
target market set (0.279); and
Advertisement part, development of
advertisementing creativity development
(0.296), which Eexceeds the television
advertisement (0.281)Exceeds, the
network advertisement (0.117)Exceeds,
the outdoors and the transportation media
advertisement (0.111) and
planeconventional media
advertisement(0.111)Exceeds the and
radio advertisement (0.084);. (NOTE:
You need to change the terminology
according to my above corrections.) As
for The public relations part, in order is
the media relationship
management(0.207) ranks first, followed
by The enterprise article proclaims of the
product design (0.191), Ppublic welfare
and support Activity (0.178)and Crisis
subject management(0.178),The event
marketing event (0.141) , and Nnews
release and column writing strengthening
(0.107); The . As for promotion part, in
order is C cash feedback (0.539), ranks
first, followed by Ccomplimentary gift
(0.260) , prize draw activity (0.106),
andThe personnel sells(0.095) ; d.
(NOTE: You need to change the
terminology according to my above
corrections.) As for direct marketing part,
in order is , telephone marketing (0.369)
ranks first,, follow by directly sends the
letter (0.320), and directly sends the email
(0.312) ; The. As for customer
relationship management part, in order is,
customer service central’s service
(0.363) , ranks first, followed by
customer database establishment and the
integrated (0.246) ,C, customer analysis
(0.206) , Constructs the and an
interactionve website (0.185).
May know byAs for the overall weight ,
most respect goes to forward five sub-
criteria, respectively, ias Cash feedback
(0.081), advertisement creativity
development (0.068), customer service
central’s service (0.066) , , television
advertisement (0.065) ,T and telephone
marketing (0.063) and so on.
Conclusion
Tthis work presents a IMC-based
resource allocation optimization model
that incorporates the modified Delphi
method to (accumulate OR collect) expert
opinions, determine the criteria of the
allocation optimization model and apply
the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to
evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed
model. Following a literature review and
interviews with experts in the field from
Chinese Trust Commercial Bank, Tai Shin
International Commercial Bank, Cathay
Commercial Bank, Union Commercial
bank and E-sun Commercial Bank, the
Modified Delphi Method is adopted to
gather the group opinions of anonymous
experts. The hierarchy level of the
integrated marketing communication-
based resource allocation optimization
model is then constructed. Next, via the
analytic hierarchy process, each criteria
weight and the arrangement of importance
are determined. Additionally, major
factors of the resource allocation
optimization model are discussed. This
study’s purpose is construct an credit card
optimized resource allocation model via
integrated marketing communication. First
via literature discuss the relative research
of credit card and integrated marketing
communication, then visiting with
managers who upper Chief level in
domestic first five bank in credit card
issuing involved (Chinese Trust
Commercial Bank, Tai Shin International
Commercial Bank, Cathay Commercial
Bank, Union Commercial bank and E-sun
Commercial Bank). Next, collected and
decide the hierarchy structure of credit
card optimized resource allocation model ,
the The priority sequence of each factor’s
weight ratio areis determined by analyzing
hierarchy process(AHP) Theory and
analysis software (Expert Choice 2,000).
Based on results of this study, we
conclude as the following:
According to our results, The
importance sort of six essential factors in
the first level separately is Pare
promotion, advertisement, customer
relationship management, direct
marketing, product design, and public
relationship, respectively.(NOTE: OK?)
From a promotional aspect, performance
aspect includes cash feedback,
complimentary gifts, prize drawing
activity, and personnel sale. The first three
separately isare cash feedback,
complimentary gift and prize drawing
activity, respectively, all belonging to
substantive benefits. It is to say mModern
consumers are attach a heavy importance
to the additional value of credit cards
additional value. (NOTE: You need to
change the terminology according to my
above corrections.) And iIn terms of
advertisement, the most important is
development of advertisement cring
creativity development, i. If no correct
and efficaciouseffective createive strategy
is available, subsequentafterward
strategyies will ineffective, and i. In terms
of media strategy aspect, credit card
issuing departments most attach the most
importance to is television advertisements,
and network advertisements, thus it can be
seen, b. Bank marketing personnelstaff
believe, first need to has thus prioritize
good creativity and correct advertisement
appeal, which could appeal to attracted
cutomer’s notice and generate the purpose
ofencourage purchaseing behavior. And
in the credit card’sAs for media resource
allocation ,of credit card issuing
companies, still choose the television
media rank first in terms of that most
often frequently makeing contacts and
have voice and sound efficiency become
number 1 , with consumers. nNetwork
advertisement promote to number 2 Win
the planeranks second, followed by
conventional media. With advances in
Follow the information technology
science’s develop and the
generalitypervasive use of the iInternet,
the Iinternet has become a popular
advertisement media, f. From the
perspective of customer relationship
management, the topfirst three ranking are
respectively is customer central’sized
customer service ,, establishing and
integrated customer database, as well as
customer analysis, respectively. above all
pPrimary considerations are customer
convenience, in which customers can
immediately contact with the customer
service center and responses to the
questions, and. The customer service
center can via establishing and
integratinge a customer database, which
can handle various to aim at different
customer and give different consumer
responses and handle .
In the twenty six sub criterion of in the
overall level, credit card issuing
companies the most attach the most
importance to separately is cash feedback,
advertisement creativity development, the
service of customer service center,
television advertisement and telephone
marketing. It can be seen Our results
further indicate that, for bankers
attempting to achieve maximum benefits
for think if want to make ththe credit
card’s benefit maximum, most importance
onis attached to promotional activity
.among c. In this category, cash feedback
can most attract the most customers,
second is followed by successful
advertisement creativity, third isservice
quality of service staff’s service quality,
fourth is strength and sharpen expose of
television advertisement, and telephone
marketing, respectively. because of
expense are Given relatively low
expenses, the company can directly
interact with customers, quickly
understand consumer demand, which iso
always is the most often using tool of
direct marketing strategy that by bankers
use.
The proposed model construct of this
study can lenot only tenable bankers to
understand the weight in each marketing
resource allocation, but also help bank
credit card issuing departments to
construct a systematic marketing
operation model,. bBesides its
appropriateness for use in the credit card
business can be suitable for use, the
proposed model can provide a valuable
reference for future different industry
marketing staff in different industries can
take this study to be a reference when
perform theattempting to adopt integrated
marketing communication.
20. (Business Management)
Optimal Selection of the Location
(NOTE: “Location” of what? Regional
Hospitals in Taiwan?) to Achieve a
Competitive Advantage by Using the
Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey
Relational Analysis
This (study OR work) presents Aan
evaluation model approach ofto select the
optimal location selection evaluation
model(NOTE: ‘optimal location’ of what?
regional hospitals in Taiwan?). and iIts
computing algorithm is proposed in this
paper(described OR derived) as well.
Increased recent years, Taiwanese living
standards in Taiwan in recent years have
made was to promote, Taiwanese
residents have become more health
conscious and attach increasingly
concerned with importance to quality
healthcare, explaining the heightened
consumer demand in thefor quality and
scope of medical services. The (relevant
whole structure : OR OMIT) criteria (for
OR of) this model are determinedrived
from a literature review and interviews
with a expert group of expertsinterview,
this study also adopts t. The Modified
Delphi Method is also adopted herein. The
proposed model includesorporates the
Aanalytic Hhierarchy Pprocess (AHP) to
determine the (evaluation weights OR
weights of evaluation). Grey Rrelational
Aanalysis (GRA) is then performed to
rankselect the optimal location Selection
of a regional hospital in Taiwan to
determine itsthe effectiveness of the
proposed evaluation model.
The evaluation procedure of this study
consists of several steps, as shown in Fig.
1. The evaluation procedure of this study
consists of several steps as shown in Fig.
1. FirstInitially, we identify the Optimal
Sselection of the Llocation of a regional
hospital in Taiwan is identified by
considering itsto C competitive
Aadvantage aspects. After constructing the
evaluation criteria hierarchy is
constructed, we calculate the criteria
weights are (calculated OR determined)
by applying the Aanalytic Hhierarchy
Pprocess (AHP) method. Finally, we
conductthe Technique for Order
Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution
(TOPSIS) is adopted to achieve the final
ranking results of candidate hospitals.
Thise proposed evaluation model for
evaluatingaimed at selecting the optimal
location selectionof regional hospitals in
Taiwan with respect to competitive
advantage of hospitals comprises the
following steps, as shown in the optimal
location selection to competitive
advantage measurement process in Fig. 2.
Figure 1 Evaluation framework of optimal
location selection to achieve a competitive
advantage
Figure 2 Optimal location selection to achieve a
competitive advantage measurement
process
Figure 3 Establishment of a One regional
hospital is establishing hospital, with
considersation of locations in the Eeast
district of Taichung City, Taiping City and
Dali City.
Figure 4 Hierarchical structure to select
and evaluate the optimal location for
regional hospitals in Taiwan with respect
to competitive advantage
Table 1 Aggregate pair-wise comparison matrix
for criteria of level 2
Table 2 Eigenvectors and weights of three
location selection areas under eighteen
sub-criterions
Table 3 Synthesis Vvalue of three
locations selection areas under eighteen
sub-criteriaon
Table 4 Evaluations of three locations
selection areas under sub-criterions in
relation to each criterion as averaged
Optimizing the Manufacturing Quality
Yield of Silicon Wafer Slicing via the
Analytic Hierarchy ProcessManufacturing
Quality of Silicon Wafer Slicing by Using
the AHP
21. (Business Management)
Optimizing the Manufacturing Quality
Yield of Silicon Wafer Slicing by
Usingvia the Analytic Hierarchy
ProcessAHP
Abstract
This study develops(work OR study)
(presents OR describes) a novelsystematic
algorithm for optimizing the quality yield
of silicon wafer slicing manufacturing
quality yield. Silicon wafer slicing iAs an
increasingly complex manufacturing
process, silicon wafer slicing such
asinvolves high purity levels,
crystallographic perfection and precise
mechanical tolerances, thus complicating
efforts to dominate(ensure OR maintain)
process stability and quality control
analysis effectively. At present, 12 inch
wafer slicing is the most difficult to
control forin terms of semiconductor
manufacturing yield. As The ssilicon
wafer slicing has directly influenced
theimpacts production costs,
semiconductor manufacturers are
especially concerned with facing the
question of the yield not merely pay close
attention to the promotion ofincreasing
and maintaining the yield, as well as
identifying why but the maintenance of
the yield and finding out the factor that the
yields declinedecline, it is equally the
focal point cared about of semiconductor
manufacturers. The relevant whole
structure criteria offor establishing this
modelthe proposed algorithm are derived
from a literature review and interviews
with a group of experts group interview,in
semiconductor manufacturing. this study
also adopts tThe modified Delphi method
is then adopted to analyze those results.
The proposed algorithm also incorporates
model includes the Athe analytic hierarchy
process (AHP) to determine the
(evaluation weights OR weights of
evaluation). Additionally, Ssimple
additive weighting (SAW) is (performed
OR applied) not only to calculate the total
score of each construction case, andbut
also to (rank the priority weights OR
determine the rank of priority OR
prioritize WHAT? ). Finally, the proposed
algorithm can selects the evaluation
outcomes which evaluateto (assess OR
identify) the worst (performing machine
OR machine of precision). (NOTE: You
should specify why ‘machine’ you are
referring to.) Adopting the proposed
algorithm By the evaluation decision to
ensure the manufacturing quality of model
of the constructional silicon wafer slicing
manufacturing quality, and that (provides
OR offers) a highly effective means of
making optimal decisions in the
semiconductor industrystandard operation
procedure (SOP) of the best
manufacturing quality decision. Finally,
usingResults of the exponential weighted
moving average (EWMA) control chart
are presented to demonstrate and verify
the feasibility and effectiveness of the
proposed AHP-based algorithm method in
effectively (determining OR selectsing)
the evaluation outcomess and evaluateing
the precision of the worst performing
machines of precision.
Keywords: Silicon Wwafer Sslicing,
Mmanufacturing Qquality, m M odified
Delphi m M ethod , Aanalytical Hhierarchy
Pprocess, Ssimple Aadditive Wweighting
1. Introduction
The pervasiveness of In recent years, the
prevalence of the electronic products and
the Internet-based technologies has
significantly contributed to the accelerated
development and global competitiveness
of makes the industry of the
semiconductor industry in Taiwanrapidly
develop and the technique and quality are
the edged tools with which the electronic
industry of our country can exist in the
international market. Global
semiconductor manufacturers have
reached a milestone over three decades of
progress with the emergence of confront
another crucial moment over the past 30
years, each participator among them
maintains at 12 inch wafer (production
facilities OR factories). The reason that 12
inch wafer (production facilities OR
factories) are highly attractive owing to
their (quick OR efficient) product
deliveryhaving so great influence lies in
the tow great factors that properties of
product of quick promotion and reducing
theed (overhead OR production) costs,
thus elevating the global competitiveness
of so stride into the new century of 12
inch wafer factory, the international status
of Taiwanese semiconductor
manufacturers to unprecedented levels
proprietors is more and more important.
Since 1980, the competition ofThe
semiconductor industry has, since 1980,
prioritized regards the manufacturing
process technique, thewafer yield and the
cycle time as the targets of
yardsticksbenchmarks for success. At
present, 12 inch wafer slicing is currently
the most (complex OR difficult) (with
respect to OR in terms of) (increasing OR
controlling) yield in for semiconductor
manufacturing yield. The As silicon wafer
slicing has directly influenced theimpacts
production costs, facing the question of
the yield not merely pay close attention to
the promotion of theincreasing and
maintaining wafer yield, as well as
understanding factors contributing to
declining but the maintenance of the
yields are of priority concern among and
finding out the factor that the yield
decline, it is equally the focal point cared
about of semiconductor manufacturers.
In the past, makingPrevious
researchstudies on productand discussion
of the quality thatin semiconductor
manufacturing, mostly used the have
largely adopted statistical methods to
probe into their impacts on theexamine
either (wafer OR product) yield or how by
the process engineers’ understanding to
the process, choosingselect the possible
influence to the process parameters of
(wafer OR product)the yield viabased on
their subjective experiences,. Those
results areand then analyzedsing with
using statisticsal or the methods of
experimental design methods., hHowever,
semiconductor manufacturing often
includes several hundreds evenup to
thousands of process parameters that
influence each other, so it is verymaking it
extremely difficult to (identify OR
determine)choose those factors of thethat
influence from them. (NOTE: Although I
have made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
Cunningham et al., (1995) indicated that,
although recounts that the yield question
that has been improved through the
conventional statisticsal and traditionally
experimental design methods have
enhanced wafer yield, statistical methods
have many limitations with respect to but
as some complicatedcomplex mutual
influence and the non-linear problem
existing, there are a lot of restrictions to
the implementation of statistical method.
(NOTE: Although I have made this
confusing sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.) In aAdditionally,
Brada et al., (2002) mentionsfound that
under a large number of parameters used
in materials made of the semiconductor
manufacturingat present, statistical
methods can not it has been already
unable to (analyze its useful decision
information by statistical method
efficiently OR obtain reliable information
for decision making).
Silicon wafer manufacturing processes
(consists of OR comprises OR includes)
crystal growingth, pulling,(NOTE: Is this
terminology or are you just translating
from Chinese to English? Do you mean
‘extraction’ instead of ‘pulling’?) slicing,
lapping, (NOTE: Is this terminology or are
you just translating from Chinese to
English?) etching, polishing, and cleaning.
Their mMeasurement items(NOTE: Do
you mean ‘criteria’ instead of ‘items’?) of
process quality and the parameters of
quality control are as follows: (1) lack of
precision in measuringdetermining
thickness (THK), (NOTE: There is no
need to use the acronym since you do not
use this terminology anywhere else in the
paper.)bow, warp, total thickness variation
(TTV), (NOTE: There is no need to use
the acronym since you do not use this
terminology anywhere else in the
paper.)center thickness (CTRTHK),
caused by unstable motion of the wire
knife and scrape mark during slicing
process and (2) quality control parameters,
(such as, OR including OR e.g.,)
electricity, resistivity and oxidation that
related to crystal pulling are not discussed
in this paper. (NOTE: Is ‘crystal pulling’
terminology or are you just translating
from Chinese to English? Do you mean
‘extraction’ instead of ‘pulling’?) In
polishing, the polished wafer will be
revised those quality (characteristics OR
features) in item (1) are (adopted OR
incorporated) to (modify OR enhance) the
polished wafer by using precision
polishing machines. (NOTE: Although I
have made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
However, the manufacturing cost of the
polishing process is (significantly OR
markedly OR substantially OR much)
higher than that of the slicing process.
(NOTE: OR could you simply say
“However, polishing is much more
expensive than slicing.”?) Hence, quality
control mainly (is concerned mainly with
OR focuses largely on) slicing process.
While adopting the EWMA control chart,
Lin et al. (2002) applied EWMA control
chart, verifiedying that analysis (NOTE:
Do you mean ‘through analysis that’
instead of ‘that analysis’?) “bow” (NOTE:
Is this common terminology? Or are you
translating from Chinese-English?) is the
worst quality (feature OR characteristic)
(of OR in) wafers. From the perspective of
See the angle of the quality (feature OR
characteristic), the (manufacturing : OR
OMIT ) yield of the silicon wafer slicing
that bow(NOTE: What do you mean by
“yield of silicon wafer slicing that bow”?
Do you mean “yield of silicon wafer
slicing for the bow”?) is the key
characteristicof priority concern.
In the semiconductor manufacturing, the
manufacturing yield of the silicon wafer
slicing is the most difficult to control.
Silicon wafer slicing is a complex
manufacturing process, complicating
efforts to dominate process stability and
quality control effectively. A wafer can be
easily broken during inspection, because
of owing to its thinness and brittleness
(Lin et al., 2002). Moreover, slicing is a
kind of cutting techniqueprocedure that
has difficulty in (producing OR yielding)
the required precision. The wWafer
slicing isdepends on appeared needing via
the variables of machine-related, the
human-related, the management-related
and the measurement accuracy-related
factors, etc.( 自己先改) related decisive
factor, in order to measureensure the
quality of the productionmanufacturing
operations course, and these factors
alsoerrors in which would destabilize the
slicing process (Lin et al.,). 魚骨圖那篇
文獻
This research will aim to (work OR
study) presents an evaluation decision
model that assesses the yield quality of 12
inch wafer slicing in semiconductor
manufacturing. quality to adopt theA
literature review is performed, along with
the modified Delphi method and analytic
hierarchy process (AHP) as well. to
construct the evaluation decision model,
and regard a wafer factories tThree kinds
of diamond cutting machines used in
wafer production are used as the test
target(s?) of this studying, set themwith
the results subsequently generated
incorporated into the evaluation decision
model proposed herein. Moreover, the
proposed model includes the Analytic
hierarchy process (AHP) to determine the
(weights of evaluation OR evaluation
weights) are determined using AHP.
Simple additive weighting (SAW) is then
performed to rankFurthermore, tthe worst
performing machines in terms of precision
are then ranked using simple additive
weighting (SAW). Finally, using the
exponential weighted moving average
(EWMA) control chart are presented to
demonstrates and verify the effectiveness
of the proposed AHP method in
effectively selectsing the evaluation
outcomes and evaluating the precision of
the worst performing machinesevaluate
the worst machine of precision. By tThe
proposed evaluation decision model
significantly contributes to efforts in of
the constructional silicon wafer slicing
manufacturing to establish a standard
operational procedure for ensuring quality,
take the effective manufacturing quality
yield in the semiconductor industryas
assessment and examination that offer a
standard operation procedure (SOP) of the
best manufacturing quality decision.
2. Methodology
First, tThe relevant whole structure
criteria for the evaluation decision model
of this model are (obtained OR derived)
from following an exhaustive literature
review, this study also adopts through use
of the modified Delphi method. After
constructing the evaluation criteria
hierarchy is constructed, we calculate the
criteria weights are (calculated OR
estimated) by applying analytic hierarchy
process (AHP) method and we conduct;
the final ranking results are obtained using
simple additive weighting (SAW) to
achieve the final ranking results. Finally,
use of the EWMA control chart
demonstrates the feasibility of the
proposed AHP-based algorithm in
effectively (determining OR selecting) the
evaluation outcomes and evaluating the
precision of the worst performing
machines. using the exponential weighted
moving average (EWMA) control chart
verifying that the proposed AHP method
effectively selects the evaluation
outcomes and evaluate the worst machine
of precision.
2.1. Delphi method and modified Delphi
method
The Delphi Mmethod is a technical
conformity research technique, in the
study process can focus assume topic
toaccumulates and analyzes the results of
anonymous experts that communicate in
unceasingly written, discussion and
feedback formatsfrom the anonymous
experts on a particular topic. All
anonymous experts proposeshare
knowledge skillsprofessional know-how,
expertiseience and opinions, and change
different views each other, until set up the
uniform a mutual consensus is
achievedrecognition (Sung, 2001). The
comprehensive Delphi method
has(comprises OR consists of) five
procedures: (1). Selecting the anonymous
experts,; (2). Carry on Conduct the first
round of a survey of the first round,; (3).
Carry on theConduct the second round of
a questionnaire survey of the second
round,; (4). Conduct the third round of a
questionnairearry on the survey of the
third round,; and (5). (Incorporate OR
Integrate OR Synthesize) the experts’
opinions and get to reach a
consensusmmon view. Usually repeatedly
carry on the sSteps (3) and (4) are
normally repeated until a consensus is
reached on a particular tends to the
uniform result if our topic don’t achieves
the mutual recognition (Sung, 2001).
Results of We can apply the literature
review verifies and with the expert
interviews can be used to (incorporate OR
identify OR synthesize) the all common
views ofexpressed in the survey,
simplifies the. (NOTE: Although I have
made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
Moreover, step (2) is simplified to replace
the traditionconventionally adopted
opening style survey. Simplifying thus the
process; doing so is (commonly referred
to as OR called) the modified Delphi
method (Sung, 2001). SoTherefore, this
article(study OR work) develops a quality
evaluation criteria for is used the modified
Delphi method to finding the silicon wafer
slicing manufacturing quality evaluate
criteria,by using the modified Delphi
method, as well as by conducting
interviews with and through anonymous
experts interview. (and survey of outcome
direct to focusing in our research
subject. : NOTE; I HAVE NO IDEA
HOW THE LAST PART OF THIS
SENTENCE IS RELATED TO THE
FIRST PART. IF UNNECESSARY,
THEN DELETE.) In 1975, Delbecq et al.
(1975) point outsuggested five to nine as
the appropriate number of the suitable
membersindividuals ofin a Delphi method
group is five to nine persons. Therefore, in
this study, our article had nine experts
participatedory decision group ofin the
modified Delphi method-based decision
group. In theTo ensure non-interference
condition, collectionopinions of the expert
group are opinion(collected OR
accumulated), followed by then
synthesizes of those opinions among the
(manufacturing : OR OMIT )
engineer’sing experts views to getto
identify the majorkey factors for
consideration in the quality evaluation
criteria related the selecting influenceof
silicon wafer slicing manufacturing
quality of criteria.
2.2. Analytic hierarchy process
methodology
As a decision method that decomposes
a complex multi-criteria decision problem
into a hierarchy (Saaty, 1980), AHP is also
a measurement theory that prioritizes the
hierarchy and consistency of judgmental
data provided by a group of decision
makers. AHP incorporates the evaluations
of all decision makers into a final
decision, without having to elicit their
utility functions on subjective and
objective criteria, by pair-wise
comparisons of the alternatives (Saaty,
1990). Yang et al. (2000) applied AHP to
determine systematic layout planning on
semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities.
AHP has thus been successfully applied to
a diverse array of problems, with the
calculation procedure as follows:
Establish the hierarchy structure.
When deals the complex issue, we can
be performed decompose thThe hierarchy
structure can be decomposed when
(confronting OR dealing with) a complex
issue. Given the inability of Based on the
humans tocan not compareison above the
more than seven kinds things at the same
timecategories simultaneously, so we must
assume each elements of the hierarchy
must be assumed to not suitably surpasses
seven elements. Under this limitedation
condition, it may carry on thea reasonable
comparison can be made and and easier
ensure the consistency ensured as well
(Satty, 1980). (NOTE: Although I have
made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended
meaning.)The first hierarchy of the
structure that is we want to achieve the
goal. (NOTE: Can you specify what is the
‘goal’ you are referring to?) Under tThe
(final OR end) hierarchy involves the
selecting the choice projects or
replacementing the alternatives, as well as
thewhile each middle hierarchies arey is
either the appraisal factor or criteria.
(NOTE: Although I have made this
confusing sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.)
Compute the element weights of Vvarious
hierarchies.’ elements weight computation
(1). Establishment of pair-wise
comparison matrix A
An evaluation standard is established
bBased on an element of the upper
hierarchy is an evaluating standard, (going
on the pairwise comparison to each
elements. : I HAVE NO IDEA HOW
THIS RELATES TO THE FIRST PART
OF THE SENTENCE. HOW ABOUT
“with a pairwise comparison made of each
element.”) If hashas Assume that the n
elements must make n(n-1)/2 elements of
the pairwise comparison. (NOTE:
Although I have made this sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
Let C
1
, C
2
, …, C
n
denote the set of
elements, while a
ij
represents a quantified
judgment on a pair of elements C
i
, C
j
. The
relative importance of two elements is
rated using a scale with the values 1, 3, 5,
7, and 9, where 1 refers to “equally
important”, 3 denotes “slightly more
important”, 5 equals “strongly more
important”, 7 represents “demonstrably
more important” and 9 denotes
“absolutely more important”. (Doing so
OR This) yields an n-by-n matrix A as
follows:
1 2
1 12 1
2 12 2
1 2
1
1/ 1
,
1/ 1/ 1
n
n
n
ij
n n n
C C C
C a a
C a a
A a
C a a
]
]
]
] · ·
]
]
]
]
K
L
L
M M M O M
L
(1)
Where
1 ·
ij
a
and
1/ , , 1, 2, ..., .
ij ij
a a i j n · ·
In matrix A,
the problem becomes one of assigning to
the n elements C
1
, C
2
, …, C
n
a set of
numerical weights W
1
, W
2
, …, W
n
that
reflects the recorded judgments. If A is a
consistency matrix, the relations between
weights W
i
and judgments a
ij
are simply
given by
ij j i
a W W · /
(for
, 1, 2, ..., . i j n ·
) and matrix A
as follows:
1 2 n
1 1 1 1 2 1
2 2 1 2 2 2
1 2
C C
/ / /
/ / /
,
/ / /
n
n
n n n n n
C
C w w w w w w
C w w w w w w
A
C w w w w w w
]
]
]
·
]
]
]
K
L
L
M M M O M
L
(2)
(2) Calculation of E e igenvalue and
E e igenvector calculation
Matrix A multiplyies the elements
weight vector (
x
) equal to
nx
, t. That is, (
A
-
nI
)
x
=0, the. Where
x
is the Eeigenvalue (
n
) of the Eeigenvector. Due toGiven
ij
a
, be
makers’ the subjective judgment of
decision makes can give comparisone and
appraisale (NOTE: ‘compare and appraise’
WHAT? ‘the results of their decision’?),
with the truly value (
j i
W W /
) haveing the
some level degree of (NOTE: OK?)
difference. Therefore, so that
x n Ax . ·
can not
to be set up. Satty (1990) suggested that
the largest eigenvalue
max
λ
be: (NOTE: Be
careful with your use of colons ( : ). You
can only use a colon when you have stated
a complete idea.)
max
1
,
n
j
ij
j
i
W
a
W
λ
·
·

(3)
If A is a consistency matrix, eigenvector
X can be calculated by
max
( ) 0 , A I X λ − ·
(4)
(3) Consistency test
Saaty (1990) proposed utilizing
consistency index (CI) and consistency
ratio (CR) to verify the consistency of the
comparison matrix. Where (NOTE:
Never start a sentence with a value.) CI
and RI are defined as follows:
max
( ) /( 1) , CI n n λ · − −

(5)
/ . CR CI RI ·

(6)
Where RI represents the average
consistency index over numerous random
entries of same order reciprocal matrices.
If
0.1 CR ≤
, the estimate is accepted:
otherwise, a new comparison matrix is
solicited until
0.1 CR ≤
.
Compute the oOverall hierarchy weight.
computation
After the weights computation for the
various hierarchies and elements are
computed, then compiles computation
results for the overall hierarchy weight
computation, are compiled. and
finallyFinally, to decide our goal of tthe
most appropriate strategysuitable plan is
(determined OR identified).
Implement the Aanalysis implement(NOTE:
Should you specify what kind of
analysis?)
This paper used implement is Microsoft
Excel 2003 and Expert Choice 2000 (2nd
Edition) Ssoftware are used to process the
data and analyzesis tools. (NOTE:
‘analyze’ what? OR can you omit ‘and
analysis tools’ without changing the
sentence’s overall meaning?)
2.3. Simple additive weighting
methodology
The SAW method, also known as the
weighted sum method, is probably the best
known and most widely usedextensively
adopted MADM method (Hwang and
Yoon, 1981). The basic logic of SAW is
tofocuses mainly on obtaining a weighted
sum of the performance ratings (for OR
of) each alternative over all attributes
(Fishburn, 1967). In this study, the simple
additive weighting (SAW) is then
performed to rank the worst performing
machines in terms of precision are ranked
using SAW that to determinereach the
(optimum OR best) manufacturing quality
decision. The SAW method normally
requires normalizing the decision matrix
(X) to allow a comparable scale for all
ratings in X by
= ,
min
ij j
ij max min
j j
x x
r
x x


( 1, 2, ..., m, 1, 2, ..., n) , i j · ·
(7)
where
(0 1)
ij ij
r r ≤ ≤
is defined as the
normalized performance rating of
alternative
i
A
on attribute
j
C
. This
normalization process transforms all the
ratings in a linear (proportional) way
manner, so thatenabling the relative order
of magnitude of the ratings to remains
equal (NOTE: ‘equal’ to WHAT? OR
‘equivalent’ to WHAT?) (Nijkamp, 1977).
The overall preference value of each
alternative
( )
i
V
is obtained by
1
= ,
n
i j ij
j
V W r
·


( 1, 2, ..., m) . i · (8)
TheA greater the value
( )
i
V
, the implies a
more (preferred OR preferable) the
alternative
( )
i
A
.
2.4. Exponential weighted moving
average control chart
Regardless of whether the
/ X R
or
/ X S

control chart is used , the process is under
control at time
t
, but using . However, the
exponential weighted moving average
(EWMA) control chart (Robert, 1959), it
alarms notifies that the process is already
abnormal. (NOTE: I made the correction
in this way because I assume that ‘it’
refers to EWMA control chart. Right?
Make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.) Although after time
t
,
the observation point-trend is (increasing
OR rising), the
/ X R
or
/ X S
control chart
showsindicates that (there is nothing for
acting in the process : THIS MAKES NO
SENSE. I HAVE NO IDEA WHAT YOU
MEAN AND HOW THIS RELATES TO
THE FIRST PART OF THE
SENTENCE.). However, in the EWMA
control chart, (the statistic has set off the
alarm.: . I HAVE NO IDEA WHAT YOU
MEAN. What ‘statistic’ are you referring
to? What ‘alarm’ are you referring to?)
A previous study adopted Exponential
weighted moving average (EWMA) to
verifying the analysis results of bow
(NOTE: Does your reader understand
what ‘bow’ refers to in the context of this
sentence?) (Lin et al., 2002). Byased on
the adjusting the drift of the wire knife to
enhanceimpacts the quality of slicing
discussions among experts on slicing, the
exponential weighted moving average
(EWMA) control chart is presented to
demonstrates and verify the feasibility and
effectiveness of the proposed AHP-based
algorithmproposed discussions. An
EWMA control chart detects and quickly
sets off the alarm in the case of an
(substandard OR abnormality) product
quality efficiently and informs the product
engineerquickly (Lucas and Saccussi,
1992). Therefore, the methodproposed
algorithm can effectivelyclosely monitor a
little driftslight variation in the
manufacturing process. The (precisely
determined OR effectively measured)
value of bow is plotted on an EWMA
chart. A univariate EWMA chart is
modeled as
1
= (1 ) , 1, 2, ..., n,
t t t
Z X Z t λ λ

+ − ·
(9)
where
λ
idenotes the weighting factor
(defined by the decision maker) and
typical values for
λ
arerange between 0.05
and 0.3 in SPC applications;
t
X
is the
subgroup average for the current subgroup
at time
t
(or the current observation if the
subgroup size is one
( 1) n ·
); the value of
Z
at
time zero,
0
Z
, is either a target value or the
overall average of the selected subgroups
(also defined by the decision maker).
The upper and lower control limits for
the EWMA statistics are as follows.:
( )
2
0
3
1 (1 ) , and
1
i
UCL Z
n
σ λ
λ
λ
| `
· + − −


. ,
(10)
( )
2
0
3
1 (1 ) .
1
i
LCL Z
n
σ λ
λ
λ
| `
· − − −


. ,
(11)
where
0
Z
irepresents the starting value
(defined by the decision maker as either
the target value or the process mean
value), and
n
is the size of the subgroup.
3. Decision model application and results
Figure 1 illustrates the algorithm
procedure in which This model for
evaluating the worst performing machine
ofis evaluated with respect to precision
comprises the following steps, selection to
worst machine of precision measurement
process Fig. 1.
** Figure 1: Algorithm procedure in
which the worst performing machine is
evaluated with respect to precisionThe
silicon wafer slicing manufacturing
quality decision model to select worst
machine of precision processes **
Step 1: Define the evaluative criteria and sub-
criteria (NOTE: ‘criterion’?) used to select
the worst performing machine (with
respect to OR in terms of ) precision .
Here, the modified Delphi method is
applied to define the evaluation criteria
and sub-criteria (NOTE: ‘criterion’?) are
defined using the modified Delphi
method. Murry and Hammons (1995)
suggested that the modified Delphi
method must summarize expert opinions
on a range from 10-30. Administrators and
engineers from Tthirteen wafer factories
administrators and engineer awere then
issued a preliminary questionnaire in
which four evaluation criterions and
eleven evaluation sub-criterions awere
incorporated, and. Each criterion are was
defined in the defining ofterms of
(operational OR operating OR operation)
type out every criterion (Table 1).
(NOTE: Although I have made this
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.)
** Table 1: The o(Operating OR Operational)
type for defining criteria and sub-criteria
factors **
Step 2: Establish a hierarchical framework .
Based on the modified Delphi method,
a general consensus among experts can be
reached to establish a hierarchical
structure. The worst performing machine
(in terms of OR with respect to) precision
can be selected and evaluated based on
four evaluation criteria, eleven evaluation
sub-criteria and, finally, the alternatives
(Fig. 2)
** Figure 2: Hierarchical structure
required to (determine OR selecting) the
manufacturing quality of silicon wafer
slicing manufacturing quality **
Step 3: Establish ment each factor s of the
pair-wise comparison matrix .
Purposive sampling is (performed OR
applied) to sample sixteen respondents
comprised of from wafer factories
administrators and engineers from wafer
factories. Base on the (weight OR
weighted) value that experts finally assign
weight value, use the (geometric OR
geometry) mean value is used to
computeing comprehensive experts
decision-making community scores of all
experts in order to formulate the (weight
OR weighted) values selecteding for
silicon wafer slicing manufacturing
quality weight values. (NOTE: Although I
have made this sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) For instance, the
main criteria as the sample,(NOTE: This
sentence is incomplete because there is no
verb.) such as in like Table 2. We using
the fFormulae (1) and (2) are used to
calculated the aggregate pair-wise
comparison matrix.
** Table 2: Aggregate pair-wise comparison
matrix for criteria of level 2 **
Step 4: c C alculat e ing the eigenvalue and
eigenvector .
Using the comparison matrix (likesuch
as in Table 2), the eigenvectors were
calculated by formulae (3) and (4). The
Table 3 listssummarizes the results of the
eigenvectors for each criteria and sub-
criteria.(NOTE: ‘criterion’?)
** Table 3: Weights of the criteria, sub-
criteria and three diamond cutting
machines **
Step 5: Perform the C c onsistency test .
(Based on OR According to) formulae
(5) and (6) calculated the each hierarchy’s
criteria comparison matrix of consistency
for each criteria (NOTE: ‘criterion’?) is
calculated, as shown in Table 2. This
paper rResults of the consistency test and
the C.R. of the comparison matrix from
each of the five experts and eleven users
are all < 0.1, indicating “consistency”.
Furthermore, the C.R. of the aggregate
matrix is also < 0.1, also indicating
“consistency”.
Step 6: Comput ation e each levels the
relative weight (s?) of the elements for
each level.
Aaggregated the related sScores
provided by all decision makers are
aggregated using the formulae (7) and.
Table 3 summarizes the results for each
levels relative weight(s?) of the elements
are showed Table 3 for each level.
Step 7: Calculate the oO verall level s hierarchy
weight calculate for to (identify OR
select ing ) the worst performing machine
(in terms of OR with respect to) precision .
The composite priorities of the alternatives are
then determined by aggregating the
weights throughout the hierarchy. The
composite priorities of the alternatives are
(NOTE: ‘are’ WHAT? You are missing a
word behind ‘are’) using the formulae (8).
According to Table 4, “A-WD-300” is
used to selects the evaluation outcomes
and evaluate the worst performing
machine (in terms of OR with respect to)
precision.machine of precision.
** Table 4: The silicon wafer slicing
manufacturing quality apply AHP decision
model to sSelection of the worst
performing machine (in terms of OR with
respect to) precision in silicon wafer
slicing using the proposed AHP-based
decision algorithm worst machine of
precision result **
Step 8: Perform an EWMA-based
verificationying analysis of previous AHP
step (results OR outcome OR result)
The process standard deviation,
σ
, is
estimated using the
X
chart and, then,
setting
0.3 λ ·
and
2 n ·
are set to monitor and
inspect the bow of three kinds diamond
cutting machines (DFD660, DFD670 and
A-WD-300). In this chart, 124 samples are
generated while the process is controlled.
Using formulae (8) and (9), Tthe upper
and lower control limits for the EWMA
statistics, are used using formulae (8) and
(9) to calculate the bow of three kinds
diamond cutting machines. In Figure.
(NOTE: Spell out the word ‘Figure’ if it
is the first word in a sentence; otherwise,
use ‘Fig.’)3, the out-of-control conditions
appear at the 6
th
, 27
th
and 45
th
signals. In
Figure. 4, the process is out-of-control at
the 26
th
and 46
th
signals. In Figure. 5, the
process is out-of-control at the 6
th
, 26
th
,
27
th
and 46
th
signals. (Atypical OR
UUnusual) operating conditions forms of
the manufactureing process appear in that
A-WD-300 diamond cutting machines
appear arethe most. Such an identification
significantly enhance the quality yield of
So silicon wafer slicing manufacturing
quality yield also improves relatively.
Consequently, the quality of bow’sthe
EWMA chart for the bow verifies theying
analysis results, in which theand AHP
results are the same. (NOTE: ‘the same”
as what?) (NOTE: Although I have made
this sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that I did not change your intended
meaning.) Based on the evaluation
outcomes, “A-WD-300” is selects the
evaluation outcomes and
evaluatedetermined to be the worst
performing machine (in terms of OR with
respect to) precision.
** Figure 3: Upper Side of “DFD660”
Bow’s EWMA Chart by X Counts **
** Figure 4: Upper Side of “DFD670”
Bow’s EWMA Chart by X Counts **
** Figure 5: Upper Side of “A-WD-300”
Bow’s EWMA Chart by X Counts **
Conclusions
Selecting silicon wafer slicing
manufacturing quality system is an
extremely complex issue, often relying on
the subjective assessment of decision as
well as the makers usually subjective
decision. In particular, Especially in
semiconductor manufacturers, the
administrators and engineers oin
semiconductor manufacturing the business
administrative order and operate order can
not have the clearlack objective decision-
making toolprocedures and a clearly
defined evaluating criteria. Moreover the
majority engineers rely on the experience
principle to make the decision.(NOTE: I
have deleted this sentence because it is
redundant of what is stated in the previous
sentence.) Therefore, this paper(study OR
work) presents an AHP-based algorithm to
determine manufacturing quality in
suggestion by adopting the silicon wafer
slicing manufacturing quality of AHP
decision model in order to selectidentify
the worst performing machines (in terms
of OR with respect to) precision,. and
utilizeThe EWMA control chart is also
adopted to identify the worst performing
test and verify form three kinds of
diamond cutting machines in terms of are
many unusual questions choice worst
machine of precision. It is the same that
the result is really decision to select with
as the “A-WD-300” one. The proposed
AHP-based algorithm significantly
contributes to efforts to upgrade
manufacturing quality in For this case
setting up the silicon wafer slicing
manufacturing quality of AHP decision
model results correspond. Specifically, the
proposed algorithm can assist Anticipated
the AHP model building can be help the
semiconductor manufacturers for thein
similar muilt-criteria (tasks OR questions),
have an by offering an objective and
systematiczed method means of selecting
the worst performing machine (in terms of
OR with respect to) precision and
ultimately increasing the quality yield of
selecting optimizing silicon wafer slicing
manufacturing quality yield in the future.
22. (Business Management)
November 30, 2005
Professor Smith
Editor in Chief
NAME OF JOURNAL (NOTE: Italicize)
Address
Your Name
Institute of Business Management
Yuanpei University of Science and
Technology
Yuanpei Street
Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China 300
Dear Professor Smith,
Please find enclosed the resubmitted
version of the manuscript, “Optimally
Selectiong ofthe Location forof Taiwanese
Hospitals to Ensure a Competitive
Advantage by Using the Analytic
Hierarchy Process” (Reference No. 8541)
by (NOTE: List names of authors) for
submission to (NOTE: List name of
journal and put in italics). The
anonymous reviewers are appreciated for
their valuable comments, and we have
modified the paper based on their
comments. Please feel free to contact me
if you have any additional requirements.
We look forward to your favorable reply.
We have revised our paper according to
the comments of reviewer, as stated
below:
Title of the Article: Selectiong ofthe Location forof Taiwanese
Hospitals to Ensure a Competitive
Advantage by Using the Analytic
Hierarchy Process
Reply to reviewer’s comments
Manuscript#8541
Reviewer No. Referee#477 1 477-1
Reference number: Referee#477- 1
Thank you for your valuable comments. I
have replied to those concerns as follows.
Comment 1:
An objective of the manuscript is to apply
the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in
selecting an optimal location for a hospital
in Taiwan. This is a typical application of
AHP and it does not provide significant
contribution to the literature. The
discussion of the AHP methodology (pp.
6-7) is brief with mistakes. For example,
the last line on p. 6 should be “where a
ii
=
1” instead of “where a
ji
= 1”. Also, the
AHP methodology as represented in (1),
(2) and (3) (pp. 6-7) should not be referred
to as “formulae” in Section 4: Case
Implementation.
An objective of the manuscript is to apply
the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in
selecting an optimal location for a hospital
in Taiwan. This is a typical application of
AHP and it does not provide significant
contribution to the literature.
Reply Ans wer :
While the application of AHP may
appear to be typical, it is
definitely a relevant one. While
identifying the market niche for
The problem research of the
hospitals is seldom addressed in
literature, niche choice is also not
much,efforts to identify market
demand with respect to plus the
medical treatment resources
market satisfied in the Taiwanese
region are scarce as well.
Selecting the most appropriate
location for hospitals based on
market demand is essential to
effectively implement Carry out
the influence of the island wide
national health insurance
schemeand other ordinance
problems, it is important that
choice the hospital niche,.
Therefore, this study to
constructs a novel index sign that
can determine the optimal
location of suits to measure the
hospitals to establish the hospital
niche choice, thus
provideproviding a standardized
to establish a standard
homework procedure of thefor
hospital administrators and other
authoritiesniche choice for
hospital.
Comment 2:
The discussion of the AHP methodology
(pp. 6-7) is brief with mistakes. For
example, the last line on p. 6 should be
“where a
ii
= 1” instead of “where a
ji
= 1”.
Reply:
Thank you for point out this
mistake. The error of It’s already
false to
“where a
ii
= 1” has been
changed to
establish correct text for
“a
ji
= 1” ion P.page 6 of the resubmitted
version. (NOTE: Make sure that I have
not changed your intended meaning.)
Comment:
Also, the AHP methodology as represented
in (1), (2) and (3) (pp. 6-7) should not be
referred to as “formulae” in Section 4:
Case Implementation.
Reply:
(In this text
the AHP methodology as
represented in (1) to (6) referred to as
“formulae”
establish correct text
for
”Eq” in Section 4: Case
Implementation and Section 5 Applying
AHP to select the location of hospitals to
ensure a competitive advantage. : I
HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THIS MEANS.
WHAT IS ‘In this text’? The original
version? What is ‘correct text’?
‘resubmitted version’? There is no verb in
this sentence.)
Reference number: Referee 477-2#477- 2
Thank you for your valuable comments. I
have replied to those concerns as follows.
Comment 2:
Since the decision problem is the selection
of an optimal location for a hospital, the
authors have included literature review on
Porter’s Diamond Model and Location
Theory. The literature review is brief and
in some cases, is not relevant to the
decision problem. For instance, what is
the relevance of a discussion on the three
perspectives of plant location, i.e.,
prescriptive, nation-based; and customer-
based business, on selecting an optimal
location for the hospital?
Reply: Answer:
Thank you for pointing this out. In tThe
literature review (NOTE: ‘The literature
review’ of what version? ‘in the original
version’ OR ‘in the resubmitted version’?)
addresses how toon selecting a the
location for theof a hospital part.

Although The problem research
ofn theselecting the location of a
hospital niche choice is also not
muchlimited
,
but (it’s already re-
correct with sorting and
concerning about the hospital
niche to choose
that literature review
in Section 2: Literature review and
Section: References. : I HAVE NO IDEA
WHAT THIS MEANS. REWRITE. Do
you mean “The literature review in
Section 2 and References of the
resubmitted version contain a more
detailed discussion.” ? )
Reference number: Referee #477- 744-3
Thank you for your valuable comments. I
have replied to those concerns as follows.
Comment 3:
The authors have done a poor job in
linking the literature review (pp. 3-5) with
their choice of the six criteria and eighteen
sub-criteria in evaluating the three
possible geographical locations for the
hospital. In fact, the criteria and sub-
criteria are simply listed on pp. 9-12 and
the discussion on these factors is
fragmented.
Reply: Answer:
Thank you for pointing out this error. In
tThe literature review (on pages pp. 3-5)
of the resubmitted version attempts to
more clearly on selecting a location for the
hospital part,
it does already re-
correct with sorting and
concerning
, explain the selection of the
six criteria and eighteen sub-criteria in
evaluating the three possible geographical
locations for the hospital. (NOTE: Make
sure that I have not changed your intended
meaning.) Also, and on pp. pages 9-12 of
the resubmitted version contain a more
detailed the discussion onf these factors
called.
Reference number: Referee#477- 4
Referee 477-4
Thank you for your valuable comments. I
have replied to those concerns as follows.
Comment 4:
The number of exhibits (16 tables and 2
figures) included in the manuscript is
extensive. They should be condensed and
simplified. Furthermore, the discussion on
pp. 13-14 is repetitive and it should
include highlights of the findings only.
The number of exhibits (16 tables and 2
figures) included in the manuscript is
extensive. They should be condensed and
simplified.
Reply: Answer:
Thank you for pointing this out.
The
number of tables in the
resubmitted version has been
reduced from 17 to 7 for
simplificationstudies already will

seventeen tables cut for (condensed and
simplified) seven tables and brevity.
Comment:
Furthermore, the discussion on pp. 13-14
is repetitive and it should include
highlights of the findings only.
Reply:
Thank you for this suggestion. In the
resubmitted version, repetitive parts of the
Discussion section have been deleted,
along with highlights of the main findings
more clearly pointed out in The
studying the content has
repetitive
part
have already modified
.
Tthe
cConclusion sectionalso makes to
explain more clearly
.
Reviewer No. Referee#478
Reference number: Referee#478
Referee 478
Thank you for your valuable comments. I
have replied to those concerns as follows.
Comment:
The author needs to update references to
2000 and after and describe in detail the
actions being taken as a result of the study.
Reply Answer :
Thank you for this comment. The
References section of the
resubmitted version has added
more recent studies with respect
to study to have already
increased abouthospital
location
and AHP
involving of cultural
heritage after 2000
, including the
following:
Comment
The author needs to update references to
2000 and after and describe in detail the
actions being taken as a result of the study.
Reply:
Thank you for pointing this out. The In the
study of “Conclusions” section of the
resubmitted version more
have already
more clearly made to explains
the actions being taken as a
result of this study
,
Iincluding
why use
AHP is feasible for to
solve
the
selectiong ofthe location forof
Taiwanese hospitals act.
Reviewer No. Referee #482-1
Thank you for your valuable comments. I
have replied to those concerns as follows.
Reference number: Referee#482- 1
Comment 1:
Title and body of paper claim an optimal
solution. Use of the Delphi Method to
obtain the decision model (hierarchy)
provides a consensus among the experts,
but in no way claims that an optimal
model has been developed. The AHP
inputs (pair-wise comparisons) are also
the averaged inputs from several experts.
This is also not an optimization process.
Certainly, the construction of the
hierarchy and collection of the pair-wise
comparisons are a valid methodology and
merit publication. However, the
methodology is not an optimization
process in the context of the mathematical
optimization of the linear programming
model and solution.
Reply Answer :
Thank you for pointing out this
error. In the resubmitted
version, the term “optimal” has
been deleted from the I have
already understood that
Referee’s
mean,in the study title of the paper and
body of paper
already will
“optimal”
Strike offthe rest of the
manuscript
.
Referee 482-2Reference number:
Referee#482- 2
Thank you for your valuable comments. I
have replied to those concerns as follows.
Comment 2:
Organization of the body of the paper could
be improved by more clearly explaining
how the results are developed. For
example, page 8 provides Steps 3 – 6.
Step 6 appears out of order. As I
understand the author’s methodology,
pairwise comparisons are collected from
experts and then averaged (geometric
mean) to obtain the comparison matrix.
Seems like Step 6 should precede Step 3.
In addition, page 12 refers to 13
respondents and top of page 12 refers to
“eleven experts” and “Setup 6” (Step?)
refers to 5 experts.
Organization of the body of the paper
could be improved by more clearly
explaining how the results are developed.
For example, page 8 provides Steps 3 – 6.
Step 6 appears out of order.
Answer Reply :
Thank you for this suggestion. In the
resubmitted version, the contents of step 6
part for “Compute relative weight of the
elements for each level” “Computation
each levels relative weight of the elements

that have already re- have been
more clearly explained the
content of the clear step
. . (NOTE:
Make sure that I have not changed your
intended meaning.)
Comment:
As I understand the author’s methodology,
pairwise comparisons are collected from
experts and then averaged (geometric
mean) to obtain the comparison matrix.
Seems like Step 6 should precede Step 3.
In addition, page 12 refers to 13
respondents and top of page 12 refers to
“eleven experts” and “Setup 6” (Step?)
refers to 5 experts.
Reply:
Thank you for pointing out this error.
OnIn page 12 of the resubmitted version
Speak of,
“Setup 6” and “five experts”

for the mistake in writing
, it’s have
already modified forhave been
changed to
“Step 6” and “eleven
experts”.
Reference number: Referee 483-Referee#482- 3
Thank you for your valuable comments. I
have replied to those concerns as follows.
Comment 3:
Technical Content.
Page 7 and tables, author documents a
CR<= 0.1 as acceptable. “By convention
we requite the consistency ratio to be 5%
and 8% for n = 3 and 4 respectively and
10% for all values of n >=5.” (See
Fundamentals of Decision Making,
Thomas L. Saaty, 1994.) This reference
should also be included in the
bibliography.
For Tables 1 – 7, I was able to reproduce the
AHP weights to the 3 significant figures
as shown in the paper. For the other
tables, I could only reproduce the author’s
results to 2 significant figures. This
difference does not change the resulting
order of the 3 alternatives. I suggest the
following:
Author verify his calculations
Provide in the paper how the
computations were accomplished, e.g.
commercial software, author’s spread
sheet.
Although implicitly stated, author should
state clearly what scale was used to make
the pairwise comparisons.
Table 16 appears to be incorrectly labeled
—I see no “eigenvectors,” only weights.
Table 15 is confusing. There are 24 items
to rank, however, only the top 10 are
identified.
In table 15, the column labeled synthesis
value might better be labeled “global
priority.” See page 16 in the above
referenced Saaty book.
Comment
Page 7 and tables, author documents a
CR<= 0.1 as acceptable. “By convention
we requite the consistency ratio to be 5%
and 8% for n = 3 and 4 respectively and
10% for all values of n >=5.” (See
Fundamentals of Decision Making,
Thomas L. Saaty, 1994.) This reference
should also be included in the
bibliography.
Reply Answer :
InThank you for pointing this out. The
”Consistency test”
section of the
resubmitted version has been
have already modified
and
describe as follows:
”For n = 3 the
required consistency ratio (CR
Goal
) should
be lessower than 0.05,; for n = 4, it should
be lessower than 0.08; and for n ≥ 5, it
should be lesslower than 0.10 to getobtain
a sufficient consistent matrix. Otherwise,
the matrix should be revised (Saaty,
1994)”.
Comment:
For Tables 1 – 7, I was able to reproduce
the AHP weights to the 3 significant
figures as shown in the paper. For the
other tables, I could only reproduce the
author’s results to 2 significant figures.
This difference does not change the
resulting order of the 3 alternatives. I
suggest the following:
Author verify his calculations
Provide in the paper how the
computations were accomplished, e.g.
commercial software, author’s spread
sheet.
Reply:
Thank you for this suggestion. The number
of tables in the resubmitted version has
been reduced from 17 to 7 for study
already will seventeen tables cut for
(condensed and simplification and
brevity.ed) seven tables, Additionally, and
indicate with the code for each
standard
, it’s m
ake the form more
(NOTE: Does ‘the code for each
standard’ make sense?) has
simplified and direct and made
more clear.
Comment:
Although implicitly stated, author should
state clearly what scale was used to make
the pairwise comparisons.
Reply:
Thank you for pointing this out. In the
resubmitted version, ”Step 3: of
“Establishment each factors of the pair-
wise comparison matrix””
There has
been clearly
stateds clearly what scale
wais used to make the pair-wise
comparisons. Andditionally, in ” Section
5: of “Applying AHP to select the
location of hospitals to ensure a
competitive advantage ”, Step 1 to Step 7
have
been modified re-tidy up
with thea more concise
explanation
; and join. This explanation
is further illustrated in ”Figure 1: entitled,
“Measurement process for lLocation
selection to ensure a competitive
advantage measurement process”.
Comment:
Table 16 appears to be incorrectly labeled
—I see no “eigenvectors,” only weights.
Reply:
Thank you for pointing out this error. In
the resubmitted version, the labels in
Table 7 (or Table 16 in the original version
(Table 7) appears to be labeled )
have
already been changed for(NOTE:
‘to’ instead of ‘for’?) “Results of
The hospitals to ensure a competitive
advantage aapplying the AHP decision
model to select locations of hospitals in
order to gain a competitive
advantageselection areas result”.
Comment:
Table 15 is confusing. There are 24 items
to rank, however, only the top 10 are
identified.
Reply:.
In table 15 (Thank you for your careful
attention. In Table 6 of the resubmitted
version (or Table 15 of the original
version), there are 24 items tomust be
ranked,.
(Already all row prefaces
,
before only the top 10. : I HAVE NO
IDEA WHAT THIS MEANS) According
to Table 6, can get the global priority of
three (location areas to be selected OR
locations selection areas) can be obtained
under eighteen sub-criteria that, in which
their  order  were  almostis nearly
inside the   10
th
(NOTE: ‘the 10
th


WHAT?) (NOTE: Although I have made
this extremely confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
and we can got Additionally, the
evaluation criterion can be obtained to
select the optimal location.
Comment:
In table 15, the column labeled synthesis
value might better be labeled “global
priority.” See page 16 in the above
referenced Saaty book.
Reply:
In tableThank you for your suggestion. 15
(In Table 6 of the resubmitted version (or
Table 15 of the original version), there is
part ofof the term “synthesis value” that
has alreadyhas been changed to “global
priority” all changed into with content.
Reference number: Referee#482- 482-4
Thank you for your valuable comments. I
have replied to those concerns as follows.
Comment 4:
Summary. This is a good and practical
paper. The English needs to be improved
and a more clear and precise development
of the methodology provided. Additional
effort is required to provide a paper that is
adequate for publishing.
Reply Answer :
Our colleague, who is a native English
speaker, has revised the manuscript for
syntax and writing style errors.This paper
has already asked the English professional
personage to see in the content. ”In
Section 3: entitled, “Analytic hierarchy
process methodology”, that
the
descriptions have been clarified
with a more concise re-tidies up
with the explanation.
23. (Business Management)
Selectiong ofthe Location of for
Taiwanese Hospitals to Ensure a
Competitive Advantage by Using the
Analytic Hierarchy Process
2.2 (Location theory for hospitals OR
Hospital’s Location theory) (NOTE:
Avoid using hyphens in technical papers.)
The location was addressed by As a
naturalist from theof United .S.tates, who
his name is Grinnel first addressed the
location (NOTE: You need to specify ‘the
location’ of WHAT? If you are not
specifying a particular location, then
delete ‘the’ in front of ‘location’) in in
1904 at first. That study assumed that He
allows the two (groups OR crowds)
(NOTE: Do you need to specify which
kind of ‘groups’?) depend on a certain
kind of affinity withfor food in the same
location, but it is impossible tocan not
(continue balance for keeps in amount : I
HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THIS MEANS).
The number of individuals in one group is
crowd has more than the other, given
thatbecause these two groupscrowds
should compete with each to get for the
same assets. (Location’s concept construct
of community. : THIS IS AN
INCOMPLETE SENTENCE BECAUSE
THERE IS NO VERB.) There are mMany
members of a population (NOTE: Instead
of ‘a population’, how about ‘the general
population’?) share assets and are related
in the community. Location refers to the
functions and roles that tThe
population(NOTE: Instead of ‘The
population’, how about ‘the general
population’?) have function and roleplays
in the community, it’s called location.
AccorCorrespondingly, the theory of
location necessitates that become
sscientists brings up an assortment of
answer how to use a finite list of assets
based on an array of answers (NOTE:
Can you specify what answers you are
referring to?) so that groups can to
compete and live with each otherin the
naturally. (NOTE: Although I have made
this confusing sentence grammatically
correct, make sure that I did not change
your intended meaning.) As location
selection theory emerged, Weber (1909)
proposed the position problems of a
factory. Early location theory focused
mainly on the production of raw materials
and selling to markets in order to
determine a factory’s optimal position by
minimizing transportation costs.
The hospital sectorindustry is unique in
thatsince it includes for-profitprivate, non-
profit, and governmental-owned facilities,
sometimesoccasionally competing for the
same patients. The sSelection of locations
in the hospital industrysector reflects
suggests the need to develop models that
are specific to this industryunique sector.
Empirical evidence suggests that some
location dimensions normally considered
in analyzing organizations are not
germanerelevant in analyzing hospitals
while others explain a great
dealconsiderable amount of detail. For
exampleinstance, unemployment rate and
per capita income of the local population
(can accurately predict OR are significant
predictors of) hospital closure (Longo et
al., 1996). ThePertinent literature
generally regards selection of location as a
disadvantage for hospitals, but provides
limited empirical evidence that this is
trueto support this claim. The size of
potential market size in areas(NOTE: ‘in
WHAT areas?) may (pose OR be) an
impediment because some hospitals are
located near limitedin sparsely
populatedions areas, (not only so affects
the hospital to choose the position the
factor also to have very many. : I HAVE
NO IDEA WHAT THIS MEANS. Do you
mean “ , thus affecting the ability of
hospitals to select many locations.” ? )
There has been little research that
develops models of the relationships
between Exactly how hospital location,
strategy, operational decisions, and
performance are related has seldom been
addressed. (Conversely, OR In contrast,)
these variables have frequently been
(adopted OR used) into studies ofy
manufacturing operations. For
exampleinstance, Swamidass and Newell
(1987) used (the uncertain of location
aspect OR location’s uncertainty) (NOTE:
Avoid apostrophes in research papers.) to
accurately predict elements of operations
strategy, which in turn are subsequently
used to predictforecast business
performance. Similarly, Ward et al. (1995)
show thatdemonstrate the ability of
selection of location factors can be used to
accurately predict the operations strategy
used by successful manufacturing firms.
They find thatAccording to their results,
high and low performing firms use
differerent in strategies in the same
environment, supporting their hypothesis
that high performers develop strategies
that are more effectively responsived to
selection of location demands.
Location and proximity to markets are
important factors forprofoundly impact
service organizations generally and
hospitals in particular. Specifically, having
a (location OR having established a
location) is (a significant OR an
important) selection factor for hospitals.
Hospitals in locations(NOTE: Hospitals in
WHAT locations? Do you mean Hospitals
depending on location strategy?) have
struggled in recent years and, with their
survival maypossibly depending on
developing appropriate strategies that are
appropriate for their location (Hudson,
1995; Henry, 1994). Hospital location is
important because the largest segment of a
hospital’sthe market share for a hospital
comes from an area of proximity toclose
to the hospital (Robinson and Luft, 1985).
Goldstein et al. (2002) investigatesd how
hospital management adoptsuses strategy
(NOTE: ‘strategies’?) to respond to the
location factor of urban or rural locations.
While hospital strategies have been
extensively studied extensively, as
reported in the literature, few studies
address the linkagerelation between
decision-related (issues OR factors) to set
upselect a hospital’s location decisions
issues has seldom been addressed. Lamont
et al. (1993) also fiound that hospitals can
improve their performance better by
changingmodifying their strategy to
achieve a better (correlation OR fit) with
(its OR the) location. These important
results are important because they
showdemonstrate that hospitals can use
their strategies to respond to location
conditions. Nath and Sudharshan (1994)
addressed the location (relative OR
relativeproximity) to other hospitals as
part of a hospital’s business strategy. In
shortsum, theprevious literature has
identifiesd strategic groups in the hospital
industrysector and begians to link
strategies to decision-making and
performance. MoreFurther empirical
evidence is needed(required OR
necessary) to determine the location or
organizational factors that (instigate OR
initiate OR prompt) (such OR these)
strategies. In aAdditionally, the role of
technology investments in strategic
decision-making needs tomust be
evaluated. Finally, assessment of location
strategies should be tied tolinked with
hospital performance.
InWhile anticipationg of a flood
ofstrong demand for healthcare, more
hospitals were builthave been (constructed
OR established) (Crichton et al., 1985). In
anticipation of a flood of demand for care,
more hospitals were built (Crichton et al.,
1985). Between 1944 and 1950, the
number of hospital beds per 1000
populationindividuals nearly doubled
(Roth et al., 1955). MeanwWhile, the
strategically locatedion of a hospital’s
location have give it in compatriot's
results in enhanced better service in
medical treatment. (In the topographical
size of ground in Taiwan that saturation of
influencing 23 million populations. : I
HAVE NO IDEA WHAT YOU MEAN.
THERE IS NO VERB IN THIS
SENTENCE. YOU NEED TO WRITE A
SIMPLE SENTENCE STRUCTURE OF
NOUN + VERB + OBJECT IF YOU
WANT ME TO UNDERSTAND YOUR
MEANING.) The role of location
selection strategy of hospital’s
establishment in Taiwan,, under the
restrictions of the governmental
policypolicies and regulations,
significantly influences the selection of
future hospital and decree becomes
influence locations selection very
important.
Above investigations confirm that
regardless of whether in the structure
strategy;, market demand conditions or
governmental regulations significantly
impact etc. influence decisions regarding
selection of hospital location are all
important. Correct decisions regarding
location selection not only enable
hospitals to reduce operational costs and
increase profits, but also enhance their
competitive advantage of hospital,
ultimatelythus spurring future growth.
Establish the hierarchy structure.
The hierarchy structure can be
decomposed when (confronting OR
dealing with) a complex issue. Given the
inability of humans to compare more than
seven categories simultaneously, each
element of the hierarchy must be assumed
to not surpass seven elements. Under this
limitation, a reasonable comparison can be
made and consistency ensured as well
(Satty, 1980). (NOTE: Although I have
made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended
meaning.)The first hierarchy of the
structure is to achieve the goal. (NOTE:
Can you specify what is the ‘goal’ you are
referring to?) The (final OR end)
hierarchy involves selecting the projects
or replacing the alternatives, while each
middle hierarchy is either the appraisal
factor or criteria. (NOTE: Although I
have made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended
meaning.)When deals the complex issue,
we can be performed decompose the
hierarchy structure. Based on the human
can not comparison above the seven kinds
things at the same time, so we must
assume each elements of the hierarchy not
suitably surpasses seven elements. Under
this limited condition, it may carry on the
reasonable comparison and easier ensure
the consistency (Satty, 1980). The first
hierarchy of the structure that is we want
to achieve goal. Under the end hierarchy
is the choice projects or replacement
alternatives, as well as the each middle
hierarchies are the appraisal factor or
criteria.
Compute the element weights of various
hierarchies.Various hierarchies’ elements
weight computation
(1). Establishment of pair-wise
comparison matrix A
An evaluation standard is established
based on an element of the upper
hierarchy, (going on the pairwise
comparison to each elements. : I HAVE
NO IDEA HOW THIS RELATES TO
THE FIRST PART OF THE SENTENCE.
HOW ABOUT “with a pairwise
comparison made of each element.”)
Assume that the n elements must make
n(n-1)/2 elements of the pairwise
comparison. (NOTE: Although I have
made this sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.) Let C
1
, C
2
, …, C
n
denote the set of elements, while a
ij
represents a quantified judgment on a pair
of elements C
i
, C
j
. The relative importance
of two elements is rated using a scale with
the values 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, where 1 refers
to “equally important”, 3 denotes “slightly
more important”, 5 equals “strongly more
important”, 7 represents “demonstrably
more important” and 9 denotes
“absolutely more important”. (Doing so
OR This) yields an n-by-n matrix A as
follows:Based on an element of the upper
hierarchy is an evaluating standard, going
on the pairwise comparison to each
elements. If has the n elements must
make n(n-1)/2 elements of the pairwise
comparison. Let C
1
, C
2
, …, C
n
denote the
set of elements, while a
ij
represents a
quantified judgment on a pair of elements
C
i
, C
j
. The relative importance of two
elements is rated using a scale with the
values 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, where 1 refers to
“equally important”, 3 denotes “slightly
more important”, 5 equals “strongly more
important”, 7 represents “demonstrably
more important” and 9 denotes
“absolutely more important”. This yields
an n-by-n matrix A as follows:
(2)
(2) Calculation of Eigenvalue and Eigenvector
calculation
Matrix A multiplies the elements weight
vector (
x
) equal to
nx
. That is, (
A
-
nI
)
x
=0.
Where
x
is eigenvalue (
n
) of the
eigenvector. Given
ij
a
, the subjective
judgment of decision makes can compare
and appraise (NOTE: ‘compare and
appraise’ WHAT? ‘the results of their
decision’?), with the value (
j i
W W /
) having
the some level degree of (NOTE: OK?)
difference. Therefore,
x n Ax . ·
can not be set
up. Satty (1990) suggested that the largest
eigenvalue
max
λ
be (NOTE: Be careful
with your use of colons ( : ). You can
only use a colon when you have stated a
complete idea.)Matrix A multiply the
elements weight vector (
x
) equal to
nx
, that
is (
A
-
nI
)
x
=0, the
x
is the Eigenvalue (
n
) of
Eigenvector. Due to
ij
a
be makers’
subjective judgment give comparison and
appraisal, with the truly value (
j i
W W /
) have
the some level degree difference, so that
x n Ax . ·
can not to be set up. Satty (1990)
suggested that the largest eigenvalue
max
λ

be:
Step 5: Perform the C c onsistency test .
(Based on OR According to) formulae
(5) and (6) the criteria comparison matrix
of consistency for each criteria (NOTE:
‘criterion’?) is calculated, as shown in
Table 2. Results According to Eq. (5) and
(6) calculated the each hierarchy’s criteria
comparison matrix of consistency, as
Table 1, Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4. This
paper result of the consistency test and the
CR. of the comparison matrix from each
of the five experts and eleven users are all
< 0.1, indicating “consistency”.
Furthermore, the CR. of the aggregate
matrix is also < 0.1, also indicating
“consistency”.
Step 6: Compute the relative weight(s?) of
the elements for each level.
aggregated Scores provided by all
decision makers are aggregated using
formulae (7). Table 5 summarizes the
relative weight(s?) of the elements for
each level.Computation each levels
relative weight of the elements
Aggregate the related scores provided by
all decision makers using simple additive
weighting and the results for each levels
relative weight of the elements are showed
Table 5.
Step 7: Calculate the overall level hierarchy weight
to select Overall levels hierarchy weight
calculate for selecting the location s
selection areas .
6. Conclusions
AHP iAs a conventional means of
popular method used in finding a
solvingution to the problem of MCDM-
related problems, . One of the reasons for
the popularity of AHP as anhighly
applicable method is the fact that it takes
in owing to its ability to consideration not
justboth tangible but alsoand intangible
criteria. For instance, determining the best
location for hospital is a problem that
involves both many numerical and
(inestimable OR intangible OR non-
numerical) criteria. Therefore, AHP
method can be seems to be an easily
appliedcable method in finding a solution
to the problem of where to determine
exactly where to build a new hospital
should be constructed.
The global priority of three location
selection areas under six criteria are
Factor conditions (0.121), Demand
conditions (0.223), Firm strategy,
Structure and rivalry (0.227), Related and
supporting industries (0.046), Government
(0.296) and Chance (0.086). Evidently,
Demand conditions, Firm strategy,
Structure and rivalry and Government are
high. The proposed criteria can assess the
location selection, relativity, Demand
conditions, Firm strategy, structure and
rivalry and Government assessment of
constructing the sub-criteria to assess the
focal point under the surface. According to
Table 6 can get, the global priority of three
location areas for s selection areas can be
obtained under the eighteen sub-criteria
that t. Their  order  were  almostis
nearly   inside   the (tenth OR 10
th
)
(NOTE: “the tenth” WHAT?) and we can
gotAdditionally, the evaluation criterion
can also be obtained to select the optimal
location. Selectiong ofthe location of a
hospital to ensure a competitive advantage
system is an an extremely complex
decision, often relying on the issue as
well as the managers usually subjective
decisionjudgment of managers. Especially
inIn particular, hospital, the
administrators on the business
administrative order and operate order can
not have theoften lack clear objective
decision-making toolsprocedures and
evaluationg criteria. Moreover, most
hospitalthe majority administrators feel
that given think the influence of the
governmental regulations and constraints,
and decree, so lack and consider
selectiong of the optimal location of a
hospital is extremely difficult. Therefore,
this paper suggestion by adopting the
hospital’s establish of the proposed AHP-
based decision making model to select
location and by adoptsing the renowned
diamond model from Porter’s Global
Electronic Commerce that attempts to
understand the intricate relations among
competitive advantages involved in
selecting a hospital location., this study
utilize aA case study is also performed to
of hospital’s establish verify the
effectiveness of the proposed model is
selecting among form three locations Eof
the eastern district of Taichung City,
Taiping City and Dali City are considered,
in which the wrap enters constructs under
the construction evaluation pattern. Based
on those results, It is the same that the
result is really decision to select with the
present “E the eastern district of Taichung
City” is the preferred location. For thise
regional hospital considered in the case
implementation of this study, while setting
up the hospital, the three locations
considered weare taken to construct
(NOTE: ‘to construct’ WHAT?) under the
evaluation method. Our results correspond
to those of the hospital.(NOTE: Which
hospital are you referring to?) The
provedposed evaluation method can select
the location for a new hospital under
construction to ensure that it has a
competitive advantage once established.
This study develops an evaluation
criterion to select the location for
Taiwanese new hospitals to be established
in Taiwan. Moreover, and the proposed
evaluation criterion provides policy-
makers and academics with
recommendations for future development.
II. Edited homework samples
研究/工作提案計畫(第一部分):背

研究/工作提案計畫(第二部分):行

問題描述
假設描述
摘要撰寫(第一部分):簡介背景、目
標及方法
摘要撰寫(第二部分:歸納希望的結果
及其對特定領域的貢獻
研究/工作提案撰寫
24. (Business Management)
The In recent years, Taiwanese
government has relaxed restrictions on the
domestic medical sector in recent
yearspolicy, such as enabling consumers
can buyto purchase the Oover Tthe
Ccounter Ddrugs(OTC drugs), vitamins
and others medicineso on in supermarkets
or through mass- merchandisers, by this
way,. Consequently, the profits of local
pharmacies to be bound to lost a lot of
profit have been negatively impacted.
Although pharmacies have attempted to
exerted sstrengthen to humor with
consumers’ demand thatrough “Oone-stop
shopping”, for examplee.g., saleing the
sanitary and other related medical
productsutensils, but it’s notoverall
revenues have not significantly increased
income. For instance, althoughThere are
13,000 pharmacies were operating
unitsislandwide in 1995, that number
declined to nearly but decreased to about
10,000 units inas of December 2002. The
inability to identify those If owners can’t
find the influential factors which influence
consumers to purchase buy goods in
pharmacies, future research can’t will
make it impossible not only to develop an
effective strategy to effectively address
solve this kind of problemsdilemma, but
also to and the pharmacies can’t increase
the number of customers in pharmacies as
well as and profits generated revenues.
Based on the above, we should develop a
key successful factors (KSF) concept
model that incorporates which including
different important hierarchy of
consumers purchasing key factors on
different hierarchical levels in order for
and provide for local pharmacies in
Taiwan to reform their marketing
strategies business drawback. To do so,
many factors can be collected from
literatures. TheA questionnaire based on
consumer purchasing factors identified
from pertinent literature can be contains
select factors and sentissued to consumers
and pharmacyeutical managers.
Additionally, analytic hierarchy process
can then be used to analyze and rank all
keymajor consumer purchasing factors.
As anticipated, the ranked key factors can
provide a the proposed key successful
factors (KSF) model can enablefor
pharmacies,eutical managers to execute
the effective in operating business
operations more effectively of the new
model over another old one. Moreover,
pharmacies managers can by allowing
them to modify correct businessmarketing
strategyies based on the on the strength of
difference between consumers demand
and the pharmacy managers response to
those demands. The proposed model not
only can also be applyied to other retail
stores, subsequently enhancing their but
also retailers can depend on the KSF
model to operate business operations.
Abstract (full paper)
The Taiwanese government has relaxed
restrictions on the domestic medical sector
in recent years, such as enabling
consumers to purchase over the counter
drugs, vitamins and other medicines in
supermarkets or through mass
merchandisers. Consequently, the profits
of local pharmacies have been negatively
impacted. Although pharmacies have
attempted to strengthen consumer
demand through one-stop shopping, e.g.,
saling sanitary and other related medical
products, overall revenues have not
significantly increased. Therefore, this
work presents a key successful factors
(KSF) model that incorporates consumer
purchasing factors on different
hierarchical levels in order for local
pharmacies in Taiwan to reform their
marketing strategies. A questionnaire
based on consumer purchasing factors
identified from pertinent literature is sent
to consumers and pharmaceutical
managers. Analytic hierarchy process is
then used to analyze and rank major
consumer purchasing factors. The
proposed KSF model can enable
pharmaceutical managers to execute
business operations more effectively by
allowing them to modify marketing
strategies based on the difference between
consumer demand and the response to
those demands. The proposed model can
also be applied to other retail stores,
subsequently enhancing their business
operations.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a key successful factors
(KSF) model that incorporates consumer
purchasing factors on different
hierarchical levels in order for local
pharmacies in Taiwan to reform their
marketing strategies. A questionnaire
based on consumer purchasing factors
identified from pertinent literature is sent
to consumers and pharmaceutical
managers. Analytic hierarchy process is
then used to analyze and rank major
consumer purchasing factors. The
proposed KSF model can enable
pharmaceutical managers to execute
business operations more effectively by
allowing them to modify marketing
strategies based on the difference between
consumer demand and the response to
those demands. The proposed model can
also be applied to other retail stores,
subsequently enhancing their business
operations.
25. (Business Management)
The increasing popularity of Owing to the
credit card useis popularized in Taiwan,
the has made it possible for banking
institutions not only to acquire extensive
have the completed customer’s data, and
how but also to analyze the
customer’ssuch data to optimize the
marketing management practices, which is
will be critical for bankingessential for
corporate survival in the future.
However, The differentiated
marketing practices in Taiwan are
is insufficient, thewith
conventional methods seldom
incorporatingmaking the
strategies thataccording to
analyzeing the customer data
effectively. Thus, the lack of
interacting with the customer will
lose the focus on the Product and
Promotion strategy.(NOTE: I
have put this sentence in the
‘Importance of problem’ section.)
For instance, The cconventional
methods(NOTE: Specify what kind of
‘conventional methods’. ‘statistical
methods’ ‘analytical methods’? OR is
there specific terminology to define what
kind of conventional method?) fail to
provide the feasibleconvenient services to
customers efficientlyat the right time,.
Namely, such as although the mail-
salesorder division of a company always
mail the DM sends its promotional
materials to itsall of the customers, but
only 10% of those customers subsequently
were attracted to purchaseding those
advertised products. The inability to
identify whom those If the 10% potential
customers arecould be figured out in
advance, makes it impossible not only to
savinge the remaining 90% overhead costs
of the promotional materials, but also to
preventDM, the sales division from also
could concentrateing on the potential
customers to enhance work productivity
by provideing the betterupgraded products
and services to improve the work
performance.
Consequently, conventional
methods(NOTE: Specify what kind of
‘conventional methods’. ‘statistical
methods’ ‘analytical methods’? OR is
there specific terminology to define what
kind of conventional method?) may cause
decision makers to select the inappropriate
strategies.(NOTE: Specify what kind of
‘strategies’ ‘marketing strategies’?),
andAdditionally, the lack of thea
differentiated marketing strategy will lead
to inefficiency and a high overhead costs.
Under such circumstances, banking
institutions The inaccurate of the prcan
not implement product promotion
effectively owing to the inability not only
to provide the unfeasiblereliable services,
how to perform the differentiated
marketing will challenge the bank
institutions. The, but also to adopt
accurate implement of differentiated
marketing practiceswill lead banking
institutions to the best one.
Based on above, we should development
enhanced promotion strategies, capable of
finding out the a dynamic purchasing
model of the potential customers, for
useing in market differentiationg and
effective management of the customer
relationship.
To do so, a dynamic purchasing model can
be developed based on numerousthe
plenty of existed customer’s data
available, aand using the data mining
methodology, for example the, i.e.,
CRISP-DM, can be employed, which
combines the conventional means
classical method of data exploration
technology and with two kinds of
mathematical calculations -– (decision
tree and category nerve) – to determine
howspecify the relations of the various
purchasing activities are related. Next,
factors of customercombining the
relations and the customer life cycle can
be combined to construct an build up the
enhanced management model.
As anticipated, adopting the newproposed
dynamic purchasing model can be derived
to efor effectively manageing customer
relations. can Such an improvement not
only significantly reduces the promotional
costs, as well as but also allows the sales
staff to concentrate on the identify
potential customers to make high
performance.
By incorporating CRIPS-DM, Tthe
CRIPS-DM proposed model can
effectively analyzesis the existed current
customer data efficiently, enabling
marketing staff to identify potential and a
dynamic model can rapidly catch the
niche markets and manage customer
relations effectively. Via the proposed
processmodel, the users can continue to
verify and adjust the factors of the
dynamic module can be verified and
adjusted to ensure that a company
continuously provides the properquality
services forever.
Abstract (full paper)
The increasing popularity of credit card use
in Taiwan has made it possible for
banking institutions not only to acquire
extensive customer data, but also to
analyze such data to optimize marketing
management practices, which is essential
for corporate survival. However,
differentiated marketing practices in
Taiwan are insufficient, with conventional
methods seldom incorporating strategies
that analyze customer data effectively.
Therefore, this work presents a dynamic
purchasing model of potential customers,
for use in market differentiation and
effective management of customer
relations. Based on numerous customer
data available, a data mining method, i.e.,
CRISP-DM, is employed, which combines
the conventional means of data
exploration with two mathematical
calculations –(decision tree and category
nerve) to determine how various
purchasing activities are related. Factors
of customer relations and customer life
cycle are then combined to construct an
enhanced management model. Adopting
the proposed dynamic purchasing model
for effectively managing customer
relations can significantly reduce
promotional costs, as well as allow sales
staff to concentrate on identify potential
customers. Moreover, by incorporating
CRIPS-DM, the proposed model can
analyze current customer data efficiently,
enabling marketing staff to identify
potential niche markets and manage
customer relations effectively. Via the
proposed model, factors of the dynamic
module can be verified and adjusted to
ensure that a company continuously
provides quality services.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a dynamic
purchasing model of potential
customers, for use in market
differentiation and effective
management of customer
relations. Based on numerous
customer data available, a data
mining method, i.e., CRISP-DM,
is employed, which combines
the conventional means of data
exploration with two
mathematical calculations –
(decision tree and category
nerve) to determine how various
purchasing activities are related.
Factors of customer relations and
customer life cycle are then
combined to construct an
enhanced management model.
Adopting the proposed dynamic
purchasing model for effectively
managing customer relations can
significantly reduce promotional
costs, as well as allow sales staff
to concentrate on identify
potential customers. Moreover,
by incorporating CRIPS-DM, the
proposed model can analyze
current customer data efficiently,
enabling marketing staff to
identify potential niche markets
and manage customer relations
effectively. Via the proposed
model, factors of the dynamic
module can be verified and
adjusted to ensure that a
company continuously provides
quality services.
26. (Business Management)
The rRegional hospitals in Taiwan lack an
adequate number of physicians has
problem is not enough Doctor and critical
wards for critically ill patients., So the
eEmergency care staff can thus only
provide worker finish patient’s primary
care, for those patients before they must
transferring them to a larger medical
center. Such patients are thus unlikely to
return to regional hospitals for subsequent
visits, instead opting for those larger
medical centers for primary care.In this
time would change the patient’s to take
medical treatment.
Changing trends among hospital patients
significantly impact the When the patient
change the medical behavior ,it will to
affect theoperating budgets of regional
hospitals operating profit. For instance,
Aaccording to statistics from Eng.Chu.
Kong. hHospital , the ER patient transfer
rate of emergency room patients to larger
medical centers rate is step up reached
50% atin 2003.The phenomenon to bring
about, subsequently decreasing the woard
utility rate to go down 20%. This statistic
has greatly concerned data to attract
manager’s attention hospital
administrators., especially with respect to
how to effectively adopt
CCustomer RRelationship MManagement
(CRM) in order to is important in this
time. How to keep the patient in the
regional hospital patients? It from
transferring to larger medical centers is
the manager want to know.
Based on the above, we should to
investigate why the critically ill paltients
at the regional hospitals in Taiwan transfer
to larger medical centers in order to more
thoroughly understand the anticipated
medical services that their families
expect., what is the transferring reason
and where is the critically ill patients
direction. than must find and anylysis the
family a demand and anticipate.
To do so, factors of patient transferal can
be identified based on statistics from he
regional hospitals in Taiwan to provide
transferring statistics can be used to
anylysis transfer reason in turn. CRM an
important factor used A questionnaire
based on customer relations management
(CRM) can then be issued to and answer
can be defined, and familyfamilies of
critically ill patients to determine
anticipated medical services. Based on
those results, the demand used an APH
methodologey can be formed.
As anticipated, the proposed CRM-based
approachmodel CRM can identify how the
medical services anticipated by families of
critically ill patients differ from actual
ones provided by regional hospitals, with
the objective of ultimately reducing this
discrepancy and patient transferal rate to
larger adopt statistical the family the hope,
to decrease between family and hospital
the difference to look forward to medical
by 50%.To improve patient choose
medical centers 20%..
The proposed approach can While
provideing regional hospital
administratorsmanager with an effective
means of determining the anticipated
services of critically ill patients and their
families, the proposed approach can
highlight to the attach importance the
emergencyof medical quality in
emergency care, eventually increasing to
supply good minister to medical. It is can
to step up hospital incomerevenues and
establishing hight quality emergency
medical centers among regional hospitals
in Taiwan.
Abstract (full paper)
Regional hospitals in Taiwan lack an
adequate number of physicians and wards
for critically ill patients. Emergency care
staff can thus only provide primary care
for those patients before transferring them
to a larger medical center. Such patients
are thus unlikely to return to regional
hospitals for subsequent visits, instead
opting for those larger medical centers for
primary care. Therefore, this study
investigates why critically ill patients at
regional hospitals in Taiwan transfer to
larger medical centers in order to more
thoroughly understand the anticipated
medical services that their families expect.
Factors of patient transferal are identified
based on statistics from regional hospitals
in Taiwan. CRM an important factor used
A questionnaire based on customer
relations management (CRM) is then
issued to families of critically ill patients
to determine anticipated medical services.
Based on those results, an APH
methodology is formed. The proposed
CRM-based approach can identify how
the medical services anticipated by
families of critically ill patients differ
from actual ones provided by regional
hospitals, with the objective of ultimately
reducing this discrepancy and patient
transferal rate to larger medical centers.
While providing regional hospital
administrators with an effective means of
determining the anticipated services of
critically ill patients and their families, the
proposed approach can highlight the
importance of medical quality in
emergency care, eventually increasing
hospital revenues and establishing high
quality emergency medical centers among
regional hospitals in Taiwan.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study investigates why critically ill
patients at regional hospitals in Taiwan
transfer to larger medical centers in order
to more thoroughly understand the
anticipated medical services that their
families expect. Factors of patient
transferal are identified based on statistics
from regional hospitals in Taiwan. CRM
an important factor used A questionnaire
based on customer relations management
(CRM) is then issued to families of
critically ill patients to determine
anticipated medical services. Based on
those results, an APH methodology is
formed. The proposed CRM-based
approach can identify how the medical
services anticipated by families of
critically ill patients differ from actual
ones provided by regional hospitals, with
the objective of ultimately reducing this
discrepancy and patient transferal rate to
larger medical centers. While providing
regional hospital administrators with an
effective means of determining the
anticipated services of critically ill
patients and their families, the proposed
approach can highlight the importance of
medical quality in emergency care,
eventually increasing hospital revenues
and establishing high quality emergency
medical centers among regional hospitals
in Taiwan.
27. (Business Management)
The extremely competitive The Chinese-
medical market sector in Taiwan and
extremely competition. Due to the budget
deficits incurred from the island’sency of
NNational HHealth IInsurance schemein
Taiwan, have led to the implementation of
a the Global Budget System has been
implemented. Whereas hospitals heavily
prioritize Although the search for
attracting new patients is a top priority,
the patient turnover ratechurn is more has
received increasing attention. Most oOf
the relatively few studies that have
addressed the research is not focus on
medical sector in this areaindustries.
Traditions, conventional approaches
calculate the number of patients number
per-on a daily basis. But we do not
without differentiateing between new and
return patients or not. The inability to
effectively address If not attach
importance to the issue of patient turnover
ratechurn. The would make the statistical
approaches used to determine the samples
in pertinent studies academic research of
calculate not inaccuratecy for lack sample.
Unable to determine their patient turnover
rate accurately, If not attach importance to
the issue of patient churn. The hospitals
will be high patient churn rate andincur a
high cost toin attracting new patients.
Final will be close and ultimately lose
their competitiveness.
Based on the above, we should develop a
novelnew set of marketing strategyic that
incorporates e-marketing practices within
the medical sector tofor
strengthenintensify thea hospital’s
competitiveness. There is no research to
focus on the e-marketing for medical
sector.
To do so, the questionnaire on web can be
use immersing understand the anweb
Internet user’s characteristics with respect
to preferences in medical services can be
more thoroughly understood by issuing a
web-based questionnaire. Distinct
consumer groups can then be identified
using Ccluster analysis can be use to sort
out groups from all consumers.
TheAdditionally, pertinent literatures
canm be reviewed to establish a
theoretical foundation for developinguse
develop an e-marketing new set of
marketing strategyic and that have theory
to support.
As anticipated, Tthe proposed marketing
strategymethod can reduce the operational
costs of a hospitals working capital and
increase the number of thenew patients.
Results in this study not only can be used
not only as the basis for the start of thea
follow-up study, but also a valuable
reference for administrators when
attempting to can be increase theira
hospital’s competitiveness if the hospitals
to combine their characteristic and the
marketing strategic.
Abstract (full paper)
Taiwan’s medical market sector has
become intensively competitive, largely
spurred by the increasing popularity of
Internet commerce. Hospitals must thus
effectively exploit the use of the Internet
to attract new patients. However, the
relatively few approaches that have
addressed marketing practices in the
medical sector have not focused on the
Internet’s impact. Therefore, this work
presents a novel marketing strategy that
incorporates e-marketing practices within
the medical sector to strengthen a
hospital’s competitiveness An Internet
user’s characteristics with respect to
preferences in medical services are more
thoroughly understood by issuing a web-
based questionnaire. Distinct consumer
groups are then identified using cluster
analysis. Additionally, pertinent literature
is reviewed to establish a theoretical
foundation for developing an e-marketing
marketing strategy. The proposed
marketing strategy can reduce the
operational costs of a hospital and
increase the number of new patients.
Results in this study can be used not only
as the basis for a follow-up study, but also
a valuable reference for administrators
when attempting to increase a hospital’s
competitiveness.
Paragraph 4
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a novel marketing
strategy that incorporates e-marketing
practices within the medical sector to
strengthen a hospital’s competitiveness An
Internet user’s characteristics with respect
to preferences in medical services are
more thoroughly understood by issuing a
web-based questionnaire. Distinct
consumer groups are then identified using
cluster analysis. Additionally, pertinent
literature is reviewed to establish a
theoretical foundation for developing an e-
marketing marketing strategy. The
proposed marketing strategy can reduce
the operational costs of a hospital and
increase the number of new patients.
Results in this study can be used not only
as the basis for a follow-up study, but also
a valuable reference for administrators
when attempting to increase a hospital’s
competitiveness.
28. (Business Management)
Poor quality of Ssurgical procedures leads
to unnecessarily recurrent operation
quality downcast , cause again-medical
treatment , subsequently increasing a
hospital’s overheadcost more expenses.
Whereas individual hospitals realize the
level of their own operational quality,
hospitals in Taiwan have neither
collectively accumulated nor shared
related At present , medical information
for comparison purposesdid not
collection , each hospital can not
communicate information ,they just
realize oneself operation quality ,but they
cant achieve others . Operational quality is
determined prior to, during and measure
by three side : before operate、operating
and after surgeryoperate . Recurrent
medical treatment following an operation
is often owing to incompleteBase on
historytical data of the patient , after post-
operateion complications and a patient’s
body temperature that exceedsover 38
degrees , that will cause again-medical
treatment. The inability to enhance the
quality of Ssurgical procedures through
the sharing of pertinent data among
hospitalsoperation quality downcast if can
not improve , it will increase cost not
only more medical fees , but alsoand
increase societyal costs.
Based on the above, we should
developbuild a Web-based medical quality
indexicator at a network that
compilesation each hospital’s relevant
data to for compareison and identification
of areas for improvement.
(NOTE: This is not methodology. You are
describe features of your medical quality
index. But you need to tell me what are
the procedural steps to construct this
index.)
To do so, hospital data can be analyzedsis
and displayed on theshow to Web.
Hospital,sIndividual each fees (, i.e.
operational expenses, and ward expenses),
can be compaired among various
hospitalswith peers., thus providing a
valuable reference Aadministrators can
understand the level and aiming to
enhance the quality of medical services in
light of cost constraints.
As anticipated, the proposed medical
quality indexstrategy can enablesupply
hospitals to enhance medical quality and
reduce business costs , as well as identify
find limitations efficiently quickly and to
reach a precise decision correct.
Results in the policy can be not only asIn
addition to enhanceing medical quality
islandwide and reduceing operational
expensesbusiness cost, the proposed index
can become a valuable asset for hospital
administratorsbut also boss to when
planning and monitoring hospital
operations.
Abstract (full paper)
Poor quality of surgical procedures leads to
unnecessarily recurrent medical treatment,
subsequently increasing a hospital’s
overhead expenses. Whereas individual
hospitals realize the level of their own
operational quality, hospitals in Taiwan
have neither collectively accumulated nor
shared related medical information for
comparison purposes. Therefore, this
work presents a Web-based medical
quality index that compiles each hospital’s
relevant data for comparison and
identification of areas for improvement.
Hospital data is analyzed and displayed on
the Web. Individual fees, i.e. operational
expenses and ward expenses, are then
compared among various hospitals, thus
providing a valuable reference
administrators aiming to enhance the
quality of medical services in light of cost
constraints. The proposed medical quality
index can enable hospitals to enhance
medical quality and reduce business costs,
as well as identify limitations efficiently
to reach a precise decision. In addition to
enhancing medical quality island wide and
reducing operational expenses, the
proposed index can become a valuable
asset for hospital administrators when
planning and monitoring hospital
operations.
Abstract (conference paper). (NOTE: This
is an incomplete abstract because you
have not given me your research
methodology ( 3-4 sentences)
This work presents a Web-based medical
quality index that compiles each hospital’s
relevant data for comparison and
identification of areas for improvement.
Hospital data is analyzed and displayed on
the Web. Individual fees, i.e. operational
expenses and ward expenses, are then
compared among various hospitals, thus
providing a valuable reference
administrators aiming to enhance the
quality of medical services in light of cost
constraints. The proposed medical quality
index can enable hospitals to enhance
medical quality and reduce business costs,
as well as identify limitations efficiently
to reach a precise decision. In addition to
enhancing medical quality island wide and
reducing operational expenses, the
proposed index can become a valuable
asset for hospital administrators when
planning and monitoring hospital
operations.
29. (Business Management)
Although Taiwan’s growing elderly
population has increased the demand for
iInstitutional-based health care demand
has increase fast by the old person’s
growth fast, but the Iinstitutional-based
health care sector businessis obviously
disproportional islandwide in the uneven
in level and quality of services and
facilities, resultsing in significant public
concern over this dilemma lots of
denounce in Taiwan. A few
researchesWhereas concern onover the
quality of iInstitutional-based care quality
and the working capital weight correlation
has seldom been addressed, most of
researchstudies focus mainly on
legislationaws 、 human resource
management and approaches to enhance
patientdevelop the care technique in the
past. According to Chiang (2002),
Seventy-seven77% of all percents
institutional-based care facility managers
surveyed believed opinion that the care
quality may be affected if the working
capital weight lower than a gross earnings
of 80%eighty percents may affect health
care quality. (I-chun Chiang; 2002) The
manager can’t provide stable and sustain
high level services without The inability
to estimate the quality of Iinstitutional-
based health care quality and working
capital weight correlation, makes it
impossible for facility managers to
provide and maintain a high level of
services, thus fringing upon and the
quality research in academia can’t be
soundness. Moreover, the consumer’s
rights in this growing sectorwill bear
enormous menace.
Based on the above, we should to analyze
how the various working costs importance
that how to affect impact the the quality of
institutional-based healthcare quality.
Collecting the data of financial statement
and the customer satisfaction can allow
analyzing the(The quality of Iinstitutional-
based healthcare quality and working cost
correlation can be analyzed OR Exactly
how institutional-based healthcare quality
and working costs correlated with each
other can be analyzed) by using data of
financial statements and customer
satisfaction. In addition, the mathematic
method of gray system and fuzzy theory
can calculate theRelevant data which are
not in a digitizedation or in small quantity
can then be calculated (NOTE: Do you
mean ‘analyzed’ instead of ‘calculated’?)
by using a gray system-based mathematic
method and fuzzy theory and in a few
amounts. After using the fuzzy theory is
applied to digitize the data, the gray
system can be used to rank and verify the
importance ofbetween the various
working costs and the quality of
institutional-based healthcare quality.
ThusAs anticipated, results of this study
can enable institutional-based facilitythe
proposed investigation provide an
evidence that help managers not only to
strengthen areas of identify the point on
the corporateion management, but also to
provide thea highly level and stable care
quality of long term healthcare. (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) Furthermore, the investigation
provides a different concept that can help
the long-term care research in academia.
Abstract (full paper)
Although Taiwan’s growing elderly
population has increased the demand for
institutional-based health care, the
institutional-based health care sector is
obviously disproportional island wide in
the level and quality of services and
facilities, resulting in significant public
concern over this dilemma. Whereas
concern over the quality of institutional-
based care and the working capital weight
correlation has seldom been addressed,
most studies focus mainly on legislation,
human resource management and
approaches to enhance patient care.
Therefore, this study analyzes how
various working costs impact the quality
of institutional-based healthcare. Exactly
how institutional-based healthcare quality
and working costs correlate with each
other is analyzed by using data of
financial statements and customer
satisfaction. Relevant data not in a
digitized or in small quantity is then
calculated by using a gray system-based
mathematic method and fuzzy theory
After the fuzzy theory is applied to
digitize the data, the gray system is used
to rank and verify the importance of
various working costs and the quality of
institutional-based healthcare. Results of
this study can enable institutional-based
healthcare facility managers not only to
strengthen areas of corporate
management, but also to provide a high
quality of long term healthcare.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study analyzes how various working
costs impact the quality of institutional-
based healthcare. Exactly how
institutional-based healthcare quality and
working costs correlate with each other is
analyzed by using data of financial
statements and customer satisfaction.
Relevant data not in a digitized or in small
quantity is then calculated by using a gray
system-based mathematic method and
fuzzy theory After the fuzzy theory is
applied to digitize the data, the gray
system can be used to rank and verify the
importance of various working costs and
the quality of institutional-based
healthcare. Results of this study can
enable institutional-based healthcare
facility managers not only to strengthen
areas of corporate management, but also
to provide a high quality of long term
healthcare.
30. (Business Management)
The question now arise :
Governmental policy over
Taiwan’s nNational hHealth
iInsurance (NHI) scheme(NHI)
continuously changes, especially
in light of increasing medical
costs and premiums as well as
concern over the potential
lowering of health care quality
offered policy continued , not
pay on the wane , wants the live
must at the competition
superiority gets down .It is vital
that h. Hospitals must thus
emphasize marketing practices to
attract patients through public
relations. This subject deserves
more then a passing notice.
Although the role of public
relations in a large number of
studies have been made on
business marketing has received
considerable attentionpublic
relation , its role in little is known
about hospital marketing
practices has seldom been
addressedpublic relation.
The point aboutPublic relations in
hospital marketing public
relationpractices adopts is use
business marketing public
relation method set up, helpto
enhance competitiveness in the
medical sector.
The inability of a hospital to
adopt public relations in its
marketing public relationpractices
will make it less lose execute,
lose competeitive in promoting at
medical treatment and services
marketing.
While NHI has increasingly emphasized
the role of public relations in elp attention
to hospital marketing practicespublic
relation, providein order to enhance
hospital manager new management. To
ignore this face is to miss,, the failure to
adopt this approach will result in a loss of
competitiveness. The result of the hospital
was that lose. in the intensely competitive
medical sector.
Based on the above, we should develop
good hospitala marketing, strategy for
hospitals that emphasizes identifying and
satisfying the core of all the question is
patient customerneeds from a customer’s
perspective. need. Although a large
number of studies have been made on
hospital marketing, little is known about
customer need hospital marketing.
To do so, the factor analysis of a
customer’s needs can be performedused to
obtain customer need service of the
through personal interviews. (NOTE:
Although I have made this confusing
sentence grammatically correct, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) , the sampleThose results can
then be analyzed and find, along with vital
factors identified as well.
The proposed marketing
strategyprocessing method can increase
the elongation of customer’s
content(NOTE: ‘elongation of customer’s
content’ makes no sense. What is your
meaning? Do you mean ‘The proposed
marketing strategy can increase
customer’s satisfaction’? Again, I’m not
sure what you mean.) by over 10%
through hospital marketing ofby
significantly reducing overhead costs and
time.(NOTE: ‘time’ to do what?)
Results in this study can be used to then
research worker develop various train of
thought and aspect.
Results inof this study can provide a
valuable reference for hospital managers.
Moreover, the proposed method can help
attempting to develop an optimization
procedure for hospital manager when
(accurately OR smooth OR concise OR
precise) implementation of carry out the
marketing practicesof hospital.
Abstract (full paper)
Governmental policy over Taiwan’s
National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme
continuously changes, especially in light
of increasing medical costs and premiums
as well as concern over the potential
lowering of health care quality offered.
Hospitals must thus emphasize marketing
practices to attract patients through public
relations. Although the role of public
relations in business marketing has
received considerable attention, its role in
hospital marketing practices has seldom
been addressed. Therefore, this work
presents a marketing strategy for hospitals
that emphasizes identifying and satisfying
patient needs from a customer’s
perspective. Factor analysis of a
customer’s needs is performed through
personal interviews. Those results are then
analyzed, along with vital factors
identified as well. The proposed
marketing strategy can increase the extent
of customer’s services by over 10%
through hospital marketing by
significantly reducing overhead costs and
time. Results of this study can provide a
valuable reference for hospital managers
attempting to develop an optimization
procedure for accurate implementation of
marketing practices.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a marketing strategy
for hospitals that emphasizes identifying
and satisfying patient needs from a
customer’s perspective. Factor analysis of
a customer’s needs is performed through
personal interviews. Those results are then
analyzed, along with vital factors
identified as well. The proposed
marketing strategy can increase the extent
of customer’s services by over 10%
through hospital marketing by
significantly reducing overhead costs and
time. Results of this study can provide a
valuable reference for hospital managers
attempting to develop an optimization
procedure for accurate implementation of
marketing practices.
31. (Business Management)
Intellectual capital is abecomes the
significantly resource for creating a
company‘s wealth. Although Ttangible
assets such as property, plantfacilities, and
equipment continue to play a vital role be
important factors in the production
ofmanufacturing products and providing
services. However, their relative
importance has decreased ,declined with
the increasing importance of but
knowledge-based assets has increased.
Conventional accounting systems have
developed for Although capable of
measureing the value of tangible assets
that can be quantified in a company, .
When we use conventional accounting
methods measure the value of company,
because do not include knowledge-based
assets,will subsequently induceing an to
underrateing of the value ofa company’s
valueies.
Additionally, Due to scientificce and
technologyical advances have gain
ground, Iheightened the importance of
intellectual capital is becoming
importance.. For instance, oOn-line
gameing companies is ownemphasize the
ownership of Iintellectual capital rather
than tangible assets. And few scholars
measureWith this respect, the value of on-
line gameing companies has seldom been
measured in previous studies.
Online gaming ranks at the top of the
gaming industry, with generated revenues
of 1 Billion US Dollars On-line game
market have 10 hundred million dollars in
1999,unit 2002 will grow skyrocketing to
20 hundred million Billion US dollars, so
on-line game is the best in game industry
in 2002.
The inability toIf measure the value of
companies do not includewithout
incorporating Iintellectual capital, will not
only lead induce to an underrateing of the
value of companiestheir value. And my
paper can let readers have more, but also
make it impossible to understand how
intellectual capital impactsto the on-line
gameing market ,and let more people
respect the important impact of
Intellectual capital.
Based on the above, we should develop a
novel the index ofto measure the
Iintellectual capital measurement should
be developed. Then it is more righteous to
measure the value of Oon-line gameing
companies. Questionnaires can be sent to
the managers of on-line game companies
on which factors should be considering
when measuring their companies’
intellectual capitalrealized that the index
of Intellectual capital measurement of On-
line game companies that On-line game
companies’ managers consider the index
that can be represented Intellectual capital.
(NOTE: Although I have made this
confusing sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.) And compare tThose
results can then be compared with the
criteria adopted by banks in measuring
intellectual capital of a businesshe bank
the index of Intellectual capital
measurement. T. (NOTE: Although I
have made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
Next, he difference exactly how banks and
on-line game companies differ when
measuring intellectual capital between the
bank and On-line game companies can be
realized todetermined useing Principal
Component Analysis( 因素分析的主成份
法). Collocating literature and based on
the above, the new index of Intellectual
capital measurement would be developed.
(NOTE: I have omitted this sentence
because it is redundant of what you have
already stated.) The rResults of this
studypaper can provide a valuable
reference for let banking institutions
attempting to understand how on-line
gaming companies measure their what the
Iintellectual capital measurement index
that On-line game companies opinion.
Moreover, The newthe proposed index
offor measuring the Iintellectual capital of
this growth sector can enhance
conventionally used measurement would
improve the traditions indexes and
increasepromote measurement
accuracycorrectness.
Abstract (full paper)
Intellectual capital is a significant resource
for creating a company‘s wealth. Although
tangible assets such as property, facilities,
and equipment continue to play a vital role
in manufacturing products and providing
services, their relative importance has
declined with the increasing importance of
knowledge-based assets. Although capable
of measuring the value of tangible assets
that can be quantified in a company,
conventional accounting methods do not
include knowledge-based assets,
subsequently inducing an underrating of a
company’s value. Additionally, scientific
and technological advances have
heightened the importance of intellectual
capital. For instance, on-line gaming
companies emphasize the ownership of
intellectual capital rather than tangible
assets. With this respect, the value of on-
line gaming companies has seldom been
measured in previous studies. Therefore,
this work presents a novel index to
measure the intellectual capital value of
on-line gaming companies. Questionnaires
are sent to the managers of on-line game
companies on which factors should be
considering when measuring their
companies’ intellectual capital. Those
results are then compared with the criteria
adopted by banks in measuring intellectual
capital of a business. Next, exactly how
banks and on-line game companies differ
when measuring intellectual capital is
determined using Principal Component
Analysis. The proposed index for
measuring the intellectual capital of this
growth sector can enhance conventionally
used indexes and increase measurement
accuracy. Results of this study can provide
a valuable reference for banking
institutions attempting to understand how
on-line gaming companies measure their
intellectual capital.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a novel index to
measure the intellectual capital value of
on-line gaming companies. Questionnaires
are sent to the managers of on-line game
companies on which factors should be
considering when measuring their
companies’ intellectual capital. Those
results are then compared with the criteria
adopted by banks in measuring intellectual
capital of a business. Next, exactly how
banks and on-line game companies differ
when measuring intellectual capital is
determined using Principal Component
Analysis. The proposed index for
measuring the intellectual capital of this
growth sector can enhance conventionally
used indexes and increase measurement
accuracy. Results of this study can
provide a valuable reference for banking
institutions attempting to understand how
on-line gaming companies measure their
intellectual capital.
32. (Biotechnology)
Setting of work proposal: Latent
membrane protein 1(LMP1) expressed in
EBV-infected cells is a major
transforming protein. Epstein-Barr virus
(EBV) is a γ herpesvirus that infects more
than 90% of the human population,
although the majority ofdespite the fact
that most carriers remain asymptomatic.
EBV, is the causative agent of infectious
mononucleosis and, is associated with
several human lymphoid and epithelial
malignancies, including Burkitt’s
lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma
(NPC), T cell lymphoma and Hodgkin’s
disease. LMP1, is an integral membrane
protein comprising 386 amino acids,
consists of the N-terminus cytoplasmic
domain of 24twenty four amino acids, six
membrane-spanning domains of 162
amino acids, and a long cytoplasmic C-
terminus of 200 amino acids.
Work problem: The phosphorylation of
LMP1 plays a significant role in
regulating the function of LMP1.The C-
terminus of LMP1, i.e., the main domain
engaging the intracellular signal
transductions, can be phosphorylated. The
C-terminus contains several activating
regions, i.e., named CTAR1, CTAR2, and
CTAR3, that determine the biological
functions of the molecule. In the
past,Although the function of CTAR2 has
been extensively studied, certain aspects
require further consideration. reported
thoroughly. About CTAR2 is still to leave
a matter for future consideration. For
instance, LMP1 is knownis known to to
activate at least seven signaling pathways.
Quantitative specification of problem: It
has been reportedAccording to previous
studies, CTAR2 domains of LMP1
activates about 75% of NF-κB activity
compared to full-length LMP1. Further
investigation will reveal wWhether
CTAR1 is accounts for the
remainingothers 25% of NF-κB activity is
unknown.
Importance of problem: IfThe inability
to t is not known to identify and
characterize the remaining 25% function
of CTAR1, will not gain great insight into
prevents us from fully understanding how
this versatile molecule implements its
function in EBV-induced transformation
and, possibly, preventing the perhaps
development of potential therapeutic
targets for EBV-associated cancers.
Work objective: Based on the above, we
should develop a model (NOTE: What
kind of model? In the “Anticipated
results”, you say “the proposed model”.
What kind of ‘proposed model’?) by
analyzeing Epstein-Barr virus latent
membrane protein (that mutateds with C
terminus 204 and 206 OR that is mutated
with C terminus 204 and 206 OR , in
which C terminus 204 and 206 are
mutated).(NOTE: Carefully select which
one is your intended meaning.) We should
observeBased on those results, the
phosphorylation and ubiquitination of the
mutated C terminus 204 and 206 can also
be found on the NF-κB signal pathway.
Method: To do so, the LMP1 DNA can be
selected by colony technique. To do so,
the DNA can be analyzed protein
expression by cell culture and Western
blotting.
As anticipated, results: T the proposed
model(NOTE: What kind of ‘proposed
model’?) can effect 25%induce
phosphorylation on the NF-κB signal
pathway by 25%.(NOTE: Although I have
made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that I
did not change your intended meaning.)
Contribution to field: Taken together, by
iBy identifying and characterizing LMP1-
associated proteins, LMP1 mediated
signal pathway and LMP1 target genes,
we will gain great can provide further
insight into how this versatile molecule
executes its function in EBV-induced
transformation, making it possible to and
perhaps develop potential therapeutic
targets for EBV- associated cancers.
Abstract (full paper)
The phosphorylation of latent membrane
protein 1 (LMP1) plays a significant role
in regulating the function of LMP1.The C-
terminus of LMP1, i.e., the main domain
engaging the intracellular signal
transductions, can be phosphorylated. The
C-terminus contains several activating
regions, i.e., CTAR1, CTAR2, and
CTAR3, that determine the biological
functions of the molecule. Although the
function of CTAR2 has been extensively
studied, certain aspects require further
consideration, such as the ability of LMP1
to activate at least seven signaling
pathways. Therefore, this work presents a
model by analyzing Epstein-Barr virus
latent membrane protein that mutates with
C terminus 204 and 206. Based on those
results, the phosphorylation and
ubiquitination of the mutated C terminus
204 and 206 are also found on the NF-κB
signal pathway. The LMP1 DNA is
selected by colony technique. The DNA is
then analyzed with respect to protein
expression by cell culture and Western
blotting. The proposed model can induce
phosphorylation on the NF-κB signal
pathway by 25%. By identifying and
characterizing LMP1-associated proteins,
LMP1 mediated signal pathway and
LMP1 target genes can provide further
insight into how this versatile molecule
executes its function in EBV-induced
transformation, making it possible to
develop potential therapeutic targets for
EBV- associated cancers.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a model by analyzing
Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane
protein that mutates with C terminus 204
and 206. Based on those results, the
phosphorylation and ubiquitination of the
mutated C terminus 204 and 206 are also
found on the NF-κB signal pathway. The
LMP1 DNA is selected by colony
technique. The DNA is then analyzed with
respect to protein expression by cell
culture and Western blotting. The
proposed model can induce
phosphorylation on the NF-κB signal
pathway by 25%. By identifying and
characterizing LMP1-associated proteins,
LMP1 mediated signal pathway and
LMP1 target genes can provide further
insight into how this versatile molecule
executes its function in EBV-induced
transformation, making it possible to
develop potential therapeutic targets for
EBV- associated cancers.
33. (Biotechnology)
1.
Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2(PYK2),
is a non-receptor phosphorylation kinase.
PYK2, is a numember of the focal
adhesion kinase(FAK)family.
2.
Although Iin vitro experiments, have
indicated that PYK2 is founded to
associated with macrophage mobility,
adhesion and regulation., such an
association has not been made through in
vivo experiments.
3.
For instance, PYK2 is deleted in the
cell(NOTE: Should you specify what kind
of OR what is the cell you are referring
to?) as mouse macrophage can eaffect to
function (the phagcytosis ) function.
(NOTE: I don’t understand how this
sentence exemplifies how PYK2’s
association with macrophage mobility,
adhesion and regulation can not be made
through in vivo experiments.)
4.
These inability to observe its association
experiments can’t be observedthrough in
vivo. experiments. makes its impossible
to understand how So it must be important
to observed affectionthe role of PYK2 in
macrophage in vivo.
Work objective:
Based on the above, we should develop a
novel animal model that can be observed
through macrophage in vivo experiments.
To do so, PYK2 gene can be cloned from
zebrafish embryos. The PYK2
Morpholino (anti-sense RNA) can then be
produced from PYK2 gene. Next, The
PYK2 gene of macrophage in zebrafish
can be deleted and macrophage motility
can be examined using a microscope.
Anticipated results:
As anticipated, Tthe proposed animal
model can observe (the mobility and life
cycle of macrophage OR macrophage
mobility and life cycle), and can assist to
research inthus facilitating embryo
development research.
Contribution to field:
The proposed novel animal model is
highly promising for use can be utilized to
investigate in related bio-medicine fields.
Abstract (full paper)
Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2, a
non-receptor phosphorylation kinase, is a
member of the focal adhesion
kinase(FAK)family. Although in vitro
experiments have indicated that PYK2 is
associated with macrophage mobility,
adhesion and regulation, such an
association has not been made through in
vivo experiments. Therefore, this work
presents a novel animal model that can be
observed through macrophage in vivo
experiments. PYK2 gene is cloned from
zebrafish embryos. PYK2 Morpholino
(anti-sense RNA) is then produced from
PYK2 gene. Next, the PYK2 gene of
macrophage in zebrafish is deleted via
PYK2. Additionally, Morpholino and
macrophage motility is examined using a
microscope. The proposed animal model
can observe the mobility and life cycle of
macrophage, thus facilitating embryo
development research. The proposed
model is highly promising for use in
related bio-medicine fields.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a novel animal model
that can be observed through macrophage
in vivo experiments. PYK2 gene is cloned
from zebrafish embryos. PYK2
Morpholino (anti-sense RNA) is then
produced from PYK2 gene. Next, the
PYK2 gene of macrophage in zebrafish is
deleted via PYK2. Additionally,
Morpholino and macrophage motility is
examined using a microscope. The
proposed animal model can observe the
mobility and life cycle of macrophage,
thus facilitating embryo development
research. The proposed model is highly
promising for use in related bio-medicine
fields.
34. (Biotechnology)
Syphilis isAs a disease commonly spread
through sexual transmissionan easy infects
disease, it cause by young boys and girls’
sex drive. , syphilis also occurs through
Beside the reason of sex contagion, the
blood transfusions 、, exchange of body
fluid or through thea mother’s placenta to
the fetalus, these also lead to the syphilis
happened, Notably, Ttreponema pallidum
is the most common causative agent of
syphilis.
TheA typical diagnosis methods, the first
method is doing involves performing the
initial screening 〝nontreponemal tests〞,
like, e.g., VDRL (Vvenereal Ddisease
Rresearch Llaboratory (VDRL) ) and
RPR(Rrapid Pplasma Rreagin (RPR) tests.
As the basic syphyilis screen order, VDRL
and RPR tests are the basic syphilis screen
order. These two methods used a patient’s
serum tofor testing. In general, if A
situation in which a patient havse the
monocyte infection or malaria infection, it
can often interference with the test results,
not only yields a probability of to bring
the false positive chance (aboutof around
20%), butit also to causes a high degree of
the non-specificity highly. Another typical
diagnosisSecond method involves
performingdo the a confirmation test,
commonly referred to as 〝 treponemal
tests 〞 , which includelike
TPHA ( TTreponema pallidum
haemagglutination n(TPHA) ) and FTA-
ABS(Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody
Absorption (FTA-ABS). However, tThese
methodshandle are too expensiveded and
inefficientwaste time.
The researchConventional diagnostic
methods of traditions records, it easily
miss a patient’s latent phase, and have a
poor make diagnosis accuracy of effect is
not good. And it only can reacharound
80% during examinatione.
The inability to resolve the limitations of
conventional methods, i.e., the high non-
specificity, expensiveness and inefficiency
of If the problem of tradition methods :
VDRL 、RPR 、TPHA and FTA-ABS,
high non-specific 、 expended and waste
time not to solve. will require not only
more personnel The laboratory examine
will need more and more people to
diagnoseappraisal a disease during
laboratory examination., but also a higher
cost per Patient also need to spend more
money to pay examineation used. A
disease in The patients in the who have
latent phase, it does not easy to be is
difficult to detect. A and the disease will
likely toalways s spread.
Work objective:
Based on the above, we should develop a
syphilis diagnostic kit, which can directly
detect in only one step the anti-treponema
specific antibodies in thea patient’s serum
or plasma bind binding to the antigen. The
method just needs one step to detect.
Method:
To do so, the serum samples of syphilis
patients can be analyzed. TheAn
experiment involving the syphilis
diagnostic kit can then be performed
with the Treponema pallidum antigen,
TpN 15 、 TpN17 and TpN 47. To
utilizedNext, the gene recombinant
method can be adopted to make
theproduce treponemal antigens (TpN15-
TpN17-TpN47 fusion protein).
AdditionallyNext, the fusion protein can
be used to world ofachieve protein
expression in the E.coli expression
system. MoreoverAdditionally, the
recombinant technology can set up thea
syphilis recombinant system can be
established using recombinant technology.
Anticipate results:
As anticipated, the TpN 15 、analysis
results can indicate that TpN17 and TpN
47 to form the a fusion protein can be
formed using TpN 15、TpN17 and TpN
47. That protein can then be. It can be
used by the gene recombinant technology
to reachachieve procreation on a large
scale. When the pProduct procreation on a
large scale, hope can hopefully elevate the
sensitiveity of detecting syphilis disease to
within an accuracy of can reach 100﹪.
Contribution to field:
Results in this study demonstrate that;
With a high degree of accuracy and
specificity, develop of athe syphilis
diagnostic kit developed herein can be
applied to use in establish three of the
genetic engineering 、 , protein
construction and examine reagent key
technology. The syphilis diagnostic kit
also has high validity and high specific. In
the futureMoreover, the diagnostic kit is
highly promising for commercialization if
the reagent can be developed successfully
open up and develop, the market
necessarily have powerful
competitiveness. The significant can to cut
down, thus reducing the diagnostisc time,
and to raise the while increasing its
diagnosis accuracy significantlyte.
Abstract (full paper)
As a disease commonly spread through
sexual transmission, syphilis also occurs
through blood transfusions, exchange of
body fluid or through a mother’s placenta
to the fetus. Both expensive and
inefficient, conventional diagnostic
methods easily miss a patient’s latent
phase and have a poor diagnosis accuracy
of only around 80% during examination.
Therefore, this work develops a syphilis
diagnostic kit, which can detect in only
one step the anti-treponema specific
antibodies in a patient’s serum or plasma
binding to the antigen. The serum samples
of syphilis patients are analyzed. An
experiment involving the syphilis
diagnostic kit is then performed with the
Treponema pallidum antigen, TpN
15、TpN17 and TpN 47. Next, the gene
recombinant method is adopted to produce
treponemal antigens (TpN15-TpN17-
TpN47 fusion protein). Additionally, the
fusion protein is used to achieve protein
expression in the E.coli expression
system. Moreover, a syphilis recombinant
system is established using recombinant
technology. Analysis results can indicate
that a fusion protein can be formed using
TpN 15 、 TpN17 and TpN 47. That
protein can then be used by gene
recombinant technology to achieve
procreation on a large scale. Product
procreation on a large scale can hopefully
elevate the sensitivity of detecting syphilis
disease to within an accuracy of 100.
With a high degree of accuracy and
specificity, the syphilis diagnostic kit
developed herein can be applied to use in
genetic engineering, protein construction
and reagent key technology. Moreover,
the diagnostic kit is highly promising for
commercialization if the reagent can be
developed successfully, thus reducing the
diagnostic time while increasing its
accuracy significantly.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work develops a syphilis diagnostic
kit, which can detect in only one step the
anti-treponema specific antibodies in a
patient’s serum or plasma binding to the
antigen. The serum samples of syphilis
patients are analyzed. An experiment
involving the syphilis diagnostic kit is
then performed with the Treponema
pallidum antigen, TpN 15 、TpN17 and
TpN 47. Next, the gene recombinant
method is adopted to produce treponemal
antigens (TpN15-TpN17-TpN47 fusion
protein). Additionally, the fusion protein is
used to achieve protein expression in the
E.coli expression system. Moreover, a
syphilis recombinant system is established
using recombinant technology. Analysis
results can indicate that a fusion protein
can be formed using TpN 15、TpN17 and
TpN 47. That protein can then be used by
gene recombinant technology to achieve
procreation on a large scale. Product
procreation on a large scale can hopefully
elevate the sensitivity of detecting syphilis
disease to within an accuracy of 100.
With a high degree of accuracy and
specificity, the syphilis diagnostic kit
developed herein can be applied to use in
genetic engineering, protein construction
and reagent key technology. Moreover,
the diagnostic kit is highly promising for
commercialization if the reagent can be
developed successfully, thus reducing the
diagnostic time while increasing its
accuracy significantly.
35. Biotechnology
The cCellular signal transduction to
includes is very wide, presently already to
have many the cell signal(NOTE: OR
omit ‘cell signal’ since you have already
mentioned it in the first part of the
sentence.) pathways, an area having
received considerable a quilted cover to
research interest. The cell endoplasmic
reticulum ( ER ) Ca
2+
pool is
cellattempts to maintainkeep cellular
calcium an ion concentration balance of
cellular calcium, which is an the very
extremely important organelle, and .
aAmong the calcium, an ion is cellular ER
to proceed with the protein translation、,
protein translocation、, the folding、 and
cellular ER translation protein to confirm
embellish、protein to exist each organelle
to convey , the ER Ca
2+
pool to plays the
role of special important a significant role
. However, these functions should mainly
cause the implementation of to many
resident ER Ca
2+
–binding
proteins.proteins to implement, already to
have many evidence to be clear about to
point outThe existence of many Ca
2+
-
binding proteins in the ER, is widely
documented. Additionally, although these
protein is passive toin giveproducing ER
inside the high concentration calcium to
combine, these proteinsbut also to point
out to have anmore important the
physiologyical function.. Andditionally,
the protein kinase C is the cell to accepts
some physiologyical functions after to
stimulateion . The pProtein kinase C to
belongs to serine-threonine kinase about
the message transduction. Appropriate t
The cell-related quilted cover hormone or
growth factor is used to stimulate proceed
to the next step tofor activation of
phospholipase C, thus to produceing DAG
, last to activation. Finally, the protein
kinase C is activated.
研究問題:
ButHowever, the PKC in addition to
having many iisoforms is very many , and
the PKC to approve tocan differentiate
between the conventional PKCs (
α
,
β
1,
β
2, and
γ
), novel PKCs (
δ
,
ε
,ηandθ),
atypical PKCs (ζandλ/ι) .
PreviousBefore to research focused onto
point out ER and how to regulate the
calcium concentration of the regulation
intracellular pathway. calcium
concentration about, t. Therefore, these
PKC isoforms activateion to haveto some
degree correlation.
ButHowever, PKC cannot to clearly and
identifydefinite to point out the different
types of cell lines tothat inhibitor ER Ca
2+
sequestering activity affect .
And PKC has also not been not
haveinvestigated with respect to the to
research intracellular Ca
2+
pool after to
evacuate whether effect the cell to exist
intracellular PKC various isoform
phenotype to some extent different .
問題量化:
However, once upon a time to research is
not as regards ER Ca
2+
pool has not been
investigated with respectgard to the PKC
isoforms in the cell signal transduction ,
the functions of PKC and and the DNA
transcription or translation as well asnd
various intracellular pathwaysthe
physiology detailed to study and to
explain .
Conventionsal research cell culture
methods can not thoroughly unable 100%
to understand the cellular pathway of
PKC, so can not real to know making the
cellular apoptosis mechanism unclear as
well.
問題的中心:
The inability toIf these question not have
complete to settle, thoroughly understand
it will can as regards the research
personnel to intracellular the protein
kinase C and the cell singnal pathway to
cause great effect, will negatively impact
the physiological characteristics of PKC
with respect to cellular life and death.
proceed to the next step to effect the cell
live and death the physiology
characteristic .
Work objective:
Based on the above, we should attempt to
understand what role macrophage
secretion cytokine to plays the role in the
human immune system.
Method:
To do so, NO can be examineding, as
found between the different macrophage
cells, (RAW 264.7 cell and J774 cell).
Next, we can give iAn identical
stimulateor and inhibitor can then be
inserted into RAW 264.7 and J774 murine
macrophage cells. , allowing Finally, we
can observe RAW264.7 and J774 cells not
only to produce the cytokine andbut also
to can observe the cell induce apoptosis
physiology.. To do so, we can survey
Moreover, NO content and cell apoptosis
circumstancescan be examined. Next, we
can use different glucose concentration
medium. FinallyFurthermore, RAW 264.7
and J774 cells tocan be treated with the
LPS in different glucose concentration
mediaum.
Anticipate results:
As anticipated, analysis results can
indicate that the NO and other cytokines
can be find more locate than different
many signal pathways of the
macrophagecell immune message.
Additionally, As anticipated, the NO
content and protein kinase C of cellular
signal regulation can find outidentify the
RAW 264.7 or J774 cell morphology in
the different glucose concentration
mediaum.
Contribution to field:
Results in this study demonstrate that, in
addition to possibly the NO maybe
induceing the cell apoptosis pathway,
andNO can promote the human immune
system to reachachieve an appropriate
immune bbalance between
cytokines.condition.
Abstract (full paper) (NOTE: Make sure
that your background belongs to your
objective.)
In addition to having many isoforms, PKC
can differentiate between conventional
PKCs (a, b1, b2, and g), novel PKCs (d,
e,ηandθ), atypical PKCs (ζandλ/ι) .
However, incapable of identifying clearly
the different types of cell lines that inhibit
ER Ca
2+

sequestering activity

,

PKC has


not been investigated with respect to the
intracellular Ca
2+

pool.





Therefore, this


study attempts to understand what role
macrophage secretion cytokine plays in
the human immune system. NO is
examined, as found between different
macrophage cells, RAW 264.7 and J774.
An identical stimulator and inhibitor is
then inserted into RAW 264.7 and J774
murine macrophage cells, allowing
RAW264.7 and J774 cells not only to
produce the cytokine but also to induce
apoptosis physiology. Moreover, NO
content and cell apoptosis are examined.
Furthermore, RAW 264.7 and J774 cells
are treated with the LPS in different
glucose concentration media. Analysis
results indicate that NO and other
cytokines can locate many signal
pathways of the macrophage.
Additionally, the NO content and protein
kinase C of cellular signal regulation can
identify the RAW 264.7 or J774 cell
morphology in different glucose
concentration media. Results in this study
demonstrate that, in addition to possibly
inducing the cell apoptosis pathway, NO
can promote the human immune system to
achieve an appropriate balance between
cytokines.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study attempts to understand what
role macrophage secretion cytokine plays
in the human immune system. NO is
examined, as found between different
macrophage cells, RAW 264.7 and J774.
An identical stimulator and inhibitor is
then inserted into RAW 264.7 and J774
murine macrophage cells, allowing
RAW264.7 and J774 cells not only to
produce the cytokine but also to induce
apoptosis physiology. Moreover, NO
content and cell apoptosis are examined.
Furthermore, RAW 264.7 and J774 cells
are treated with the LPS in different
glucose concentration media. Analysis
results indicate that NO and other
cytokines can locate many signal
pathways of the macrophage.
Additionally, the NO content and protein
kinase C of cellular signal regulation can
identify the RAW 264.7 or J774 cell
morphology in different glucose
concentration media. Results in this study
demonstrate that, in addition to possibly
inducing the cell apoptosis pathway, NO
can promote the human immune system to
achieve an appropriate balance between
cytokines.
36. (Biotechnology)
Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative
bacterial pathogen, can causes type B
gastritis, a mucosa-associated lymphoid
tissue lymphoma in humans.
While Helicobacter pylori haves(NOTE:
Sometimes you use the singular verb for
Helicobacter pylori, but other times you
use the plural verb. Be consistent in your
usage.) a natural transformation ability, in
present study so think to understand
unknoexactly wn how the functional gene
HP1089 correlateds with natural
transformation competence in
Helicobacter pylori remains unknown.
Having received considerable attention in
the Medical Department of National
Taiwan University Hospital, Gene
HP1089 in Helicobacter pylori (tuch :
Misspelling?) strain ( National Taiwan
University Hospital of the medical
department island) tois concerned with
complementing(NOTE: OR can you
directly say ‘complements the DNA
sequence’ OR ‘attempts to complement
the DNA sequence’? Check your intended
meaning.) the DNA sequence, function
and mechanism of natural transformation
(still to nothing at all : I have no idea
what you mean by ‘still to nothing at all’
in the context of this sentence.).
Helicobacter pylori is As one of the most
successful microorganism pathogens,
Helicobacter pylori could could
potentially infect approximatelyabout 50%
of the worldall humans worldwide.
Because twelve years science’s
dDiscovered over a decade ago,
Helicobacter pylori is associated with
peptic ulceration, so thatallowing
physiciansdoctors to use antibiotics tofor
treatment. However, buas one of the most
diverse bacteria,t Helicobacter pylori is
one of the most diverse bacteria and this is
has probably developed into an adaptation
of Helicobacter pylori that can reside in
an individual host duringfor several years
and even decades ofas an infection, after
some years Helicobacter pylori eventually
leading to mortality among infected
persons cause dead. (NOTE: Your
original sentence is six lines and should be
broken up into at least two sentences. I
have done so with the second sentence
beginning with “However,” Although I
have made this confusing sentence
grammatically correct, make sure that this
is your intended meaning.)
The inability to understand what role gene
HP1089 plays role in the natural
transformation of Helicobacter pylori
natural transformation and would make it
impossible not only to resolve the above
problem, but also try to development
biotechnological methods solve above
questionapplications(NOTE: For what
areas could these biotechnological
applications be for?)
Based on the above, we should to
analyze what role gene HP1089 of
function and gene HP1089 plays a role in
the natural transformation competence of
Helicobacter pylori natural transformation
competence.
To do so, amplification of DNA size can
be amplified to detectable levels using can
be Ppolymerase Cchain Rreaction (PCR).
In tThe case foreign gene HP1089 can
then be inserted into a cell usingcan be
electroporation.
Next, Wwhether to understand
geneHP1089 is related to the natural
transformation competence of
Helicobacter pylori natural transformation
competence can be determined using the
gene knockout method.
Additionally, Wwhether to realize to gene
HP1089 structure and others bacteria
homologyies have a similar identity and
similarity composition can be computer
analysesdetermined useusing a
bioinformatics database search websites:of
NCBI, and TIGR websites.
This database search can ultimately enable
us to determineIn order to know the
frequency of DNA transformation by
natural transformation and capability of
Helicobacter pylori gene HP1089 mutant.
As anticipated analysiszed the results can
to demonstrateindicate that gene HP1089,
a novel gene essential for the natural
transformation of Helicobacter pylori and
gene HP1089’s function, more significant
to understand gene HP1089 plays a
significanto role in Helicobacter pylori.
Result in this study can identification of
gResults of this study can be used to
identify those genes associated with
natural transformation competence in
Helicobacter pylori..
Because antibiotics resistance rates range
from less than 10% to more than 80% in
Helicobacter pylori strains has emerged
worldwide recently, on purpose solve the
question must be try to discover
association between natural competence
and antibiotics resistance.
Further Helicobacter pylori natural
transformation competence can be applied
inserted into foreignicother gene
applications oninvolving recombinant
DNA and biotechnology.
Abstract (full paper)
Discovered over a decade ago,
Helicobacter pylori is associated with
peptic ulceration, allowing physicians to
use antibiotics for treatment. However, as
one of the most diverse bacteria,
Helicobacter pylori has probably
developed into an adaptation that can
reside in an individual host for several
years and even decades as an infection,
eventually leading to mortality among
infected persons. Therefore, this study
analyzes what role HP1089 plays in the
natural transformation competence of
Helicobacter pylori. DNA size is
amplified to detectable levels using
polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The
foreign gene HP1089 is then inserted into
a cell using electroporation. Next,
whether eneHP1089 is related to the
natural transformation competence of
Helicobacter pylori is determined using
the gene knockout method. Additionally,
whether gene HP1089 and other bacteria
homologies have a similar composition is
determined using a bioinformatics
database search of NCBI and TIGR
websites. This database search can
ultimately enable us to determine the
frequency of DNA transformation by
natural transformation and capability of
Helicobacter pylori gene HP1089 mutant.
Analysis results indicate that gene
HP1089, a gene essential for the natural
transformation of Helicobacter pylori and
gene HP1089’s function, plays a
significant role in Helicobacter pylori.
Results of this study can be used to
identify those genes associated with
natural transformation competence in
Helicobacter pylori.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study analyzes what role HP1089
plays in the natural transformation
competence of Helicobacter pylori. DNA
size is amplified to detectable levels using
polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The
foreign gene HP1089 is then inserted into
a cell using electroporation. Next,
whether eneHP1089 is related to the
natural transformation competence of
Helicobacter pylori is determined using
the gene knockout method. Additionally,
whether gene HP1089 and other bacteria
homologies have a similar composition is
determined using a bioinformatics
database search of NCBI and TIGR
websites. This database search can
ultimately enable us to determine the
frequency of DNA transformation by
natural transformation and capability of
Helicobacter pylori gene HP1089 mutant.
Analysis results indicate that gene
HP1089, a gene essential for the natural
transformation of Helicobacter pylori and
gene HP1089’s function, plays a
significant role in Helicobacter pylori.
Results of this study can be used to
identify those genes associated with
natural transformation competence in
Helicobacter pylori.
37. (Biotechnology)
Setting of work proposal:
Consumers demand The present day,
people used shampoos withto demand the
natural ingredients and without any
harmful side effectsnot injury.
Manufacturers normally Usually factory
selects material for natural plant additives
and . However, factory canattempt to
reduce the chemical composition toof such
additives. Theseis combination often
means a commodities for this reason to
obtain more relatively high retail price of
shampoos.
Work problem:
Although Ttraditional herbsal of from
South Africa are frequently used in
shampoo, moreover effect very excellent,
but scientific literature inthe use of China
herbsal in shampoo has received little
attention varies few. Chinaese herbsal to
often depend on the use of China is fine
trauma medicines. Most China herbal
isAlthough notn- toxicity and mild.,
Chinese herbs are seldom used in
However, non-often used in commodities
such as shampoo.
Quantitative specification of problem:
While Ttraditional South African herbsal
of South Africa to base on documents
aboutcan restrain the microorganism effect
with a success rate of to have 90 %
upwards. We conjecture, Chinesea herbsal
are believed to have the same
effectsuccess rate to haveof 99 %
upwards. This makes erefore used
Chinaese herbsal highly promising for to
proceeding with attempts to restrain
microorganisms and achieve safely
testing., implying Therefore safe
production safe and substantial high price
product revenues. However, WHAT IS
THE PROBLEM THAT PREVENTS
FROM DEVELOPING CHINESE
HERBS FOR SHAMPOO OR OTHER
COMMODITIES? YOU HAVE NOT
CLEARLY STATE THE PROBLEM
HERE.)
Importance of problem:
(NOTE: This is not the importance of the
problem. This is what you want to do, i.e.,
your objective. You need to explain what
is the importance of the inability to
develop Chinese herbs for shampoos or
commodities (from both a researcher’s
perspective and
from a practical perspective.)We research
station to emphasize for China herbal
source material select and among effective
composition extraction. we try to expand
have restrain microorganism effect by
products.
Based on the above, the we should
develop a novel formulation can
isinvolving the use of applied Chinese
herbal medicine that in sweeping the
thing, replacesing thate formulation of the
widely usedpresent South African herbal
medicine, borrowing to promote to sweep
the power and safeties.
Used method
To do so, Chinese herbal medicine can be
analyzed to suppress gram (-) bacteria.
Cell culturing method can then be used to
understand why Chinese herbal medicine
does not have negative side effects. Next,
GC and HPLC methods can be used to
understand the adaptability of
incorporating compounds of Chinese
medicine in shampoo.
how know that the Chinese herb medicine
has the germ result of suppress, for using
the method of suppressing the germ to
understand.How know that it can not harm
the body and security of, experiment for
the sake of the usage animal and the
method that cell develop.How know his
smell why, know for the sake of the usage
HPLC and method of GC.
Anticipated results
As anticipated, Hope analytical result,the
proposed formulation can enableprove
these five kinds of in theChinese herbal
medicine canto achievehave the more
good result a better outcome than South
African herbal medicine in terms of
suppressing gram (-) bacteria..And have
the good smell and safe.
Contribution to field
In addition to providing a valuable
reference for Chinese herbal medicine
research, the proposed formulation
Results, the this study can provide local
healthcare product manufacturers with a
viable alternative to developing
shampoos. the industry field a kind of
lately valid formulation to promote the
economic effect.Can also provide this
kind of Chinese herbal medicine of is
made use of sex.And also provide the
reference value of related Chinese herbal
medicine research.
Abstract (full paper)
Consumers demand shampoos with natural
ingredients and without any harmful side
effects. Although traditional herbs from
South Africa are frequently used in
shampoos, the use of China herbs in
shampoo has received little attention.
Therefore, this work presents a novel
formulation involving the use of Chinese
herbal medicine that replaces that of the
widely used South African herbal
medicine. Chinese herbal medicine is
analyzed to suppress gram (-) bacteria.
Cell culturing method is then used to
understand why Chinese herbal medicine
does not have negative side effects. Next,
GC and HPLC methods are used to
understand the adaptability of
incorporating compounds of Chinese
medicine in shampoo. The proposed
formulation can enable the five kinds of
Chinese herbal medicine to achieve a
better outcome than South African herbal
medicine in terms of suppressing gram (-)
bacteria. In addition to providing a
valuable reference for Chinese herbal
medicine research, the proposed
formulation can provide local healthcare
product manufacturers with a viable
alternative to developing shampoos.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a novel formulation
involving the use of Chinese herbal
medicine that replaces that of the widely
used South African herbal medicine.
Chinese herbal medicine is analyzed to
suppress gram (-) bacteria. Cell culturing
method is then used to understand why
Chinese herbal medicine does not have
negative side effects. Next, GC and HPLC
methods are used to understand the
adaptability of incorporating compounds
of Chinese medicine in shampoo. The
proposed formulation can enable the five
kinds of Chinese herbal medicine to
achieve a better outcome than South
African herbal medicine in terms of
suppressing gram (-) bacteria. In addition
to providing a valuable reference for
Chinese herbal medicine research, the
proposed formulation can provide local
healthcare product manufacturers with a
viable alternative to developing
shampoos.
38. (Biotechnology)
1. Setting of work proposal
As an island, The ocean is in all directions
of Taiwan has abundant seafood available
for consumption.and have plentiful
aquatic products. Of particular concern is
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is an epidemic
pathogen commonly found in the seafood.
This pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus
can cause sitotoxism, a disease with an
incidence rate in Taiwan that is the highest
worldwide(NOTE: ‘worldwide’ OR
‘islandwide’?)and that to occur rate is
number one in the Taiwan. Often a result
of insufficiently cooked seafood,
sitotoxism is Eespecially prevalent from in
the May to August to occur, when a large
amount of seafood is consumed
islandwidebecause our compatriots are
like to eat aquatic products. If seafood is
cooking uncompleted will be cause
sitotoxism..
2. Work problem
As Tthe current standardconventional
means of method for definitive
identifyingication of Vibrio
parahaemolyticus requires serotyping.
This method, serotyping is expensive,
tedious, and time- consuming. There is
applied different Various molecular
subtyping techniquesmethods are also
applied to identify an appropriate method
forof differentiating Vibrio
parahaemolyticus isolates from other
serotypes. Thus However, whether
reasoned that molecular subtyping
methods might provide a more rapid and
sensitive alternatives for differentiating
among Vibrio parahaemolyticu strains is
unknown.
3. Quantitative specification of problem
For instance, serotyping requires Because
the traditions method is need seven days
tobefore supplying reliable results and, in
doing so, is relatively did not have
inefficientcy., t Thus nenecessitating the
need for a viable alternativeed molecular
methods to improve the traditions
methods.
4. Importance of problem
The inability to develop a more reliable
and efficient means of identifying Vibrio
parahaemolyticus If unsolve this
problems, there will lead to an
increasingly higher incidence rate of can
not to prevent our compatriots cause
sitotoxism disease. in Taiwan. Because
this pathogen cause sitotoxism disease
cause often in Asia eastern country.
(NOTE: I omitted this final sentence
because it is redundant of what you have
already stated.)
Based on the above, we should develop a
rapid molecular identificationthe method
of method quick identify, using the high
specific gene of tdh gene in bacteria
chromosome to do a major detect iona
major target.
To do so, tdh gene can be detected by
polymerase chain reaction (PCR),.
whether to know the relation ofExactly
how V. parahaemolyticus and antibiotics
are related can be determined useusing a
drug sensitivity test. Using this same test,
Even can understand whether bacteria
have the phenomenon ofare drug resistant
or drug sensitive can be determined as
well. Additionally, to know the V.
parahaemolyticus epidemic phenomenon
in in the surrounding environment
environment bycan be more thoroughly
understood using pulsed field gel
electrophoresis.
As anticipated, the proposed moleculer
methodology molecular identification
method can provide the result in few hours
to detection the presence of V.
parahaemolyticus in the environment in
only a few hours. Additionally, tThe
pulsed field gel electrophoresis results can
to knowprovide further insight into the
moleculear epidemic phenomenon in the
surrounding environment.
The proposed methododel can also
provide fastrapid and accurate moleculear
biology results tofor detected V.
parahaemolyticus in the environment.
Result in this study can provide V.
parahaemolyticus in environment.
Abstract (full paper)
As an island, Taiwan has abundant
seafood available for consumption. Of
particular concern is Vibrio
parahaemolyticus, an epidemic pathogen
commonly found in seafood. As the
conventional means of identifying Vibrio
parahaemolyticus, serotyping is
expensive, tedious, and time consuming.
Various molecular subtyping methods are
also applied to identify an appropriate
method of differentiating Vibrio
parahaemolyticus isolates from other
serotypes. However, whether molecular
subtyping methods provide a more rapid
and sensitive alternative for differentiating
among Vibrio parahaemolyticu strains is
unknown. Therefore, this work presents a
rapid molecular identification method
using the high specific gene of tdh gene in
bacteria chromosome to detect a major
target. tdh gene is detected by polymerase
chain reaction (PCR). Exactly how V.
parahaemolyticus and antibiotics are
related is then determined using a drug
sensitivity test. Using this same test,
whether bacteria are drug resistant or drug
sensitive is determined as well.
Additionally, the V. parahaemolyticus
epidemic phenomenon in the surrounding
environment is more thoroughly
understood using pulsed field gel
electrophoresis. The proposed molecular
identification method can detect the
presence of V. parahaemolyticus in the
environment in only a few hours.
Additionally, the pulsed field gel
electrophoresis results can provide further
insight into the molecular epidemic
phenomenon in the surrounding
environment. The proposed method can
also provide rapid and accurate molecular
biology results to detect V.
parahaemolyticus in the environment.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a rapid molecular
identification method using the high
specific gene of tdh gene in bacteria
chromosome to detect a major target. tdh
gene is detected by polymerase chain
reaction (PCR). Exactly how V.
parahaemolyticus and antibiotics are
related is then determined using a drug
sensitivity test. Using this same test,
whether bacteria are drug resistant or drug
sensitive is determined as well.
Additionally, the V. parahaemolyticus
epidemic phenomenon in the surrounding
environment is more thoroughly
understood using pulsed field gel
electrophoresis. The proposed molecular
identification method can detect the
presence of V. parahaemolyticus in the
environment in only a few hours.
Additionally, the pulsed field gel
electrophoresis results can provide further
insight into the molecular epidemic
phenomenon in the surrounding
environment. The proposed method can
also provide rapid and accurate molecular
biology results to detect V.
parahaemolyticus in the environment.
39. (Biotechnology)
Setting of work proposal
Because of the ease of manipulation and
growth of unicellular yeast cells with
eukaryotic post-translational processing
and modifications, yYeast expression
systems are widely usedextensively
adopted in producingtions of proteins for
pharmaceutical or technical applications
owing to the ease of manipulation and
growth of unicellular yeast cells with
eukaryotic post-translational processing
and modifications.
2. Work problem
While, the application ofHowever, among
the several limitations of Saccharomyces
cerevisiae as a host for production has
shown a number of limitations in the
protein production system, such as include
low production of secreted proteins and
decreased biomass yield affected by
ethanol. Although The production systems
as non-Saccharomyces yeasts have been
studied, including e.g., Pichia
pastoris 、 Hansenula
polymorpha 、 Kluyveromyces
lactis 、 Schizosaccharomyces
pombe 、 Schwanniomyces
accidentalis、and Yarrowia lipolytica, but
the security of the greater part inmajority
of these species is suspicionunclear.
3. Quantitative specification of problem
For instance, Tthe dedevelopedveloped
production systems can notwere incapable
to reach thea yield thatof 1 g/L,
consubsequently must expend
muchraising production prime costs tofor
purification. Among the yeasts, only K.
lactis 、 Y. lipolytica are classified as
GRAS by the American Food and Drug
Administration (United States) in the
developed production systems.
Additionally, K. lactis produces low
amounts of secreted proteins, andwhile Y.
lipolytica can produce only a limited
number of proteins in high magnitude.
Consequently, the developed production
systems are severely limited with respect
to restriction for the actuality applications.
4. Importance of problem
The inability of If the developed
production systems unimprovedto resolve
the problems of theinvolving biomass
yield and the security, there will notmakes
it not only impossible to quantifyication of
analysis results at the science research
level, andbut also extremely difficulties
for practice application atto achieve
medicine and food science-related
applications field.
1. Work objective 工作目標
Based on the above, we should
develop a new protein production system
of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. To do so,
the uracil auxotrophic marker mutants
willcan be screened , followed by the and
development of a protein overproduction
strain to increase the efficiency of the
transformation system. The constructed
transformation system can thenwill be
expandedincreased for its secretion,
stability and efficiency.
2. Anticipated results 希望的結果
As anticipated, an integrative
plasmid containing the a DNA sequence
with athat high efficient promoter, signal
peptide, reporter gene and selection
marker canwill be constructed in order to
increase the efficiency and variety of ato
transformation system. And proceed theA
transformation experiment can then be
performed to firmly establish firmly the
efficiency of the transformation system.
With respect to itsExpect this integrative
plasmid capability, expression stability to
can be used as an insert into the yeast
chromosomal DNA.
3. Contribution to field 領域的貢獻
The protein production system is not
only promising Results on this study can
provide that not only provides
economically potential , but also regards
the protein application at the medicine and
food science to develop a new protein
production and secretion system. As
Iillustrated with an example, the protein
production can produce the remedy aof
protein that the medical treatment can use,
or be used as the additives appliance on
an additive in the food science sectorand
technology.
Abstract (journal paper)
Yeast expression systems are extensively
adopted in producing proteins for
pharmaceutical or technical applications
owing to the ease of manipulation and
growth of unicellular yeast cells with
eukaryotic post-translational processing
and modifications. However, among the
several limitations of Saccharomyces
cerevisiae as a host in the protein
production system include low production
of secreted proteins and decreased
biomass yield affected by ethanol.
Additionally, although production
systems as non-Saccharomyces yeasts
have been studied, e.g., Pichia
pastoris 、 Hansenula
polymorpha 、 Kluyveromyces
lactis 、 Schizosaccharomyces
pombe 、 Schwanniomyces
accidentalis、and Yarrowia lipolytica, the
security of the greater majority of these
species is unclear. Therefore, this work
develops a novel protein production
system of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera.
The uracil auxotrophic marker mutants are
screened, followed by the development of
a protein overproduction strain to increase
the efficiency of the transformation
system. The constructed transformation
system is then expanded for its secretion,
stability and efficiency. An integrative
plasmid containing a DNA sequence with
a high efficient promoter, signal peptide,
reporter gene and selection marker can be
constructed to increase the efficiency and
variety of a transformation system. A
transformation experiment can then be
performed to firmly establish the
efficiency of the transformation system.
With respect to its integrative plasmid
capability, expression stability can be used
as an insert into the yeast chromosomal
DNA. The protein production system is
not only promising economically, but also
regards the protein application at the
medicine and food science to develop a
new protein production and secretion
system. As illustrated with an example,
the protein production can remedy a
protein so that the medical treatment can
be used as an additive in the food science
sector.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work develops a novel protein
production system of Saccharomycopsis
fibuligera. The uracil auxotrophic marker
mutants are screened, followed by the
development of a protein overproduction
strain to increase the efficiency of the
transformation system. The constructed
transformation system is then expanded
for its secretion, stability and efficiency.
An integrative plasmid containing a DNA
sequence with a high efficient promoter,
signal peptide, reporter gene and selection
marker can be constructed to increase the
efficiency and variety of a transformation
system. A transformation experiment can
then be performed to firmly establish the
efficiency of the transformation system.
Expect for this integrative plasmid
capability, expression stability can be used
as an insert into the yeast chromosomal
DNA. The protein production system is
not only promising economically, but also
regards the protein application at the
medicine and food science to develop a
new protein production and secretion
system. As illustrated with an example,
the protein production can remedy a
protein to the extent that medical
treatment can be used as an additive in
the food science sector.
40. (Nuclear Science – Radiotechnology)
Setting of work proposal: While Ccancer
isranks as the tenth leading cause of
mortality. For this reason, the medical
field strives to detect cancer in its early
stages andalong with appropriate therapy
is the goal of the medical field. Using
radioactive rays is an effective means of
one of the ways to helping physicans to
doctors’ diagnose whether aif the tumor
exists., and And it is also useding in
therapy tumor patients therapy.
Nevertheless, we can’t neglect the harm
byHowever, radiation poses a potential
harm. Hence, , necessitating the
importance of controlling the dosage
levelsis a pivotal role when d during
diagnostic radiology and therapy.
Work problem: InThe cconventional
radiological active therapy, eutic cobalt-60
procedure and the traditional linear
accelerator canouldn’t not adequately
control the let radiation beam limit in
awith respect to the tumor sizevolume
range. The shows thatSubsequently, when
using radiation to eradicate abnormal
cells, there may be some normal cells may
suffer from radiation. By the rate rising of
radiology, the normal tissue will absorb
more and more radioactive dosage.
Therefore, physicians and radiologists
heavily emphasize the need to So how to
adequately control the dosage forom a
linear accelerator become the important
point to the medical physics and treatment
team.. Among the numerousThere are
many methods available to estimate
radiation dosage. And using,
Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) is
the most convenient and precise
onemethod at the present day. Upon the
aAccurate measurements obtained from of
TLD, it’s can be adopteding to test and
verify thewhether if the irradiated area
made by a linear accelerator is even or
not. And by usingAdditionally, using TLD
to estimate radiation dosage can also put
to proofverify the effectiveness of a the
therapyeutic planstrategy.
Quantitative specification of problem:
According to the ICRP suggest, the
radiology technology ation related
professionals people should not be
exposed to aaccept radiation level
exceeding more than 5rem per year of
effective dose of whole bodyannually.
Andditionally, to the general public, they
suggestcan not to accept levels surpassing
more than 0.5rem annuallyper year. There
might be; otherwise dire critical
consequences such as when over the
suggested value, such as tirednessfatigue,
nausea, or lead to death.mortality may
occur. The data display the influence of
radiation. So to accurate estimate and
verity instrumentation is a needed and
vital topic for study.
Importance of problem: By using TLD to
test and verify the irradiate area made by
linear accelerator and the dosage can
ensure the quality of accelerator. And to
verify the medical treatment therapy plan
can more confirm the dosage and result of
the plan.
Work objective: Based on the above, we
should develop a TLD measurement
method that can compare the radiation
dose predicted by a therapeutic treatment
plan and actual dose measurements for
verification purposesgrasp the radiation
dose truly and the exposure area accuracy.
To do so, TLDs can be used to measure
the radiation dose. The mMeasurement
results obtainedf using TLDs and ion
chamber can then be compare to obtain an
accurately dosage. And using TLDs to test
and verify Next, the exposure uniformity
can be verified using TLDS, thus and
further confirms the effectiveness of the
therapeutic treatment plansplans.
Anticipated results: The proposedUsing the
TLDs measurement method, can reduce
percentage error of therapeutic treatment
plans by 5%. measure the radiation
dosage can be measure accurately.
According to the characteristic of TLDs,
the dosage can be measured respectively.
Separating put TLDs in different parts of
tissue, and measure the absorption dosage
of each TLDs. The exposure uniformity
can be verified by compare each TLDs’
absorption dosage. Hence, TLDs’
absorptionthe dose accuracy of TLDs can
be further verifiedproving if the treatment
plan is a detailed oneplan. Additionally,
Tthe dosage measure of TLDs can be
compared with the treatment plan. It can
approve, thus improving the conciseness
the exactness of treatment plans if the
TLDs’ measurement dosage of TLDs is
the same as that of with the treatment
plans. And if the result is different, we can
accord to the point to improve the
treatment plans.
Contribution to field: By applying the
method of TLDs measurement, we can
test and In addition to verifying the
reliability of therapeutic treatment plans.,
the proposed measurement method can
ensure that such To make the treatment
plans more adjustadhere to the standard of
quality assureance (QA) standards and
raise the accuratecy and safety level when
treating in therapy carcinogenesis
patients.
Abstract (full paper).
Using radioactive rays is an effective
means of helping physicans to diagnose
whether a tumor exists, and is also used in
tumor patient therapy. However,
conventional radiological therapeutic
cobalt-60 procedure and the traditional
linear accelerator can not adequately
control the radiation beam with respect to
the tumor size, possibly leading to
radiation among normal cells. Therefore,
this work presents a TLD measurement
method that can compare the radiation
dose predicted by a therapeutic treatment
plan and actual dose measurements for
verification purposes. TLDs are used to
measure the radiation dose. Measurement
results obtained using TLDs and ion
chamber are then compared to obtain an
accurate dosage. Next, the exposure
uniformity is verified using TLDS, thus
further confirming the effectiveness of the
therapeutic treatment plans. The proposed
TLD measurement method can reduce
percentage error of therapeutic treatment
plans by 5%. In addition to verifying the
reliability of therapeutic treatment plans,
the proposed measurement method can
ensure that such plans adhere to quality
assurance (QA) standards and raise the
accuracy and safety level when treating
carcinogenesis patients.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a TLD measurement
method that can compare the radiation
dose predicted by a therapeutic treatment
plan and actual dose measurements for
verification purposes. TLDs are used to
measure the radiation dose. Measurement
results obtained using TLDs and ion
chamber are then compared to obtain an
accurate dosage. Next, the exposure
uniformity is verified using TLDS, thus
further confirming the effectiveness of the
therapeutic treatment plans. The proposed
TLD measurement method can reduce
percentage error of therapeutic treatment
plans by 5%. In addition to verifying the
reliability of therapeutic treatment plans,
the proposed measurement method can
ensure that such plans adhere to quality
assurance (QA) standards and raise the
accuracy and safety level when treating
carcinogenesis patients.
41. (Business Management)
Operation process cComplexicate
administrative procedures within cause
Taiwan’s nNational hHealth iInsurance
(NHI) schemeorganization( 投保單位 )
apply have led to errors in insurance
claimse(加退保) error and time mucmuch
hinefficiency. For instance, adhering to all
national health insuranceNHI regulations ,
would require filling out more than about
thirty forms( 表格) to provide, depending
on various different business commercial
demands, (i.e.g., insureance claims 、,
salary readjustment 薪資調整、, and
modifyication of insurer’s/claimant’s
name 更改姓名、……). With subsequent
errors made over That national health
insurance organization( 投 保 單 位 )
confusione in filling out appropriate
forms, the NHI staff spends much time in
handling errors and then requesting
insurers and claimants to amend erroneous
information. what is correct to use often.
We must spend much time to differ error.
Then error form send by post to them,
they write correct and send reply. That
Despite the enormous amount of
administrative cost time and costs
involved in handling these errors, this
growing concern and its larger
implications have not been addressed in
previous literaturefees. There is no to
research the related subject, it involve vast
range. The inability to gradually reduce
the amount of hHuman resources involved
in handling insurer and claimant errors
and simplify administrative procedures as
well as NHI forms reduce gradually
,cann’t enhance Operation process and
simply form(簡化表格) will lead not only
to higher operational costs at NHI but
eventually higher insurance
premiums.cause human resource
insufficient , raise both sieds (insurance
organization 投保單位 and the national
health insurance 中央健康保險局) work
time and cost mail fees. That’s loss for
two parties. Therefore, a method must be
developed…
42. (Business Management)
Taiwan emergenThe feasibility of
applying cy medical kknowledge
management to Taiwan’s emergency
medical units has received increasing
attentionto set into action at nowadays.,
especially the role of Kknowledge assets
isn effectively managing the emergency
medical to have a foothold and to stride
the chiefmain resources of such units.
(NOTE: Although I have simplified these
two awkward sentences by combining
them into one, make sure that I did not
change your intended meaning.) The
competition predominance source is to
make up the organization Wwhether an
organization can effectiveaccumulate
knowledge skills efficiently to collect and
apply them effectively ication a
professional knowledgelargely determines
its competitive strength. That , an area
which knowledge management of is
emergency medical unitsknowledge
management need to find ou has not yet
been identifiedt. As well known,
Documents have to indicate the four items
in knowledge management comprises four
activities involving knowledge. That is
about: its circulation knowledge circulate,
creationknowledge create,
accumulationknowledge accumulate and
disseminationknowledge spread., which
only have an efficiency of It difficult to
knowledge circulate is can not get
information about 77%. It hart to
knowledge create is no body can overall
planning about, 66%. It heavy going to
knowledge accumulate is not have a
standard about, 49%. That last difficult to
spread is not have a great way about and
25% in emergency medical units,
respectively. As each Due to the different
organization has its own uniqueve a
features, characteristic. Eemergency
medical units must identify which need be
find the suit knowledge management
practices are the most appropriate. For this
reason emergency medical knowledge
management will can not do or loss in
transfer. Therefore, a method must be
developed ….(NOTE: Specify what kind
of method must be developed.)
43. (Business Management)
Purchasing on credit Enjoying before
payment is increasingly common in
Taiwan, as evidenced by the rise in
customer loans granted by local accepted
by customers, and Taiwan’s banks in
recent years. While advertising
aemphasize of the simplified procedure of
receiving and the rapidly granting loadns
quickly., banks extensively adopt a credit
rating system to determine Thus, the
customer loans increase rapidly in recent
years. The credit score card is extensively
used to judge whether or not to grant
suchthe customer loans. However, Wwhen
processing the amount of the loans
applications, the banking officeroperator
frequently scores thea customer’s credit
rating based on a manual un-objectively,
moreover, this conventional procedure
standard that lacks objectivity and
expends a considerable amountalso spends
a lot of human resourcespower. According
to the statistical data of the Ministry of
fFinance data onf December at 2003, the
逾放比 of the ssmall finance institutions
had a defaulted loan rate ofis 15.67 %,
i.e., which is much significantly higher
than the 5% , the average rate of 5%
levied by the international finance
institutions. Consequently, the rate of
overduedefaulted loans will increase more
rapidly if still using the conventional
credit rating score cardsystem is used to
processed the customer loan
applicationsgrant. Therefore, a credit risk
analysis processmethod (NOTE: Specify
what kind of method.) capable of finding
outidentifying the features of the customer
loans must be developed that adopted
thein which data (mining OR exploration)
technology and thean effective business
structure are adopted to decrease the
probability of overcome the wrong loans
grantsing high risk loans.
44. (Business Management)
Medical and healthcare expenditures
have accounted for an increasing share
of occupied household consumption in
Taiwan expenditure is increasingly in
recent years. In line with this trend, the
establishment of local pharmacies are
establishing more and more amounts.
h as risen . While Cconventional forecast
methods rely on large quantities of data to
predict the number of and demographics
involving forecast amount ofnew
pharmacies in coming several years,
should use quantities of data, but it is
difficult to collect accumulating such data
is extremely difficult. Based on
TheAccording to Department of Health
statistics, defined of narrow local
pharmacies in Taiwan increased amount
from 6,394 to 6,990 units during the
period since 1999 to 2002 in Taiwan. The
inability to accurately forecast the number
of and demographics involving local
pharmacies to be established amount
accurately, not onlymakes it nearly
impossible for managers to cannot analyze
market competition correct,precisely and
but also difficult to develop effective
strategyies. Therefore, an applicable
reliable forecasting method must be
useddeveloped to predict the number of
and demographics involving forecast local
pharmacies to be established amount in
coming several yearsthe near future.
45. Business Management
In light of The increasing popularity of
credit cards; in Taiwan has led to
therefore credit card market is
significantlystringent competition
domestically. Banks are seen issuing
credit cards and encourage prospective
customers to hold multiple credit cards
bythrough relaxinged approval and credit
reference procedures. However, such
practicesthe above behavior has have
significantly undermined the
creditworthiness of issuing banks, leading
to increased outstanding debts, and thusa
higher risk of defaulted loansbad debts
each year. With this respect, previous
studies have seldom measured
quantitatively to the varying degrees of
risk among exercise different life style to
discriminate the potentialtarget credit card
customers to identify both varying degrees
of risk and reasons for credit card debtof
credit card has seldom been measured in
previous studies. Addition to understand
why happen bad debts. To illustrate the
severity of this problem, Taiwan has an
average of 2.8 cardholders from the here
are presentlycurrently 6,321 credit cards
available domesticallyin Taiwan market
and everybody on average has 2.8 credit
cards. And, with credit cards’ bad debts
reaching 46%. Therefore, a quantitative
measurement method must be developed
to discriminate between varying degrees
of risk among the target customers
ofpotential credit card customers must be
developed that solve too much credit cards
and bad debts. Banks would promote
profits, and abates bad debts cost.(NOTE:
I have omitted the last sentence because
this belongs to your hypothesis, not your
problem statement.)
46. (Business Management)
Taiwan’s biotechnology industry has
rapidly evolved in recent years,
subsequently increasing marketing efforts
in the local cosmetics sector, which
originally focused only on healthcare
products. The especially in light of
increasing Center for Bioscience &
Technology ( 生物科技中心 ) coCosmetic
manufacturers are concerned not only with
s marketing practices, but also as with
well as concern over the potential
lowering of product and service quality
attitude offered. Center for Bioscience &
Technology (生物科技中心) must thus,
necessitating the adoption of emphasize
marketing practices to attract customers
through 4P method marketing.
Although receiving the role of 4P method
marketing in tradition way marketing has
received considerable attention in
conventional marketing, the 4P method
has seldom been explored with respect to
its effectiveness in its role in Center for
Bioscience & Technology cosmetics
marketing practices has seldom been
addressed. in order 4P method marketing
practices adopts business marketing to
enhance the competitiveness in theand
cosmetics market share of related
manufacturers. The failureinability of a
Center for Bioscience &
Technology cosmetics manufacturers to
adopt the 4P method in its marketing
practices will make it less competitive in
promoting its market share as well as
products and services. While bioscience
has increasingly emphasized the role of 4P
method in cosmetics marketing practices
in order to enhance Center for Bioscience
& Technology management, the failure to
adopt this approach will result in a loss of
competitiveness in the intensely
competitive cosmetics market sector
share. (NOTE: I have omitted this
sentence because it is redundant of what
you have already said.) Therefore, a 4P
method for cosmetics manufacturers must
be developed that
considers/incorporates… .
Must be, use bioscience cosmetics suitable
marketing of Center for Bioscience &
Technology cosmetics marketing in 4P
method practices.
47. (Business Management)
Taiwan’she extremely competitive
medical market sector has become
intensively competitive, largely spurred by
the increasing popularity of in Taiwan due
to the iInternet commerce was developed.
Hospitals must thus effectively exploit the
use of the Internet to attracting new
patients more effectively form internet for
hospital business. Of tHowever, the
relatively few approaches studies that
have addressed marketing practices in the
medical sector have not focused on the
Internet’s impactin this area, conventional
approaches substantiation channel not
fictitious channel, internet. Online
purchases increased by 1,900,000,00 US
dollars from Since 1997 to 1998, the total
gaining was raised 19 hundred million
dollars from purchase on internet. The
latent capacity of internet channel can be
manifest form Consumer purchasing
power on the iInternet is definitely an area
that the medical sector must focus on.
The inability of hospitals to If not attach
importance to the issue of effectively
exploit the use of the Internet not only
makes it impossible to lower overhead
costs, but also severely limits develop
medical e-market. The hospitals will can
not down cost of place and ultimately miss
their commercean organization’s
competitiveness. Therefore medicalan e-
marketing strategy for the medical sector
must be developed that adopts the
business marketing practices to enhance
the competitiveness of this growth in the
medical sector.
48. Business Management
Taiwan’s growing elderly population
has increased the demand for Llong-term
healthcare facilities and services. While
Fforecasting the medical market trends
(both in supply and demand) is a
fundamental aspect ofnd feasibility
analysis, both governmental social welfare
sector policymakers of social welfare
trends and commercialbusiness investors
areheavily rely on the forecasting reports
to remain abreast of decide both in
regulations governingg relation health
finance policies and to develop new
inventory projects of nation. Whereas the
modeling method has seldom been
adopted to concern over the market
forecasting of market trends in Llong-term
care in Taiwanhas seldom been addressed
with the modeling method, most studies
focus mainly on various kinds of the
consumer’s percentagesindexes used
which estimates by experts to forecasting
the market supply and demand yet neglect
those market and natural factors that are
correlated to the long-term heathcare
sector.(NOTE: Although I have tried to
make the problem of your research more
clear, make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.) According to Anikeeff
(1999) suggest that, one particular
variable:, i.e., the variation of the
population over age 85 years old, is highly
correlated to the Llong-term healthcare
market. The inability to estimate those the
market and natureal factors that are
correlatedion of to the Llong-term
heathcare sector, makes it difficult not
only interpret various forecasting reports,
but also to makes confusion and difficult
to decaide what policies or inventory
projects should be implementeding.
Ultimately, theThe long-term heathcare
sector will lack a standard nationwide
market can’t keep balance yet, it
impossible for nation to have a high level
of quality services. Therefore, a method
must be developed that can…. (NOTE:
State your objective here.
49. (Biotechnogy)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a human
herpesvirus which , is associated with
several malignancies, including Burkitt’s
lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma
(NPC), T cell lymphoma and Hodgkin’s
disease. As a versatile protein, The
Epstein-BVarr virus latent membrane
protein 1 (LMP 1) is a versatile protein
that has significantly influencesprofound
effects on target cells, e.g. lymphocytes
and epithelial cells. NPC is a malignant
tumor originating in the squamous
epithelium and expressed in the posterior
nasopharynx. NPCThis carcinoma has a
high incidence rate in the ethnic Chinese
population, especially in southeastern
Asia, including Taiwan and China. The
gGenetics and dietary habits may play an
important role in be important factor for
NPC transformation. Interestingly, the
LMP1 gene has been isolated from
Chinese NPC patients. Additionally, Tthe
phosphorylation of LMP1 plays a
significant role in regulating the function
of LMP1. To our knowledge, the 210 site
of C-terminal-activating region 1
(CTAR1) ihas never been had examined
(nor identified OR and determined).
(NOTE: Although ‘nor identified’ makes
the sentence grammatically correct, make
sure that it does not change your intended
meaning.) Importantly, tThe
phosphorylation 210 site of CTAR1
affects whether affects athe ratio of NPC
patients. According to pPrevious studies,
have demonstrated that, for LMP1 in
normal nasal tissue, nasopharyngeal
mucosal tissue and nasal lymophoma
tissue, showed that deleted LMP1 wais
more common in tumor tissues (91%) than
in normal nasal tissues (63%). Therefore,
tThe CTAR1 210 site must thus be
identified in NPC patients. The inability to
do so would CTAR1 210 site prevents us
from fully understanding how this
versatile molecule implements its function
in EBV-induced transformation and,
possibly, preventsing(NOTE: ‘inhibits’
OR ‘hinders’ as well as ‘prevents’) the
development of potential therapeutic
targets for EBV-associated cancers.
Therefore, a model of the mutated C
terminus 210 of LMP1 must be developed
to identify the CTAR1 210 site in
nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients
by analyzing Epstein-Barr virus latent
membrane protein 1 that is mutated with C
terminus 210.
50. (Biotechnology)
Gene expression requires thatneeds
many proteins interact with regulated
element.(NOTE: “elements” instead of
“element”? If not, then play ‘a’ in front of
‘regulated’) BeforeHowever, modulation
of gene expression has not been
thoroughly investigated, making it
impossible to determine the is not
researched clearly. So period and location
of gene expression are unable to know.
However, expression of the same gene in a
diverse cell can be regulated based on to
different expressions and, thus, can’not be
expressed 100%. The inability to
thoroughly understand the If mechanism
of distinct gene expression can not be
thoroughly understood, peoplemakes it
impossible to understand how this unique
mechanism affects don’t know
development of embryo development can
be effected by unusual mechanism.

51. (Biotechnology)
Proteinase inhibitors are Commonly
found universal existence in a seed of the
legume seeds. P, proteinase inhibitors play
a critical role in the regulationg of several
physiological processes such as blood
coagulation, complement fixation,
fibrinolysis, and fertilization. Most of
these inhibitors areAs proteins having
characteristic polypeptide scaffolds,
andmost of these inhibitors are grouped
into a number of several families
including the Kunitz, Kazal, Burman Birk,
Serpin and mucus families. As well
established, lot of research report
indicated that the cancer cells the
production, invasion and transfer of
cancer cells are significantlyhave large
related toionship with proteinase
inhibitors. However, But there is not to
develop suppress cancer proteinase
inhibitors have not been able to be
suppressed owing to the inability to
identify yet. The previously investigate
unable to find the proteinase inhibitors
that can interrelated with to suppress
cancer more over than 80﹪of all cancer
cells. : NOTE: I have no idea what you
mean by ‘over than 80%’ in the context of
this sentence.). Consequently, the
inability to understandIf the physiological
role of proteinase inhibitors physiology
significance not have adequate to
understand in the plant,s makes it
impossible to ultimately understandd and
unable to obtain the role that proteinase
inhibitors play the role in thein cancer
occur process.(NOTE: ‘cancer cells’
instead of ‘cancer’?)
52. (Biotechnology)
Commonly found in the RAW 264.7
cell, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calicium
pool is cell to keepplays a significant role
in regulating the concentration of cellular
calcium ion concentration important site.
Additionally, mong the, ER calcium pool
can facilitateproceed protein translation,
protein transfer, and protein
embellishment. According to Rrecent
investigations, reports have suggested that
elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration,
[Ca2+]i, can initiate apoptosis, where an
increase in; in addition, [Ca2+]i is
observed prior toincreases before genome
fragmentation and cell death. The
endoplasmic reticulum As well known,
(ER) ias a major intracellular reservoir of
Ca2+ in nonmusculear cells, endoplasmic
reticulum and this reservoirER is essential
for manya number of cellular functions,
including protein processing within the
ER . However, while previous studies
investigated how the previously research
are regard to murine macrophage cell line
regulatesor the signal pathway of ER
calicium pool signal pathway., exactly
how But not have regard to the signal
pathways of cellular TNF-α, NF-γB, and
MAPK regulates the concentration of
cellular calcium ion remains unclear
signal pathway to thorough understand.
For instance, The conventions regard to
cell ER pool investigations have not
identified the signal pathways ofresearch
a defect is unable definite to look for the
TNF-α, NF-γB, and MAPK signal
pathwaywithin an accuracy of 80%, thus
making it impossible to determine how
RAW 264.7 in cellular regulates the
signal pathway. The inability to
thoroughly understand the signal
pathways of If the intracellular TNF-α,
NF-γB, and MAPK signal pathway to
thorough understand. For the researcher,
makes it impossible to determine with
regard what role to cell ER calicium pool
and induced cytokine unable know to play
play the role in the RAW 264.7 cell.
53. (Biotechnology)
Tuberculosis is spreads through by
close personal-to-person contact through
the inhalation ofin which infectiouns
aerosols are inhaled. Mycobacterium
tuberculosis has its was worldwide with
highest incidence in under developinged
countries and non seasonal incidence.
(NOTE: What do you mean by ‘and non
seasonal incidence’? Do you mean
‘regardless of the season’?) As
Ttuberculosis is thea (common OR typical
OR classic) human mycobacterial
disease., its Ggrowth properties and
colonial morphology are used for the
preliminary identification of (NOTE: If
‘preliminary’ is not important, can you
simply say ‘to identify’ instead of ‘for the
preliminary identification of’?)
mycobacterium because. This is owing to
that mycobacterium tuberculosis is a
slowing-growing bacteria and
mycobacteria can be identified using
biochemical tests, although yielding but
results requires at least need three weeks.
So want to dDeveloping a new method
that can rapidly may fast identify
mycobacterium tuberculosis only is thus
of high priorityday. Mycobacterium
tuberculosis is a communicablepublic
disease, with and increased prevalence of
diseaseamong immunocomproruised
patients, the homeless,and as well as
abusers of drugs or alcohol abusers. The,
thereby demonstrating that adequately
controlling the spread of tuberculosis wais
both a medical and societal problem.
Therefore, aA rapid diagnostic test must
be developed to is required for identify
this ication disease.
54. (Biotechnology)
Setting of work proposal Originally an
Taiwan founds a state with the
agricultureal based economy that has
shifted to an industrial based one, .Taiwan
now overproduces plants the wastes of
agricultureal produce that can be found in
rice as well as the rice and traditional
vegetable and fruit markets. However,
even with these traditional markets,
produce quite a few, can't carry on the
treating effectively dealing with for this
kind of wastes of agricultureal
overproduce is problematic. The wastes of
aAs for agricultureal overproduce ofin the
international community, is too few the
cellulose microbe with of cellulose can
n'ot effectively curtail foodquilt
processing, largely owing to thereason is
natural boundary ability of enzyme
production for a thermostable enzyme.
Work problem The cellulase in the
cultural heritage is subjected to the hot
stability, which is currently not high; and
the enzyme yield is low as well.
Andditionally, the natural boundary only
has a smalllittle amount of mould and
actinomyceses to havefor the cellulase.
Therefore, owing to that the natural
boundary is not can't be fast enough, and
the processing agricultureal overproduce
can not be processed efficiently wastes of
the availability. Quantitative specification
of problem For instance, according to
Tthe Environmental Protection
Administration of the Republic of China,
Taiwan statisticses, havinghas 6,000,000
wasteses of agriculture of the tons of
agricultural overproduce that must be
processed to want to process about every
year annually,. However, this
overproduce can not be and these wastes
can't completely of is processed. Taiwan
has The wastes that plants the rice creation
contain 2,300,000 tons of agricultural
overproduce in rice, while traditional
vegetable and fruit markets generate the
born wastes contain 600,000 tons. Such
overproduce can not be These wasteses
can't be processed efficientlyectively.
Importance of problem The inability to
produce aIf the thermostable enzyme have
no to be produced out, would make it
impossible to handle the overwhelming
amount of agricultural produce in Taiwan
has already counted ten thousand wasteses
of agriculture of the tons can't be
processed, only can adopt wild cover up
the method, as a, resulting in cause
serious theenvironmental pollution of the
environment. Project need Therefore, a
method must be developed to achieve So,
the high cellulase of hot stability and
enzyme activities is a necessity to be
evolved out, and want to be effectively
applied in the lifefor daily and industriesal
purposes.
55. (Biotechnology)
Setting of work proposal Widely
distributed in the aquatic environment,
Bbacteria in the genus Vibrio are widely
distributed in the aquatic environment and
are considered to be autochthonous
bacteria in marine and estuarine waters.
Capable of causing infection in humans,
Ssome Vibrio species can also cause
infections in humans and have been
isolated from a variety of intestinal and
extraintestinal sites. Specifically, Tthis
bacteria can cause gastroenteritis in
humans.
Work problem PCR method is the
conventional means of The cultural
heritage of the past usually is the method
of PCR to detecting the target with the tdh
gene or trh gene. Moreover, can make use
of, in which the specificity in the
chromosome of V. parahaemolyticus gene
of chitinase, can be used as the detection
marker of PCR. However, this method is
inefficient.
Quantitative specification of problem
For instance, PCRThe tradition
consultation method requiresneed seven
days to and can be aauthenticated the
effect, the resultsbut the uses. However,
the PCR method can be used as long as
several can know to authenticate the effect
can be authenticated. The moleculer
biology method is an effective means of
can knows to aauthenticateing the results
efficiently effect quickly.
Importance of problem The inability to
detect the target with the tdh gene or trh
gene more efficiently If this problem can't
resolve within a short time, will lead to a
higher incidence of can't prevent the
occurrence of the people food poisoning
from in advance in humans from aquatic
foods., with an especially high incidence
during Go to the case of food poisoning
between autumn and will increase in the
spring season.
Project need Therefore, this method ofa
PCR method must be developed andfor
applyication in the consultation(NOTE: I
don’t know what you mean by
‘consultation’ in the context of this
sentence.) in bacteria, using a chitinase
gene that has the a high specificity.
56. Biotechnology
It is reported that gGreen tea
polyphenols have been reported to have s
goodexcellent antioxidation activity toin
inhibiting high blood pressure,
cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes…
etc. Based on the above, many researcher
would like to investigate
thatConsequently, reagents for
antiresisting high blood pressure reagent,
anti cardiovascular diseases reagent, and
anti diabetes reagent…etc have received
considerable attention for potential
medical applications. Therefore, it will
become much convenient for patient of
high blood pressure, cardiovascular
diseases, diabetes…etc. As a leading
Bbiotechnology manufacturer, your
company has been successful in adopting
a the power of trial and error approach to
success, and to developing a very
wonderful product technologiesby
yourself. Rather than confining myself to
my technical skills, I hope to contribute to
your company as a technology
professional with as a researcher worker. I
believe that I will make your, hopefully
adding to your company’s more growth
and growth by month and month.
57. (Biotechnology)
The yYeast fungus, is a
dominantcardinal microorganism species
found in the peka, is used to for the
fermentation at the traditional white-
wine, and also there has been the research
making. The feasibility of usinge of the
yeast fungus to do theto produce proteins
production system has received
considerable attention. Additionally, The
yeast can be used to secrete has the ability
of the extracellular protein secretions.
That can understand the protein secretion
capability of these yeasts, making it
possible to and find outidentify the
strength protein promoter and signal
peptide by strains protein production
characteristic assay.
So far,However, except the safety was
be suspicions the developed protein
production system, the has a low yield
was the another large limit., thus limiting
Make the economic benefits of existing
protein production system is not good, and
relatedthe applications also will be
limited. Importantly, pProduction
capability is significantlyhave related
togreatly with the promoter strength of
thean enzyme’s production system.
For instance, the developed production
systems can not achievereach a yield of 1
g/L, subsequently raising production costs
for purification. Among the yeasts, only
K. lactis 、Y. lipolytica are classified as
GRAS by the Food and Drug
Administration (United States) in the
developed production systems.
Additionally, K. lactis produces low
amounts of secreted protein, while Y.
lipolytica can produce only a limited
number of proteins in high magnitude.
Consequently, the developed production
systems are severely limited with respect
to actual applications.
The inability of In existing protein
production systems to have a sufficiently
high if can't effectively yield, then will
increase the instability(NOTE: ‘the
instability’ of WHAT?) and appliances to
be subjected toseverely limit on the
researchresearch efforts. Moreover,
protein production systems can not be
Also can't applyied to therapyeutically in
the clinical practice effectively, thus
increasing the in addition to the risk of
the pathogenic risky on thein food and
clinical applications. processing.
58. (Nuclear Science –
Radiotechnology)
Setting of work proposal Effect ofThe
time interval between breast-conserving
surgery and radiation therapy significantly
affects whether on ipsilateral breast
recursrence. Work problem However,
conventional methods(NOTE: What kind
of methods? that solely rely on the
clinical experiences of physicians only
depended on doctors with their clinical
experiences, do not have alack an
objective classification standard to
(determine OR estimate) the optimal time
interval for between breast-conserving
surgery and radiation therapy., so many
difference choose appear and have a no
idea . Quantitative specification of
problem While Now in clinical the time
interval for between breast-conserving
surgery and radiation therapy is currently
8~12eight to twelve weeks, if can not find
the most suoptimalitable interval time has
not been determined, making it impossible
to that will can not to elevate the five-
years survival prognosisrate for breast
cancer patients. Project need Therefore, a
the optimalsuitable interval time between
breast-conserving surgery and radiation
therapy must be determined using SPSS
analysis software that accumulates must
be developed with a statistics method and
collect data that provide doctor's in
treatment time reference and the basis.
Obtains accuratecorrect and the objective
data of clinical treatments by using the
SPSS analysis software discovers most
suits the time interval.

59. (Nuclear Science - Radiotechnology
How to eEstimateing the totalaccurate
radiation dose taken byfor patients
quicklyefficiently is extremely important
in hospital when patients takeessential
during a radiation examination or
radiotherapy course. While
Conventionally, a thermoluminescent
dosimeter (TLD) is conventionally used to
estimate the radiation dose, this approach
but TLD spends too much time in many
hours annealing for the next radiation
dosetime using. For instance, TLD
requires approximately needs about 4-6
hours tofor annealing based on according
to different temperatures. Thus, And
therefore the same group of TLDs can
only make twoice countsing in one day.
The inability to reduce the time that If the
problem of TLD spends in ing too many
hours annealing results in an unnecessarily
long time in does not be solved, users
have to consume too much time cost
waiting for experimental results.
Therefore a new method--a chemical
vapor deposition method (CVD) must be
developed to reduce the annealing time
spent in estimating the dose for radiation
examination or radiotherapy course.
60. (Nuclear Science –
Radiotechnology)
Setting of work proposal Taiwan has a
high incidence of head-related injuries,
such as brains,-related brain tumors and
brain related diseases. Brain imagery is
thusAs a significant nuclear medicine-
based technology, brain imagery that can
diagnose such diseases. Therefore, such as
the use of brain uptake
radiopharmaceuticals can be used in brain
imagery to accurately diagnose the early
stages of brain-related diseases. Work
problem However, according to clinical
studies, the amount and concentration of
brain uptake radiopharmaceuticals have a
low stability. Therefore, the inability to
enhance, severely limiting their ability
conventionally used radiopharmaceuticals
makes it impossible to diagnose brain-
related diseases accurately and efficiently.
Quantitative specification of problem For
instance, following intravenous injection,
only 8-10% of most radiopharmaceuticals
enter the brain, while the same amount
entering the liver, kidney, and blood
exceeds 35%. Consequently, for the brain
and other organ hypertakes. Subsequently
leading to, inaccurate clinical diagnoses
and over radiation dose are made for
radiationof patients. Importance of
problem The inability to enhance
conventionally used radiopharmaceuticals
makes it impossible not only to
achievevery the combination or chemical
affinity of radiopharmaceuticals
chemicals, but also to increase the amount
of brain uptake by using monodentate
thiol, ultimately leading to a poor disease
prognosis.
61. (Nuclear Science – Radiotechnology)
The pPatients with cutaneous
lymphoma have lesions around their total
skin area, making thus they cannot be
treatmented with surgical operation
impossible. What they can choose areand
chemotherapy orand radiation therapy as
the only viable options. Radiation therapy
canould lighten alleviate the condition of
skin scratches.(NOTE: I don’t understand
what you mean by ‘skin scratches’ in the
context of this sentence. Do you mean
‘stretch marks on the human skin’?) The
most effective best treatment method of
radiation therapy is the Standford
(technique OR procedure OR method OR
approach) of six dual fields. However,
For this treatment way it needrequires a
relatively longe distance away from the
patient in the r distance in treatment rroom
so that the oom for covering patient’s
body can be covered. (NOTE: Although I
have simplified this sentence, make sure
that I did not change your intended
meaning.) Consequently, for this reason
need to setthe source-to-surface distance
mustto be set to 415cm, i.e., which longer
than other hospital department uses, with
electron beams having an in the energy
range of 4 to 9 MeV. for this reason. If aA
hospital without a large treatment room
would find such treatment impossible to
perform, it cannot do this job. For clinical
considerations, we can spread this
(technique OR treatment method OR
approach OR procedure) must be spread
around (NOTE: I have no idea what you
mean by ‘spread around’ in the context of
the sentence.) to if we (increase OR
improve) the dose distribution and
decrease the SSD to lessshorten than
300cm. I believe this technique can cure
more patients.
62. (Nuclear Science-Radiotechnology)
Owing to its high sensitivity, PET
(NOTE: Spell out what PET stands for
the first time and then put PET in
parentheses. Thereafter, just use the
acronym PET.) isbecomes the most
modernadvanced diagnostic toolprocedure
because of the high sensitivity in the
detectiong of both original tumors and
metastases of distant tumors. However,
PET is so far too expensive to befor
national health insurredance coverage in
Taiwan. Although carcinoembryogenic
antigen (CEA) is lacks of specificities
(NOTE: Do you mean ‘has a low
specificity’ instead of ‘lacks
specificities’?), CEA values have been
usedapplied to indicate (NOTE: ‘identify’
OR ‘detect’ instead of ‘indicate’? Check
intended meaning.) tumor metastases after
surgeryical operation. Its changesChanges
in CEA values induring pre-operation and
post-operation reflectpresent whether the
surgery is successful or not. In many
patients reports case studies, CEA values
also provide the information onf the
likelihood of tumor recurrence and distant
metastases . However, But conventional
CEA evaluation methods of CEA are still
uncertain to verifycannot reliably
determine how the cancer may be
regrowingappear in anotherpreviously
unaffected tissues. This unreliability is
owing to that Because the reference range
between 0-5 ng/mL in CEA does not
accuratelyprecisely represent whether the
patients have recovered from colon
carcinoma. An iInaccurately
measuringement in CEA values will yields
errors in treatment options, leading to the
patients to mortalitydeath in a
relativelyvery short timeperiods.
Therefore, the correlation between
metastatic evaluation reference range in
CEA and PET scan must be obtained for
that constructing an optimal procedures in
order to determinedefine whether the
colon cancer will metastasize or not,, as
well as and producing a combineation of
anatomic function diagnosis and
serodiagnosis‧.
63. (Nuclear Science-Radiotechnology)
A neutron leak incident occurred in the
beginning of 2004 at Cheng Ching
Hospital, in Kaohsiung of southern
Taiwan Gao-xiong occurred an even of
neutron leak, causing heightened concern
among radiology technology give rise to
all interrelated technical personnel is very
panic in January of this year. Therefore,
both increaseing work safety of work field
is very important for security of protection
technical personnel and patients.
Additional, and developing more excellent
and lower dose radiotherapy methods are
of priority concern also very significant,
let’s radiotherapy become indispensable
for benefit to patient. Consequently, need
a medical physicist must for regularly
monitor detection radiation dose in theof
workplace field and also assist withthe
oncologist toin designing radiotherapy
planning, as well asand deviseing a safety
radiotherapy room. (NOTE: This should
be the background for your second
research proposal, not the employment
application statement.) Your hospital’s
Ccancer center for tumor therapy is
known for its strict adherence to quality
standardsvery authoritativeness in your
hospital, as well as its frequent and often
publishjournal publications on many new
novel radiotherapy procedurestechnique
and clinical experiences in periodical. If
successful in securing employment at
wish I can contribute to your hospital, I
will bring for display my all of
professional knowledge, ex. in areas such
as detectionng the radiation dose in the of
workplace field, designing appropriate
radiotherapy planning and deviseing
appropriate shielding offor a radiotherapy
room. I hope that my contribution to your
hospital will allow Let’s technical
personnel to more naturally can carefree
servicetend to the patients’ needs, and
patient accept therapy, hopefully resulting
in a positive therapeutic outcome more
relieved for increase whole medical
treatment quality.
64. (Nuclear Science-Radiotechnology)
The Vvertebral column ins humans
body's bones primary bracket and used for
protects the spinal cord and cerebrospinal
fluid (CSF). Spine is being cConsistsed of
a vertebrae body and intervertebral disk.,
the Shuman spine of human can becauseis
prone to injury owing to external force or
disease to be injured. Treatment for spine-
related injuries normally includes Patients
usually takean Xx-ray, CT and MRI
examinations of the patientfilms, CT, MRI
check up, and thenfollowed by
determination of appropriate treatment by
the clinical physiciandoctors decide
treatment style. While These methods of
making only alleviateing the patient’s
injury location of patients, such
approaches do not consider injured
spine'sthe reconstruction and renovateion
of the injured spine. According to Ministry
of 2002 years iInteriors' statistics from
2002, traffic-related mortalities in Taiwan
accident death total are forreached 10,973
persons, i.e., a mortality rate of 50.3
individuals per population of every
100,000 persons death rate for 50.3
persons., or one of the highest rates World
Health Annual (WHO) Statistics pointed
that Taiwan with globally according to the
World Health Organization country
compares with belongs to high value
deflection primary. The inability to create
a If vertebrae body and intervertebral disk
has not be create, would make it
impossible for clinical physicians to adopt
a doctors have not multipleies treatment
process to reconstruction and renovate a
patient's spine. that would ultimately
Patient can not alleviate the patient’s
suffering pain and enable independentce
activity. Therefore, the different age
laminar structures must be made of a
human’s vertebrae body and intervertebral
disk must be made, using a filler to
repairfill the damage position to replace
surgery operativethe fixed bracket inserted
during surgery.(NOTE: Although I have
made this sentence grammatically correct,
make sure that I did not change your
intended meaning.)
65. (Nuclear Science-Radiotechnology)
Setting of work proposal Industrial
Technology Research Institute (ITRI) of
Taiwan has been exploring the feasibility
of using natural radioactive material in
clothing to In order to let the people’s
clothing have higher ability to preserve
warmth and comfortable. ITRT advance a
new theory that put the natural
radioactivity material into the clothing.,
with tentative plans to The research result
evinces the method to put the radioactivity
material into the clothing indeed enhance
the warmth. And the manufacture such
clothing with radioactivity material in the
near futurewill be quantity manufactured
by ITRI. Work problem However,
Noneither a comprehensive entire
verification system and nor standards have
been established for this are build up
since the method owing to its novel
technological applicationed by ITRI is a
whole new technology., possibly leading
to damage to the human body from Tthe
radiation spontaneously irradiated by
natural radioactivity nuclei may be
damage to human body except thedespite
the original intention of producing warmth
made it. Quantitative specification of
problem Owing to their According to the
difference of cellsvarying characteristics,
cells have different radiation dose
acceptance levels ability. For instance,
while Ssome cells, e.g.,such as completed
division cells, can receive a 20Gy
radiation dose of 20Gy to induce certain
biologyical effects, . But some
otherscells, such ase.g., uncompleted
division cells, in casecan not receive over
5Gy a radiation dose exceeding 5Gy, the
biology effect will be vital. Importance of
problem The inability to ensure that
humans would not incur radiation harm
from such an application in clothing
manufacturing would neglect the potential
of adopting method of join the natural
radioactiveity material is verified to up
grading the property ofto sustain body
warmth and comfort in apparel wear, the
biology effect causing by radiation can not
be ignore.. Project need To establish aA
verification system must therefore be
developed to is a matter of cardinal
significance. In this way we can obtain
more warmth and without neglected
clothing,(NOTE: I have omitted this part
of the sentence because it is too redundant
of what you have already stated. You
need to more fully describe the
characteristics of this verification system.)
Based on the above, we should develop
aA novel prediction model can be
developed to identify the turnover rate of
customers in the medical sector and
determine how to retain themfor hospital
business. Of the relatively few studies that
have focus on prediction customer churn
on medical sector. To do so, thea database
containingof pertinent hospital patient
data can be useutilized through use of a
data mining method to identify draw a
conclusion to collect the factors associated
with of customer turnover ratechurn. Data
mining method can be discovery of
potential issue or opportunity.
Additionally, pPertinent literature can be
reviewed to supportconfirm the
reliabilitybelievable o of variables in the
database. Next, Qquestionnaires can be
sent to the managers hospital
administrators regarding the level of of
customer satisfactionory degree., with
those results subsequently analyzed. As
anticipated, the proposed novel prediction
model can be adopted utilized to design
and implementplan the precautionary
measures towards customer turnover rates
in related customer churn fields. The
study In addition to identifying the major
important factors underlying in customer
turnover rate, the proposed model can
offer churn and put forth feasible
strategies to for cope with this
dilemmacustomer churn, with a view to
uncovering whatever unidentified
customer churn and eventually achieve the
management goals. Moreover, the
proposed model can contribute to efforts
to maintain Results of this study
prediction model for customer churn is not
only to discover customer churn, but also
designed to keep the customers, in the
highly competitive medical market sector
as well as so as to provide a valuable
reference for healthcare managers in
enhancing future customer relations
actions.
Abstract (full paper)
The extremely competitive medical market
sector in Taiwan and budget deficits
incurred from the island’s National Health
Insurance scheme have led to the
implementation of a Global Budget
System. Whereas hospitals heavily
prioritize attracting new patients, the
patient turnover rate has received
increasing attention. Of the relatively few
studies that have addressed the medical
sector in this area, conventional
approaches calculate the number of
patients on a daily basis without
differentiating between new and return
patients. Therefore, this work presents a
novel prediction model to identify the
turnover rate of customers in the medical
sector and determine how to retain them.
A database containing pertinent hospital
patient data is utilized through use of a
data mining method to identify the factors
associated with customer turnover rate.
Pertinent literature is reviewed to confirm
the reliability of variables in the database.
Next, questionnaires are sent to hospital
administrators regarding the level of
customer satisfaction, with those results
subsequently analyzed. The proposed
prediction model can be adopted to design
and implement precautionary measures
towards customer turnover rates in related
fields. In addition to identifying the major
factors underlying customer turnover rate,
the proposed model can offer feasible
strategies to cope with this dilemma and
achieve management goals. Moreover, the
proposed model contributes to efforts to
maintain customers in the highly
competitive medical market sector as well
as provides a valuable reference for
healthcare managers in enhancing
customer relations.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a novel prediction
model to identify the turnover rate of
customers in the medical sector and
determine how to retain them. A database
containing pertinent hospital patient data
is utilized through use of a data mining
method to identify the factors associated
with customer turnover rate. Pertinent
literature is reviewed to confirm the
reliability of variables in the database.
Next, questionnaires are sent to hospital
administrators regarding the level of
customer satisfaction, with those results
subsequently analyzed. The proposed
prediction model can be adopted to design
and implement precautionary measures
towards customer turnover rates in related
fields. In addition to identifying the major
factors underlying customer turnover rate,
the proposed model can offer feasible
strategies to cope with this dilemma and
achieve management goals. Moreover, the
proposed model contributes to efforts to
maintain customers in the highly
competitive medical market sector as well
as provides a valuable reference for
healthcare managers in enhancing
customer relations.
66. (Business Management)
In order to the foregoing background,
must to take root applicableA knowledge
management-based method for emergency
medical units can be developed to system
to make use of benchmarking knowledge
management staff performances the same
closs emergency to do engineering ,
ultimately enhancing the quality of than
can to advance the emergency medical
qualityservices. To do so, Professional
questionnaire can be determine emergency
medical system attitudes towards how to
incorporatemake knowledge management
practices in emergency medical units can
be solicited via a questionnaire survey.
Based on those results, Next principal
components can be for afind knowledge
management-based performance’s index
can be identified. Finally Appropriate
benchmarks to assess the performances of
emergency unit staff can then be identified
by using analytic hierarchy process
(AHP).analytic hierarchy process (AHP)
can be find benchmarking emergency. As
anticipated, S the proposed knowledge
management-based method for emergency
medical units imulation results indicate
that performance modle can prove to can
enhanceimprove orientationon the job
training’s and related contents, as well
determine the programme appropriate
frequency and timeof such training.
Capable of It is can to enhanceelevating
worker’s the number productivity of staff
personnelpersons present. To build up
resources enjoy something together than
to advance worker’s performance to 80%.
It, the proposed method can ensure that
the rate of is important to fastrapidly
diagnosisng the ailments of for emergency
patients can be increased to 90%.
Importantly, the ability of the proposed
method to Additionally, the proposed
model to raise the quality of emergency
medical services and upgrade the
knowledge skills of medical professionals
can allow staff personnel to fully realize
their quality and to step up workers new
knowledge and technology. Next, workers
potential ability can be development.
Furthermore can bethrough knowledge to
shareing.
Abstract (full paper)
The feasibility of applying knowledge
management to Taiwan’s emergency
medical units has received increasing
attention, especially the role of knowledge
assets in effectively managing the main
resources of such units. Whether an
organization can accumulate knowledge
skills efficiently and apply them
effectively largely determines its
competitive strength, an area which
knowledge management of emergency
medical units has not yet been identified.
Therefore, this work presents a knowledge
management-based method for emergency
medical units to benchmark staff
performances, ultimately enhancing the
quality of medical services. Attitudes
towards how to incorporate knowledge
management practices in emergency
medical units are solicited via a
questionnaire survey. Based on those
results, principal components for a
knowledge management-based
performance’s index are identified.
Appropriate benchmarks to assess the
performances of emergency unit staff are
then identified by using analytic hierarchy
process (AHP). The proposed knowledge
management-based method for emergency
medical units can enhance orientation
training and related contents, as well
determine the appropriate frequency of
such training. Capable of elevating work
productivity of staff personnel to 80%, the
proposed method can ensure that the rate
of rapidly diagnosing the ailments of
emergency patients can be increased to
90%. Importantly, the ability of the
proposed method to raise the quality of
emergency medical services and upgrade
the knowledge skills of medical
professionals can allow staff personnel to
fully realize their potential through
knowledge sharing.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a knowledge
management-based method for emergency
medical units to benchmark staff
performances, ultimately enhancing the
quality of medical services. Attitudes
towards how to incorporate knowledge
management practices in emergency
medical units are solicited via a
questionnaire survey. Based on those
results, principal components for a
knowledge management-based
performance’s index are identified.
Appropriate benchmarks to assess the
performances of emergency unit staff are
then identified by using analytic hierarchy
process (AHP). The proposed knowledge
management-based method for emergency
medical units can enhance orientation
training and related contents, as well
determine the appropriate frequency of
such training. Capable of elevating work
productivity of staff personnel to 80%, the
proposed method can ensure that the rate
of rapidly diagnosing the ailments of
emergency patients can be increased to
90%. Importantly, the ability of the
proposed method to raise the quality of
emergency medical services and upgrade
the knowledge skills of medical
professionals can allow staff personnel to
fully realize their potential through
knowledge sharing.
67. (Business Management)
Hypothesis statement
Based on the above, we should develop
aA novel evaluation method can be
developed questionnaire to
identifydiscriminate the target customers
of credit card customers. in which the
characteristics associated with the
lifestyles of such customers and factors
that contribute to easily incurred debts are
incorporatedPreviously studies focus on
why happen bad debts; population
statistics how to affect customers take bad
debts. Few researches discuss customer
life style of credit card, and what
characteristic and life style easily occur
bed debts. To do so, pertinent Interrelated
literatures can be reviewed to identify the
characteristics of credit card customers
and how their would support reliability of
L life styles affect their purchasing
questionnaires. Therefore, life style
questionnaires can be discovery
customers’ characteristic and behavior.
Consequently qQuestionnaires can then be
sent to the customers to determine when
measuring their personality characteristics
and life style in relation to their
purchasing behavior. NextBased on those
results, cluster analysis can be performed
to would classify credit card customers
into different categoryies. The proposed
evaluation methodResults of this study ca
can provide a valuable reference for
banking institutions attempting to
accurately identify desirable target
customers of credit card customers.,
eventually leading not only to the
development of a When banks realized
target customer of credit cards, it can
develop m marketing strategy to attract
suchhis target customers., but also to the
lowering of Therefore, banks would
decrease operating costs, in banks and and
promote achievementscredit risks.
Abstract (full paper)
The increasing popularity of credit cards in
Taiwan has led to stringent competition
domestically. Banks encourage
prospective customers to hold multiple
credit cards by relaxing approval and
credit reference procedures. However,
such practices have significantly
undermined the creditworthiness of
issuing banks, leading to increased
outstanding debts and a higher risk of
defaulted loans. With this respect,
previous studies have seldom measured
quantitatively the varying degrees of risk
among potential credit card customers to
identify both varying degrees of risk and
reasons for credit card. Therefore, this
work presents a novel evaluation method
can be developed to identify target credit
card customers in which the
characteristics associated with the
lifestyles of such customers and factors
that contribute to easily incurred debts are
incorporated. Pertinent literature is
reviewed to identify the characteristics of
credit card customers and how their
lifestyles affect their purchasing behavior.
Questionnaires are then sent to customers
to determine their personality
characteristics and lifestyle in relation to
their purchasing behavior. Based on those
results, cluster analysis is performed to
classify credit card customers into
different categories. The proposed
evaluation method can provide a valuable
reference for banking institutions
attempting to identify desirable credit card
customers, eventually leading not only to
the development of a marketing strategy
to attract such target customers, but also to
the lowering of bank operating costs and
credit risks.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a novel evaluation
method can be developed to identify target
credit card customers in which the
characteristics associated with the
lifestyles of such customers and factors
that contribute to easily incurred debts are
incorporated. Pertinent literature is
reviewed to identify the characteristics of
credit card customers and how their
lifestyles affect their purchasing behavior.
Questionnaires are then sent to customers
to determine their personality
characteristics and lifestyle in relation to
their purchasing behavior. Based on those
results, cluster analysis is performed to
classify credit card customers into
different categories. The proposed
evaluation method can provide a valuable
reference for banking institutions
attempting to identify desirable credit card
customers, eventually leading not only to
the development of a marketing strategy
to attract such target customers, but also to
the lowering of bank operating costs and
credit risks.
68. (Business Management)
Hypothesis statement
Based on the above, aAn feasible
forecasting appropriate for method can be
developedused to estimateforecasting the
growth of medical and health care
expenditures as well asand pharmaceutical
units in Taiwan. To do so, data of medical
and health care expenditure-related data
during the period 1999 to 2002 arecan be
obtained from the Central Region Office
Directorate-General of the Budget,
Accounting and Statistics, Executive
Yuan-Central Region Office. Moreover,
dData ofn pharmaceutical units arecan
then be obtained from the 2003 Annual
Report of the Department of Health.
Based on data from those sources,
Additionally, GM (1, N) model ofof the
Grey theory can than be used for
forecasting purposes. As anticipated, thise
proposed forecasting method model can
precisely estimate forecasting medical and
health care expenditures as well as nd the
number of pharmacies fromsince 2003 to
2005. The results of this study can provide
a valuable reference for both
governmental authorities in formulating
policies and pharmaceutical managers in
developing competitive marketing
strategies.
Abstract (full paper)
Medical and healthcare expenditures have
accounted for an increasing share of
household consumption in Taiwan in
recent years. In line with this trend, the
establishment of local pharmacies has
risen. While conventional forecast
methods rely on large quantities of data to
predict the number of new pharmacies in
coming years, accumulating such data is
extremely difficult. Therefore, this work
describes a feasible forecasting method to
estimate the growth of medical and health
care expenditures as well as
pharmaceutical units in Taiwan. Medical
and health care expenditure-related data
during the period 1999 to 2002 are
obtained from the Central Region Office
of the Budget, Accounting and Statistics,
Executive Yuan. Data on pharmaceutical
units are then obtained from the 2003
Annual Report of the Department of
Health. Based on data from those sources,
GM (1, N) model of the Grey theory is
applied for forecasting purposes. Analysis
results indicate that the proposed
forecasting method can precisely estimate
medical and health care expenditures as
well as the number of pharmacies from
2003 to 2005. The results of this study can
provide a valuable reference for both
governmental authorities in formulating
policies and pharmaceutical managers in
developing competitive marketing
strategies.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study describes a feasible forecasting
method to estimate the growth of medical
and health care expenditures as well as
pharmaceutical units in Taiwan. Medical
and health care expenditure-related data
during the period 1999 to 2002 are
obtained from the Central Region Office
of the Budget, Accounting and Statistics,
Executive Yuan. Data on pharmaceutical
units are then obtained from the 2003
Annual Report of the Department of
Health. Based on data from those sources,
GM (1, N) model of the Grey theory is
applied for forecasting purposes. Analysis
results indicate that the proposed
forecasting method can precisely estimate
medical and health care expenditures as
well as the number of pharmacies from
2003 to 2005. The proposed method can
provide a valuable reference for both
governmental authorities in formulating
policies and pharmaceutical managers in
developing competitive marketing
strategies.
(Business Management)
Hypothesis statement)
An administrative procedure can be
developed for classifying and simplifying
forms to pay insurance premiums and file
other insurance-related claims in Taiwan’s
National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme.
Base on the above ,we should classify
diversity and simplify form(or table list)
,and open aA database containing detailed
information of NHI insurance holders can
also be accessed while ensuring the
confidentiality of such information census
register sluice gate . That will reduce cost
and time, thus reducing administrative
costs and the number of personnel
involved. To do so, three insurance claim-
related majority of forms with different
characteristic can be developed to reduce
the redundancy of the more than thirty
existing ones, therebyintegrated reduceing
data processing significantly. , a A highly
restricted networked-based web system
can then be useaccessed to ensure the
confidentiality of NIH customer
datacontrol secure , to protect personal
census register data .Census register sluice
gate star can inquire about information
quickly and directly. Common people will
not provide paper again. and also reduce
the amount of paperwork that insurance
holders must submit. As anticipated , the
proposed administrative procedure can
streamline the process of filing insurance-
related claims by strategy thatsimplifying
the form simplifyprocedure and enable
access to relevant customer dataopen
census register sluice gate can check data
in time on line and accurate in an efficient
manner. Importantly, the proposed
procedure Result in the study ccan
significantly reduce not only the amount
of time to fill out insurance claims
common people time for apply census
register, but also postage and frugal mail
fees owing to the ability of the network-
based system to accelerate and swift data
processing and enhance common people
satisfration..
Abstract (full paper)
Complex administrative procedures within
Taiwan’s National Health Insurance (NHI)
scheme have led to errors in insurance
claims and much inefficiency. For
instance, adhering to all NHI regulations
would require filling out more than thirty
forms, depending on various commercial
demands, e.g., insurance claims, salary
readjustment, and modification of
insurer’s/claimant’s name. Despite the
enormous amount of administrative time
and costs involved in handling these
errors, this growing concern and its larger
implications have not been addressed in
previous literature. Therefore, this work
presents a novel administrative procedure
for classifying and simplifying forms to
pay insurance premiums and file other
insurance-related claims in Taiwan’s
National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme.
A database containing detailed
information of NHI insurance holders is
also accessed while ensuring the
confidentiality of such information, thus
reducing administrative costs and the
number of personnel involved. Three
insurance claim-related forms are
developed to reduce the redundancy of the
more than thirty existing ones, thereby
reducing data processing significantly. A
highly restricted networked-based system
is then accessed to ensure the
confidentiality of NIH customer data and
also reduce the amount of paperwork that
insurance holders must submit. The
proposed administrative procedure can
streamline the process of filing insurance-
related claims by simplifying the form
procedure and enable access to relevant
customer data on line in an efficient
manner. Importantly, the proposed
procedure can significantly reduce not
only the amount of time to fill out
insurance claims, but also postage fees
owing to the ability of the network-based
system to accelerate data processing.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a novel administrative
procedure for classifying and simplifying
forms to pay insurance premiums and file
other insurance-related claims in Taiwan’s
National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme.
A database containing detailed
information of NHI insurance holders is
also accessed while ensuring the
confidentiality of such information, thus
reducing administrative costs and the
number of personnel involved. Three
insurance claim-related forms are
developed to reduce the redundancy of the
more than thirty existing ones, thereby
reducing data processing significantly. A
highly restricted networked-based system
is then accessed to ensure the
confidentiality of NIH customer data and
also reduce the amount of paperwork that
insurance holders must submit. The
proposed administrative procedure can
streamline the process of filing insurance-
related claims by simplifying the form
procedure and enable access to relevant
customer data on line in an efficient
manner. Importantly, the proposed
procedure can significantly reduce not
only the amount of time to fill out
insurance claims, but also postage fees
owing to the ability of the network-based
system to accelerate data processing.
-------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------
---------
(Business Management)
Hypothesis statement
Biotechnology industry cosmetic A 4P-
based marketing methodstrategy can be
developed for the local cosmetics sector
within Taiwan’s biotech industry by
considering consumer needs under the
principles of product, price, promotion
and place. has can evolved, subsequently
create good increasing marketing in the
cosmetics sector. To do so, a
questionnaire can be submitted to
cosmetic manufacturers on the most
appropriate marketing method of
questionnaire test, followed
bysubsequently Ffactor analysis of those
resultsquestionnaire test, the sample can
be analyzed and find vital factor
associated with such an approach that
adopts . The cosmetic marketing method
has can evolve of Biotechnology industry
cosmetic marketing 4P principlesmethod.
Therefore, a 4P method for cosmetics
manufacturers must be developed that
considers customer need and incorporates
Product, Price, Promotion, and Place.
Adopting this marketing strategy can
enable local ditionally, the cosmetics
manufacturers to adopt the 4P method in
its marketing practices will make it and
promoting itsincrease their market share
as well asin related products and services.
As anticipated, in addition to encouraging
product innovation, the 4P-based
marketing strategy proposed herein can
provide Taiwan’s biotech industry with
clear guidelines on how toResults in this
study can provide research worker
edification and aspect in the future.
Results in this study can provide 4P
marketing strategies for Biotechnology
industry cosmetic manufacturers equip
management in the local cosmetics sector
with appropriate and efficient has right
and fast marketing policies policies
command for subordinate, marketing
processes can obtainthat will ultimately
decrease operating costs, and enhance
competitiveness.
Abstract (full paper)
Taiwan’s biotechnology industry has
rapidly evolved in recent years,
subsequently increasing marketing efforts
in the local cosmetics sector, which
originally focused only on healthcare
products. Although receiving considerable
attention in conventional marketing, the
4P method has seldom been explored with
respect to its effectiveness in cosmetics
marketing practices in order to enhance
the competitiveness and market share of
related manufacturers. Therefore, this
work presents a 4P-based marketing
strategy for the local cosmetics sector
within Taiwan’s biotech industry by
considering consumer needs under the
principles of product, price, promotion
and place. A questionnaire is submitted to
cosmetic manufacturers on the most
appropriate marketing method, followed
by factor analysis of those results
associated with such an approach that
adopts 4P principles. Adopting this
marketing strategy can enable local
cosmetic manufacturers to increase their
market share in related products and
services. In addition to encouraging
product innovation, the 4P-based
marketing strategy proposed herein can
provide Taiwan’s biotech industry with
clear guidelines on how to equip
management in the local cosmetics sector
with appropriate and efficient marketing
policies that will ultimately decrease
operating costs and enhance
competitiveness.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a 4P-based marketing
strategy for the local cosmetics sector
within Taiwan’s biotech industry by
considering consumer needs under the
principles of product, price, promotion
and place. A questionnaire is submitted to
cosmetic manufacturers on the most
appropriate marketing method, followed
by factor analysis of those results
associated with such an approach that
adopts 4P principles. Adopting this
marketing strategy can enable local
cosmetic manufacturers to increase their
market share in related products and
services. In addition to encouraging
product innovation, the 4P-based
marketing strategy proposed herein can
provide Taiwan’s biotech industry with
clear guidelines on how to equip
management in the local cosmetics sector
with appropriate and efficient marketing
policies that will ultimately decrease
operating costs and enhance
competitiveness.
(Business Management)
Hypothesis statement
A credit risk assessment model can be
developed, through by analyseszing thea
mass volume of data or detectsing the
concealedhidden models, (NOTE: What
kind of ‘models’ are you referring to?)
thus can be developed to reduceing the
defaulted loan burdenbad load of small
financial institutions. To do so,
conducting a database capable of
warehouse can integrateing the customer
data, can be constructed, in which a
powerfulhighly effective data mining
approaches are technologies can be
applied to find outidentify the attributes of
each customer account, such as overdraft
records, outstanding loans and income
level etc. Furthermore, aA credit ranking
criteria based on a decision tree solution
products credit scoring rule can then be
established for all the customers in the
bank database. As anticipated, the credit
risk assessment model does not only to
helpin addition to greatly facilitating the
decision of a banking officer on whether
to the operator grant a loan loan more
effectively and accurately, the credit risk
assessment model can but also reduceto
save the operationg costs by enhancing
through improving the process flow.
BesidesMoreover, the credit risk
assessmentproposed model, can pave the
way for there are other potential data
mining applications infor financial
institutions, such as more thoroughly
understanding the customers and
customers better in order to improve the
customer satisfactionying customers
through more effective marketing
strategies based on acquired data, and the.
The proposed model can be highly
promising for model are applicable to
other industryial applications as well.
Abstract (full paper)
Purchasing on credit is increasingly
common in Taiwan, as evidenced by the
rise in customer loans granted by local
banks in recent years. However, when
processing the amount of the loan
applications, the banking officer
frequently scores a customer’s credit
rating based on a manual standard that
lacks objectivity and expends a
considerable amount of human resources.
Therefore, this work presents a credit risk
assessment model by analyzing a mass
volume of data or detecting concealed
models, (NOTE: What kind of ‘models’
are you referring to?) thus reducing the
defaulted loan burden of small financial
institutions. A database capable of
integrating customer data is constructed,
in which highly effective data mining
approaches are applied to identify the
attributes of each customer account, such
as overdraft records, outstanding loans
and income level. A credit ranking criteria
based on a decision tree solution is then
established for all customers in the bank
database. In addition to greatly
facilitating the decision of a banking
officer on whether to grant a loan, the
credit risk assessment model also reduces
operating costs by enhancing the process
flow. Moreover, the proposed model
paves the way for other potential data
mining applications in financial
institutions, such as more thoroughly
satisfying customers through more
effective marketing strategies based on
acquired data. The proposed model is
highly promising for other industrial
applications as well.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a credit risk assessment
model by analyzing a mass volume of data
or detecting concealed models, (NOTE:
What kind of ‘models’ are you referring
to?) thus reducing the defaulted loan
burden of small financial institutions. A
database capable of integrating customer
data is constructed, in which highly
effective data mining approaches are
applied to identify the attributes of each
customer account, such as overdraft
records, outstanding loans and income
level. A credit ranking criteria based on a
decision tree solution is then established
for all customers in the bank database. In
addition to greatly facilitating the decision
of a banking officer on whether to grant a
loan, the credit risk assessment model also
reduces operating costs by enhancing the
process flow. Moreover, the proposed
model paves the way for other potential
data mining applications in financial
institutions, such as more thoroughly
satisfying customers through more
effective marketing strategies based on
acquired data. The proposed model is
highly promising for other industrial
applications as well.
72. (Business Management)
Hypothesis statement
Therefore, this study develops two
forecasting models can be developed to
estimateforecast the market demand of the
elderlyearly population in Taiwan with
respect to the available and the supply of
resources ofin the long-term healthcare
sectorgment in Taiwan. To do so, aA
multi-regression model can be developed
to measure and forecast not only the
quantity of early demand, but also the
relationship between the demand and the
importancecritical factors by accumulating
collecting the great quantitya significant
amount of data and seeking the
importanceidentifying such factors. The
data can then be collected by the qvia a
questionnaire investigation method; and ,
with the factors can be quantitatively
measured based on a method found in by
literature review method. Next, aThe
second model of this study is the GM (1,
1) model of Gary System. The GM (1, 1)
model based on the Grey Theory can be
developed to accurately forecast the
supply of available long term healthcare
resources exactly by using less data which
can be acquired onfrom the website of
Taiwan’s Ministry of the Interior website.
As anticipated, Results of this study not
only can search out in addition to
identifying the importantrelevant factors
that which can affect the quantity of
demand, the proposed forecasting models
but also can also exactly measure
precisely the quantity of demand and
supply of long-term healthcare resources
in Taiwan. Moreover, the rResults of this
study can provideing a new information
and notion to the a valuable reference for
health care policy makers、, investors in
the medical sector 、 , administrators
business manager and the academicsian
when devising up relevant policies and
strategies.
Abstract (full paper)
Taiwan’s growing elderly population has
increased the demand for long-term
healthcare facilities and services. While
forecasting the medical market trends
(both in supply and demand) is a
fundamental aspect of feasibility analysis,
both governmental policymakers of social
welfare trends and commercial investors
heavily rely on forecasting reports to
remain abreast of regulations governing
health finance policies and to develop new
inventory projects. Whereas the modeling
method has seldom been adopted to
forecast market trends in long-term care in
Taiwan, most studies focus mainly on
various consumer indexes used to forecast
the market supply and demand yet neglect
those market and natural factors that are
correlated to the long-term heathcare
sector. Therefore, this work presents two
forecasting models to estimate the market
demand of the elderly population in
Taiwan with respect to the available
resources in the long-term healthcare
sector. A multi-regression model is
developed to measure and forecast not
only the quantity of early demand, but
also the relationship between the demand
and critical factors by accumulating a
significant amount of data and identifying
such factors. The data is then collected via
a questionnaire, with the factors
quantitatively measured based on a
method found in literature review. Next, a
GM (1, 1) model based on the Grey
Theory is developed to accurately forecast
the supply of available long term
healthcare resources by using data
acquired from the website of Taiwan’s
Ministry of Interior. In addition to
identifying relevant factors that affect the
quantity of demand, the proposed
forecasting models can also measure
precisely the quantity of demand and
supply of long-term healthcare resources
in Taiwan. Results of this study provide a
valuable reference for health care policy
makers, investors in the medical sector,
administrators and academics when
devising relevant policies and strategies.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents two forecasting models
to estimate the market demand of the
elderly population in Taiwan with respect
to the available resources in the long-term
healthcare sector. A multi-regression
model is developed to measure and
forecast not only the quantity of early
demand, but also the relationship between
the demand and critical factors by
accumulating a significant amount of data
and identifying such factors. The data is
then collected via a questionnaire, with the
factors quantitatively measured based on a
method found in literature review. Next, a
GM (1, 1) model based on the Grey
Theory is developed to accurately forecast
the supply of available long term
healthcare resources by using data
acquired from the website of Taiwan’s
Ministry of Interior. In addition to
identifying relevant factors that affect the
quantity of demand, the proposed
forecasting models can also measure
precisely the quantity of demand and
supply of long-term healthcare resources
in Taiwan. Results of this study provide a
valuable reference for health care policy
makers, investors in the medical sector,
administrators and academics when
devising relevant policies and strategies.
(Biotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
Based on the above, we should develop
aA model of the mutated C terminus
210 of LMP1 can be developed to
identify the CTAR1 210 site in
nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)
patients by analyzing Epstein-Barr virus
latent membrane protein 1 that is
mutated with C terminus 210. Based on
those results, the phosphorylation and
ubiquitination of the mutated C
terminus 210 can also also be found on
the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
To do so, the mutated C terminus 210 of
LMP1 DNA can be selected by colony
technique. To do so, tThe DNA can then
be transfected to 293T cells and
analyzed, with protein expression
subsequently analyzed by Western
blotting. Next, Tthe protein of
expression mutated C terminus 210 can
be analyzed by a mass spectrometer. As
anticipated, the proposed model of the
mutated C terminus 210 of LMP1 can
induce the phosphorylation and
ubiquitination on the NPC by 65%.
Although Tthe role that epithelial cells
play in the normal biology of infection
with EBV remains controversialhas
been called into question, EBV is found
in this cell type of but there are several
disease, including NPC, oral hairy
leukoplakia, gastric carcinoma and
breast cancer, that EBV is found in this
cell type. Results of this study
contribute to efforts to Further work to
characterize any additional viral factors
that can influence cell fusion is needed.
Abstract (full paper)
As a malignant tumor originating in the
squamous epithelium and expressed in the
posterior, nasopharynx, nasopharyngeal
carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence
rate in the ethnic Chinese population,
especially in southeastern Asia. Genetics
and dietary habits may play an important
role in NPC transformation. Interestingly,
the LMP1 gene has been isolated from
Chinese NPC patients, with those results
indicating that the phosphorylation of
LMP1 plays a significant role in
regulating the function of LMP1. To our
knowledge, the 210 site of C-terminal-
activating region 1 (CTAR1) has never
been examined. Therefore, this study
describes a novel model of the mutated C
terminus 210 of LMP1 to identify the
CTAR1 210 site in nasopharyngeal
carcinoma (NPC) patients by analyzing
Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane
protein 1 that is mutated with C terminus
210. Based on those results, the
phosphorylation and ubiquitination of the
mutated C terminus 210 are also found on
the NPC. The mutated C terminus 210 of
LMP1 DNA is selected by colony
technique. The DNA is then transfected to
293T cells, with protein expression
subsequently analyzed by Western
blotting. Next, the protein of expression
mutated C terminus 210 is analyzed by a
mass spectrometer. Analysis results
indicate that the proposed model can
induce the phosphorylation and
ubiquitination on the NPC by 65%.
Although the role that epithelial cells play
in the normal biology of infection with
EBV remains controversial, EBV is found
in this cell type of several disease,
including NPC, oral hairy leukoplakia,
gastric carcinoma and breast cancer.
Results of this study contribute to efforts
to characterize additional viral factors that
can influence cell fusion, which are
currently underway.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study describes a novel model of the
mutated C terminus 210 of LMP1 to
identify the CTAR1 210 site in
nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients
by analyzing Epstein-Barr virus latent
membrane protein 1 that is mutated with C
terminus 210. Based on those results, the
phosphorylation and ubiquitination of the
mutated C terminus 210 are also found on
the NPC. The mutated C terminus 210 of
LMP1 DNA is selected by colony
technique. The DNA is then transfected to
293T cells, with protein expression
subsequently analyzed by Western
blotting. Next, the protein of expression
mutated C terminus 210 is analyzed by a
mass spectrometer. Analysis results
indicate that the proposed model can
induce the phosphorylation and
ubiquitination on the NPC by 65%.
Although the role that epithelial cells play
in the normal biology of infection with
EBV remains controversial, EBV is found
in this cell type of several disease,
including NPC, oral hairy leukoplakia,
gastric carcinoma and breast cancer.
Results of this study contribute to efforts
to characterize additional viral factors that
can influence cell fusion, which are
currently underway.
(Biotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
Based on the above, The mechanism of
gene _expression in a cell must be
elucidated owing to the importance of
understood for acquiringaintance genes
in thea cell and in the process offor
embryo development is important. To
do so, the regulatingory role of a gene
in the upstream of the gene as promoter
and enhancer, can be analyzed by
adoptingusing molecular cloning
methods. Next, the reportidentified gene
can be linked with a regulating gene to
clarify how for understanding regulating
gene _expression sites are regulated. As
anticipated, The proposed analysiszed
results can clarify thebe understood
mechanism of gene _expression in cells
and regulation of tissue-specificity
genes regulation for us. Results of this
study can provide a valuable reference
for efforts to develop Additionally, the
proposed research can provide a
newtherapeutic method of gene
_expression for therapy of gene defect
patients with genetic defects.
Abstract (full paper)
Gene expression requires that many
proteins interact with regulated elements.
However, modulation of gene expression
has not been thoroughly investigated,
making it impossible to determine the
period and location of gene expression.
Therefore, this study attempts to elucidate
the mechanism of gene expression in a
cell owing to the importance of acquiring
genes in a cell for embryo development.
The regulatory role of a gene in the
upstream as promoter and enhancer is
analyzed by adopting molecular cloning
methods. The identified gene is then
linked with a regulating gene to clarify
how gene expression sites are regulated.
Analysis results clarify the mechanism of
gene expression in cells and regulation of
tissue-specificity genes. Results of this
study provide a valuable reference for
efforts to develop a therapeutic method of
gene expression for patients with genetic
defects.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study attempts to elucidate the
mechanism of gene expression in a cell
owing to the importance of acquiring
genes in a cell for embryo development.
The regulatory role of a gene in the
upstream as promoter and enhancer is
analyzed by adopting molecular cloning
methods. The identified gene is then
linked with a regulating gene to clarify
how gene expression sites are regulated.
Analysis results clarify the mechanism of
gene expression in cells and regulation of
tissue-specificity genes. Results of this
study can provide a valuable reference for
efforts to develop a therapeutic method of
gene expression for patients with genetic
defects.
(Biotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
Coffee Senna is a Leguminosae that
belongs to the bean sub-family tThe
coffee senna trypsin inhibitor (CSTI), to
which Coffee Senna, i.e., a leguminosae
that belongs to its bean sub-family, the
coffee senna trypsin inhibitor can be
purifiedcation and characterizedation by
using the protein purification handle.
Essential to understanding the
fundamental principles of protein
purification, The protease inhibitors are
important tools to understanding of
fundamental principles can be used able to
to design new substances capable of
effectively for the controlling of diseases
and pathological processes. To do so, the
coffee senna seeds can be analyzed. The
coffee senna trypsin inhibitor (CSTI) can
then be extracted withusing a crude
extraction method ( containing
Aammonium Ssulfate precipitate). Next,
the senna trypsin inhibitor can then be
make preliminary purifiedcation to utilize
the column (i.e., gel filtration 、affinity
chromatography 、ion exchange column)
of various characteristics (i.e., molecular
size 、 molecular charge 、 as well as
molecular polar and affinity).
Additionally, the purifyied protein can be
analyzed to further the characterizeation
with further method( its heat stability 、
and different SDS concentrations in order
to achieve stability). As anticipated
results, analysis results can indicate that
the coffee senna trypsin inhibitor (CSTI)
can be extracted and to know what the
type of coffee senna seed can be identified
as well. Besides characterizing CSTI The
coffee senna trypsin inhibitor also can be
doing the faultless characteristic precisely
through analysis., Theits extraction and
characterization characterization analysis
of coffee senna trypsin inhibitor (CSTI)
can be used to classify the coffee senna
type. Moreover, tThe coffee senna trypsin
inhibitorCSTI sequence can achieve
sequential alignment of do the protein
sequence alignment with other legumes.
Result of this study can to understand the
In addition to providing insight into the
physiological significance of coffee senna
trypsin inhibitor physiology significance
CSTI in the plants, results of this study
also can contribute to efforts to design
new substances for thecapable of
effectively controlling of diseases and
pathological processes.
Abstract (full paper)
The production, invasion and transfer of
cancer cells are significantly related to
proteinase inhibitors, which play a critical
role in regulating several physiological
processes such as blood coagulation,
complement fixation, fibrinolysis, and
fertilization. However, cancer proteinase
inhibitors have not been able to be
suppressed owing to the inability to
identify proteinase inhibitors that can
suppress more than 80﹪of all cancer
cells. The coffee senna trypsin inhibitor
(CSTI), to which Coffee Senna, i.e., a
leguminosae that belongs to its bean sub-
family, can be purified and characterized
using protein purification. Essential to
understanding the fundamental principles
of protein purification, protease inhibitors
are used in this study to design new
substances capable of effectively
controlling diseases and pathological
processes. Coffee senna seeds are
analyzed, followed by extraction of CSTI
using a crude extraction method
containing ammonium sulfate precipitate.
The senna trypsin inhibitor is then purified
to utilize the column (i.e., gel
filtration、affinity chromatography、ion
exchange column) of various
characteristics (i.e., molecular
size 、 molecular charge 、 as well as
molecular polar and affinity). Next, the
purified protein is analyzed to further
characterize its heat stability and different
SDS concentrations in order to achieve
stability. Analysis results indicate that
CSTI can be extracted and the type of
coffee senna seed can be identified as
well. Besides characterizing CSTI
precisely through analysis, its extraction
and characterization can be used to
classify the coffee senna type. Moreover,
the CSTI sequence can achieve sequential
alignment of the protein with other
legumes. In addition to providing insight
into the physiological significance of
CSTI in plants, results of this study
contribute to efforts to design substances
capable of effectively controlling diseases
and pathological processes.
Abstract (conference paper)
Essential to understanding the fundamental
principles of protein purification, protease
inhibitors are used in this study to design
new substances capable of effectively
controlling diseases and pathological
processes. Coffee senna seeds are
analyzed, followed by extraction of CSTI
using a crude extraction method
containing ammonium sulfate precipitate.
The senna trypsin inhibitor is then purified
to utilize the column (i.e., gel
filtration、affinity chromatography、ion
exchange column) of various
characteristics (i.e., molecular
size 、 molecular charge 、 as well as
molecular polar and affinity). Next, the
purified protein is analyzed to further
characterize its heat stability and different
SDS concentrations in order to achieve
stability. Analysis results indicate that
CSTI can be extracted and the type of
coffee senna seed can be identified as
well. Besides characterizing CSTI
precisely through analysis, its extraction
and characterization can be used to
classify the coffee senna type. Moreover,
the CSTI sequence can achieve sequential
alignment of the protein with other
legumes. In addition to providing insight
into the physiological significance of
CSTI in plants, results of this study
contribute to efforts to design substances
capable of effectively controlling diseases
and pathological processes.
(Biotechnology)
TNF-α and NF-κB of RAW 264.7 cell
line the TNF-α and NF-κB can be
analyzed by using the cell culture
handlemethods, providing insight into
how the cell signal pathway and
immunity regulation of it’s can more
understand the nitro oxide in cellular
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium
pool complete cell signal pathway and
immunity regulation to beare related.
The TNF-α,NF-κB and MAPK can also
be determined to be closely associated
with the signal pathways of both human
diseases such as cancer. are to join in
the singing the human disease and
cancer to be closely linked. Recent
reports have suggested that an elevated
intracellular Ca2+ concentration,
[Ca2+]i, can initiate apoptosis, where an
increase in [Ca2+]i is observed prior to
genome fragmentation and cell death.
To do so, the RAW 264.7 cell line can
be analyzed. The experiment can be
performed with using Griess reagent
(1% Sulfanilamide, 0.1% NED) and
chemiluminescence. Next, tThe PKC
protein can then be analyzed dy useing
Wwestern Bblot Aanalysis . Next, NF-
κB and MAPK can be analyzed using
primary and secondary
antibodiesAdditionally, to use the
primary antibody and secondary
antibody to analysis NF-κB and MAPK
. Moreover, to useAdditionally, the
mouse fibroblasts can be used by adding
, L929, were added to serial dilutions of
the conditioned media at 5×10
4
cells per
well (in 96-well plates), followed by
and treatedment with 1 μg/ml
actinomycin D. FurthermoreMoreover,
Aafter 24 h of treatment, the viability of
cells can bewas measured by MTT
assay. TNF-α was used to defineFinally,
a standard curve can be defined using
TNF-α. As anticipated, analysis results,
we can indicate that to search out the
TNF-α,NF-κB and MAPK can be found
in the RAW 264.7 cell line of the
cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
calcium pool singnal pathway.
Andditionally, also to accomplish this
pathway can be understood with respect
toregard to the cancer faultless
characteristic assay elucidating the
characteristics of cancer. Results of this
study can to reach understand the
inability to thoroughly understancan
dprovide further insight into not only
the signal pathways of intracellular
TNF-α, NF-γB, and MAPK makes it it
impossible to determine what , but also
the role in which ER calicium pool and
induced cytokine play in the RAW
264.7 cell.
Abstract (full paper)
As well known, as a major intracellular
reservoir of Ca2+ in nonmuscular cells,
endoplasmic reticulum ER is essential for
many cellular functions, including protein
processing within ER. However, while
previous studies investigated how the
murine macrophage cell line regulates the
signal pathway of ER calicium pool,
exactly how the signal pathways of
cellular TNF-α, NF-γB, and MAPK
regulates the concentration of cellular
calcium ion remains unclear. Therefore,
this study analyzes TNF-α and NF-κB of
RAW 264.7 cell using cell culture
methods, providing insight into how the
cell signal pathway and immunity
regulation of nitro oxide in cellular
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pool
are related. TNF-α,NF-κB and MAPK is
also determined to be closely associated
with the signal pathways of both human
diseases such as cancer. First, the RAW
264.7 cell is analyzed using Griess reagent
(1% Sulfanilamide, 0.1% NED) and
chemiluminescence. The PKC protein is
then analyzed using western blot analysis.
Next, NF-κB and MAPK is analyzed
using primary and secondary antibodies.
Additionally, the mouse fibroblasts are
used by adding L929 to serial dilutions of
the conditioned media at 5×10
4

cells per


well (in 96-well plates), followed by
treatment with 1 μg/ml actinomycin D.
Moreover, after 24 h of treatment, the
viability of cells is measured by MTT
assay. Finally, a standard curve is defined
using TNF-α. Analysis results indicate
that the TNF-α,NF-κB and MAPK can be
found in the RAW 264.7 cell of the
cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
calcium pool signal pathway. Additionally,
this pathway can be understood with
respect to elucidating the characteristics of
cancer. Results of this study provide
further insight into not only the signal
pathways of intracellular TNF-α, NF-γB,
and MAPK, but also the role in which ER
calicium pool and induced cytokine play
in the RAW 264.7 cell.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study analyzes TNF-α and NF-κB of
RAW 264.7 cell using cell culture
methods, providing insight into how the
cell signal pathway and immunity
regulation of nitro oxide in cellular
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pool
are related. TNF-α,NF-κB and MAPK is
also determined to be closely associated
with the signal pathways of both human
diseases such as cancer. First, the RAW
264.7 cell is analyzed using Griess reagent
(1% Sulfanilamide, 0.1% NED) and
chemiluminescence. The PKC protein is
then analyzed using western blot analysis.
Next, NF-κB and MAPK is analyzed
using primary and secondary antibodies.
Additionally, the mouse fibroblasts are
used by adding L929 to serial dilutions of
the conditioned media at 5×10
4

cells per


well (in 96-well plates), followed by
treatment with 1 μg/ml actinomycin D.
Moreover, after 24 h of treatment, the
viability of cells is measured by MTT
assay. Finally, a standard curve is defined
using TNF-α. Analysis results indicate
that the TNF-α,NF-κB and MAPK can be
found in the RAW 264.7 cell of the
cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
calcium pool signal pathway. Additionally,
this pathway can be understood with
respect to elucidating the characteristics of
cancer. Results of this study provide
further insight into not only the signal
pathways of intracellular TNF-α, NF-γB,
and MAPK, but also the role in which ER
calicium pool and induced cytokine play
in the RAW 264.7 cell.
(Biotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
Based on the above, aA rapidly and
efficiently in vivo-induced antigen
method to identify Mycobacteria
tuberculosis can be developed for use
duringin clinical examinationse article.
To do so, identification of gTo do so,
genes associated with the virulence
factor in Mycobacteria tuberculosis can
be identified in a about genees library
can be construction in order to achieve
transformation and ligation. His tag and
Western blot can then be performed to
achieve recombinant expression and
purification for mMost virulence
proteins associated with Mycobacteria
tuberculosis can be recombinant
expression and purification so as to do
His tag and Western blot. Next,
Cconsiderable quantities of the
virulence protein associated with
Mycobacteria tuberculosis can be
purifiedcation in height-throupghput for
in order that antibody production.
Additionally, dot-blot hybridization can
be performed to Whether to understand
screening for proteins uniquely
expressed in vivo by Mycobacteria
tuberculosis so as to do dot-blot
hybridization. As anticipated, most
Mycobacteria tuberculosis in vivo
expressed proteins can be able to
cloneding, as well as achieve
recombinant expression and
purification. The most , which are all
deemed essentialsignificant to to
researchinvestigate proteins expressed
by Mycobacteria tuberculosis during
human infection. In vivo-induced
antigen technology (IVIAT) to iCapable
of identifying Mycobacteria
tuberculosis genes that are specifically
expressed during human infection., the
proposed in vivo-induced antigen
method In vivo-induced antigen is
technology more faster, more
flexibleeasy and specific than
conventionalroutine clinical
examineation methods: of bacteria
culture and acid fast stain. The
proposed method In vivo-induced
antigen technologycan also detect could
prevent and early phases to detect
Mycobacteria tuberculosis in its early
stages for subsequent therapeutic
proceed to the next step to treatment.
Abstract (full paper)
As tuberculosis is a common human
mycobacterial disease, its growth
properties and colonial morphology are
used for the preliminary identification of
mycobacterium. This is owing to that
mycobacterium tuberculosis is a slowing-
growing bacteria and mycobacteria can be
identified using biochemical tests,
although yielding results requires at least
three weeks. Therefore, this work presents
a rapid and efficient in vivo-induced
antigen method to identify Mycobacteria
tuberculosis for use during clinical
examinations. Genes associated with the
virulence factor in Mycobacteria
tuberculosis are identified in a gene
library to achieve transformation and
ligation. His tag and Western blot are then
performed to achieve recombinant
expression and purification for most
virulence proteins associated with
Mycobacteria. Next, considerable
quantities of the virulence protein
associated with Mycobacteria tuberculosis
are purified in height-throughput for
antibody production. Additionally, dot-
blot hybridization is performed to to
screen for proteins uniquely expressed in
vivo by Mycobacteria tuberculosis.
Analysis results indicate that most
Mycobacteria tuberculosis in vivo
expressed proteins can be cloned, as well
as achieve recombinant expression and
purification, which are all deemed
essential to investigate proteins expressed
by Mycobacteria tuberculosis during
human infection. Capable of identifying
Mycobacteria tuberculosis genes that are
specifically expressed during human
infection, the proposed in vivo-induced
antigen method is faster, more flexible and
specific than conventional clinical
examination methods of bacteria culture
and acid fast stain. The proposed method
can also detect Mycobacteria tuberculosis
in its early stages for subsequent
therapeutic treatment.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a rapid and efficient in
vivo-induced antigen method to identify
Mycobacteria tuberculosis for use during
clinical examinations. Genes associated
with the virulence factor in Mycobacteria
tuberculosis are identified in a gene
library to achieve transformation and
ligation. His tag and Western blot are then
performed to achieve recombinant
expression and purification for most
virulence proteins associated with
Mycobacteria. Next, considerable
quantities of the virulence protein
associated with Mycobacteria tuberculosis
are purified in height-throughput for
antibody production. Additionally, dot-
blot hybridization is performed to to
screen for proteins uniquely expressed in
vivo by Mycobacteria tuberculosis.
Analysis results indicate that most
Mycobacteria tuberculosis in vivo
expressed proteins can be cloned, as well
as achieve recombinant expression and
purification, which are all deemed
essential to investigate proteins expressed
by Mycobacteria tuberculosis during
human infection. Capable of identifying
Mycobacteria tuberculosis genes that are
specifically expressed during human
infection, the proposed in vivo-induced
antigen method is faster, more flexible and
specific than conventional clinical
examination methods of bacteria culture
and acid fast stain. The proposed method
can also detect Mycobacteria tuberculosis
in its early stages for subsequent
therapeutic treatment.
(Biotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
Based on the above, we should
investigate the feasibility of applying
investigatean assay method that can of
not only to identifying tea polyphenols
thatto pass through the human intestines
and stomach in human, but also to
determine weahether it will
hydrochloric acid in gastric juice affects
change it’s their antioxidiation ability.by
hydrochloric acid in gastric juice or not,
and to identify wWheather tea
polyphenols wican ll control it’sthe
apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cell or not, too
can be determined as well.
To do so, the catechin samples
( catechin ) can be analyzed., followed by
dissolution of Ccatechin of green tea will
dissolve in pH6.86 buffer, and as well as
the addition of the different pH values of
buffer to simulate hydrochloric acid in
gastric juice.
Next, to measure tThe DPPH of catechin
can then be measured to determine the
antioxidation ability of tea polyphenols.
AdditionallyNext, the cell apoptosis
iscan be induced by AAPH methods,
followed by and then measurement of the
cell expression via by flow cytometry.
An anticipated, the proposed assayto
bring up methods, can confirm not only
that the catechin can maintains good
antioxidation at a low pH, but also that
and it’s antioxidation ratepercent can over
and above exceeds 60%. The proposed
method can further confirm that In
addition to anticipated catechin can inhibit
free radicals and reduce the apoptosis of
an intestinal cell.
Importantly, results of this study can
contribute to efforts to So, it will reduce
the likelihoodo occur of cardiovascular
diseases, andas well as inhibit cancer
growth.
1
st
Abstract
Abstract (full paper)
The presence of many polyphenols in tea is
well documented. For example,
polyphenols such as ECg, EGCg, and
catechin have excellent antioxidative
capabilities to inhibit free radicals in
humans. Additionally, although the
antioxidative ability of polyphenol has
been investigated in vitro, doing so in vivo
has been unsuccessful owing to that the
way in which the antioxidative ability
impacts the intestines and stomach in vitro
differs from that in vivo. Therefore, this
work investigates the feasibility of
applying an assay method not only to
identify tea polyphenols that pass through
the human intestines and stomach, but also
to determine whether hydrochloric acid in
gastric juice affects their antioxidation
ability. Whether tea polyphenols can
control the apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cell
can be determined as well. Catechin
samples are analyzed, followed by
dissolution of catechin of green tea in
pH6.86 buffer as well as the addition of
different pH values of buffer to simulate
hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. The
DPPH of catechin is then measured to
determine the antioxidation ability of tea
polyphenols. Next, the cell apoptosis is
induced by AAPH methods, followed by
measurement of the cell expression via
flow cytometry. Analysis results indicate
that the assay method verifies not only
that the catechin maintains good
antioxidation at a low pH, but also that it’s
antioxidation rate exceeds 60%. The
proposed method further verifies that
catechin can inhibit free radicals and
reduce the apoptosis of an intestinal cell.
Importantly, results of this study can
contribute to efforts to reduce the
likelihood of cardiovascular diseases, as
well as inhibit cancer growth.
Abstract (conference)
Therefore, this work investigates the
feasibility of applying an assay method
not only to identify tea polyphenols that
pass through the human intestines and
stomach, but also to determine whether
hydrochloric acid in gastric juice affects
their antioxidation ability. Whether tea
polyphenols can control the apoptosis of
RAW 264.7 cell can be determined as
well. Catechin samples are analyzed,
followed by dissolution of catechin of
green tea in pH6.86 buffer as well as the
addition of different pH values of buffer
to simulate hydrochloric acid in gastric
juice. The DPPH of catechin is then
measured to determine the antioxidation
ability of tea polyphenols. Next, the cell
apoptosis is induced by AAPH methods,
followed by measurement of the cell
expression via flow cytometry. Analysis
results indicate that the assay method
verifies not only that the catechin
maintains good antioxidation at a low pH,
but also that it’s antioxidation rate exceeds
60%. The proposed method further
verifies that catechin can inhibit free
radicals and reduce the apoptosis of an
intestinal cell. Importantly, results of this
study can contribute to efforts to reduce
the likelihood of cardiovascular diseases,
as well as inhibit cancer growth.
(Biotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
The presence of many polyphenols in tea
is well documented. For example,
polyphenols such as ECg, EGCg, and
catechin Although, based on the previous
investigate that presence of many
polyphenols in tea is well documented.
For example, polyphenols such as
ECg 、 EGCg 、 catechin…ate. In
particular, Ggreen tea polyphenols have
been reported to inhibit intestinal α-
amylase or sucrase and are known to have
excellent antioxidation activity to inhibit
free radicals in humans. This explains why
potential implications for reagents for anti
high blood pressure reagent, anti
cardiovascular diseases reagent, and anti
diabetes reagent have all received
considerable attention.
However, while the antioxidative ability
of tea polyphenols has been investigated
in vitro, doing so in vivo has been
unsuccessful owing to that the way in
which the antioxidative ability impactsing
the intestines and stomach in vitro differs
from that in vivo.
Therefore, while in vitro the previous
investigateions thathave demonstrated tea
polyphenols has having antioxidation
ability of around about 50 percentage by
in vitro. However,%, the corresponding
amount for its the antioxidation ability is
unknown for unin an- in vivo
investigation remains unknown.
The By in vivo, to observe the
antioxidation ability of tea polyphenols to
inhibit by inflammation response in the
human intestines and stomach of human
must be investigated in vivo.
79. (Biotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
Based on the above, we should
investigateAn assay method that can be
developed to of identifyidetermine
whether ng antioxidation ability of tea
polyphenols inhibits inflammation in the
human intestines and stomach in vivo tea
polyphenol to inhibit inflammation in
intestines and stomach in human. To do
so, the PGE
2
can be analyzed by EIA kit.
The RAW 264.7 can then be induced to
PGE
2
by LPS. Next, The content of PGE
2
content can be analyzed by EIA kit and,
followed by dyeing of the cell can be
dyeing by MTT to determinemeasure the
survival rate of the cell. Ans anticipated,
according to the proposed assay to bring
up methods, EGCG can inhibit PGE
2
and
100μM of EGCG can inhibit content of
the PGE
2
content completely.
Andditionally, the other polyphenols in
green tea, e.g., for example, ECG, EC,
EGC and catechin, are all inhibit the
efficacy of LPS, subsequently inducinge
the PGE
2
in macrophage. Among those
polyphenolsHowever, EGCG isinhibits
the most efficacy of LPS the most. In
addition And then, to reduceing the
symptoms of irritation, fever and edema…
by PGE
2
. It, the tea polyphenols can also
avoid the negative side effects of by
NSAIDs and prevent cancer.
2
nd
Abstract
Abstract (full paper)
Green tea polyphenols have been reported
to inhibit intestinal α-amylase or sucrase
and are known to have excellent
antioxidation activity to inhibit free
radicals in humans, thus having many
potential implications for reagents for anti
high blood pressure, cardiovascular
diseases, and diabetes have all received
considerable attention. While in vitro
investigations have demonstrated tea
polyphenols as having antioxidation
ability of around 50%, the corresponding
amount for its antioxidation ability in an
in vivo investigation remains unknown.
Therefore, this work describes an assay
method to determine whether
antioxidation ability of tea polyphenols
inhibits inflammation in the human
intestines and stomach in an in vivo study.
PGE
2
is analyzed by EIA kit. RAW 264.7
is then induced to PGE
2
by LPS. Next, The
PGE
2
content is analyzed by EIA kit,
followed by dyeing of the cell by MTT to
determine the survival rate of the cell.
According to the proposed assay method,
EGCG can inhibit PGE
2
and 100μM of
EGCG can inhibit the PGE
2
content
completely. Additionally, other
polyphenols in green tea, e.g., ECG, EC,
EGC and catechin, all inhibit the efficacy
of LPS, subsequently inducing the PGE
2
in macrophage. Among those polyphenols,
EGCG inhibits the most efficacy of LPS
the most. In addition to reducing the
symptoms of irritation, fever and edema…
by PGE
2
, the tea polyphenols can avoid
the negative side effects of NSAIDs and
prevent cancer.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work describes a novel assay method
to determine the role of tea polyphenols in
inhibiting inflammation in the human
intestines and stomach in an in vivo study.
PGE
2
is analyzed by EIA kit. RAW 264.7
is then induced to PGE
2
by LPS. Next, The
PGE
2
content is analyzed by EIA kit,
followed by dyeing of the cell by MTT to
determine the survival rate of the cell.
According to the proposed assay method,
EGCG can inhibit PGE
2
and 100μM of
EGCG can inhibit the PGE
2
content
completely. Additionally, other
polyphenols in green tea, e.g., ECG, EC,
EGC and catechin, all inhibit the efficacy
of LPS, subsequently inducing the PGE
2
in macrophage. Among those polyphenols,
EGCG inhibits the most efficacy of LPS
the most. In addition to reducing the
symptoms of irritation, fever and edema…
by PGE
2
, the tea polyphenols can avoid
the negative side effects of NSAIDs and
prevent cancer.
(Biotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
The technique of theA PCR-based
molecular biology method can be
developed to detectidentify thea
particularity gene of Vibrio
parahaemolyticus. Making use of this
gene comes to rapidly identify Vibrio
parahaemolyticus. To do so, this gene
in a chromosome can be extracted
forom bacteria. This gene can
Amplification of this gene can be
achieved make by usinge of the PCR
method to come to amplify. For
subsequent PCR-based assays, can then
be made by preparing all of the whole
genomic DNAs of the strains were
prepared in Tris-EDTA buffer (TE; pH
8.0) according to previous
literatureessentially as described
elsewhere. Next, tThe purity and the
amount of DNA in each preparation can
bewere estimated colorimetrically,
withand the DNAs weresubsequently
stored at 4°C until further use.
Additionally, Can understand whether
germs can be found in exist the seafood
can be determined using or not by t the
PCR method of PCR. As anticipated,
the proposed PCR-based molecular
biology method this method of PCR of
putting forward can be used to the
technique of rapidly identify of being
thethe presence of marine bacteria in the
early stages. Can be the basis found in
early days. The method of this
molecular biology canIn addition to
provideing quickly results with a, high
degree of sensitivitye degree, the result
of the high particularity, for the sake of
rapid identify of the Vibrio
parahaemolyticus. T, the proposed
method can also provideyield rapid and
accurate molecular biology results to
detect V.ibrio parahaemolyticus in the
environment.
Abstract (full paper)
Widely distributed in the aquatic
environment, bacteria in the genus Vibrio
are considered autochthonous bacteria in
marine and estuarine waters. PCR method
is the conventional means of detecting the
target with the tdh gene or trh gene, in
which the specificity in the chromosome
of V. parahaemolyticus gene of chitinase
can be used as the detection marker.
However, this method is inefficient.
Therefore, this work presents a PCR-
based molecular biology method to
identify a particular gene of Vibrio
parahaemolyticus rapidly. This gene in a
chromosome is extracted from bacteria.
Amplification of this gene is then
achieved by using the PCR method. PCR-
based assays are then made by preparing
all of the genomic DNAs of the strains in
Tris-EDTA buffer (TE; pH 8.0)according
to previous literature. Next, the purity and
the amount of DNA in each preparation
are estimated colorimetrically, with the
DNAs subsequently stored at 4°C until
further use. Additionally, whether germs
can be found in seafood is determined
using the PCR method. The proposed
PCR-based molecular biology method
rapidly identifies the presence of marine
bacteria in the early stages. In addition to
providing quick results with a high degree
of sensitivity, the proposed method yields
rapid and accurate results to detect Vibrio
parahaemolyticus in the environment.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work presents a PCR-based molecular
biology method to identify a particular
gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus rapidly.
This gene in a chromosome is extracted
from bacteria. Amplification of this gene
is then achieved by using the PCR
method. PCR-based assays are then made
by preparing all of the genomic DNAs of
the strains in Tris-EDTA buffer (TE; pH
8.0)according to previous literature. Next,
the purity and the amount of DNA in each
preparation are estimated colorimetrically,
with the DNAs subsequently stored at 4°C
until further use. Additionally, whether
germs can be found in seafood is
determined using the PCR method. The
proposed PCR-based molecular biology
method rapidly identifies the presence of
marine bacteria in the early stages. In
addition to providing quick results with a
high degree of sensitivity, the proposed
method yields rapid and accurate results to
detect Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the
environment.
(Biotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
The reference of A biochemistry method
for Taiwanese salivary
biochemistryglands can be developed
for have to be established in clinical
diagnostic applications that instead of
theas an alternative to the conventional
approach measurements of blood
examination. To do so, Ssaliva of
receptions of for both all genders and
various age groups can be are used to
collect andfor treatment, such as for
distance, so as to do decreaseing the
interference of peroxidase,. tThe saliva
specimens can then be used to avoidare
employed to heat that could avoid. Next,
high speed centrifugation of And also,
the saliva specimens are high speed
centrifugedcan be achieved tofor
precipitant proteins or impurities of
saliva. The specimens can then be
detected based on enzyme
immunoassay-based measurements is
utilized to detect the specimens. The
analysis methodstrategy, e.g.for
distance, the preservation or expiration
date of saliva, iscan be validated not
only tofor evaluatione the at room
temperature, 4 degrees and –20 degrees,
and also, to but also for evaluateion of
the stability overduring several days
( one day, threeird days, fivefth days,
seventh days…). that is the firstThis
must be established first to achieve the
indicateion of that preservation has been
achieved. The second,Additionally, the
correlation between salivary
testosterone and serum testosterone can
be madeare identified to compare the
salivary testosterone concentration and
the serum total, as well as the free
testosterone concentration. The
statistical significantce can be
determined as well are utilized to
verifycorroborate the correlation and
ratio. And the thirdMoreover, the
salivary testosterone reference level of a
healthy Taiwanese male and female of
Taiwanese are establishedcan be
identified to apply in thefor clinical
diagnostic applicationsis.
FurthermoreThe fourth, the quality
control can be established are made up
to perform to achieve the recovery,
intraassay, interassay CV%, sensitivity,
accuracy and precision of salivary
testosterone. As anticipated, Tanalysis
he results can be used to establish a
biochemistry method for Taiwanese
salivary glandsare anticipated to identify
the reference of salivary biochemistry
that in which validity correlates with
blood concentration. The salivary
testosterone concentration and serum
total, free testosterone are evaluated
according to the ratio. The medical
examination of saliva glands has
become a globalwas a trend in the
world,, in which if the salivary steroid
analysis must be is validated to stable,
equivalently, the. Additionally, other
salivary biomarkers can beare
developed in the futureto research. And
then, these can apply to for clinical
diagnostic applications such as in
treatingis, for example, systemic
diseases 、 , viral diseases 、 , drug
monitoring 、 , and monitoring of
hormone levels monitoring.
Abstract (full paper)
(NOTE: I need the setting of your research
proposal and your research problem in
order to make this full paper abstract
complete. I did not receive your
homework 5.)
This work describes a novel biochemistry
method for Taiwanese salivary glands for
clinical diagnostic applications as an
alternative to the conventional approach
measurements of blood examination.
Saliva of receptions for both genders and
various age groups is used for treatment,
such as decreasing the interference of
peroxidase. The saliva specimens are then
used to avoid heat. Next, high speed
centrifugation of the saliva specimens is
achieved for precipitant proteins or
impurities of saliva. The specimens are
then detected based on enzyme
immunoassay-based measurements. The
analysis method, e.g., the preservation or
expiration date of saliva, is validated not
only for evaluation at room temperature, 4
degrees and –20 degrees, and also, but
also for evaluation of the stability over
several days ( one day, three days, five
days, seven days). This must be
established first to indicate that
preservation has been achieved.
Additionally, the correlation between
salivary testosterone and serum
testosterone is made to compare the
salivary testosterone concentration and the
serum total, as well as the free
testosterone concentration. The statistical
significance is determined as well to
verify the correlation and ratio. Moreover,
the salivary testosterone level of a healthy
Taiwanese male and female is identified
for clinical diagnostic applications.
Furthermore, quality control is
established to achieve the recovery,
intraassay, interassay CV%, sensitivity,
accuracy and precision of salivary
testosterone. Analysis results can be used
to establish a biochemistry method for
Taiwanese salivary glands in which
validity correlates with blood
concentration. The salivary testosterone
concentration and serum total, free
testosterone are evaluated according to the
ratio. The medical examination of saliva
glands has become a global trend, in
which the salivary steroid analysis must
be validated. Additionally, other salivary
biomarkers can be developed in the future
for clinical diagnostic applications such as
in treating systemic diseases, viral
diseases, drug monitoring, and monitoring
of hormone levels.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work describes a novel biochemistry
method for Taiwanese salivary glands for
clinical diagnostic applications as an
alternative to the conventional approach
measurements of blood examination.
Saliva of receptions for both genders and
various age groups is used for treatment,
such as decreasing the interference of
peroxidase. The saliva specimens are then
used to avoid heat. Next, high speed
centrifugation of the saliva specimens is
achieved for precipitant proteins or
impurities of saliva. The specimens are
then detected based on enzyme
immunoassay-based measurements. The
analysis method, e.g., the preservation or
expiration date of saliva, is validated not
only for evaluation at room temperature, 4
degrees and –20 degrees, and also, but
also for evaluation of the stability over
several days ( one day, three days, five
days, seven days). This must be
established first to indicate that
preservation has been achieved.
Additionally, the correlation between
salivary testosterone and serum
testosterone is made to compare the
salivary testosterone concentration and the
serum total, as well as the free
testosterone concentration. The statistical
significance is determined as well to
verify the correlation and ratio. Moreover,
the salivary testosterone level of a healthy
Taiwanese male and female is identified
for clinical diagnostic applications.
Furthermore, quality control is
established to achieve the recovery,
intraassay, interassay CV%, sensitivity,
accuracy and precision of salivary
testosterone. Analysis results can be used
to establish a biochemistry method for
Taiwanese salivary glands in which
validity correlates with blood
concentration. The salivary testosterone
concentration and serum total, free
testosterone are evaluated according to the
ratio. The medical examination of saliva
glands has become a global trend, in
which the salivary steroid analysis must
be validated. Additionally, other salivary
biomarkers can be developed in the future
for clinical diagnostic applications such as
in treating systemic diseases, viral
diseases, drug monitoring, and monitoring
of hormone levels.
(Nuclear Science-Radiotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
Whether Tthe time interval between
breast-conserving surgery and radiation
therapy significantly affects whetherthe
likelihood of recurring ipsilateral breast
recurscancer can be
determinedelucidated by by using thea
statistical method . To do so, the
difference patients data can be
analyzedsis can be performed to
determine whether forecast the time
interval between breast-conserving
surgery and radiation therapy
significantly affects whether ipsilateral
breast recurs, accurately from the input
data. The accumulated patient data can
then be evaluated according to various
categories such as divided many groups
that including : age, sex gender,
histology, tumor size, residence, and
pathological T stage…etc, then can be
collect and evaluated. Additionally, the
data can be input into the employed to
for using SPSS analysis software
program for further analysis. As
anticipated, According to the analysis
results can establish an find a
effectiveness and criterion for
determining how the timeing interval
between breast-conserving surgery and
radiation therapy significantly affects
whetherthe likelihood of recurring
ipsilateral breast recurscancer., thus
Then hope to elevateing breast cancer
patient`sthe survival rate of cancer
patients markedly. Results in this study
can provide a valuable reference for to
relative and correct information for
doctorphysicians in to diagnosis and
treating breast cancer patients during in
the clinical examinations.
Abstract (full paper)
The time interval between breast-
conserving surgery and radiation therapy
significantly affects whether ipsilateral
breast recurs. However, conventional
methods, which solely rely on the clinical
experiences of physicians, lack an
objective classification standard to
determine the optimal time interval
between breast-conserving surgery and
radiation therapy. Therefore, this study
attempts to determine whether the time
interval between breast-conserving
surgery and radiation therapy significantly
affects the likelihood of recurring
ipsilateral breast cancer by using a
statistical method. Patient data are
analyzed to determine whether the time
interval between breast-conserving
surgery and radiation therapy significantly
affects whether ipsilateral breast recurs.
The accumulated patient data are then
evaluated according to various categories
such as age, gender, histology, tumor size,
residence, and pathological T stage.
Additionally, the data are input into the
SPSS analysis software program for
further analysis. Analysis results can be
used to establish an effective criterion for
determining how the time interval
between breast-conserving surgery and
radiation therapy significantly affects the
likelihood of recurring ipsilateral breast
cancer, thus elevating the survival rate of
cancer patients markedly. Results in this
study provide a valuable reference for
physicians in diagnosis and treating breast
cancer patients during clinical
examinations.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study attempts to determine whether
the time interval between breast-
conserving surgery and radiation therapy
significantly affects the likelihood of
recurring ipsilateral breast cancer by using
a statistical method. Patient data are
analyzed to determine whether the time
interval between breast-conserving
surgery and radiation therapy significantly
affects whether ipsilateral breast recurs.
The accumulated patient data are then
evaluated according to various categories
such as age, gender, histology, tumor size,
residence, and pathological T stage.
Additionally, the data are input into the
SPSS analysis software program for
further analysis. Analysis results can be
used to establish an effective criterion for
determining how the time interval
between breast-conserving surgery and
radiation therapy significantly affects the
likelihood of recurring ipsilateral breast
cancer, thus elevating the survival rate of
cancer patients markedly. Results in this
study provide a valuable reference for
physicians in diagnosis and treating breast
cancer patients during clinical
examinations.
(Nuclear Science-Radiotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
Neural transmitters were play an
essential very important role
fortransmitting messages transition into
and from the brain. Anyway , previous
investigation applies the instrument
HPLC (Whereas, in clinical practice,
high performance liquid
chromatogxygraphy (HPLC) has been
adopted to analyze neural transmitters,
e.g., ex: dopamine ,and glutamate…of
the brain., indeed thethis method of
HPLC will decreaselowers the survival
rate of laboratory animals mice and
increases injury of neuron damage.
Therefore , this propose present another
instrument anda noninvasive means
ofthod to detectings neural transmitters
,can be developed that
containsincorporates a new instrument
MRS (magnet resonance spectrum
(MRS) instrumentand a non-invasive
method for neural transmitter detection
meantime and, meanwhile, increases the
survival rate of laboratory animalsmice.
To do soFirst, give thean appropriate
suitable dosage or urethane can be
administered to laboratoryfor
animalsmice for anesthesia . Next ,
animals were The mice can then be
placed at a space that around in close
proximity to a magnet coil .
NextSubsequently , the neural
transmitters could been, as observed by
MRS, can causeyield the various
differentdegrees of polarization and
chemical constituentse . By applying
MRS, And the noninvasive means of
detecting neural transmitters proposed
herein canfor applies MRS could
increase the survival rate of animals was
verify and laboratory mice, as
confirmed by experimental results.
Importantly , the ability of the proposed
method to increase the survival rate of
laboratory miceproposed instrument and
method can facility to increase the
survival rate when researcher work on
experiments by the animal model , can
ultimately lower the neuron damage
caused byincurred when detecting
neural transmitters detection.
Abstract (full paper)
Neural transmitters play an essential role
transmitting messages to and from the
brain. Whereas, in clinical practice, high
performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) has been adopted to analyze
neural transmitters, e.g., dopamine and
glutamate, this method lowers the survival
rate of laboratory animals and increases
neuron damage. Therefore, this work
describes a noninvasive means of
detecting neural transmitters that
incorporates a new magnet resonance
spectrum (MRS) instrument and,
meanwhile, increases the survival rate of
laboratory mice. An appropriate dose or
urethane is administered to laboratory
mice for anesthesia. The mice are then
placed in close proximity to a magnet coil.
Next, the neural transmitters, as observed
by MRS, yield various degrees of
polarization and chemical constituents. By
applying MRS, the noninvasive means of
detecting neural transmitters proposed
herein increases the survival rate of
laboratory mice, as confirmed by
experimental results. Importantly, the
ability of the proposed method to increase
the survival rate of laboratory mice
ultimately lowers neuron damage incurred
when detecting neural transmitters.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work describes a noninvasive means
of detecting neural transmitters that
incorporates a new magnet resonance
spectrum (MRS) instrument and,
meanwhile, increases the survival rate of
laboratory mice. An appropriate dose or
urethane is administered to laboratory
mice for anesthesia. The mice are then
placed in close proximity to a magnet coil.
Next, the neural transmitters, as observed
by MRS, yield various degrees of
polarization and chemical constituents. By
applying MRS, the noninvasive means of
detecting neural transmitters proposed
herein increases the survival rate of
laboratory mice, as confirmed by
experimental results. Importantly, the
ability of the proposed method to increase
the survival rate of laboratory mice
ultimately lowers neuron damage incurred
when detecting neural transmitters.
(Nuclear Science-Radiotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
Based on the above, we should develop
aA high lipophilicity
radiopharmaceutical method can be
developed that synthesizess of two new
[99m
Tc] [SNS/S] complexes carrying a
monothiolate coligand and
aminedithiolate (SNS) ligand ,
tosubsequently increaseing the
radiopharmaceutical high lipophilicity
level in order to maintain a human
brain’s stability and uptake. To do so,
monothiolate and aminoedithiolate can
be used to synthesizes of two new [
99m
Tc] [SNS/S] complexes carrying a
pendant ethyl ester group on the
common monthiolate coligand, but
containingwith each containing a
different aminedithiolate(SNS) ligand.
Two of the new ligands containingthat
[SNS/S] can then be to partially
combined with
99m
Tc’s 1-3 ligand. Next,
hHigh performance liquid
chromatographic (HPLC) and Tthinck
layer chromatographic (TLC) can be
used to purelyify and analyzesis the
newly synthesizeds
radiopharmaceutical. Additionally, the
new radiopharmaceutical can be
injected in laboratory mice, with the
radiopharmaceutical uptake number of
each mouse organ analyzed as well. As
anticipated, the proposed high
lipophilicity radiopharmaceutical
method can ensure stability in a
mice’sthe brain of mice with an uptake
number approaching 15% and other
organ’sthe uptake number of other
organs lower than 30%. The proposed
methodResults of this study can
contribute to efforts to increase the
clinical accuracy of diagnosing brain
diseases as early as possible for curative
purposes, subsequently lowering the
radiation dose of patients with brain-
related diseases.
Abstract (full paper)
Taiwan has a high incidence of head-
related injuries, such as brain-related
tumors and diseases. As a nuclear
medicine-based technology, brain imagery
can diagnose such diseases, such as the
use of brain uptake radiopharmaceuticals
to accurately diagnose the early stages of
brain-related diseases. However,
according to clinical studies, the amount
and concentration of brain uptake
radiopharmaceuticals have a low stability,
severely limiting their ability to diagnose
brain-related diseases accurately and
efficiently. Therefore, this work describes
a high lipophilicity radiopharmaceutical
method that synthesizes two new
[99m

Tc]


[SNS/S] complexes carrying a
monothiolate coligand and aminedithiolate
(SNS) ligand, subsequently increasing the
radiopharmaceutical high lipophilicity
level to maintain a human brain’s stability
and uptake. Monothiolate and
aminoedithiolate are used to synthesize
two new [
99m

Tc] [SNS/S] complexes


carrying a pendant ethyl ester group on the
common monthiolate coligand, with each
containing a different
aminedithiolate(SNS) ligand. Two of the
new ligands containing [SNS/S] are then
partially combined with
99m

Tc’s 1-3 ligand.


Next, high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) and thick layer
chromatography (TLC) are used to purify
and analyze the newly synthesized
radiopharmaceutical. Additionally, the
new radiopharmaceutical is injected in
laboratory mice, with the
radiopharmaceutical uptake number of
each mouse organ analyzed as well. The
proposed high lipophilicity
radiopharmaceutical method ensures the
stability in the brain of mice with an
uptake number approaching 15% and the
uptake number of other organs lower than
30%. The proposed method can
contribute to efforts to increase the
clinical accuracy of diagnosing brain
diseases as early as possible for curative
purposes, subsequently lowering the
radiation dose of patients with brain-
related diseases.
Abstract (conference paper)
This work describes a high lipophilicity
radiopharmaceutical method that
synthesizes two new
[99m

Tc] [SNS/S]


complexes carrying a monothiolate
coligand and aminedithiolate (SNS)
ligand, subsequently increasing the
radiopharmaceutical high lipophilicity
level to maintain a human brain’s stability
and uptake. Monothiolate and
aminoedithiolate are used to synthesize
two new [
99m

Tc] [SNS/S] complexes


carrying a pendant ethyl ester group on the
common monthiolate coligand, with each
containing a different
aminedithiolate(SNS) ligand. Two of the
new ligands containing [SNS/S] are then
partially combined with
99m

Tc’s 1-3 ligand.


Next, high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) and thick layer
chromatography (TLC) are used to purify
and analyze the newly synthesized
radiopharmaceutical. Additionally, the
new radiopharmaceutical is injected in
laboratory mice, with the
radiopharmaceutical uptake number of
each mouse organ analyzed as well. The
proposed high lipophilicity
radiopharmaceutical method ensures the
stability in the brain of mice with an
uptake number approaching 15% and the
uptake number of other organs lower than
30%. The proposed method can
contribute to efforts to increase the
clinical accuracy of diagnosing brain
diseases as early as possible for curative
purposes, subsequently lowering the
radiation dose of patients with brain-
related diseases.
(Nuclear Science-Radiotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
The feasibility of adopting total skin
electron beam irradiation (TESI) was
forto treating a patients with pruritus
skin cancer can be examined by
attempting to improve the dose
distribution and decrease the SSD to
less than 300 cmcurrently. It could help
patients to decrease pain and symptom
until being healed. The through
variation of the dosage level, as
achieved by may be changed by electron
energy, the material of scattering
material, proximity of patient to the
electron beamtreatment distance and
tovariation in change treatment angle.
To do so, For uniform dose distribution
and reduced photon dose tofor patients
can be achieved under the following
conditions: , detected the results ina
range of 4 MeV – 12 MeV toof electron
energy, a distance of 3 – 5 meters
between the patient receivingto
treatment and the electron beam,
anddistance and a range of 15 – 20
degrees toin treatment angle. The
material of scattering material can
comprisewas included with acrylic, wire
netting and plastic material. Finally, We
measure the dose distribution can be
measured under variousin the different
conditions. The results of this study can
provide a valuablecould be referencered
to by other hospitals. It is easily to when
treating a patients with pruritus skin
cancer by the results.
Abstract (full paper)
Patients with cutaneous lymphoma have
lesions around their total skin area,
making treatment with surgical
operation impossible and
chemotherapy or radiation therapy as
the only viable options. Radiation
therapy can alleviate the condition of
stretch marks on the human skin
However, the most effective radiation
therapy, the Standford technique of six
dual fields. requires a relatively long
distance away from the patient in the
treatment room so that the patient’s
body can be covered. Therefore, this
study examines the feasibility of
adopting total skin electron beam
irradiation (TESI) to treat patients with
pruritus skin cancer by attempting to
improve the dose distribution and
decrease the SSD to less than 300 cm
through variation of the dosage level,
as achieved by electron energy, the
scattering material, proximity of patient
to the electron beam and variation in
treatment angle. Uniform dose
distribution and reduced photon dose
for patients are achieved under the
following conditions: a range of 4
MeV – 12 MeV of electron energy, a
distance of 3 – 5 meters between the
patient receiving treatment and the
electron beam, and a range of 15 – 20
degrees in treatment angle. The
scattering material comprises acrylic,
wire netting and plastic material.
Finally, the dose distribution is
measured under various conditions.
The results of this study provide a
valuable reference when treating
patients with pruritus skin cancer.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study examines the feasibility of
adopting total skin electron beam
irradiation (TESI) to treat patients with
pruritus skin cancer by attempting to
improve the dose distribution and
decrease the SSD to less than 300 cm
through variation of the dosage level,
as achieved by electron energy, the
scattering material, proximity of patient
to the electron beam and variation in
treatment angle. Uniform dose
distribution and reduced photon dose
for patients are achieved under the
following conditions: a range of 4
MeV – 12 MeV of electron energy, a
distance of 3 – 5 meters between the
patient receiving treatment and the
electron beam, and a range of 15 – 20
degrees in treatment angle. The
scattering material comprises acrylic,
wire netting and plastic material.
Finally, the dose distribution is
measured under various conditions.
The results of this study provide a
valuable reference when treating
patients with pruritus skin cancer.
(Nuclear Science-Radiotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
To comprehend relationship
betweenExactly how the deliveries
number of deliveries and the bone
mineral density are related can be
analyzed can be by useing dual energy
X-ray absorptiometry for analysis. To
do so, bone mineral density can be
determined by examining how the
Effect of number of deliveriesies
number ins relatedion to bone mineral
density can be useing dual energy X-ray
absorptiometry for detection bone
mineral density. Delivery experience of
study object and diet habit can use A
questionnaire’s method survey on
delivery experiences and dietary habits
can be issued to patients in a control
groupobtain life condition of study
object. consisting of females in the
Experiment object was women of
menopause phase, with and ages
ranging from field in 50 to 80 years old
for investigate. As anticipated, the
reportanalysis results can indicate that
the number of prove deliveries number
trulysignificantly eaffects to bone
mineral density. In addition to providing
a valuable the future this can be a
reference when attempting to identify
factor of osteoporosis-related factors
cause for expert of investigation
osteoporosis. Furthermore, the results of
this study can contribute to efforts to
decrease the likelihood of also can be a
advice for desire prolific woman to
decrease probability of osteoporosis in
women undergoing
menopauseosteoporosis fall ill.
Abstract (full paper)
A neutron leak incident occurred in the
beginning of 2004 at Cheng Ching
Hospital in Kaohsiung of southern
Taiwan, causing heightened concern
among radiology technology personnel.
Both increasing work safety for technical
personnel and patients and developing
lower dose radiotherapy methods are thus
of priority concern. Therefore, this study
analyzes exactly how the number of
deliveries and the bone mineral density
are related by using dual energy X-ray
absorptiometry. Bone mineral density is
determined by examining how the number
of deliveries is related to bone mineral
density using dual energy X-ray
absorptiometry. A questionnaire survey on
delivery experiences and dietary habits is
then issued to patients in a control group
consisting of females in the menopause
phase, with ages ranging from 50 to 80
years old Analysis results indicate that the
number of deliveries significantly affects
bone mineral density. In addition to
providing a valuable reference when
attempting to identify osteoporosis-related
factors, the results of this study can
contribute to efforts to decrease the
likelihood of osteoporosis in women
undergoing menopause.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study analyzes exactly how the
number of deliveries and the bone mineral
density are related by using dual energy
X-ray absorptiometry. Bone mineral
density is determined by examining how
the number of deliveries is related to bone
mineral density using dual energy X-ray
absorptiometry. A questionnaire survey on
delivery experiences and dietary habits is
then issued to patients in a control group
consisting of females in the menopause
phase, with ages ranging from 50 to 80
years old Analysis results indicate that the
number of deliveries significantly affects
bone mineral density. In addition to
providing a valuable reference when
attempting to identify osteoporosis-related
factors, the results of this study can
contribute to efforts to decrease the
likelihood of osteoporosis in women
undergoing menopause phase.
(Nuclear Science-Radiotechnology)
Hypothesis statement
The bBone marrow density of cancer
patients from different age groups can
be analyzed for inquire into understand
how bone marrow and a benign
disease's are relatedivity. To do so,
pPatients can bewere examined for
benign diseases –, specifically, for back
pain or sciatica recurring after disk
surgery, or normal bone marrow. Then,
the patterns of dynamic enhancement of
normal spinal bone marrow in adults
undergoingat gadolinium-enhanced
magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can
then be determined, as well asand the
changes that occur with aging were to
determine. NextFurthermore, areas of
the interesting areas of in the bone
marrow can be identifiedselected to out.
AdditionallyFinal, the maximum
percentage of enhancement (E
max
),
enhancement slope, and washout can
bewere determined from bone marrow
enhancement time curves (ETCs) of the
bone marrow. As anticipated, The
desiring analysis results can indicating
the take different age class of bone
marrow density modes of different age
groups, can be used to identify and to
find the relative proportion of those
different agegroups with respect to of
bone marrow and benign diseases have
certain relative proportion. This analyze
resultresults of this study can contribute
to the efforts of can let traditional
Chinese hHerbalist doctors physicians
in developing medicineal to aggrandize
d for different age groups based on of
bone marrow density to and protect the
human spinebody backbone.
Abstract (full paper)
Treatment for spine-related injuries
normally includes an x-ray, CT and MRI
examinations of the patient, followed by
determination of appropriate treatment by
the clinical physician. While alleviating
the patient’s injury, such approaches do
not consider the reconstruction and
renovation of the injured spine.
Therefore, this study analyzes the bone
marrow density of cancer patients from
different age groups to understand how
bone marrow and a benign disease are
related. Patients are examined for benign
diseases, specifically for back pain or
sciatica recurring after disk surgery, or
normal bone marrow. The patterns of
dynamic enhancement of normal spinal
bone marrow in adults undergoing
gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance
(MR) imaging are then determined, as
well as the changes that occur with aging.
Next, areas of interest in the bone marrow
are identified. Additionally, the maximum
percentage of enhancement (E
max
),
enhancement slope, and washout are
determined from enhancement time curves
(ETCs) of the bone marrow. Analysis
results indicating the bone marrow
density modes of different age groups can
be used to identify the relative proportion
of those groups with respect to bone
marrow and benign diseases. Results of
this study contribute to the efforts of
traditional Chinese herbal physicians in
developing medicine for different age
groups based on bone marrow density to
protect the human spine.
Abstract (conference paper)
This study analyzes the bone marrow
density of cancer patients from different
age groups to understand how bone
marrow and a benign disease are related.
Patients are examined for benign diseases,
specifically for back pain or sciatica
recurring after disk surgery, or normal
bone marrow. The patterns of dynamic
enhancement of normal spinal bone
marrow in adults undergoing gadolinium-
enhanced magnetic resonance (MR)
imaging are then determined, as well as
the changes that occur with aging. Next,
areas of interest in the bone marrow are
identified. Additionally, the maximum
percentage of enhancement (E
max
),
enhancement slope, and washout are
determined from enhancement time curves
(ETCs) of the bone marrow. Analysis
results indicating the bone marrow
density modes of different age groups can
be used to identify the relative proportion
of those groups with respect to bone
marrow and benign diseases. Results of
this study contribute to the efforts of
traditional Chinese herbal physicians in
developing medicine for different age
groups based on bone marrow density to
protect the human spine.
88. (Telecommunications)
Work Proposal
Mobile phones have pervaded daily life
since became more popular from the end
of 2002, and as evidenced by the number
of subscribers in Taiwan surpassing the
entire the mobile phone
number/population percentage was over
100%. That percentage increased to 113%
aiwan became the top one country in the
world. Atby the third season quarter of
2003, it even reached 113%, which mean
that there were with 25,275,000
subscribers at that time and island wide, or
an average of every 100 people have 113
mobile phone numbers per 100
individualsin the average.
Work problem
If some sSubscribers find it extremely
difficult to wants to change from
oneswitch telecommunication providers
owing to the inability to transfer the
original phone number to the new service
provideroperator to the other, there is only
one way to go – give up the current
mobile phone number he uses now, and
select a new number. Continuously he has
to inform everyone who has his old
number about the new number. Mobile
phone numbers are not portable at present
so it’s really inconvenient to change
operators for subscribers.
Quantitative specification of problem
A recent survey indicated that two-thirds
of
From the investigation, 6,000,000 millions
subscribers don’t dissatisfyied with their
current service providers telecom
operators and 4 millions subscribers want
to change theswitch operators. However,
many of those individuals find it
impossible to do so given Because of the
inconvenience and complex of the
changing the original mobile phoneused
number, many subscribers cannot but
succumb to the original operator.
Importance of problem
The inability to transferIf the original
mobile phone number from one telecom
provider to another severely restricts
portability can’t be solved efficiently, it
substantially reduces the desire of the
changing operators. To the subscribers,
creating an unfair advantage for
established operators and extremely
difficult for they can’t choose the
operators they want at any time and are
restricted to use the same operator all the
time. To the newly established ones
telecom operators, it’s even difficult to
attract customers to select their product.
The vicious circle will make the old
operators always take the advantage and
the new operators can’t do anything about
it. The number portability is really a
critical issue in telecommunication.
Work objective
To overcome the problem
mentionedBased on the above, we propose
toshould establish a number portability
centralized database to includecontaining
all the portableing mobile phone numbers
in Taiwan.
Methodology to achieve objective
To do soAt first, establish the
specifications can be established to which
describes the communication protocol and
the wholecomplete architecture. Secondly,
develop aA simulator can then be
developed for operators to test in the early
stagestime. Thirdly, make theNext, a field
tryial can be made with all the
operatorstelecom service providers. Finall
yAdditionally, the number portability
centralized database containing portable
mobile phone numbers can be
implemented under the auspices of the
goes live and is operated by Telecom
Technology Center.
Anticipated results
As anticipated, the proposed centralized
database can enable We expect that every
subscribers to switch telecomcan move to
the new operatorproviders withile
retaining the original same number instead
of a new phone number. The entirewhole
procedure for subscribers to switch
providers can be completedshould be
proceeded in four working days from the
subscriber submits the change request first
time.
Contribution to field
The number portability centralized
database not only can make each In
addition to enabling mobile phone
subscribers to follow their wish to
choosefreely select their service providers,
the proposed centralized database can
pave the way for operator but also
enormously improves the chance of the
new telecom operators to increase the
quality of service in the local sector. The
proposed database can also provide a
valuable assets produced by whole
proceeding process are also can be
reference byfor other countries which
don’t have numberwithout portabileity,
mobile phone numbers such as Singapore,
Malaysia …etc.
Problem statement
Mobile phones have pervaded daily life
since the end of 2002, as evidenced by the
number of subscribers in Taiwan
surpassing the entire population. That
percentage increased to 113% by the third
quarter of 2003 with 25,275,000
subscribers island wide, or an average of
113 mobile phone numbers per 100
individuals. However, subscribers find it
extremely difficult to switch
telecommunication providers owing to the
inability to transfer the original phone
number to the new service provider.
(NOTE: Add 2-3 more sentences more
thoroughly explaining the problem. Give
examples, statistics, or particular features
of the problem in the local context.) A
recent survey indicated that two-thirds of
6,000,000 subscribers dissatisfied with
their current service providers want to
switch operators. However, many of those
individuals find it impossible to do so
given the inconvenience of changing the
original mobile phone number. The
inability to transfer the original mobile
phone number from one telecom provider
to another severely restricts subscribers,
creating an unfair advantage for
established operators and extremely
difficult for newly established ones to
attract customers. Therefore, a centralized
database containing all portable mobile
phone numbers in Taiwan must be
established.
Hypothesis statement
A centralized database containing all
portable mobile phone numbers in Taiwan
can be established. To do so,
specifications can be established to
describe the communication protocol and
the complete architecture. A simulator can
then be developed for operators to test in
the early stages. Next, a field trial can be
made with all telecom service providers.
Additionally, the centralized database
containing portable mobile phone
numbers can be implemented under the
auspices of the Telecom Technology
Center.
As anticipated,
experimental/analysis/analytical/simulatio
n/theoretical results can indicate
that….the proposed centralized database
can enable subscribers to switch telecom
providers while retaining the original
phone number. The entire procedure for
subscribers to switch providers can be
completed in four working days. In
addition to enabling mobile phone
subscribers to freely select their service
providers, the proposed centralized
database can pave the way for new
telecom operators to increase the quality
of service in the local sector. The
proposed database can also provide a
valuable reference for other countries
without portable mobile phone numbers.
Abstract (203 words)
Although SETTING, PROBLEM.
Mobile phones have pervaded daily life
since the end of 2002, as evidenced by the
number of subscribers in Taiwan
surpassing the entire population.
However, subscribers find it extremely
difficult to switch telecommunication
providers owing to the inability to transfer
the original phone number to the new
service provider. Therefore, this
work/study/investigation
( article/note/letter) describes a centralized
database containing all portable mobile
phone numbers in Taiwan. Specifications
are established to describe the
communication protocol and the complete
architecture. A simulator is then
developed for operators to test in the early
stages. Next, a field trial is made with all
telecom service providers. Additionally,
the centralized database containing
portable mobile phone numbers is
implemented under the auspices of the
Telecom Technology Center.
Experimental results indicate/reveal that…
The proposed centralized database can
enable subscribers to switch telecom
providers while retaining the original
phone number. The entire procedure for
subscribers to switch providers can be
completed in four working days. In
addition to enabling mobile phone
subscribers to freely select their service
providers, the proposed centralized
database can pave the way for new
telecom operators to increase the quality
of service in the local sector. The
proposed database can also provide a
valuable reference for other countries
without portable mobile phone numbers.
89. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
Work Proposal
In high-speed optical communications
system, the Cclock and Ddata Rrecovery
(CDR) circuit is a critical component that
is in charge oflargely responsible for the
recovery of the clock used to sample the
data bits. The signal stream Iin some
point-to-point communication systems,
such as SONET, the signal stream is
continuous or; otherwise, during the idle
time, some synchronization bits are
transmitted to maintain the bit-level
synchronization between the transmitter
and the receiver. In these systems, CDR
based on Phase Lock Loop (PLL) design
is widely recognized as the optimalbest
solution. Nowadays there are still a fair
amount of research addressed on PLL
based CDR has been increasingly studied
to remain apace of progress with higher
data rate system requirements. Time
Ddivision Mmultiplexing (TDM) Ppassive
Ooptical Nnetwork (PON) is currently
considered a promising solution tomeans
of resolving bottlenecks in broadband
access bottleneck. SomeAmong the
standards have been specified and the
most widely accepted ones areinclude
Ethernet PON and Gigabit PON
standardized by IEEE and ITU-T,
respectively.
Generally iIn these TDM PON systems,
the upstream traffic aggregating to the
Ooptical Lline Tterminal (OLT) is
composedconsists of bursts from various
Ooptical Nnetwork Uunits (ONU).
Therefore, recovering a clock in a
relatively short time to increase efficiency
is problematic given that Since the burst
length in the standardizedconventional
PON systems is no longer than thousands
of bits, how to recover a clock in a short
time to enhance the efficiency is a very
important issue.
The aApplying the conventionally adopted
ication of traditional PLL CDR to PON
systems is problematicsuspicious because
of given its relatively long recovery time.
Generally,A commercial PLL-CDR chip
used in legacy continuous optical link
generally takes two couple of thousand
bits to lock its Vvoltage Ccontrolled
Ooscillator (VCO) to the incoming data in
both phase and frequency.
Apparently tThis long locking time
appears to be is intolerable for systems
like PON.
Based on the above, we should Therefore,
Industrial and Technical Research Institute
(ITRI) developed newa novel CDR
techniquesscheme, which canpable of
rapidly recovering a clock efficiently to
improveincrease the packet efficiency inof
PON systems.
To do so, we proposeda Hhybrid Pphase
and Ddelay Llock Lloop architecture. can
be derived, The hybrid loop main
structure consistsing of: a Voltage
Controlled Oscillator (VCO), Vvoltage
Ccontrolled Ddelay Lline (VCDL),
Pphase detector (PD), Ccharge Ppump
(CP) and Llow Ppass Ffilter (LPF). Then
do the HSPICE can then be simulatedion.
Finally, we designNext a prototype can be
designed to demonstrate itthe
effectiveness of the CDR scheme.
As anticipated, ourthe proposed
monolithic designscheme can acquire the
sampling phase well within 50 ns in a 2.5
Gbps system such as PON.
Our design can In addition to averting
guarantee a frequency jittering no
largergreater than 6MHz, which isi.e.,
4800ppm., the proposed CDR scheme can
facilitate a Mmore aggressive design can
be pursued readily with an even lower
loop gain.
Problem statement
In high-speed optical communications, the
clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit is
largely responsible for recovery of the
clock used to sample the data bits. The
signal stream in point-to-point
communication systems such as SONET
is continuous; otherwise, during the idle
time, some synchronization bits are
transmitted to maintain the bit-level
synchronization between the transmitter
and the receiver. In these systems, CDR
based on Phase Lock Loop (PLL) design
is widely recognized as the optimal
solution. PLL based CDR has been
increasingly studied to remain apace of
higher data rate system requirements.
Time division multiplexing (TDM)
passive optical network (PON) is a
promising means of resolving bottlenecks
in broadband access. Among the standards
specified and the most widely accepted
ones include Ethernet PON and Gigabit
PON standardized by IEEE and ITU-T,
respectively. In these TDM PON systems,
the upstream traffic aggregating to the
optical line terminal consists of bursts
from various optical network units.
Therefore, recovering a clock in a
relatively short time to increase efficiency
is problematic given that the burst length
in conventional PON systems is no longer
than thousands of bits. Applying the
conventionally adopted PLL CDR to PON
systems is problematic given its relatively
long recovery time. A commercial PLL-
CDR chip used in legacy continuous
optical link generally takes two thousand
bits to lock its voltage controlled oscillator
(VCO) to the incoming data in both phase
and frequency. This long locking time
appears to be intolerable for systems like
PON. Therefore, a novel CDR scheme
must be developed, capable of recovering
a clock efficiently to increase the packet
efficiency of PON systems.
Hypothesis statement
A novel CDR scheme can be developed,
capable of recovering a clock efficiently to
increase the packet efficiency of PON
systems. To do so, a hybrid phase and
delay lock loop architecture can be
derived, consisting of a VCO, voltage
controlled delay line, phase detector,
charge pump and low pass filter. HSPICE
can then be simulated. Next a prototype
can be designed to demonstrate the
effectiveness of the CDR scheme. As
anticipated, the proposed monolithic
scheme can acquire the sampling phase
well within 50 ns in a 2.5 Gbps system
such as PON. In addition to averting
frequency jittering greater than 6MHz,
i.e., 4800ppm, the proposed CDR scheme
can facilitate a more aggressive design
with an even lower loop gain.
Abstract (205 words)
Time division multiplexing (TDM) passive
optical network (PON) is a promising
means of resolving bottlenecks in
broadband access. Among the standards
specified and the most widely accepted
ones include Ethernet PON and Gigabit
PON standardized by IEEE and ITU-T,
respectively. In these TDM PON systems,
the upstream traffic aggregating to the
optical line terminal consists of bursts
from various optical network units.
Therefore, recovering a clock in a
relatively short time to increase efficiency
is problematic given that the burst length
in conventional PON systems is no longer
than thousands of bits. Therefore, this
work presents a novel CDR scheme,
capable of recovering a clock efficiently to
increase the packet efficiency of PON
systems. A hybrid phase and delay lock
loop architecture is derived, consisting of
a VCO, voltage controlled delay line,
phase detector, charge pump and low pass
filter. HSPICE is then simulated. Next a
prototype is designed to demonstrate the
effectiveness of the CDR scheme. The
proposed monolithic scheme can acquire
the sampling phase well within 50 ns in a
2.5 Gbps system such as PON. In
addition to averting frequency jittering
greater than 6MHz, i.e., 4800ppm, the
proposed CDR scheme can facilitate a
more aggressive design with an even
lower loop gain.
90. (Computer Science)
Work Proposal
Human-computer interface
(HCI)Recently, a profound shift isis
increasingly interpreting the now
occurring toward embracing users’ natural
behavior of computer usersas the center of
the human-computer interface (HCI).,
explaining the considerable attention paid
to So multimodal HCI has received
considerable attention. Given the ability of
mMultimodal interfaces allow to facilitate
human to interaction with machines
through multiple modalities such as
speech, gestures, and gazes. Studies
showed that these, such interfaces support
a more effective human-computer
interaction, for example, bycan ultimately
reducinge both the time to complete tasks
completion time and task errors rates.
Essential Tto develop a multimodal
human-computer interface, the critical
module was the multimodal interpretation.
This module fusedintegrates information
from various modalities, e.g. speech,
gestures and understood completely what
user want to do with computer
commands. In the convention ,
multimodal interpretation justHowever, in
addition to only adoptingused symbolic
approaches and treateds varying
modalities as operating independently,
furthermore, theythis module seldom uses
the rich interaction contexts.
Consequently, besides its low portability
in other application domains So, the
multimodal interpretation module such
approaches had slightly portability in
other application domains and can not
enhance its interpretation accuracy owing
to the inability to exploit did not take
advantage the mutually compensative and
contextual information of variousdifferent
modalities's mutual compensative
information and contextual information to
enhance the interpretation accurancy.
InEvaluating a multimodal HCI, the
evaluation wa is often subjective and
reliedant on various application domains.
For instanceIn general, in the map-based
information seeking applications , the
accuracy of integration speech integration
with gestures would be only aroundabout
70%.
Despite enhancements, Though
multimodal interpretation accuracy have
been upgraded, but it still can not be
accepted byfalls below user requirements.
that HCI accurately interpret the natural
behavior of If we can not upgrade it, the
principle of covering users’ natural
behavior in HCI will not be success. As IT
technology progress, wireless and hand-
held device users will be more popular in
the future, so we will need a more nature
and more convenient, thus severely
restricting the applicability of this
information-access method.
Based on the above, we should develop an
efficient multimodal interpretation
approach,scheme that including utilizing
theincorporates a rich interaction context
and offering a statistical model to
characterize the mutual compensation
between all kinds of modalities.
To do soIn our approach, we combined the
symbolic and statistical features can be
integrated,. firstly we present theA fine-
grained semantic model can then be
derived to that capture(identify OR
retrieve) the meanings of user inputs and
thean overall conversation, and identifies.
Next, the semantics of user inputs can be
identified using a wide varietydiverse
array of contexts and statistical
estimatesion.
As anticipated, the proposed multimodal
scheme can increase the interpretation
approach will be elevate 20% accuracy in
theof map-based information seeking
applications by 20%.
The proposed scheme can contribute to
efforts to further enhance HCI with
emotional intelligence by facilitating Once
we can achieve user natural behavioral
communication with computers, we can
further enhance HCI with emotional
intelligence. Given the large discrepancy
in Since there can be large individual
differences in people’s abilitiesskills and
preferences toin useusing various
commmunication different modes of
communication, the multimodal
interpretation schememultimodal
interfaces will can also provide a valuable
reference for efforts underway to increase
thecomputing accessibility regardless of
computing for users of a user’s different
ages, skill levels, cognitive styles, sensory
and motor impairments, native languages,
or even temporary illnesses.
Problem statement
Human-computer interface (HCI)is
increasingly interpreting the natural
behavior of computer users, explaining the
considerable attention paid to multimodal
HCI. Given the ability of multimodal
interfaces to facilitate human interaction
with machines through multiple
modalities such as speech, gestures and
gazes, such interfaces can ultimately
reduce both the time to complete tasks
error rates. Essential to develop a
multimodal human-computer interface,
the multimodal interpretation module
integrates information from various
modalities, e.g. speech, gestures and user
computer commands. However, in
addition to only adopting symbolic
approachs and treats varying modalities as
operating independently, this module
seldom uses rich interaction contexts.
Consequently, besides its low portability
in other application domains the
multimodal interpretation module can not
enhance its interpretation accuracy owing
to the inability to exploit the mutually
compensative and contextual information
of various modalities. Evaluating a
multimodal HCI is often subjective and
reliant on various application domains.
For instance, in map-based information
seeking applications, accuracy of speech
integration with gestures would be only
around 70%. Despite enhancements,
multimodal interpretation accuracy falls
below user requirements that HCI
accurately interpret the natural behavior
of wireless and hand-held device users,
thus severely restricting the applicability
of this information-access method.
Therefore, an efficient multimodal
interpretation scheme must be developed
that incorporates a rich interaction context
and a statistical model to characterize the
mutual compensation between all
modalities.
Hypothesis statement
An efficient multimodal interpretation
scheme can be developed that incorporates
a rich interaction context and a statistical
model to characterize the mutual
compensation between all modalities. To
do so, symbolic and statistical features can
be integrated. A fine-grained semantic
model can then be derived to (identify OR
retrieve) the meanings of user inputs and
an overall conversation. Next, the
semantics of user inputs can be identified
using a diverse array of contexts and
statistical estimates. As anticipated, the
proposed multimodal scheme can increase
the interpretation accuracy of map-based
information seeking applications by 20%.
The proposed scheme can contribute to
efforts to further enhance HCI with
emotional intelligence by facilitating
natural behavioral communication with
computers. Given the large discrepancy in
individual skills and preferences in using
various communication modes, the
multimodal interpretation scheme can also
provide a valuable reference for efforts
underway to increase computing
accessibility regardless of of a user’s age,
skill level, cognitive style, sensory and
motor impairments, native language, or
even temporary illnesses.
Abstract (240 words)
Essential to develop a multimodal human-
computer interface, the multimodal
interpretation module integrates
information from various modalities, e.g.
speech, gestures and user computer
commands. However, in addition to only
adopting symbolic approachs and treats
varying modalities as operating
independently, this module seldom uses
rich interaction contexts. Consequently,
besides its low portability in other
application domains the multimodal
interpretation module can not enhance its
interpretation accuracy owing to the
inability to exploit the mutually
compensative and contextual information
of various modalities. Therefore, this
work presents an efficient multimodal
interpretation scheme can be developed
that incorporates a rich interaction context
and a statistical model to characterize the
mutual compensation between all
modalities. Symbolic and statistical
features are integrated. A fine-grained
semantic model is then derived to
(identify OR retrieve) the meanings of
user inputs and an overall conversation.
Next, the semantics of user inputs are
identified using a diverse array of contexts
and statistical estimates. The proposed
multimodal scheme can increase the
interpretation accuracy of map-based
information seeking applications by 20%.
The proposed scheme can contribute to
efforts to further enhance HCI with
emotional intelligence by facilitating
natural behavioral communication with
computers. Given the large discrepancy in
individual skills and preferences in using
various communication modes, the
multimodal interpretation scheme can also
provide a valuable reference for efforts
underway to increase computing
accessibility regardless of of a user’s age,
skill level, cognitive style, sensory and
motor impairments, native language, or
even temporary illnesses.
91. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
Work Proposal
Title: Optimization of Digital AGC
Strategies inof Frame-based OFDM
Systems Using a Novel Digital AGC
Approach
Setting of work proposal.
Automatic gain control (AGC) is
significantly urgentessential in frame-
based OFDM systems given because its
ability tomust adjust the gain of received
signals fastefficiently and accurately in the
beginning of eachvery frame.
Work problem.
However, conventional analog AGC
approaches can not provide accurate gain
dueowing to difficulty in measuring the
analog measurement of received signal
strength even though despite theyir rapid
convergence quite fast.
Quantitative specification of problem.
The inaccuracy of analog approaches may
cause up toincur a loss of 3-dB loss ofin
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tofor received
signals.
Importance of problem.
The SNR loss degradesleads to a series of
the performance loss of all receiver
algorithms, including frame detection,
timing and frequency synchronization, as
well as channel estimation, etc.
Work objective.
Based on the above, we should develop a
digital AGC approach that can provide an
accurate gain adjustment and fastrapid
convergence simultaneously.
Methodology to achieve objective.
To do so, mMagnitude levels of received
signals can be estimated accurately after
analog-to-digital conversion (ADC).
Appropriate volumes of gain adjustment
can then be obtained by subtracting the
estimated levels from the desired level of
ADC. Next, Ddigital volumes of gain
adjustment arecan be mapped to analog
control signals for variable gain amplifiers
through digital-to-analog converters
(DAC).
Anticipated results.
As anticipated, iIn addition to fastrapid
convergence by the half of the first OFDM
symbol, the proposed digital strategy can
adjust gain accurately with smaller than 5
% inaccuracy of the desired level.
Contribution to field.
The proposed digital AGC strategyAGC
approach can maximize the SNR of
received signals, enabling so that
subsequent receiver algorithms canto
operate wellefficiently with the robust
signals. Additionally, the digitalproposed
approach can beis easily to implemented
in popularconventional CMOS
technologies.
Problem statement
Automatic gain control (AGC) is essential
in frame-based OFDM systems given its
ability to adjust the gain of received
signals efficiently and accurately in the
beginning of each frame. However,
conventional analog AGC approaches can
not provide accurate gain owing to
difficulty in measuring the analog of
received signal strength despite their rapid
convergence. (NOTE: Add 2-3 more
sentences more thoroughly explaining the
problem. Give examples, statistics, or
particular features of the problem in the
local context.) The inaccuracy of analog
approaches may incur a loss of 3-dB in
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for received
signals. The SNR loss degrades the
performance loss of all receiver
algorithms, including frame detection,
timing and frequency synchronization, as
well as channel estimation. Therefore, a
digital AGC approach must be developed,
capable of providing an accurate gain
adjustment and rapid convergence
simultaneously.
Hypothesis statement
A digital AGC approach can be developed,
capable of providing an accurate
gain adjustment and rapid convergence
simultaneously. To do so, magnitude
levels of received signals can be estimated
accurately after analog-to-digital
conversion (ADC). Appropriate volumes
of gain adjustment can then be obtained
by subtracting the estimated levels from
the desired level of ADC. Next, digital
volumes of gain adjustment can be
mapped to analog control signals for
variable gain amplifiers through digital-to-
analog converters (DAC). As anticipated,
in addition to rapid convergence by half of
the first OFDM symbol, the proposed
digital strategy can adjust gain accurately
with smaller than 5 % inaccuracy of the
desired level. The proposed digital AGC
approach can maximize the SNR of
received signals, enabling subsequent
receiver algorithms to operate efficiently
with the robust signals. Additionally, the
proposed approach can be easily
implemented in conventional CMOS
technologies.
Abstract ( 190 words)
Automatic gain control (AGC) is essential
in frame-based OFDM systems given its
ability to adjust the gain of received
signals efficiently and accurately in the
beginning of each frame. However,
conventional analog AGC approaches can
not provide accurate gain owing to
difficulty in measuring the analog of
received signal strength despite their rapid
convergence. Therefore, this work
presents a novel digital AGC approach,
capable of providing an accurate gain
adjustment and rapid convergence
simultaneously. Magnitude levels of
received signals are estimated accurately
after analog-to-digital conversion (ADC).
Appropriate volumes of gain adjustment
are then obtained by subtracting the
estimated levels from the desired level of
ADC. Next, digital volumes of gain
adjustment are mapped to analog control
signals for variable gain amplifiers
through digital-to-analog converters
(DAC). In addition to rapid convergence
by half of the first OFDM symbol, the
proposed digital strategy can adjust gain
accurately with smaller than 5 %
inaccuracy of the desired level. The
proposed digital AGC approach can
maximize the SNR of received signals,
enabling subsequent receiver algorithms
to operate efficiently with the robust
signals. Additionally, the proposed
approach can be easily implemented in
conventional CMOS technologies.
92. (Computer Science)
Work proposal:
Despite increasing The security issue
ofconcerns over electronic data and
copyright protectionare getting
increasingly attention, however, the
computer nowadays is not reliable in data
protection. Mmalicious programs such as
viruses can easily compromiseendanger
the confidential data stored in computers.
Work Problem:
The present cComputers stores data in
theunencrypted storage devices (, e.g.,
Hhard disks), making it easy to without
encrypted, in other words, everyone has
copies of the data can easily read and
modify such datait, although there has.
Despite the availability of numerous many
software data encryption programs that
can perform the data encryption, but the
encryption key is also stored in plan-text
on a storage device, so this type of
protection onlyfurther complicatesing the
data process of retrievingal process data,
not truly protects and leaving the data not
entirely protectedin essence.
Quantitative specification of problem:
Statistics over ally showing, in the past
5five years, indicate that the malicious
programs and the tampering of
confidential data cost enterprises over 75
billion US dollars every yearannually.
Importance of problem:
The inability to resolve this If this
problem will lead not only to further
financial can’t be effectively resolved, the
losts, but also to the diminishing of
product innovation given the inability to
will increase every year, and theensure
copyright protectionblem of electronic
data will cause creative companies
disappear.
Work objective:
Based on the above, we should develop
Aa tamper-proof devicescheme with
encryption/decryption capabilities can
resolve the above problem. (NOTE: This
objective is incomplete because you don’t
describe the main feature that makes this
tamper-proof scheme different from others
in previous literature.)
Methodology to achieve objective:
To do so, First, we design a new security
chip with tamper-proof storage and crypto
capabilities; can be designed for
attachment it to thea computer
motherboard of current computer. Next,
when confidential data needs to be stored,
we perform tThe encryption operation,
can then be performed when confidential
data must be stored, and storewith the
cipher-text stored in a normal storage
device (, e.g., hard disk). Next, Tthe
encryption key can be storesd in
thetamper-proof storage of a security
chip’s tamper-proof storage, making it
impossible to retrievethen the key can’t be
retrieved without privilege, and we need
not to worry about if the and alleviating
concerns over data compromisewill be got
by other person.
Anticipated results:
As anticipated, the proposed tamper-proof
schemethis new security chip will can
effectivelysignificantly reduce the
probabilityincidence of confidential data
stolencompromised, andthus ensuring
copyright protection copyright of
electronic data.
Contribution to field:
The proposed method can contribute to
efforts to ensuregives a new aspect of data
protection, making it highly promising for
we hope this method will be adopted
widespread useand becomes a standard.
Problem statement
Despite increasing security concerns over
electronic data and copyright protection,
malicious programs such as viruses can
easily compromise confidential data
stored in computers. Computers store data
in unencrypted storage devices, e.g., hard
disks, making it easy to read and modify
such data. Despite the availability of
numerous software data encryption
programs, the encryption key is also
stored in plan-text on a storage device,
further complicating the data retrieval
process and leaving the data not entirely
protected. Statistics over the past five
years indicate that malicious programs and
the tampering of confidential data cost
enterprises over 75 billion US dollars
annually. The inability to resolve this
problem will lead not only to further
financial loss, but also to the diminishing
of product innovation given the inability
to ensure copyright protection of
electronic data. Therefore, a tamper-proof
scheme with encryption/decryption
capabilities must be developed. (NOTE:
This objective is incomplete because you
don’t describe the main feature that makes
this tamper-proof scheme different from
others in previous literature.)
Hypothesis statement
A tamper-proof scheme with
encryption/decryption capabilities can be
developed. (NOTE: This objective is
incomplete because you don’t describe the
main feature that makes this tamper-proof
scheme different from others in previous
literature.) To do so, a security chip with
tamper-proof storage and crypto
capabilities can be designed for
attachment to a computer motherboard.
The encryption operation can then be
performed when confidential data must be
stored, with the cipher-text stored in a
normal storage device, e.g., hard disk.
Next, the encryption key can be stored in
tamper-proof storage of a security chip,
making it impossible to retrieve the key
without privilege and alleviating concerns
over data compromise. As anticipated, the
proposed tamper-proof scheme can
significantly reduce the incidence of
confidential data compromised, thus
ensuring copyright protection of electronic
data. The proposed method can contribute
to efforts to ensure data protection,
making it highly promising for widespread
use.
Abstract ( 173 words )
Computers store data in unencrypted
storage devices, e.g., hard disks, making it
easy to read and modify such data.
Despite the availability of numerous
software data encryption programs, the
encryption key is also stored in plan-text
on a storage device, further complicating
the data retrieval process and leaving the
data not entirely protected. Therefore, this
work presents a tamper-proof scheme with
encryption/decryption capabilities.
(NOTE: This objective is incomplete
because you don’t describe the main
feature that makes this tamper-proof
scheme different from others in previous
literature.) A security chip with tamper-
proof storage and crypto capabilities is
designed for attachment to a computer
motherboard. The encryption operation is
then performed when confidential data
must be stored, with the cipher-text stored
in a normal storage device, e.g., hard disk.
Next, the encryption key is stored in
tamper-proof storage of a security chip,
making it impossible to retrieve the key
without privilege and alleviating concerns
over data compromise. The proposed
tamper-proof scheme can significantly
reduce the incidence of confidential data
compromised, thus ensuring copyright
protection of electronic data. The
proposed method can contribute to efforts
to ensure data protection, making it highly
promising for widespread use.
93. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
Setting of work proposal :
Consumer demand for strongerenhanced
functions in smart phones and PDAs
phones to ensure more convenient use has
ushered in led to the development of more
powerful RF (radio frequency) PA (power
amplifier) modules to ensure user
convenience.
Work problem 工作問題 :
High power, high linearity and high
integration are increasingly important
features of tHowever, the RF(radio
frequency) PA(power amplifier) module in
the smart phones and PDA phone.s must
possess a high power, linearity and
integration to ensure 3G and
Wi-Fi applications, thus complicating
hardware design and the miniaturized
module size.
3G and Wi-Fi applications play an
increasingly important role in daily living.
Work problem 工作問題 :
However, this trend increases the
complexity of designing hardware and
size issue in the RF PA modules.
Quantitative specification of problem 問題
的量化 :
For instance, the An EVM(eerror vector
magnitude) is below ? % for 3G W-
CDMA PA modules and below 15% for
WLAN 11a/b/g PA modules. The 3G W-
CDMA PA output power must be exceed
27 dBm and then, necessitating that the
WLAN 11a/b/g PA modules must be
bigger larger than 22 dBm. However the
conventionally adopted PCB material
requires an larger size(NOTE: ‘a larger
size’ of/for WHAT?), and the advanced
LTCC materials canould reduce the size
(NOTE: ‘the size’ of WHAT?) by only
30% or lessower.
Importance of problem問題的中心
Consequently, the lack of ainsufficient PA
output power would be decreasereduces
the distance between users and the
basestation to ensure transmission.
Problem statement
Consumer demand for enhanced functions
in smart phones and PDAs has ushered in
the development of more powerful RF
(radio frequency) PA (power amplifier)
modules to ensure user convenience.
However, the RF(radio frequency)
PA(power amplifier) module in smart
phones and PDAs must possess a high
power, linearity and integration to ensure
3G and Wi-Fi applications, thus
complicating hardware design and the
miniaturized module size. (NOTE: Add 2-
3 more sentences more thoroughly
explaining the problem. Give examples,
statistics, or particular features of the
problem in the local context.) For
instance, the error vector magnitude is
below ? % for 3G W-CDMA PA modules
and below 15% for WLAN 11a/b/g PA
modules. The 3G W-CDMA PA output
power must exceed 27 dBm, necessitating
that the WLAN 11a/b/g PA modules be
larger than 22 dBm. However the
conventionally adopted PCB material
requires a larger size(NOTE: ‘a larger
size’ of/for WHAT?), and advanced LTCC
materials can reduce the size (NOTE: ‘the
size’ of WHAT?) by only 30% or less.
Consequently, insufficient PA output
power reduces the distance between users
and the basestation to ensure transmission.
94. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
Work Proposal
(Setting of work proposal) Today, the
requirement of wWireless networks is
increasing quickly. By wireless
communication,must transfer information
can be transferred moreefficiently and
conveniently and comfortablyto comply
with consumer demand. (Work problem)
However, compared to cabled networks,
the data rate of wireless networks is
verymarkedly lower than that of cable
networks, explaining the significant
amount of and it will spend much time
spent in to transferring a lot oflarge
amounts of datea such as audio and video
information. (Quantitative specification of
problem) For exampleinstance, the data
rate of a cabled network can reach
overexceed 100 Mega bytes per second,
while that of a of data rate and the
wireless network is onlyjust 6 Mega bytes
per second., i.e., a difference in The speed
of cabled network is 15fifteen times the
wireless one!. (Importance of problem)
Such a low data rate offor wireless
networks makes us need to spend very
muchrequires a significant amount of time
toin downloading or uploading
information from thea server. Hence, it is
crucial to developing a high-speed
wireless network system. Wi with a high
data rate of wireless network, the goal of
could greatly facilitate watching real-time
video programs can even be reached
transmissions and we can watch TV
programsming everywhere and anytime w
without conventional constraints of place,
time or taking cables with us.
95. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
Work Proposal
Consumer demand for a scalability
distribution system has significantly
increased in recent years owing to the
more mincreased mobility of users and
their digital appliances such as PDAs, and
mobile phones.
However, the traditionalconventional
distribution systems can not easily support
such nodes ( ie. User with personal digital
appliance) athat are frequently changing
their location and communicateing
wirelessly, such as PDA users between
each other.
Then theFor instance, conventional
distribution systems can only support the
message ttransfer messages in the a
mobile network.
The inability to If we don’t develop a new
distributeion system for mobile network,s
severely limits we can not
communicateions between wireless users
with each other.
Based on the above, we should develop a
novel subscript/publishing system to
supportfacilitate communicationgs in a
mobile network.
To do so, we need a context-aware routing
algorithm can be developed, which
canpable of maketransferring messages
transfer between nodes more efficiently,.
As anticipated, the context-aware routing
algorithm can makedecrease the failure
rate about transferin message transfers
decreases to 5% .
In addition to makingachieving a high
message transfer rate, the proposed
algorithm can be easily implemented in
the future.
Problem statement
Consumer demand for a scalability
distribution system has significantly
increased in recent years owing to
increased mobility of users and digital
appliances such as PDAs and mobile
phones. However, conventional
distribution systems can not easily support
such nodes that are frequently changing
location and communicating wirelessly,
such as PDA users. (NOTE: Add 2-3
more sentences more thoroughly
explaining the problem. Give examples,
statistics, or particular features of the
problem in the local context.) For
instance, conventional distribution
systems can only transfer messages in a
mobile network. The inability to develop
a new distribution system for mobile
networks severely limits communications
between wireless users. Therefore, a
novel subscript/publishing system must be
developed to facilitate communications in
a mobile network.
Hypothesis statement
A novel subscript/publishing system can be
developed to facilitate communications in
a mobile network. To do so, a context-
aware routing algorithm can be developed,
capable of transferring messages between
nodes efficiently. As anticipated, the
context-aware routing algorithm can
decrease the failure rate in message
transfers to 5%. In addition to achieving a
high message transfer rate, the proposed
algorithm can be easily implemented in
the future.
Abstract
Consumer demand for a scalability
distribution system has significantly
increased in recent years owing to
increased mobility of users and digital
appliances such as PDAs and mobile
phones. However, conventional
distribution systems can not easily support
such nodes that are frequently changing
location and communicating wirelessly,
such as PDA users. Therefore, this work
presents a novel subscript/publishing
system to facilitate communications in a
mobile network. A context-aware routing
algorithm is developed, capable of
transferring messages between nodes
efficiently. The proposed context-aware
routing algorithm can decrease the failure
rate in message transfers to 5%. In
addition to achieving a high message
transfer rate, the proposed algorithm can
be easily implemented in the future.
96. (Computer Science)
Work Proposal
Setting of work proposal Many credit card
issuing companies have adopted use RSA
crypto hardware to achieve thesecure
transactions secure in recent years. Work
problem However, Cconventional RSA
crypto hardware costsexpends a large
amount of gate count to getachieve a high
amount of security (long, i.e., a
considerable RSA key length).
Quantitative specification of problem For
instance, Tthe gate count of conventional
RSA crypto hardware is proportioned to
the square of RSA key length. Importance
of problem Such a large amount of gate
count causesincurs high cost credit card
costs.
Work objective Based on the above, we
should design a low gate count RSA
crypto hardware to getachieve high level
of security. Methodology to achieve object
To do so, the modifiedenhanced word-
based Montgomery’s algorithm iscan be
proposed. Using tThe modified word-
based Montgomery’s algorithm, can then
be used to significantly reduce the gate
count of RSA crypto hardware is reduced
significantly. Anticipated results As
anticipated, tThe gate count of RSA crypto
hardware iscan be independent of RSA
key length. Contribution to field The
proposed scheme can design an arbitrary
length of RSA length without increasing
hardware area space.
Abstract
Many credit card issuing companies have
adopted RSA crypto hardware to achieve
secure transactions in recent years.
However, conventional RSA crypto
hardware expends a large gate count to
achieve a high amount of security, i.e., a
considerable RSA key length. Therefore,
this work presents a low gate count RSA
crypto hardware to achieve high level of
security. The enhanced word-based
Montgomery’s algorithm is proposed. The
algorithm is then used to significantly
reduce the gate count of RSA crypto
hardware. Analysis results indicate that
the gate count of RSA crypto hardware is
independent of RSA key length. The
proposed scheme can design an arbitrary
length of RSA length without increasing
hardware space.
97. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
Setting of work proposal:
IEEE 802.11 wireless network cannot
effectively address Hhandoff issues don’t
be addressed well in IEEE 802.11 wireless
network.
Work problem:
A mobile host processesing a hard-handoff
in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks can not
satisfyfails to comply with most of real-
time service requirements such as those
for VoIP or instant message applications.
Quantitative specification of problem:
OriginallyFor instance, a mobile host
spends 300 – 400 ms on the handoff
procedure. It is unsatisfactory because, for
example,, which is too high for the
recommended maximum handoff latency
of 50ms for VoIP applications is 50 ms.
Importance of problem:
The inability to decrease the If handoff
latency of the mobile host in IEEE 802.11
wireless networks makes it impossible to
does not be improved well,operate most
of real-time services can be run on IEEE
802.11 wireless networks well efficiently,
. It will blockultimately stymieing the
market growth of WLAN’s marketing.
(Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
Work Proposal
A project that q(Features OR
Characteristics OR Qualities) forof CMMI
level 2 can not asensure its product
quality. Major CCL CMMI level 2 models
developed at CCL/ITRI don't have process
tocan not monitor the quality of
workmanufactured products. More thean
50% of all CMMI level 2 models suffer
from poorare deficient in product quality.
DecreasingSubstandard quality will cost
CCL to postponedelay theproduct delivery
date and results in a losts of future
contracts for CCL. Based on the above,
we should adapt the verification process
area in CMMI level 3 for CCL, The
oOrganizational culture should be of
primary concernthe core, while the
verification process area maerges with
CCL the process management system at
CCL. To do so, a peer review system for
major workmanufactured products
shouldcan be established. Source code
review meetings shouldcan then be
conducted periodically as the project
progresses. Next, aA complete interface
test shouldcan be executeperformed when
all product components are
donecompleted. Additionally, Thea formal
verification test shouldcan be enforced
before the product is deliveredy. As
anticipated, the CMMI-level-3-adapted
process management system should
improvecan not only tincrease the defect
removal removalrate before testing from
50% to 70%, andbut also reduce identified
defects from 6.6 to 2.1 per KLOC. The
new process management system can
provide better In addition to enhancing
product quality to our products and
betterincreasing customer satisfaction.
Moreover, the process management
systemsystem can provide a valuable
reference for also allow other
organizations similar to CCL that are
attempting to adapt CMMI level 3 easier.
(Telecommunications)
Work Proposal
The developments ofAdvances in
telecommunications industry are
increasing, andhave popularized cell
phone use becomes the daily necessity in
the recently years. However, subscribers
must give up their original telephone
numbers belong to when switching
telecommunication enterprise in the
conventional methodsproviders. When the
subscribers want to change their
telecommunication businesses, they also
must alter the phone number. More than
40% of all users assess to adjust the
companies,having switched
telecommunication providers and still
retainown their original number. This,
thus restrictsing market the liberalization
and the public ownership of
telecommunication. Based on the above,
we should constructdevelop a model that
includes oneincorporates a database to
stores each pre-code of the phone
numbers, and oneas well as an
administrative system to deal with the
message exchanges. The proposed model
can make number portability thatenable
users to can transfer their original number
when switching to a new
telecommunication company without
modifying their phone numberprovider.
Additionally, the proposed model can
reduce 20% phone call fees by 20% and
lead to more effective management of
make phone numbers management
effectively.
(Computer Science)
Work Proposal
Hsin Chu City Government aggressively
advocates is heavily promoting the use of
public transportation use to alleviate the
growing heavy traffic congestion.
However, the obsolete bus routes and
services of the public transportation, city
services bus, fail to satisfy the citizens’
needs that shifted fall below consumer
demand given the rapid development of
the Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park
as the science park developed in recent
years.
Although While the city government has
doubled its investments in the
electronical-powered buses, thepublic
passengers declined by 10% last year. The
iInefficiently management of theing
public transportation not only exacerbates
deteriorates the traffic congestion, but also
wastes the governmental resources,
causing a chaos impression of Hsin Chu.
Private sectors of traditional industry
normally file vPrivate enterprises often
enter visitor information asinto their
valuable database as a form of customer
relations management. for relationship
maintenance. However, the paperpaper-
based documents fail to presentis often
unsystematic and updated data, causing
inefficiencyt when identifying in
contacting with these and contacting
potential customers. The failure to renew
database information invalidates outdated
Certain key information of the data, such
as e-mail addresses orand telephone
numbers, becomes invalid due to the
difficulty to renew the database. The
inefficient control of theIneffectively
manager a potential customer database
inhibits the business strategy of
enterprises to broaden its business
strategically.
(Computer Science)
Work Proposal
Although Rreal-time applications onfor
Wireless LANs arehave increased ingly
interested in recent years. C, conventional
methods fail to meetsatisfy the bandwidth
and low-power
requirements runningfor real-time
applications oin a handheld devices.
Typically theFor instance, a wireless
LAN module typically consumes 40% of
all power ofin a handheld
device in active mode. T, whereas the
efficiency of transmitting VOIP packets
on
Wireless LAN is only 3%. With such a
high power consumption and low
bandwidth efficiency, the network service
providersoperators can'not provide
satisfactory
real-time service and thea sufficient
battery life of thefor handheld devices is
decreased.
102. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
Work Proposal
The sSelectiong the most appropriate of
circuit design and fabrication process will
significantly affects the performance of
the a chipset.
However, the failure to do so will increase
if the above problems have not been
properly solved, t the cost of thea chipset
will go higherby more than 30% and.
Additionally, the power consumption of
thea chipset will spend more 40% higher
than the most appropriate fabrication
process.
Based on the above, wWe should adopt
the CMOS (Ccomplementary Mmetal
Ooxide Ssemiconductor (CMOS) process
in the to manufactureing of RF and base-
band chipset; it could readily integrate t.
Using this process, these two chipsets can
be integrated into the SOC (Ssystem Oon
a Cchip (SOC) platform.
The purpose of thisproposed methodology
can significantly increase theenhance
product performance and reduce the cost
of WiMax chipset by the use ofutilizing
the 90nm CMOS process.
103. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
As is widely anticipated, Ddigital
television broadcasting will become
popular in globally. Additionally,
pPortable manufacturers will
occupycapture a large number in the
market share. Compact portable products
heavily rely on a miniaturizedSmall size
and broad band antenna is key technology
for design antenna in compact portable
product. However, Aall of small -sized
antennas can not support a full band for
digital television. In the paper, wBased on
the above, we should design an antenna
that can adjust frequency. It can adjust
frequency when the variable capacity is
placed at the end of the antenna. Large
capacity value obtains a lower resonance
frequency. Applicableying a varying
capacity value can adjust the resonance
frequency from 460MHz to 800MHz.
Additionally, tThe band is able tocan
support a full digital broadcasting band.
Above measures can make feasible efforts
to make ntenna in product is not dream for
portable digital television broadcasting
manufactures.a mainstream application.
104. (Computer Science)
Setting of work proposal
Proxies can play potentially significant
roless in a mobile computing
environment.
Work problem
Unaware of movements, lLegacy
applications are un-aware of movements.
They can’not dynamically associate with
nearby proxies.
Quantitative specification of problem
For instance, tThe long haul redirection of
remote proxies may cause an unnecessary
delay of 100~300 ms unnecessary delay
and contributes 50% traffic overhead to
the core network.
Importance of problem
The inability of legacy applications to
dynamically associate with nearby proxies
will reduce the quality of service and
increase the probability of traffic
congestion in the core network.
105. (Computer Science)
In an uUbiquitous Ccomputing
environment, positions are a very play a
significant role with respect to context.
Services providesd by Uubiquitous
Ccomputing arehave relatedion with to
positioning. How to do , highlighting the
importance of accuracyte in positioning is
very important. Positioning in the
buildingduring construction depends on
the signal which broadcasted by user’s
electronic equipment(like, e.g., Wifi). But
theHowever, the signal is toonot unstable
to be a source tofor positioning in the real
world applications. There is always owing
to the presence of noise everywhere. The
nNoise will interferesnce with a user’s
signal. Recent research has indicated an
inaccurate rate of Location of the user has
5 meters inaccurate rate at least in recently
researchin terms of location. Doing so
makes it impossible to utilizeThis will
cause the service oin ubiquitous
computing can not be well utilized.
Because ofGiven inaccurate positioning,
the service canould not be provided
immediately and correctlyefficiently and
accurately. For instance, the visitors to the
Taipei customer now at the building 101
in 信義 area . He needsshopping center
require a guide system for assistancehelp
him. But uses. However, using a
positioning technique, we can not get the
can not ensure an accurate location from
hisa signal like Wifi. Therefore, only a So
we just can provide the guguiidance
system an cover all of the 信義 area to
him.area. It’s serial problem. Based on the
above, we should develop a new method
to analysisnovel signal analysis method
that neglectsand ignore noise doingwhile
undertaking accurately positioning. We
use theTo do so, the particle filter
algorithm can be employed to analyzesis
the continuous signal and use data mining
as wellskill training model. Use tThis
model , can then be used to determine the
accurate positioning can be calculated
accurately. As anticipated, the proposed
method We can limited the range aboutfor
accurate positioning forby 3 meters. We
can implementMoreover, location service
can be implemented ion ubiquitous
computing.
106. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
Generally speaking, the hHome care
has become an integral part of the network
is seemed as a subnet of Internet. As the
rapidly development of Internet rapidly
evolves, the applications of home network
applications are increasinglybecomes
attractive. The hHome care is essential in
one of the critical research directions of a
home network. However, traditional issues
ofconventional home care research
focuses on status management and health
monitoring for the elderlyold and the
children. Home appliances have not been
considered in The study of home care
researchthat aims at home appliances is
never proposed., explaining the Thus, the
accidents caused by improper operations
to appliances in home are frequently
happened incidence of appliance-related
accidents. In the other wordsRestated, lack
of studies for family members and thetheir
relation to home appliances have seldom
been studiedis a problem worthy
mentioned..
Based on the above, we should
developpropose a novel mechanism for
operating home appliances in home that
cares about the relationships
betweeneffectively address how the
family members and appliances are
related. In tThe proposed mechanism, the
can integrate radio frequency
identification (RFID) technology and the
activity monitoring technology can be
combined. The distance measurement
function of RFID can thus be created. The
estimation method for actActivities of
daily living can be estimated as
wellpresented. In aAdditionally, thea
three-levels responding model can be
constructed. The proposed mechanism can
not only indicate a new study direction for
theIn addition to contributing to research
efforts in domain of the home network,
butthe proposed mechanism can also
reduce the probabilitylikelihood of the
accidents caused by improper operations
to appliances in home down to 50%.
107. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
I-Q modulation techniquesmethods are
extensively adoptedused in
traditionalconventional RF linear
transmitters. However, Although this
architecture requires a high linearity PA to
prevent signal distortion. But, high
linearity PAs usuallynormally adopt the
back-off method to ensure the high
linearity thus cause badand, ultimately,
poor power added efficiency. For instance,
back-off 3dB usuallynormally costs 30%
power add efficiency. Therefore, this
architecture creates a trade-off relation
betweenmakes the linearity and efficiency
of PAs be trade-off relationship.
108. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
The mMulti media applications are
increasinglyhas become popular,
especially in automobilesfor vehicle
application. For exampleinstance,
automobiles contain much there are many
people set DVB (digital video
broadcasting (DVB) equipment into their
car. Most of DVB systems use a
monopole antenna, which is posted on the
front side car- glasswindow shield in,
order to receive a wireless signal.
However, such an this kind of antenna
usuallynormally has a large size of 15 ×
10 cm
2
. With the kind ofSuch size, causes
the antenna wouldto block the driver’s
visionual line and affect the safety of the,
posing a potential risk to car safety. Thus,
developing a transparent conductor to
design an antenna is an effective means of
re good way to ssolveing the above
problems described above. The step of the
research is: 1
st
Based on the above, we
should examine the studying transparent
conductor characteristics, 2
nd
implementing. To do so, the transparent
conductor can be implemented onto glass,
3
rd
researching. Next, transparent dipole
characteristics, can be examined. and 4
th
designing aAdditionally, a broadband
transparent antenna can be designed.
Based on the above Using these methods,
a totally uinvisible antenna can be adopted
to resolve will be proposed and the
driver’sing visual line issue will be solved
easilyproblems.
109. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
The configuration of NG-SDH’s LCAS is
more complex than that of conventionally
adopted traditional SDH because it must
configureowing to the higher number of
more parameters to be configured.
TraditionalThe conventionally adopted
configuration method often has errors in
mistakes parameters easily.
When configuring 63-provisioned VC-12
is configured, the error rate exceeds 30%.
TheA high error rate leadsincreases
inefficiency in the LCAS research
inefficiency to us, and increases the, thus
raising operational costs of service
providers.
Based on the above, we should develop a
novelew configuration interface that has
more LCAS related constrains than
traditionalconventional ones do.
To do soFirst, a WEB based interface can
be developed.
Second, theThe behavior of the controls
can then be modified with JavaAVA
Script for LCAS’ characteristics.
Finally,Next, only the correct parameters
can be submitted.
As anticipated, Tthe proposed method can
ensures that the the accuracy of submitted
parameters are correct.
In addition to minimizeing the error rate
of configuring a LCAS system, the
proposed method can reduce the
operational costs of service providers.
110. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
The cCircuit emulation service
provides the transparent transport of TDM
traffic in a packet network. With Via this
technology, the enterprises can
keepmaintain their older PBX and TDM
equipments in the modern developing
packet network in order toto reduce the
Capex of network.
The cCircuit emulation service in the
packet switched network needs a lot
ofrequires many de-jitter buffers and clock
recovery circuits to reduce the clock
jittering that arises which comes from the
traffic transport in the packet network.
Conventional methods fail to recover the
clock when there is no common clock
information is available in the both ends.
Although the common clock
information can be transmitted easily to
both ends now bby GPS or the nNetwork
Ttime Pprotocol, they need require
additional devices to do thatachieve their
objective.
Moreover, The Eequipment-related
costs are too prohibitively high.
(Electrical/Electronics Engineering)
PDAs, mobile phones, and several kinds
of consumer devices greatly facilitate
have made the a pervasive computing
environment possible. However, the
security issue is not well addressed in a
pervasive computing does not
adequately address security issues.
Although Some protocols arehave been
proposed to enhance the security level.
Nevertheless, the limitation of
bandwidth limitations largely
compromise the is often the foundation
of security onf these protocols. Given
As the growing communication
bandwidth grows, the adversary only
needs several hours, instead of months
as anticipated, to can breach crack the
system. The inability to establish If aa
secure infrastructure is not
established,makes users would hesitante
to adopt a pervasive computing
environment for concerningwith respect
to privacy and security.
Based on above, we attempt toshould
develop a novel security infrastructure for
a pervasive computing environment. To do
so, a novel security infrastructure willcan
be proposed. Those available security
protocols will be considered can be
assumed to be merged into the framework.
Finally, a pervasive computing
environment for dedicated application
willcan be established to verify the
security of the proposed strategy. As
anticipated, a vertical application of
pervasive computing can be well
integrated, and . Additionally, its
secureity issues will be highlighted and
resolved.can be effectively addressed The
proposed security infrastructure can form
a will build a sturdy secure foundation
when developing other applications ofin a
pervasive computing environment.
112. (Management)
Setting of work proposal
--Due toAs R&D forms the main impetus
of is the main force of high technology
industryindustries, , it is a challenge for
Prpublic relations staff employees find it
extremely challenging to shift from a
transfer their working function from
supportiveng to active capabilitywork .
Work problem
-- Technical divisions often require inform
PR departments to function in a for
supportive role during when the event is
going toproject implementation, which
makes Prreducing its role from that of a
pioneer to that of a follower but not a
pioneer for a project.
Quantitative specification of problem
--From past experiences, sSome technical
divisions realize the importance of
involving the already understand that it
would be more beneficial for PR
department to involve the project earlier
on.
However, someother technical divisions
are still issue used to have emergent
requests for the PR department, thisthus
restricting the time and ability of the PR
department’s time for to engage in
brainstorming activities.
Importance of problem
-- It is important to educate tTechnical
divisions must be oriented on the distinct
role that athat PR department plays in
completing has its own procedure to finish
a project. It also need moreFurther
discussion and collaboration between
technical divisions and PR department are
also necessary.
dDivisions are still used to havecontinue to
make emergent requests forto its PR
department, thus restricting the time and
ability of the PR department to engage in
brainstorming activities.
this restrict PR department’s time for
brainstorming
113. (Computer Science)
ording toPervasiveness of the Internet has
ushered in many related been popular, the
applications on the Internet grow up
increase.
A larger number of InternetThe more
applications run on the Internet, the
implies a greater more data flow run on
throughout the Internet backbone.
In average, the uUser wait on average
spends about 60% of their time in
percents for waiting for the server
responses in the normal regular Internet
access.
If we didn’t enlargeThe inability to
increase Internet the capacity of Internet
backbone, lowers the effectiveness of the
backbone must become less effective, the
user. Users must thus spend more time
forin waiting for the server responses in
the future.
Up to this reasonBased on the above, we
should develop a novelew architecture
was proposed for building oneto construct
a large backbone capacity with a smaller
size.
A largerThe capacity of the newovel
architecture should be larger, implies a
smaller the size should be smaller, and
theand decreased waiting time should be
decrease.
As anticipated, the proposed architecture
can enlarge increase theInternet capacity
of backbone and adjust the capacity with
stack-up the architecture.
The proposed architecture achievesmakes
the stack-up realized, and the user get
more applications increase with a large
data flow run on the Internet backbone..
114. (Computer Science)
The increasing number of Internet users
corresponds to the accelerated growth of
related population and applications are
growing rapidly.
The elements in the A network are using a
combinesation of hardware,
software and communication protocols
with inherent security vulnerabilities due
to this new configuration.
The nNetwork security and robustness are
of priority concernbecome the critical
issue now.
More than one attack pattern is explored
every weekly, andwith a new defencse
must be provided in a timely manner.
However, how to emulateing the attacks
and everifying the validation of solutions
are time-consuming tasksso far.
The PC-based Internet traffic records and
replay are available now. The attacking
patterns are
plug-in with the kernel. Besides, the
packet loss, delay, jitter and bandwidth
can be simulated
as in actual the real Internet
applicationsworld.
With two PCs and free Linux operating
systems, users can efficiently doperform
regression testing efficiently
on their own network system.
Approximately 30% of all human
resources and working hours can be
reduced.
This emulation system can be applied to
the industrial areas such as Firewall, IDS,
and IPS,
as well as the academic researches
oncenters researching Nnetwork security
and performance-related issues.
115. (Computer Science)
Increasingly, various types of products are
sold in gGlobal franchisers sell various
products in shopping malls and
department stores., necessitating Vvarious
advertising strategies methods are used to
promote hota new product lines
periodically. Few customers are attracted
to conventional adverting contents, like
posters and static pictures. Therefore, a
nAmong those, numerous multimedia
advertisementing campaigns through use
of clients that display advertising
contents, including videos and pictures in
digitized format, have replaced
conventional advertising ploys such as
posters and billboards are used to
persuadeattract customers to purchase
promoting product.
Work problem
Despite increased sales volume through
Though the multimedia advertising
contents increases sales volume, the
replacing rate of hot products turnover
rate has increased as well is fast;,
requiring a constant change in the
multimedia advertising contents have to
be replaced accordingly. and, ultimately,
Aa significant large amount of time and
manpowercompany personnel and
resources are consumed.
Quantitative specification of problem
For instance, whereas three minutes is
necessary for a staff to replaceing the
content in onea multimedia advertisement
requires an average of three minutes,
client;doing so in one thousand
multimedia advertisements clients will
expends cost fifty hours to finish it.
Importance of problem
The inability to efficiently utilize
company personnel and resources
involved in changing multimedia
advertising content will ultimately lead to
prohibitively high overhead costs for the
advertising agency and lower the profits If
this issue is leaving unsolved, such a large
amount of time and manpower are wasted
and the profit oof shopping malls and
department stores will be corroded.
Project need
Therefore, a centralized multimedia
advertising system must be developed to
maximize both an enhancement for the
current multimedia advertisement client
satisfaction and company resourcesto
reduce the need of manpower is required.
Work objective
A centralized multimedia
advertisementing system, consist of one
server and numerous of multimedia
advertisement clients, can be developed,
capable of using a client-server
architecture that enables advertising staff
to replace the advertising contents for
numerous multimedia advertising clients
simultaneously through a centralized .
That allows a staff to simultaneously
replace all the advertising contents in the
clients from the server at once.
Methodology to achieve objective
To do so, Vvarious networking
capabilities can be implemented in thea
multimedia advertisementing system to
support not only wired networks, likee.g.,
Ethernet LAN, but also wireless
networkones, like e.g., WLAN, PHS,
GPRS, and CDMA. Additionally, a
network management program can then be
developed to supportfacilitate a
dynamically switch among all the
networking capabilities according to
theunder various environmentsal
constraints. Next, an administration
program can be performedimplemented in
the server, allowing a user to send updated
multimedia advertising contents to all the
clients. Moreover, a receiver program can
be executed infor each client to
continuously accept the updated
multimedia advertising contents from the
server. Furthermoreinally, a
reportercurrent status program can be
executed for in each client can be
executed to calculate the display time,
analyze the status of the client, and report
theall results to the server.
Anticipated results
As anticipated, the centralized multimedia
advertisementing system with a client-
server architecture can help theenable staff
to continuously and simultaneously update
the multimedia advertising contents for all
clients from thea centralized server. That
can, thus reduceing the amount of
personnel and company resources required
to do sothe required manpower and time
to finish updating. The profit of shopping
malls and department stores will be
increased accordingly.
Contribution to field
The proposed system can In addition to
provideing shopping malls and department
stores with an efficient means thod toof
broadcast continuously the updateding
multimedia advertising contents to
customers. It, the proposed system can
ultimately increase company also reduce
the requirement of manpower and time to
increase profits. Moreover, the diverse
networking ability of the proposed system
can adopt itself to various network
environments. That can, thus alleviate the
streamlining efforts to deploy the
numerous multimedia advertisement
clients in the shopping malls and
department stores.
Problem statement
Global retailers sell various products in
shopping malls and department stores,
necessitating various advertising strategies
to promote a new product line.Among
those, numerous multimedia advertising
campaigns through use of videos and
pictures in digitized format have replaced
conventional advertising ploys such as
posters and billboards to attract customers.
Despite increased sales volume through
multimedia advertising, the product
turnover rate has increased as well,
requiring a constant change in multimedia
advertising contents and, ultimately, a
significant amount of company personnel
and resources. For instance, whereas
replacing the content in a multimedia
advertisement requires an average of three
minutes, doing so in one thousand
multimedia advertisements expends fifty
hours. The inability to efficiently utilize
company personnel and resources
involved in changing multimedia
advertising content will ultimately lead to
prohibitively high overhead costs for the
advertising agency and lower the profits
of shopping malls and department stores.
Therefore, a centralized multimedia
advertising system must be develop to
maximize both client satisfaction and
company resources.
Hypothesis statement
A centralized multimedia advertising
systemcan be developed, capable of using
a client-server architecture that enables
advertising staff to replace the advertising
contents for numerous multimedia
advertising clients simultaneously through
a centralized server. To do so, various
networking capabilities can be
implemented in a multimedia advertising
system to support not only wired
networks, e.g., Ethernet LAN, but also
wireless ones, e.g., WLAN, PHS, GPRS
and CDMA. A network management
program can then be developed to
facilitate a dynamic switch among all
networking capabilities under various
environmental constraints. Next, an
administration program can be
implemented in the server, allowing a user
to send updated multimedia advertising
contents to all clients.
AdditionallyMoreover, a receiver program
can be executed for each client to
continuously update multimedia
advertising contents from the server.
FurthermoreMoreover, a current status
program can be executed for each client to
calculate the display time, analyze the
status of the client and report all results to
the server. As anticipated, the centralized
multimedia advertising system with a
client-server architecture can enable staff
to continuously and simultaneously update
multimedia advertising contents for all
clients from a centralized server, thus
reducing the amount of personnel and
company resources required to do so. In
addition to providing shopping malls and
department stores with an efficient means
of continuously updating multimedia
advertising contents, the proposed system
can ultimately increase company profits.
Moreover, the diverse networking ability
of the proposed system can adopt itself to
various network environments, thus
streamlining efforts to deploy numerous
multimedia advertisement clients in
shopping malls and department stores.
Abstract (329 words)
Global retailers sell various products in
shopping malls and department stores,
necessitating various advertising strategies
to promote a new product line.Among
those, numerous multimedia advertising
campaigns through use of videos and
pictures in digitized format have replaced
conventional advertising ploys such as
posters and billboards to attract
customers. Despite increased sales
volume through multimedia advertising,
the product turnover rate has increased as
well, requiring a constant change in
multimedia advertising contents and,
ultimately, a significant amount of
company personnel and resources.
Therefore, this work presents a centralized
multimedia advertising system, capable of
using a client-server architecture that
enables advertising staff to replace the
advertising contents for numerous
multimedia advertising clients
simultaneously through a centralized
server. Various networking capabilities
are implemented in a multimedia
advertising system to support not only
wired networks, e.g., Ethernet LAN, but
also wireless ones, e.g., WLAN, PHS,
GPRS and CDMA. A network
management program is then developed to
facilitate a dynamic switch among all
networking capabilities under various
environmental constraints. Next, an
administration program is implemented i