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# Chapter 5-1

CHAPTER 5

## EQUIPMENT SIZING AND COSTING

5.1

Introduction
This section covered the chemical design of the equipment and unit operation

in the acrylic acid plant. The equipment and the unit operation used in the process
plant are listed as below :
Table 5.1: The Equipment List

UNIT
Compressor
Mixer
Heat Exchanger
Heater
Cooler
Reactor
Flash
Extraction Column
Pump
Distillation Column
Refrigeration System
Condenser
Reboiler
Storage Tank

Group 39

QUANTITY
2
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
3
3
2
1
3
3

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-2
In this chapter, the summary result of every equipment will be shown and the
detailed calculation can be found in Appendix E. The result of this chapter will be
used in the calculation of mechanical design in Chapter 8. The base cost of every
equipment is based on the methods in Systematic Methods of Chemical Process
Design (L.T Biegler, I.E. Grossmann and A.W. Westerberg, 1997) and A Guide to
Chemical Engineering Design & Economics (Gael D. Ulrich, 1984)

5.2

Compressor

5.2.1

Introduction
Compressor is used to compress gases from one point to another point. There

are three type of compressor widely used in the process industries namely,
centrifugal, reciprocating and axial flow compressor. Axial flow compressor used for
high flowrate and moderate differential pressure and centrifugal compressor for high
flowrate and by staging for high differential pressure. Reciprocating compressor can
be used over a wide range of pressures are required at relatively low flowrate. Each
compressor is generally a function of the gas capacity, action and discharge head.
The work of compressor and single stage compressor can be calculated by
assumed the compressor is operated ideally under adiabatic compressor with three
stage compressor.
Ws

Ws

Cp / Cv

Gas constant

With :

Tinlet

Group 39

1.4

Chapter 5-3
Poutlet

Pinlet

## The actual compressor work is

Wactual = W / (c x m)
With :

5.2.2

Wactual =

## Compressor work (kW)

Compressor efficiency

Motor efficiency

## Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E

Identification
Item no.
Function

Compressor 1
1
To provide system

Material of construction
Type of equipment
Flowrates (kmol/hr)
Pressure inlet (atm)
Pressure outlet (atm)
Temperature in (C)
Actual work (kW)
Equipment Cost (RM)
Total Cost

pressure required
pressure required
Stainless Steel
Stainless Steel
Air Compressor
Centrifugal Motor
4937.6
753.3
1
0.0526
3
1.5
25
12.4
1218.8
3874.4
48423354.39
22533319.22
70,956,673.62

5.3

Mixer

5.3.1

Introduction

Group 39

Compressor 11
11
To provide system

Chapter 5-4

## The function of mixer is to mix the different components from different

stream into one stream. Turbulent flow is important to make sure that the component
mix well. In theory, turbulent flow can be achieve when the Reynolds Number
>2000. Therefore, a space-time assumption of 60 seconds is made in the calculation
in order to achieve a Reynolds Number >2000.

5.3.2

## Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E

Identification
Item no
Function

Mixer 9
9
Mixed fresh ethyl
acetate with recycle

Material
Flowrates, kmol/ hr.
Volume, m3
Pressure, atm
Temperature, C
Equipment Cost (RM)
Total Cost

stream 20
Stainless Steel
804.23
1.0590
1.5
30.0
560642.95
560642.95

## 5.4 Heat Exchanger

5.4.1

Introduction
Heat exchanger can be classified in a number of ways depending on their

construction or on how the fluid moves relatively to each other through the device.
The most common type is one in which the hot and the cold come separated by a
tube wall or a flat or curved device. For this chemical design, the heat exchanger
that transferred heat from the hot stream to the cold stream and from the cold stream
to hot stream will be considered.

Group 39

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-5

5.4.2

Design Procedure
The design procedure follows as below :

i.

Define the duty: heat transfer rate, fluids flow rate and temperature

ii.

## Collect the fluid physical properties required : density, viscosity and

thermal conductivity.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

viii.

## Calculated the individual coefficient

ix.

Calculated the overall coefficient and compare with the trial value. If the
calculate value is above the estimated value, than the overall coefficient is
satisfy

x.

Calculated the heat exchanger pressure drop; if the pressure drop is less than
1 atm, this mean that the pressure drop for heat exchanger is acceptable.

5.4.3

## Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E

Identification
Item no
Function
Heat Duty, Q (kW)
Hot Fluid Properties
Flowrates (kg/s)

Heat Exchanger
19
Exchange Heat Between Stream
5 and Stream 9
14,155.16
62.81

220

## Outlet temperature (C)

Cold Fluid Properties

59.7

149

Group 39

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-6
Outlet temperature (C)
Heat transfer area, A (m2)
Number of tubes, Nt
Tube inside diameter, dI (mm)
Tube outlet diameter, do (mm)
Length of tube, L (m)
Bundle diameter, Db.(mm)
Shell diameter, Ds.(m)
Tube Pressure Drop (atm)
Shell Pressure Drop (atm)
Cost, RM
Total Cost, RM

5.4.4

315
721
2350
16
20
4.88
1.352
1.448
0.3
3.1
5,045,787
5,045,787

## Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E

Identification
Item no
Function
Heat Duty, Q (kW)
Hot Fluid Properties
Flowrates (kg/s)

Heater
4
Heating Stream 28
852.72
16.16

321

## Outlet temperature (C)

Cold Fluid Properties

295

315

## Outlet temperature (C)

Heat transfer area, A (m2)
Number of tubes, Nt
Tube inside diameter, dI (mm)
Tube outlet diameter, do (mm)
Length of tube, L (m)
Bundle diameter, Db.(mm)
Shell diameter, Ds.(m)

Group 39

210.1
685
16
20
4.88
0.773
0.867

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-7
Tube Pressure Drop (atm)
Shell Pressure Drop (atm)
Cost, RM
Total Cost, RM

5.4.5

3.8
3.7
728,836.00
728,836.00

Identification

Cooler
6
Cooling

Cooler
8
Cooling

Cooler
12
Cooling

Stream 29
852.28

Steam 7
9708.97

Stream 19
2339.36

Flowrates (kg/s)

36.61

62.73

14.50

## Inlet temperature (C)

59.7

325

131

50

220

30

25

25

25

40
116.3
379
16
20
4.88
0.592
0.683
2.4
0.0024
560,643

50
673.2
2195
16
20
4.88
1.311
1.407
0.5
0.1
1,569,800
2749215.00

50
176.1
574
16
20
4.88
0.714
0.806
0.0013
0.0029
672,772

Item no
Function
Heat Duty, Q (kW)
Hot Fluid Properties

## Outlet temperature (C)

Cold Fluid Properties
Inlet temperature (C)
Outlet temperature (C)
Heat transfer area, A (m2)
Number of tubes, Nt
Tube inside diameter, dI (mm)
Tube outlet diameter, do (mm)
Length of tube, L (m)
Bundle diameter, Db.(mm)
Shell diameter, Ds.(m)
Tube Pressure Drop (atm)
Shell Pressure Drop (atm)
Cost, RM
Total Cost, RM
Group 39

Chapter 5-8

5.4.6

## Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E

Identification
Item no
Function

Equipment Type
Heat Duty, Q (kW)
Hot Fluid Properties
Flowrates (kg/s)

Reboiler
10
Heating out

Reboiler
14
Heating out

Reboiler
17
Heating out

stream from

stream from

stream from

distillation 10
distillation 14
distillation 17
Kettle Reboiler Kettle Reboiler Kettle Reboiler
8142.750
6138.125
2932.708
85.7718

664.6561

153.7625

150

150

150

100

100

140

23.2

32.3

59.4

33.4

40.3

59.70

95.8293
201
28.45
31.75
4.8
723.2039
1.4464
688297.04

79.0865
166
28.45
31.75
4.8
665.2634
1.3305
615844
1702628.80

38.1778
80
28.45
31.75
4.8
0.714
0.806
398487.76

## Cold Fluid Properties

Inlet temperature (C)
Outlet temperature (C)
Heat transfer area, A (m2)
Number of tubes, Nt
Tube inside diameter, dI (mm)
Tube outlet diameter, do (mm)
Length of tube, L (m)
Bundle diameter, Db.(mm)
Shell diameter, Ds.(m)
Cost, RM
Total Cost, RM

5.4.7

Group 39

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-9
Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E
Identification
Item no
Function

Condenser
17
Cooling out
stream from

Equipment Type
Heat Duty, Q (kW)
Hot Fluid Properties

distillation 17
2530.8889

28.5

## Outlet temperature (C)

Cold Fluid Properties

28.3

Flowrates (kg/s)
Inlet temperature (C)
Outlet temperature (C)
Heat transfer area, A (m2)
Number of tubes, Nt
Tube inside diameter, dI (mm)
Tube outlet diameter, do (mm)
Length of tube, L (m)
Bundle diameter, Db.(mm)
Shell diameter, Ds.(m)
Cost, RM
Total Cost, RM

605.2007
25
26
979.8716
839
22.10
25.40
4.88
1079.4982
1.1735
2934318.96
2934318.96

5.5 Refrigeration
5.5.1

Refrigeration system
If a process stream needs to operate below about 300 K, some sort of

## refrigeration is required and a refrigeration cycle needs to be considered. Often,

refrigeration can be purchased from an off-site facility.

Group 39

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-10
In designing a refrigeration system , we first consider the refrigeration cycle
and the pressure-enthalpy diagram. As with staged compression, there is a trade-off
between capital and operating costs in choosing the number of refrigeration cycles. A
single cycle requires the maximum work and cooling water while a large number of
cycles require minimum work and cooling water. To relate the work (W) and heat
rejected for refrigeration (Q), a coefficient of performance is defined, CP = Q/ W. As
with staged compression, CP~4 is selected for design purposes. Thus, in a typical
cycle :
W = Q/ 4
Qc = W + Q ~ 5/ 4 Q
And for the compressor driven with an electric motor,
Wb = W/ mc
= W/ 0.72
(Assume c = 0.8 and m = 0.9)

5.5.2

## Designing a Refrigeration System

By using these simplified sizing relationship, the work requirements for each

refrigeration cycle will be evaluated. This is done by considering that CP is the same
for all N cycles, and T = 30K/ cycle. The simplified relationships are :
W = Q [(5/ 4)N 1 ]
Qc = (5/ 4)N Q
Wb = W/ (mc)
The costing of a refrigeration system can be done by using the mechanical
refrigeration configurations which had been specified directly in Guthrie. The basic
configuration includes centrifugal compression, evaporators, condensers, field
erection, and subcontractor indirect costs.

Group 39

Chapter 5-11

5.5.3

## Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E

No. of
Condenser 10
Condenser 14

cycles
1
1

Qc (kW)
162.65
7554.17
Total

Wb (kW)
45.1801
2098.3796

S (ton)

Price

37.00
1718.40

RM
1438590.40
21124826.58
22563416.98

5.6 Reactor
5.6.1

Introduction
In term of reactor design, decisions must be made due to the type of reaction,

## concentration, temperature, pressure, phase and catalyst. Then a practical reactor is

selected, approaching as nearly as possible the ideal in order that the design can
proceed.
Group 39

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-12

Practical reactor deviate from the three idealized models, which are idealized
batch model, continuous well-stirred model and plug-flow model. The practical
reactor can be classified to stirred tank reactor, tubular reactor, fixed bed catalytic
reactor, fixed bed non-catalytic reactor, fluidized bed catalytic reactor, fluidized bed
non catalytic reactor and kiln.

5.6.2

## Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E

Reactor
Type
Operating conditions :
Temperature, oC
Pressure, atm
Space velocity, h-1
Residence time, s
Volume, m3
Diameter, m
Length, m
Cross-sectional area, m2
Catalyst :
Basic components
Appearance
Bulk density, kg/m3
Total mass, kg
Mass in tube, kg
Tube properties :
Nominal size, in
Outside diameter, mm
Inside diameter, mm
Wall thickness, mm
Inside cross-sectional area, m2
Number of tube
Length, m
Bundle diameter, m

Group 39

## First-stage (R-3) Second-stage (R-5)

Fixed-bed Multi-Tubular Reactor
325
2.5
1625
2.22
124
3.4
13.6
9.1

220
2.5
2160
1.67
93
3.1
12.4
7.5

## Mo, Co, Ce, Ni oxides

Grey tablets with dimensions 5x5 mm
1200
1200
74296
55921
15.6
14

2
60
42.25
5.4
0.001905

2
60
42.25
5.4
0.001905

4776
7
5.34

3952
6
4.89

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-13
Shell inside diameter, m
Baffle spacing, m
Number of baffle
Heat removal system :
Heat transfer area, m2
Cooling media
Coolant flowrate, m3/h
Total cost, RM

5.4
2.16
3

4.94
1.98
3

3468.6

3005.1
Molten Salt

411.4
3,135,000

698.9
2,810,690

## 5.7 Flash Column

5.7.1

Introduction
The flash drums are simply a pressure vessel to phase-split between liquid

and vapor phase. The chemical engineering design of the flash drum are based on the
method found in Chemical Engineering Volume 6 (Sinnott, 1991).

Group 39

Chapter 5-14
5.7.2

## Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E.

Identification
Item no.
Function
Material
Temperature (C)
Pressure (atm)
Cross sectional Area (m2)
Inside Diameter (m)
Height for Vapor Phase (m)
Light Liquid Height (m)
Liquid Depth (m)
Cost
Total Cost, RM

Flash
7
Purge The Residual Gas
Stainless Steel
30
1.5
11.8417
3.8827
3.8827
2.2414
1.3862
2458203.71
2458203.71

5.8 Pump
5.8.1

Introduction
Pump are devices for supplying energy or head to a flowing liquid in order to

overcome head losses due to friction and also if necessary, to raise the liquid to a
higher level. The different types of pump commonly employed in industrial
operations can be classified as follows :
Reciprocating or positive-displacement pump with valve action : piston pumps,
diaphragm pumps, plunger pumps.
Rotary positive-displacement pumps with no valve action:gear pumps, lobe
pumps, screw pumps, metering pumps.

Group 39

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-15
Rotary centrifugal pumps with no valve action : open impeller, closed impeller,
volute pumps and turbine pumps.
Air-displacement systems : airlifs, acid eggs or blow cases, jet pumps, barometric
legs.
The centrifugal pumps are the major types that used in the chemical plant
nowadays. Centrifugal pumps are used so extensively and for such a wide variety of
services that need for standardization of dimensions and operating characteristic has
long been evident. Pump selection is made depending on the flow rate and head
required, together with other process considerations.

5.8.2

## Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E.

.
Identification
Item no
Function

Pump
15
Pump the effluent

Pump
16
Pump the

Pump
18
Pump the fresh

Type

to D-10
Centrifugal Pump

effluent to D-14
Centrifugal

solvent
Centrifugal Pump

Stainless Steel

Pump
Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel

877.2

455.9

50.9

Material of
construction
Inlet Flowrates,
(kmol/hr)

Group 39

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-16
Outlet Flowrates,

877.2

455.9

50.9

(kmol/hr)
Pressure Inlet (C)
Pressure Outlet

0.526
1

0.039
1

1
1.5

33.4
33.3
1.3973

40.3
40.3
1090.3283

30
30
0.1346

9.6917

9.7003

5.8351

88552.84

2728.79
200106.41

336.83

(C)
Temp. Inlet (C)
Temp. Outlet (C)
Shaft power (kW)
(m)
Equipment Cost
(RM)
Total Cost

## 5.9 Distillation Column

Industrial scale of production of chemical product concerns purity of the
product. Higher purity gives higher market price. In each operation, separator plays
a major and important task to separate products from side products in order to obtain
the desired specification. Chemical can be divided into miscible and immiscible
phases. Immiscible phase can be isolated using physical separation methods, while
separating of miscible phase mostly deals with surface contacting devices. Among
the equipment used are distillation column, absorption column and stripping column.

5.9.1

Introduction
Distillation is a process of heating a liquid until its more volatile constituents

pass into the vapor phase, and then cooling the vapor to recover such constituents in
liquid form by condensation. The main purpose of distillation is to separate a
mixture of several components by taking advantage of their volatilities, or the

Group 39

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-17
separation of volatile materials from nonvolatile materials. The design of distillation
columns in this production of 200,000 MT/ year of acrylic acid has based on the
typical design procedures as stated in Chapter 11 of Chemical Engineering, Volume
6, by J.M Coulson and J.F Richardson.
For the column sizing and plate design, a trial and error approach has been
used to obtain an optimum and satisfactory design. Each design variable is set and
calculated from the design formula and based on the recommended values. By
checking the key performance factors, the design parameters have been revised or
other wise determined. Some designs parameters are obtained from the simulation
generate report by the ChemCAD Simulator. In addition, the design calculation is
done for above feed point and below separately.

## 5.9.1.1 Choosing A Plate or Packed Column

There are two common types of distillation column used in the industries that
are palate or packed column. It is important to choose the right type of distillation
column in order to obtain the most efficient and cost effective separation process.
The most suitable type of column must be determined for the desired separation
process because these two columns have their own uses. In this project, a sieve plate
has been selected.

## 5.9.1.2 Plate Spacing

Plate spacing is the important for determined the overall height of column.
Plates spacing from 0.15m to 1m are normally used. The spacing chosen depends on
the column diameter and operating conditions. For column above 1m diameter, plate
spacing 0.3 to 0.6m will normally be used, and 0.5m can be taken as initial. This will
be revised as necessary.
Group 39

Chapter 5-18

## 5.9.1.3 Column Diameter

The principle factor on determining the column diameter is the vapor flow
rate. The column diameter can be calculated by calculating the top and bottom net
area at its maximum volumetric flow rate. The velocity is normally between 70 to
90% of what which cloud cause flooding

## 5.9.1.4 Height of Column

The height of column in the distillation column is calculated by knowing the
number of actual stages. Theoretical stages is given by ChemCAD Simulator was
used to obtained the number of actual stages required. The height of column can be
calculated by multiplying the number of the actual stages with tray spacing value.
5.9.1.5 Design Procedure
The general outlines of the design procedures are as below;
i.

Determine the vapor and liquid rate, based on the reflux ratio and feed
condition

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

## Decided the liquid flow pattern on the plate.

vi.

Try to make a plate layout with downcomer area, active area, hole diameter,
hole area, weir height, weir length and plate thickness.

vii.

viii.

ix.

x.

xi.

xii.

Group 39

## 200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-19
xiii.

Optimize the design parameters for column diameter and plate spacing.

xiv.

## Determine the column wall thickness and column head selection.

xv.

Finalize the design with the drawing and data specification sheet.

5.9.2

Identification
Item no.

Distillation
10

Distillation
14

Distillation
17

0.0533

0.0935

0.0404

0.61

0.61

0.61

3.93

2.78

2.31

12.1627

6.0884

4.2025

12.64

23.49

23.49

1.4595

0.7306

0.5043

Column Sizing

## c) Area of column, Ac (m2)

d) Total height of column, HT (m)
Provisional plate design
a) Plate thickness (mm)
b) Plate area
i.

Group 39

Chapter 5-20
ii.

10.7031

5.3578

3.6982

iii.

## Active area, Aa (m2)

9.2436

4.6272

3.1939

iv.
Hole area, Ah (m2)
Weir Design

0.9244

0.4627

0.3194

2.9868

2.1128

1.7556

12

12

12

## Maximum, how (mm liquid)

30.2929

21.9503

24.5746

ii.
Minimum, how (mm liquid)
Weep Point

23.8821

17.3051

19.3509

a) Minimum Uh (m/s)

30.0833

52.9122

37.5584

b) Actual Ua (m/s)
Hole Design

62.9164

127.1840

83.2073

1.964x 10-5

1.964x 10-5

1.964x 10-5

47066
175.6899

23561
169.2340

16263
150.0615

4601987.36

5164815.38
13889684.76

4122882.02

i.

## a) Hole diameter (mm)

b) Hole area (m2)
c) Number of holes
Total plate pressure drop
(mm Liquid)
Equipment Cost (RM)
Total Cost

5.10

## 5.10.1 Chemical Design and Costing Summary

Detailed calculation as shown in Appendix E.
Storage Tank
Day of inventory, days
Vessel type
Number of Bullet
Volume, m3
Pressure, bar
Temperature, oC
Stored materials
Diameter, m
Length, m
Group 39

## Propylene (raw material)

3
Cylindrical (Bullet) Tank
2
1383
30.0
40.0
Liquid
7.60
30.0
200,000 MTA Acrylic Acid

Chapter 5-21
Orientation
Corrosion allowance, mm
Wall thickness, mm
Material of construction
Cost, RM

Storage tank
Day of inventory, days
Vessel type
Volume, m3
Pressure, atm
Temperature, oC
Stored materials
Diameter, m
Height of tank :
HS
HL
HR
Orientation
Corrosion allowance, mm
Wall thickness, mm
Material of construction
Cost, RM

Group 39

Axis horizontal
2.0
6.0
Carbon Steel
6,037,693

5
5
Floating-roof
Floating-roof
654
3190
1
1
25
25
Liquid
Liquid
8.22
13.94
4.11

6.97

3.7
0.72

6.27
1.23

Axis vertical
2
12
Carbon Steel
306,485

Axis vertical
4
21
Stainless Steel
1,707,805