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UNIT-VII

FUZZZY LOGIC SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Fuzzification:
Fuzzification is an important concept in the fuzzy logic theory. Fuzzification is the
process where the crisp quantities are converted to fuzzy (crisp to fuzzy). By identifying some of
the uncertainties present in the crisp values, we form the fuzzy values. The conversion of fuzzy
values is represented by the membership functions.
In any practical applications, in industries, etc., measurement of voltage, current,
temperature, etc., there might be a negligible error. This causes imprecision in the data. This
imprecision can be represented by the membership functions. Hence fuzzification is performed.
Thus fuzzification process may involve assigning membership values for the given crisp
quantities.
Membership Value Assignments:
There are various methods to assign the membership values or the membership functions
to fuzzy variables. The assignment can be just done by intuition or by using some algorithms or
logical procedures. The methods for assigning the membership values are listed as follows:
1. Intuition
2. Inference
3. Rank ordering
4. Angular Fuzzy Sets
5. Neural networks
6. Genetic algorithms
7. Inductive reasoning
Intuition:
Intuition is based on the humans own intelligence and understanding to develop the
membership functions. The thorough knowledge of the problem has to be known, the knowledge
regarding the linguistic variable should also be known.
As an example, consider the membership functions for the fuzzy variable temperature.
Figure below shows various shapes on the universe of temperature as measured in units of
degrees Celsius. Each curve is a membership function corresponding to various fuzzy variables,
such as very cold, cold, normal, hot, and very hot.

Inference:
This method involves the knowledge to perform deductive reasoning. The membership
function is formed from the facts known and knowledge.
Let us use inference method for the identification of the triangle. Let U be universe of
triangles and A,B, and C be the inner angles of the triangles. Also A B C 0. Therefore the
universe is given by:
U = {(A,B,C),A B C 0,A + B + C = 180}
There are various types of triangles, we will define the following five types of triangles:
I Approximate isosceles triangle
R Approximate right triangle
IR Approximate isosceles and right triangle
For the approximate isosceles triangle we have the following algorithm for the membership,
again for the situation of A B C 0 and A + B + C = 180:

So, for example, if A = B or B = C, the membership value in the approximate isosceles triangle is
I= 1; if A = 120, B = 60, and C = 0, then I= 0.
For a fuzzy right triangle, we have

For instance, when A = 90, the membership value in the fuzzy right triangle, R= 1, or when A =
180, this membership vanishes, i.e., R= 0.
For the case of an approximate isosceles and right triangle (there is only one of these in
the crisp domain), we can find this membership function by taking the logical intersection (and
operator) of the isosceles and right triangle membership functions, or

For example,whenA = B = C, the membership value is E(A, B,C) = 1; whenA = 180,the

membership value vanishes, or E= 0.
Rank Ordering:
Assessing preferences by a single individual, a committee, a poll, and other opinion
methods can be used to assign membership values to a fuzzy variable. Preference is determined
by pairwise comparisons, and these determine the ordering of the membership.

Angular Fuzzy Sets:

The angular fuzzy sets are different from the standard fuzzy sets in their coordinate
description. These sets are defined on the universe of angles, hence are repeating shapes every
2 cycles. Angular fuzzy sets are applied in quantitative description of linguistic variables
known truth-values. When membership of value 1 is true and that of 0 is false, then in between
0 and 1 is partially true or partially false.
The membership of this linguistic term can be obtained from

where t is the horizontal projection of the radial vector

Neural Networks:
Neural networks are used to simulate the working network of the neurons in the human
brain. The concept of the human brain is used to perform computation on computers.
In this case, the fuzzy membership function may be created for fuzzy classes of an input
data set. The procedure is, the number of input data values are selected. Then it is divided into
training data set and testing data set. The training data set may be used to train the network. The
generations of membership function from neural network are shown in Fig. 4.11.

Figure 4.11a shows the training data set. This is passed through a neural network shown
in Fig. 4.11b and this data points of Fig. 4.11a is divided into three regions as R1,R2, and R3 as
in Fig. 4.11c. Depending upon the data points, the regions are classified. If the data point is in
region 1, then we assign full membership in regions 1 and zero membership in regions 2 and 3.
Similarly if the data points are in regions 2 and 3, it will have full membership in regions 2 and 3
and zero membership in regions 1 and 3, and regions 1 and 2, respectively.
The neural network is then created, from which the training is done between
corresponding membership values in different classes, to simulate the relationship between the
coordinate locations and membership values. The neural network uses the set of data value and
membership values to train itself as shown in Fig. 4.11d. This training process is continued until
the neural network can simulate for the given entire set of input and output value.
After the net is trained, its performance can be checked by the testing data. After full
training and testing process is completed, the neural network is ready and it can be used to
determine the membership values of any input data in the different regions. These are all shown
in Fig. 4.11gi.
The complete mapping of the membership of different data points in different fuzzy
classes can be determined by using neural network approach.