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CHEM 101A TOPIC D

THERMOCHEMISTRY
WHAT YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED THIS TOPIC:
1) Know the meaning of heat and work, and their relationship to energy (the First Law of
Thermodynamics).
2) Relate temperature changes and changes of state to the corresponding amounts of heat,
using specific heats, heats of fusion, and heats of vaporization.
3) Use standard calorimetric data (temperatures, masses, and specific heats) to calculate the
amount of heat released or absorbed for a chemical reaction.
4) Use the heat and work for a chemical reaction to calculate the E and H for that
reaction. (Note that the heat is often found using standard calorimetric data.)
5) Relate the E and H for experimental amounts of reactants/products to the E and H
for a balanced chemical equation (i.e. energy stoichiometry.)
6) Interconvert E and H for a reaction, and calculate the pressure-volume work that
occurs under constant-pressure conditions.
7) Calculate the heat produced by a reaction under constant-pressure or constant-volume
conditions, given the masses of reactants and either E or H for the reaction.
8) Understand the meaning of enthalpy of formation (Hf) and use enthalpies of formation
to calculate H for a reaction.
9) Use Hesss Law to calculate H for a reaction, given appropriate H values for other
reactions.
READING ASSIGNMENT:
Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Work a supplemental handout provided in class
Chapter 9: sections 9.1, 9.2, and 9.6 through 9.8.
Chapter 16: pages 823 826 (Changes of State)
RELEVANT PROBLEMS:
(7th edition): Chapter 9, problems 19, 29, 37, 39, 41, 45, 49, 51, 57, 59, 61, 63, 73, 93, 97
and 101. If you would like to try some harder problems, we suggest numbers 87, 99 and
103. ALSO Chapter 16, problems 89, 91, 93 and 95.
(6th edition): Chapter 9, problems 19, 29, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 65, 67, 69,
77, 85, 87 and 91. If you would like to try some harder problems, we suggest numbers 79,
89 and 93. ALSO Chapter 16, problems 87, 89, 91 and 93.
(5th edition): Chapter 9, problems 17, 25, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 59, 61, 63,
71, 77, 79 and 85. If you would like to try some harder problems, we suggest numbers 73,
83 and 87. ALSO Chapter 16, problems 81, 83, 85 and 87.

CHEM 101A

TOPIC D HOMEWORK PROBLEMS

1) Consider the following reaction for the combustion of ethane (C2H6):


2 C2H6(g) + 7 O2(g) 4 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l)
E = 3131 kJ
a) How many grams of gaseous C2H6 must be burned to obtain 100.0 kJ of energy?
b) If you burn 16.25 liters of gaseous C2H6 at 23C and 744 torr, what will be E?
c) 7.274 grams of C2H6 and 24.816 grams of O2 are mixed. They react as shown above.
What is E?
d) The combustion of ethane can be used to run an engine. A 8.500 kg tank of C2H6 is
combusted inside of an engine and the engine does a total of 8.83 x 104 kJ of work. How
much heat is given off?
2) Consider the following reaction, which can be used in a fuel cell (a type of battery):
O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 2 Ni(s) 2 Ni2+(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
E = 682.1 kJ
a) Calculate H for this reaction at 25C.
b) If you want to obtain 48.5 kJ of heat from this reaction at constant pressure, what mass
of nickel must you use?
c) If 5.00 grams of solid nickel reacts at constant pressure as shown above, how much heat
will be given off?
d) How much PV work is done under the conditions in part c?
e) If 5.00 grams of solid nickel reacts at constant pressure, and 5.27 kJ of electrical work is
done (i.e. a type of work is done other than the unavoidable PV work), how much heat will
be given off?
3) When 2.731 g of acetaldehyde (C2H4O) is burned in a bomb calorimeter that has a heat capacity
of 4731 J/C, the following data are obtained:
Initial temperature: 18.62C
Final temperature: 33.90C
Calculate E for the combustion of acetaldehyde: give your answer in kJ/mol.
4) Using your answer to problem #3, calculate H for the combustion of acetaldehyde: give your
answer in kJ/mol. (Hint: youll need to write a balanced chemical equation. Acetaldehyde is a
liquid at room temperature. You may use 25C for the conversion between E and H.)
5) When 22.3 mL of 1.00 M AgNO3 is mixed with 21.7 mL of 1.50 M NaCl, the temperature of the
mixture rises from 21.6C to 29.7C. The mass of the mixture is 45.9 grams, and its specific heat
is 3.94 J/gC. Write the balanced net ionic equation for the reaction that occurred and calculate H
and E for the reaction as written.
6) Chemist A burns 10.000 grams of C2H6 in a constant-volume container at 25C. Chemist B
burns an unknown mass of C2H6 in a constant-pressure container at 25C. The chemists observe
equal amounts of heat. Assuming no work (except any unavoidable PV work) is done in either
case, calculate the mass of C2H6 that was used by chemist B. (Refer to problem 8 for useful
information.)

7) Gaseous XeF6 reacts with gaseous water to form solid XeO3 and gaseous HF. The balanced
equation is: XeF6(g) + 3 H2O(g) XeO3(s) + 6 HF(g)
a) Calculate H for the reaction of 10.0 grams of gaseous XeF6 with excess gaseous water,
using enthalpies of formation ( H of ) from the textbook.
b) How much heat is given off if 25.0 grams of XeF6 and 15.0 grams of H2O are mixed and
allowed to react under constant-pressure conditions?
8) Using your answer to problem 4 and the enthalpies of formation from the textbook, calculate the
enthalpy of formation of liquid C2H4O (acetaldehyde).