forOil&GasExploration
HAGIGuestLecturingProgram
UniversitasBrawijaya
Malang,15March2014
TeguhSuroso
HAGI PertaminaUTC
Outline
Introduction
Fundamentals
Concepts
Seismicdataprocessinginpractice
Advancedprocessing
INTRODUCTION
SeismicProducts
Advanced Processing
Basic Processing
Field records
Acquisition
Time migrated gather
AVO analysis
Intercept-Gradient section
SeismicDPPurposes
Diephuis, 2008 :
To transform the raw field records into an interpretable volume/line depicting
reflection coefficient in the subsurface
IPIMS, 2010 :
The main goal of seismic processing is to obtain the best image of the
subsurface.
Reservoir characterization:
- AVO and Inversion
SampleofFieldRecord
Shot Point
Ch-1
Ch-n
GeologyModel
Overlayfieldrecordswithgeologymodel
NOT interpretable data
Overlayfieldrecordswithgeologymodel
Seismic imaging, final product of processing
Interpretable data
Field record
Field record
FUNDAMENTALS
SeismicWave
Seismicwaveisasoundwave
Wavepropagationisthreedimensionalphenomenon
Typeofseismicwave
Pwave
Bodywave
Swave
Seismicwave
Lovewave
Surfacewave
Rayleighwave
SeismicWaveIlustration
Bodywaves
PropagatethroughtheEarthsinterior
a.Pwave
>Compressionalwave=longitudinalwave
>Propagatesinsolids,liquidsandgasses
b.Swave
>Shearwave=transversal
>Propagatesinsolidsonly
Surfacewaves
PropagatesalongtheEarthssurface
c.Lovewave
>lowvelocitylayeroverlayinghighvelocitylayer
d.Rayleighwave
>groundroll
BodyWaveVelocityComparison
PropagationofPwave
PropagationofSwave
SwavespropagatemoreslowlythanPwaves
Vs<Vp
WavePropagation
source
surface
Isotropic media
Wavefront
-Surface of equal time
Ray path
-Line everywhere perpendicular to wavefront
Pwave
If P-wave strikes a boundary
between two media
with different velocities of
propagation and/or
different densities,
the P-wave will be :
reflected,
transmitted, and
converted into reflected
and transmitted S-wave
The sum of the reflected and
transmitted amplitudes is equal
to the incident amplitude.
Reflection&Refraction
If amplitude of incident wave = A0
amplitude of reflected wave = A1, and
amplitude of transmitted wave = A2
A0 = A1 + A2
Relative size of the reflected and the transmitted amplitudes depend on
The contrast in acoustic impedance
Acoustic Impedance (AI)
AI = . V
= density
V = P-wave velocity
Reflection Coefficient (RC)
R = A1/A0
10
Snells Law
the reflected angle is equal to the incident angle
Head wave
critical angle
11
Huygens Principle
Every point on an advancing wavefront is a new source of spherical wave.
Huygens Principle provides a mechanism
by which a propagating seismic pulse
loses energy with depth.
Seismic waves propagate away from the
source :
- the wavefront become larger
- the surface become larger
- energy per unit area become smaller
Spherical (geometrical) spreading
Seismic amplitudes are proportional to
the square root of energy per unit area.
Fermats Principle
A light ray traveling from one point to another will follow a path
such that, compared with nearby paths, the time required is either a
minimum or a maximum or will remain unchanged (Danbom, 2007)
Minimum time path (Diephuis, 2008)
12
CONCEPTS
Consider
a single sine wave of 30Hz
In a medium of 2500m/s
83m
13
Resolusi
ResolusiDataSeismik
HarrisdanLangan(1991)
Dalamkaitannyadengan
resolusivertikal:
Dataseismikantar
sumur mengisigap
antaraVSPdanlog
sonik
Resolusimaksimum:
~1m
Fraksireservoir:102
105
14
HarrisdanLangan(1991):Perbandinganresolusiseismik
permukaan,seismikantarsumurdanlogsonik
15
ConvolutionalModel
MODEL ING
AI(t)
RC(t)
W(t)
Geologic model
S(t)
INVERSION
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
W(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
16
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
W(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
17
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
18
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
19
AI(t)
RC(t)
Geologic model
ConvolutionalModel
MODELING
W(t)
S(t)
INVERSION
SignalDomain
Time domain
- Amplitude vs Time
Signal
Frequency domain
- Amplitude vs Frequency
- Phase vs Frequency
20
RelationshipTimeFrequency
Inverse Fourier
Transform
sum
decompose
Fourier Transform
sum
A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
21
22
23
24
25
26
Inverse Fourier
Transform
sum
sum
A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
decompose
Fourier Transform
sum
A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
27
Inverse Fourier
Transform
sum
decompose
Fourier Transform
sum
A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
TimeDomain
Change in amplitude with TIME
at a particular LOCATION
T-domain (time)
X-domain (space)
Seismic signal
Time domain
- Period (T)
- Frequency (F)
Space domain
- Wavelength ( ) = distance required to complete one cycle
- Wavenumber (k) = number of cycle/unit distance
28
TimeDomain
Xmin
Offset
Xmax
Time
TransformationTXtoFK
aliased
T-X domain
F-K domain
29
Source
strength
absorption
scattering
Curved reflector
Amplitude variation
with angle (AVA)
Dynamic range
Receiver response
Receiver strength
Geophone arrays
30
SEISMICDATAPROCESSING
INPRACTICE
ProcessingStages
Data Preparation
PREProcessing
Pre-Migration
Migration
Post-Migration
Archieving
31
ProcessingStages
Data Preparation
PREProcessing
Pre-Migration
Migration
Post-Migration
No.
Items
Remark
Survey type
3-D Land
Data format
SEG-D
SPS
softcopy
hardcopy
softcopy
10
11
-Well
-Horizon interpretation
Archieving
Reformating
Geometry Assignment
Seismic-Navigation Merge
Trace Editing/Denoise
Geometric Spreading (Amp)Corr.
PREProcessing
Trace Editing/Denoise
Geometric Spreading (Amp)Corr.
Statics Correction
Tidal Correction
Denoise
Deconvolution
Designature
Velocity Analysis-1
Tau-p Deconvolution
Velocity Analysis-2
Pre-Migration
Velocity Analysis
CMP Gathers
CMP Gathers
32
Offset Regularization
Migration Precondition
Migration Precondition
Migration Precondition
Depth to Time
Conversion
Depth to Time
Conversion
Velocity Analysis
Velocity Analysis
Datum Correction
Datum Correction
Datum Correction
Datum Correction
Time to Depth
Conversion
Time to Depth
Conversion
Final Volume/Line
Final Volume/Line
Final Volume/Line
Final Volume/Line
Offset Regularization
Migration Precondition
Migration Precondition
Migration Precondition
Depth to Time
Conversion
Depth to Time
Conversion
Velocity Analysis
Velocity Analysis
Residual
(Radon) Demultiple
Residual
(Radon) Demultiple
Time to Depth
Conversion
Time to Depth
Conversion
Final Volume/Line
Final Volume/Line
33
SeismicDataProcessing InPractice
PREPROCESSING
Reformat
34
DataSampling
Continuous Analog Signal
Digitized Signal
Reconstructed Signal
35
FrequencyAliasing
Input
Output :
1ms sampling
Output :
2ms sampling
Output :
4ms sampling
Output :
8ms sampling
aliased
Memastikan sebelum resampling data di-Hi-Cut filter sekitar Frekuensi Nyquist
Geometryassignment
Geometry assignment
-Geometry update.
-Trace labelling.
-Assign unique numbers.
-Specify coordinate for all source & receiver position.
Data must be updated with the correct geometry. The wrong geometry
assigned will be very fatal. The processing can not be continued to the next
step if the geometry is not correctly updated.
36
Incorrectgeometry
Stack section with GEOMETRY ERROR
Surveycoverage
37
Geometry/Navigationfile
Geometry/Navigationfile
38
GeometryQC
Shot Point Gather with LMO applied showing GEOMETRY ERROR
GeometryQC
Shot Point Gather with LMO applied showing CORRECTED GEOMETRY
39
Incorrectbinning
Correctbinning
40
Traceediting
Trace editing is the process of removing or correcting any traces or records which, in
their originally recorded form, may cause a deterioration of the stack. Individual traces
may be affected by polarity reversals or by noise, (IPIMS, 2010).
Polarity reversal
Noisy trace
Spike
Rawrecord
41
Denoising:lowcutfilterapplied
Denoising
Before Noise Attenuation in Shot Domain
42
Denoising
After Noise Attenuation in Shot Domain
Denoising
Difference Noise Attenuation
43
Denoising:noisemodeling
Input
Processing:
Transformation
Denoise
Filtering
subtraction
Noise modeling
subtraction
Output
Denoising:lowfrequencytarget
88
44
Denoising:lowfrequencytarget
89
Denoising:lowfrequencytarget
90
45
Denoising:QConstack
Before Noise Attenuation
Denoising:QConstack
After Noise Attenuation
46
Denoising:QConstack
Difference Noise Attenuation
before
after
Differences
Smileeffect
47
Smileeffectremoved
STATICS
48
Shotrecord
Shotrecord
49
Surface
A
T0
Respon
seismik
B
C
Reflektor
50
Surface
Respon seismik
Reflektor
Surface
A
B
C
Datum
Reflektor
Travel time A ke B > Travel time C ke D.
Perlu referensi yang sama
51
Bagaimana mengkompensasi
bagian ini?
C
Surface
Datum
Reflektor
Travel time A ke B > Travel time C ke D.
Perlu referensi yang sama
Elevation Correction
Delay-Time
GLI (bagus untuk model layer-based)
Traveltime Tomography (model grid-based bagus untuk
complex geology)
Waveform Tomography (lebih detail)
52
HOWABOUTMARINEDATA?
Staticsonmarinedata
53
To remove the dynamic temporal changes in seismic data due to velocity change in the water.
Before water velocity correction
* WesternGeco, 2008
54
Staticsonmarinedata
Streamer
Gun
STATICSQCONSTACK
55
Stackwithoutstaticscorrection
Stackwithstaticscorrection
56
Stackwithresidualstaticscorrection
DECONVOLUTION
57
Deconvolution :
Improve the temporal (vertical) resolution
Remove coherent noise of multiple
Inversion process based on convolutional model of the seismic trace
Deconvolution :
1. Spiking Decon : the desire wavelet is a spike or impulse.
2. Predictive/Gap Decon : use early part of the trace to predict and deconvolve the
later part.
3. Wiener Filter : designing a filter which when convolved with an input signal
minimises the difference between actual output and the desired output.
4. Signature Decon : the output is desired wavelet.
Deconvolution Parameters :
1. Length of input data window (gate).
2. Length of decon operator.
3. Whitenoise stability factor.
58
ShotPointGatherwithoutdeconvolution
ShotPointGatherwithdeconvolution
59
VELOCITY ANALYSIS
Howtogetthecorrectvelocity?
60
Velocityanalysis
Raw
2264 m/s
2000 m/s
Overcorrected
uncorrected
velocity correct
2500 m/s
Undercorrected
Velocityanalysis
Survey 3-D
Survey 2-D
61
Velocityanalysis
Normally velocity increase with depth, this is becaused of overburden pressure effect
Velocity
Time
Velocityanalysis
containingmultiple
62
Velocityanalysis
containingmultiple
Velocityanalysis
Multipleswereremoved
63
Velocityanalysis
QC:overlayvelocitywiththestack
Stackwithsinglevelocityfunction
64
Stackwithmulti(analized)velocityfunction
AMPLITUDE CORRECTION
65
- Also known as geometric spreading amplitude correction and true amplitude recovery (TAR).
- The Decrease in wave strength (energy per unit area of wavefront) with distance as a result of
geometrical spreading.
QCamplitudecorrection
Less Compensation
Good Compensation
66
StackwithoutSurfaceConsistentAmplitude
Correction(SCAC)
SURFACE PROBLEM
StackwithSurfaceConsistentAmplitude
Correction(SCAC)
67
ShotgatherwithoutSCAC
135
ShotgatherwithSCAC
136
68
REGULARIZATION
Offsetregularization
Common Offset
Fold of coverage
before 3-D Offset regularization
Common Offset
Fold of coverage
After 3-D Offset regularization
RMS amplitude
After 3-D regularization
69
MIGRATION
MigrationConcept
70
MigrationConcept
MigrationConcept
71
MigrationConcept
MigrationConcept
72
MigrationConcept
MigrationConcept
73
Type of Migration :
1. Kirchhoff
- Most popular in recent years
- Trace by trace
- Not the best for imaging complex structures or area with
strong lateral velocities variation
2. Finite-Difference (FD)
- Much more accurate than Kirchhoff
- Time consumming
3. Frequency-wave number or Fourier transform
- More efficient than FD migration
- More accurate than Kirchhoff
- Not accurate for strong lateral velocity variation
74
Survey
Input Data
2-D
Post Stack
Migration
Migration
3-D
Pre-Stack
Domain
Time
Migration
Depth
Migration Strategies
Dipping events
Time migration
Pre-stack migration
3-D migration
Depth migration
75
MIGRATION
MIGRATION
76
MigrationComparison
Special Processing
ANISOTROPY
77
A
www.treehugger.com
Thomsen (2002) :
Anisotropy is the variation of a physical property depending
on the direction in which it is measured.
Seismic anisotropy is defined to be the dependence of
seismic velocity upon angle.
78
Z
Isotropic
Anisotropic
P-wave propagation
Axis of symetry
Axis of symmetry
Anisotropy
Axis of symetry
t0
t0 + t
Slower velocity
79
Anisotropy
Anisotropy
Well misties
Hockey stick effects
Velocity variations correlating with structure
Problems with imaging different dips
80
Anisotropy
Well Mis-tie
Anisotropy
Hockey stick effects
81
Anisotropy
Hockey stick effects corrected
Special Processing
SURFACE-RELATED MULTIPLE
82
Multiples
Surface-related multiple
Interbed multiple
Sea surface
Sea bottom
Removing the surface-related multiple has increased the S/N ratio and made the
primaries came up. It will very much help on the interpretation.
83
Surface Related
Multiple
84
Special Processing
COMMON REFLECTION
SURFACE
85
Azimuthal processing
86
Azimuthal processing
87
Advanced Processing
DEPTH IMAGING
88
89
Surface
Reflector
P
NMO and Stack adequate to correctly image and position point P.
Surface
Reflector
P
Time migration will correctly image data.
90
Surface
- VE
+VE
Reflector
P
Requires depth migration to correctly image data.
Surface
Normal
incidence
ray
Image ray
Full ray
tracing
90
Reflector
P
Apparent
position of P
on stack trace
P
Apparent
position of P
on stack trace
P
Apparent
position of P
on stack trace
91
Depth Imaging
SAMPLES
92
PSTM section
PSDM section
93
Terima Kasih
teguh.suroso@pertamina.com
94
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