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SEISMICDATAPROCESSING

forOil&GasExploration
HAGIGuestLecturingProgram

UniversitasBrawijaya
Malang,15March2014

TeguhSuroso
HAGI PertaminaUTC

Outline
Introduction
Fundamentals
Concepts
Seismicdataprocessinginpractice
Advancedprocessing

INTRODUCTION

SeismicProducts
Advanced Processing

Basic Processing

Final CMP Gathers

Field records

Time migrated section

Acquisition
Time migrated gather

Velocity model building

Depth migrated section

Well seismic tie

Acoustic Impedance section

AVO analysis

Intercept-Gradient section

SeismicDPPurposes
Diephuis, 2008 :
To transform the raw field records into an interpretable volume/line depicting
reflection coefficient in the subsurface

Gluyas & Swarbrick, 2004 :


To enhance the interpretable (useful) seismic information relative to the noise in
the signal and place the reflectors in their correct x,y,z space

IPIMS, 2010 :
The main goal of seismic processing is to obtain the best image of the
subsurface.

Reservoir characterization:
- AVO and Inversion

SampleofFieldRecord
Shot Point
Ch-1

Ch-n

GeologyModel

Field Record along the line


Displayed in every 10 SP

Overlayfieldrecordswithgeologymodel
NOT interpretable data

Overlayfieldrecordswithgeologymodel
Seismic imaging, final product of processing

Interpretable data

Seismic imaging (stacked trace)

Field record

Seismic imaging (stacked trace)

Field record

FUNDAMENTALS

SeismicWave
Seismicwaveisasoundwave
Wavepropagationisthreedimensionalphenomenon
Typeofseismicwave
Pwave
Bodywave
Swave
Seismicwave
Lovewave
Surfacewave
Rayleighwave

SeismicWaveIlustration
Bodywaves
PropagatethroughtheEarthsinterior
a.Pwave
>Compressionalwave=longitudinalwave
>Propagatesinsolids,liquidsandgasses
b.Swave
>Shearwave=transversal
>Propagatesinsolidsonly
Surfacewaves
PropagatesalongtheEarthssurface
c.Lovewave
>lowvelocitylayeroverlayinghighvelocitylayer
d.Rayleighwave
>groundroll

BodyWaveVelocityComparison

PropagationofPwave
PropagationofSwave
SwavespropagatemoreslowlythanPwaves
Vs<Vp

WavePropagation
source

surface

Isotropic media
Wavefront
-Surface of equal time

Ray path
-Line everywhere perpendicular to wavefront

Pwave
If P-wave strikes a boundary
between two media
with different velocities of
propagation and/or
different densities,
the P-wave will be :
reflected,
transmitted, and
converted into reflected
and transmitted S-wave
The sum of the reflected and
transmitted amplitudes is equal
to the incident amplitude.

Reflection&Refraction
If amplitude of incident wave = A0
amplitude of reflected wave = A1, and
amplitude of transmitted wave = A2
A0 = A1 + A2
Relative size of the reflected and the transmitted amplitudes depend on
The contrast in acoustic impedance
Acoustic Impedance (AI)
AI = . V
= density
V = P-wave velocity
Reflection Coefficient (RC)
R = A1/A0

Transmision Coefficient (TC)


T = A2/A0
T=1-R

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Snells Law
the reflected angle is equal to the incident angle

Head wave

critical angle

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Huygens Principle
Every point on an advancing wavefront is a new source of spherical wave.
Huygens Principle provides a mechanism
by which a propagating seismic pulse
loses energy with depth.
Seismic waves propagate away from the
source :
- the wavefront become larger
- the surface become larger
- energy per unit area become smaller
Spherical (geometrical) spreading
Seismic amplitudes are proportional to
the square root of energy per unit area.

Fermats Principle
A light ray traveling from one point to another will follow a path
such that, compared with nearby paths, the time required is either a
minimum or a maximum or will remain unchanged (Danbom, 2007)
Minimum time path (Diephuis, 2008)

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CONCEPTS

Consider
a single sine wave of 30Hz
In a medium of 2500m/s

83m

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Resolusi

Menurut Rayleigh, agar dapat resolved:


ketebalan lapisan harus setidak-tidaknya (Sherriff, 1997)

ResolusiDataSeismik
HarrisdanLangan(1991)
Dalamkaitannyadengan
resolusivertikal:
Dataseismikantar
sumur mengisigap
antaraVSPdanlog
sonik
Resolusimaksimum:
~1m
Fraksireservoir:102
105

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HarrisdanLangan(1991):Perbandinganresolusiseismik
permukaan,seismikantarsumurdanlogsonik

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ConvolutionalModel
MODEL ING

AI(t)

RC(t)

W(t)

Geologic model

S(t)

INVERSION

ConvolutionalModel

AI(t)

RC(t)

W(t)

S(t)

Geologic model

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ConvolutionalModel

AI(t)

RC(t)

W(t)

S(t)

Geologic model

ConvolutionalModel

AI(t)

RC(t)

S(t)

Geologic model

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ConvolutionalModel

AI(t)

RC(t)

S(t)

Geologic model

ConvolutionalModel

AI(t)

RC(t)

S(t)

Geologic model

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ConvolutionalModel

AI(t)

RC(t)

S(t)

Geologic model

ConvolutionalModel

AI(t)

RC(t)

S(t)

Geologic model

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Seismic trace S(t) = RC(t) * W(t) + n(t)


n(t) = noise
FORWARD

AI(t)

RC(t)

Geologic model

ConvolutionalModel
MODELING

W(t)

S(t)

INVERSION

SignalDomain
Time domain
- Amplitude vs Time

Signal

Frequency domain
- Amplitude vs Frequency
- Phase vs Frequency

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RelationshipTimeFrequency
Inverse Fourier
Transform
sum

decompose
Fourier Transform

Single frequency sinusoids


-

sum

A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids

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Semakin banyak frequency contain-nya, gelombang seismik akan semakin spike,


Sehingga daya-pisahnya semakin besar.
Simple quiz: Gambarkan bagaimana kira-kira sketsa spektrum amplitude-nya!

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Relationship between Time and Frequency domain

Inverse Fourier
Transform
sum

Single frequency sinusoids


-

sum

A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids

Relationship between Time and Frequency domain

decompose
Fourier Transform

Single frequency sinusoids


-

sum

A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids

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Relationship between Time and Frequency domain

Inverse Fourier
Transform
sum

decompose
Fourier Transform

Single frequency sinusoids


-

sum

A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids

TimeDomain
Change in amplitude with TIME
at a particular LOCATION

T-domain (time)

Change in amplitude with DISTANCE


at a particular TIME

X-domain (space)

Seismic signal

Time domain
- Period (T)
- Frequency (F)

= time required to complete one cycle


= number of cycle/second

Space domain
- Wavelength ( ) = distance required to complete one cycle
- Wavenumber (k) = number of cycle/unit distance

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TimeDomain

Xmin

Offset

Xmax

Time

TransformationTXtoFK
aliased

T-X domain

F-K domain

Signal is crossed by noise in T-X plane but separated in F-K plane

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Source
strength

absorption
scattering

Curved reflector
Amplitude variation
with angle (AVA)

Dynamic range

Receiver response

Receiver strength
Geophone arrays

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SEISMICDATAPROCESSING
INPRACTICE

ProcessingStages
Data Preparation
PREProcessing
Pre-Migration
Migration
Post-Migration
Archieving

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ProcessingStages
Data Preparation
PREProcessing
Pre-Migration
Migration
Post-Migration

No.

Items

Remark

Survey type

3-D Land

Seismic data available

Raw record from field


tape

Data format

SEG-D

Observer report available

Softcopy & hardcopy

Geometry/navigation data available

SPS

Field data available

Elevation, Uphole time

Signature available for marine survey

softcopy

Acquisition report available

hardcopy

Field/On Board processing report available

softcopy

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Data legacy (from old process) available

Post stack time migration


volume (SEG-Y) from
Elnusa.
Powerpoint slides with
interpretated lines

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Other supporting data available

-Well
-Horizon interpretation

Archieving

Standard Seismic Data Processing (Pre-Migration)


Reformating

Reformating

Geometry Assignment

Seismic-Navigation Merge

Trace Editing/Denoise
Geometric Spreading (Amp)Corr.

PREProcessing

Trace Editing/Denoise
Geometric Spreading (Amp)Corr.

Statics Correction

Tidal Correction

Denoise

Swell Noise Attenuation, Linear


Noise Attenuation

Deconvolution

Designature

Velocity Analysis-1

Tau-p Deconvolution

Residual Statics Correction-1

SRME (if necessary)

Velocity Analysis-2

Pre-Migration

Velocity Analysis

Residual Statics Correction-2

Demultiple (Hi-res Radon)

Surface Consistent Amplitude Corr.

Surface Consistent Amplitude Corr.

CMP Gathers

CMP Gathers

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Standard Seismic Data Processing for Land2


CMP Gathers

NMO, muting &


Stacking

Offset Regularization

NMO & muting &


Stacking

Migration Precondition

Migration Precondition

Migration Precondition

Post Stack Time Migration

Pre-Stack Time Migration

Pre-Stack Depth Migration

Post Stack Depth Migration

Depth to Time
Conversion

Depth to Time
Conversion

Velocity Analysis

Velocity Analysis

NMO, muting &


Stacking

NMO, muting &


Stacking

Post Stack Processing :


Noise Attn, Filter, Scaling

Post Stack Processing :


Noise Attn, Filter, Scaling

Post Stack Processing :


Noise Attn, Filter, Scaling

Post Stack Processing :


Noise Attn, Filter, Scaling

Datum Correction

Datum Correction

Datum Correction

Datum Correction

Time to Depth
Conversion

Time to Depth
Conversion

Final Volume/Line

Final Volume/Line

Final Volume/Line

Final Volume/Line

Standard Seismic Data Processing for Marine


CMP Gathers

NMO, muting &


Stacking

Offset Regularization

NMO & muting &


Stacking

Migration Precondition

Migration Precondition

Migration Precondition

Post Stack Time Migration

Post Stack Processing :


Noise Attn, Filter, Scaling

Gun & Cable Correction


Final Volume/Line

Pre-Stack Time Migration

Pre-Stack Depth Migration

Post Stack Depth Migration

Depth to Time
Conversion

Depth to Time
Conversion

Velocity Analysis

Velocity Analysis

Residual
(Radon) Demultiple

Residual
(Radon) Demultiple

NMO, muting &


Stacking

NMO, muting &


Stacking

Post Stack Processing :


Noise Attn, Filter, Scaling

Post Stack Processing :


Noise Attn, Filter, Scaling

Post Stack Processing :


Noise Attn, Filter, Scaling

Time to Depth
Conversion

Time to Depth
Conversion

Gun & Cable Correction

Gun & Cable Correction

Gun & Cable Correction


Final Volume/Line

Final Volume/Line

Final Volume/Line

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SeismicDataProcessing InPractice

PREPROCESSING

Reformat

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Reformat: review loaded data

DataSampling
Continuous Analog Signal

Digitized Signal

Reconstructed Signal

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FrequencyAliasing
Input
Output :
1ms sampling
Output :
2ms sampling
Output :
4ms sampling
Output :
8ms sampling
aliased
Memastikan sebelum resampling data di-Hi-Cut filter sekitar Frekuensi Nyquist

Geometryassignment
Geometry assignment
-Geometry update.
-Trace labelling.
-Assign unique numbers.
-Specify coordinate for all source & receiver position.

Data must be updated with the correct geometry. The wrong geometry
assigned will be very fatal. The processing can not be continued to the next
step if the geometry is not correctly updated.

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Incorrectgeometry
Stack section with GEOMETRY ERROR

Surveycoverage

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SPS Header file

Geometry/Navigationfile

SPS Geometry file (XPS)

SPS Source file (SPS)

Geometry/Navigationfile

SPS Receiver file (RPS)

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GeometryQC
Shot Point Gather with LMO applied showing GEOMETRY ERROR

GeometryQC
Shot Point Gather with LMO applied showing CORRECTED GEOMETRY

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Incorrectbinning

Distribusi fold kurang merata

Correctbinning

Distribusi fold lebih merata

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Traceediting
Trace editing is the process of removing or correcting any traces or records which, in
their originally recorded form, may cause a deterioration of the stack. Individual traces
may be affected by polarity reversals or by noise, (IPIMS, 2010).
Polarity reversal

Noisy trace

Spike

Rawrecord

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Denoising:lowcutfilterapplied

Denoising
Before Noise Attenuation in Shot Domain

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Denoising
After Noise Attenuation in Shot Domain

Denoising
Difference Noise Attenuation

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Denoising:noisemodeling
Input
Processing:
Transformation
Denoise
Filtering

subtraction
Noise modeling
subtraction
Output

Denoising:lowfrequencytarget

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Denoising:lowfrequencytarget

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Denoising:lowfrequencytarget

90

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Denoising:QConstack
Before Noise Attenuation

Denoising:QConstack
After Noise Attenuation

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Denoising:QConstack
Difference Noise Attenuation

before
after
Differences

Smileeffect

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Smileeffectremoved

STATICS

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Shotrecord

Before Statics Correction

Shotrecord

After Statics Correction

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Koreksi statik, statik:


koreksi yang diterapkan pada data seismik untuk mengkompensasi efek
dari variasi elevasi, low velocity layer (LVL) near surface, ketebalan
lapisan lapuk dengan referensi sebuah datum.

Surface
A

T0

Respon
seismik

B
C

Reflektor

Travel time A ke B > Travel time C ke D

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Surface

Respon seismik

Reflektor

Surface
A

B
C

Datum

Reflektor
Travel time A ke B > Travel time C ke D.
Perlu referensi yang sama

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Bagaimana mengkompensasi
bagian ini?
C

Surface

Datum

Reflektor
Travel time A ke B > Travel time C ke D.
Perlu referensi yang sama

Elevation Correction
Delay-Time
GLI (bagus untuk model layer-based)
Traveltime Tomography (model grid-based bagus untuk
complex geology)
Waveform Tomography (lebih detail)

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HOWABOUTMARINEDATA?

Staticsonmarinedata

Water Column Statics


Water column statics are a manifestation of physical changes in the water column caused
by salinity, temperature, etc., over the period of acquisition. (Geotrace, 2010)

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To remove the dynamic temporal changes in seismic data due to velocity change in the water.
Before water velocity correction

* WesternGeco, 2008

After water velocity correction

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Staticsonmarinedata

Streamer

Gun

Statics = (Streamer depth + Gun depth)/water velocity

STATICSQCONSTACK

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Stackwithoutstaticscorrection

Stackwithstaticscorrection

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Stackwithresidualstaticscorrection

DECONVOLUTION

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Deconvolution :
Improve the temporal (vertical) resolution
Remove coherent noise of multiple
Inversion process based on convolutional model of the seismic trace

S(t) = W(t) * R(t)

R(t) = S(t) * W(t)-1

Seismic source from dynamite

Seismic source from vibroseis

Seismic source from airgun

Deconvolution :
1. Spiking Decon : the desire wavelet is a spike or impulse.
2. Predictive/Gap Decon : use early part of the trace to predict and deconvolve the
later part.
3. Wiener Filter : designing a filter which when convolved with an input signal
minimises the difference between actual output and the desired output.
4. Signature Decon : the output is desired wavelet.

Deconvolution Parameters :
1. Length of input data window (gate).
2. Length of decon operator.
3. Whitenoise stability factor.

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ShotPointGatherwithoutdeconvolution

ShotPointGatherwithdeconvolution

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VELOCITY ANALYSIS

Why we need velocity?


-Amplitude compensation
-NMO correction (for stack)
-Defining angle mute
-Migration
-Conversion to Depth
-Identifying rock type

Howtogetthecorrectvelocity?

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Velocityanalysis
Raw

2264 m/s

2000 m/s

Overcorrected

uncorrected

velocity correct

velocity too slow


(need to be speeded up)

2500 m/s

Undercorrected

velocity too fast


(need to be slowed down)

Velocityanalysis
Survey 3-D

Tools in velocity analysis :


-Semblance
-CMP gather
-Multi velocity function stacks
-Control stack
-Isovelocity overlay dengan control
stack
-Basemap

Survey 2-D

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Velocityanalysis
Normally velocity increase with depth, this is becaused of overburden pressure effect
Velocity
Time

Velocityanalysis
containingmultiple

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Velocityanalysis
containingmultiple

Velocityanalysis
Multipleswereremoved

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Velocityanalysis
QC:overlayvelocitywiththestack

Stackwithsinglevelocityfunction

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Stackwithmulti(analized)velocityfunction

AMPLITUDE CORRECTION

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- Also known as geometric spreading amplitude correction and true amplitude recovery (TAR).
- The Decrease in wave strength (energy per unit area of wavefront) with distance as a result of
geometrical spreading.

Amplitude (A) at time T ~ 1/r ~ 1/(V.T),


(r, is the radius of spherical wave front)
For a constant velocity medium, V=const.,
A(T) ~ 1/T
But when the velocity increases between layers, and in practice it increases
with depth within layers,
A(T) ~ 1/TV2

QCamplitudecorrection

Raw Shot Gather

Less Compensation

Good Compensation

Too much Compensation

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StackwithoutSurfaceConsistentAmplitude
Correction(SCAC)

SURFACE PROBLEM

StackwithSurfaceConsistentAmplitude
Correction(SCAC)

AFTER SURFACE CONSISTENT AMPLITUDE CORRECTION

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ShotgatherwithoutSCAC

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ShotgatherwithSCAC

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REGULARIZATION

Offsetregularization
Common Offset

Fold of coverage
before 3-D Offset regularization

Common Offset

Fold of coverage
After 3-D Offset regularization

RMS amplitude
After 3-D regularization

With offset regularization the data


distribution in every single bin became
balanced. And the QC on the RMS
amplitude over the offset cube is very
usefull to look at the amplitude distribution
before proceed the migration.

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MIGRATION

MigrationConcept

Reaching the reflector, the wavefront will be reflected, and


some energy will propagate back to the source.
The reflected wavefront will have the same circular form as
the incident.
Point reflector :
the point at which the wavefront is reflected off the interface.
Each source-receiver pair has a uniqe point reflector that yield the shortest traveltime .

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MigrationConcept

MigrationConcept

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MigrationConcept

MigrationConcept

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MigrationConcept

MigrationConcept

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Migration is a tool to get an accurate image


of underground layer and structures.
Migration :
-Geometric reposition of recorded events to their true
position
-Move dip events to their true position
-Collapse the diffraction

Type of Migration :
1. Kirchhoff
- Most popular in recent years
- Trace by trace
- Not the best for imaging complex structures or area with
strong lateral velocities variation
2. Finite-Difference (FD)
- Much more accurate than Kirchhoff
- Time consumming
3. Frequency-wave number or Fourier transform
- More efficient than FD migration
- More accurate than Kirchhoff
- Not accurate for strong lateral velocity variation

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Survey

Input Data

2-D

Post Stack
Migration

Migration

3-D

Pre-Stack

Domain
Time
Migration
Depth

Migration Strategies (from Yilmaz, 2001)


Case

Migration Strategies

Dipping events

Time migration

Conflicting dips with different stacking velocities,


complex non-hyperbolic moveout

Pre-stack migration

3-D behavior of fault planes and/or salt flanks

3-D migration

Strong lateral velocity variations associated with


complex overburden structures

Depth migration

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MIGRATION

MIGRATION

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MigrationComparison

Post Stack Kirchhoff Time Migration


result.

Pre-Stack Kirchhoff Time Migration


gives benefit on the steep dip
structure.
The good data will help the interpreter to produce more accurate interpretation. The accurate
interpretation of course will reduce the risk.

Special Processing

ANISOTROPY

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A
www.treehugger.com

Thomsen (2002) :
Anisotropy is the variation of a physical property depending
on the direction in which it is measured.
Seismic anisotropy is defined to be the dependence of
seismic velocity upon angle.

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Z
Isotropic

Anisotropic

P-wave propagation

Axis of symetry

Axis of symmetry

Anisotropy

Axis of symetry

t0

t0 + t

Slower velocity

V V for all azimuth

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Anisotropy

Anisotropy

Well misties
Hockey stick effects
Velocity variations correlating with structure
Problems with imaging different dips

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Anisotropy
Well Mis-tie

Anisotropy
Hockey stick effects

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Anisotropy
Hockey stick effects corrected

Special Processing

SURFACE-RELATED MULTIPLE

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Multiples

Surface-related multiple

Interbed multiple
Sea surface
Sea bottom

Surface-Related Multiple Elimination


Surface Related Multiple

Marine data with strong


surface-related multiple

Stack section after surface-related multiple


elimination

Removing the surface-related multiple has increased the S/N ratio and made the
primaries came up. It will very much help on the interpretation.

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Data contains surface-related multiple

Surface Related
Multiple

Data after removing surface-related multiple

Surface Related Multiple


free

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Special Processing

COMMON REFLECTION
SURFACE

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(Baykulov et al., 2011)

Azimuthal processing

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Azimuthal processing

Perbandingan data di-stack dengan


velocity orisinil (V-0) vs velocity baru (V-1) :
Time Slice 1800ms

Stack dengan V-0


Stack dengan V-1
V-1 di-analisis setelah data di-rotate pada azimuth tertentu

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Advanced Processing

DEPTH IMAGING

Time Migration Image

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Depth Migration Image

When we need Depth Migration?


S

Time Migration : retrieves the velocity


profile at the CMP location and ray traces
through this local 1D model, i.e. no lateral
velocity variations are comprehended, the
ray path is always symmetric.
Depth Migration: Velocity Model used
as provided in its full complexity and
Ray tracing comprehends velocity
changes vertically and laterally. The ray
path is non symmetric and summation
surfaces shape becomes complex.

We need Depth Migration in subsurface that has strong lateral velocity


variation. Lateral variation may be caused by faults, carbonate build-up,
anticline/syncline, salt diapir, facies changing, gas pocket etc.

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Flat reflector, constant velocity model


CMP
point

Surface

Reflector
P
NMO and Stack adequate to correctly image and position point P.

Dipping reflector, constant velocity model


CMP
point

Surface

Reflector
P
Time migration will correctly image data.

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Flat reflector, laterally varying velocity model


CMP
Point

Surface

- VE

+VE

Reflector
P
Requires depth migration to correctly image data.

Image position comparison

0 offset stack trace

Time migrated trace

Depth migrated trace

Surface

Normal
incidence
ray

Image ray

Full ray
tracing

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Reflector

P
Apparent
position of P
on stack trace

P
Apparent
position of P
on stack trace

P
Apparent
position of P
on stack trace

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Benefit of Depth Migration


Correct vertical positioning
- if the velocity model is good enough, the image will be free of
structural distortions related to lateral velocity variations that cause
pull-ups and sags.
Correct lateral positioning
- if the velocity model is good enough, the events will be placed in
their correct lateral position.
Improved resolution
- the image will have higher resolution than that obtained by time
imaging because it doesnt rely on the hyperbolic moveout
assumption.
Allows velocity and depth estimation
- it provides its own diagnostics for deriving the accurate velocity
model. If the depth model is correct, imaging with that model yields
an identical image at all offsets/angles.

Depth Imaging

SAMPLES

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Case : Fault image


Challenge :
Fault image on the flower structure.

PSTM section

Case : Fault image


The antitetics fault now appears clearly
on the flower structure by running
DEPTH migration with accurate velocity
model.

PSDM section

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Terima Kasih

teguh.suroso@pertamina.com

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