forOil&GasExploration
HAGIGuestLecturingProgram
UniversitasBrawijaya
Malang,15March2014
TeguhSuroso
HAGI PertaminaUTC
Outline
Introduction
Fundamentals
Concepts
Seismicdataprocessinginpractice
Advancedprocessing
INTRODUCTION
SeismicProducts
Advanced Processing
Basic Processing
Field records
Acquisition
Time migrated gather
AVO analysis
Intercept-Gradient section
SeismicDPPurposes
Diephuis, 2008 :
To transform the raw field records into an interpretable volume/line depicting
reflection coefficient in the subsurface
IPIMS, 2010 :
The main goal of seismic processing is to obtain the best image of the
subsurface.
Reservoir characterization:
- AVO and Inversion
SampleofFieldRecord
Shot Point
Ch-1
Ch-n
GeologyModel
Overlayfieldrecordswithgeologymodel
NOT interpretable data
Overlayfieldrecordswithgeologymodel
Seismic imaging, final product of processing
Interpretable data
Field record
Field record
FUNDAMENTALS
SeismicWave
Seismicwaveisasoundwave
Wavepropagationisthreedimensionalphenomenon
Typeofseismicwave
Pwave
Bodywave
Swave
Seismicwave
Lovewave
Surfacewave
Rayleighwave
SeismicWaveIlustration
Bodywaves
PropagatethroughtheEarthsinterior
a.Pwave
>Compressionalwave=longitudinalwave
>Propagatesinsolids,liquidsandgasses
b.Swave
>Shearwave=transversal
>Propagatesinsolidsonly
Surfacewaves
PropagatesalongtheEarthssurface
c.Lovewave
>lowvelocitylayeroverlayinghighvelocitylayer
d.Rayleighwave
>groundroll
BodyWaveVelocityComparison
PropagationofPwave
PropagationofSwave
SwavespropagatemoreslowlythanPwaves
Vs<Vp
WavePropagation
source
surface
Isotropic media
Wavefront
-Surface of equal time
Ray path
-Line everywhere perpendicular to wavefront
Pwave
If P-wave strikes a boundary
between two media
with different velocities of
propagation and/or
different densities,
the P-wave will be :
reflected,
transmitted, and
converted into reflected
and transmitted S-wave
The sum of the reflected and
transmitted amplitudes is equal
to the incident amplitude.
Reflection&Refraction
If amplitude of incident wave = A0
amplitude of reflected wave = A1, and
amplitude of transmitted wave = A2
A0 = A1 + A2
Relative size of the reflected and the transmitted amplitudes depend on
The contrast in acoustic impedance
Acoustic Impedance (AI)
AI = . V
= density
V = P-wave velocity
Reflection Coefficient (RC)
R = A1/A0
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Snells Law
the reflected angle is equal to the incident angle
Head wave
critical angle
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Huygens Principle
Every point on an advancing wavefront is a new source of spherical wave.
Huygens Principle provides a mechanism
by which a propagating seismic pulse
loses energy with depth.
Seismic waves propagate away from the
source :
- the wavefront become larger
- the surface become larger
- energy per unit area become smaller
Spherical (geometrical) spreading
Seismic amplitudes are proportional to
the square root of energy per unit area.
Fermats Principle
A light ray traveling from one point to another will follow a path
such that, compared with nearby paths, the time required is either a
minimum or a maximum or will remain unchanged (Danbom, 2007)
Minimum time path (Diephuis, 2008)
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CONCEPTS
Consider
a single sine wave of 30Hz
In a medium of 2500m/s
83m
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Resolusi
ResolusiDataSeismik
HarrisdanLangan(1991)
Dalamkaitannyadengan
resolusivertikal:
Dataseismikantar
sumur mengisigap
antaraVSPdanlog
sonik
Resolusimaksimum:
~1m
Fraksireservoir:102
105
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HarrisdanLangan(1991):Perbandinganresolusiseismik
permukaan,seismikantarsumurdanlogsonik
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ConvolutionalModel
MODEL ING
AI(t)
RC(t)
W(t)
Geologic model
S(t)
INVERSION
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
W(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
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ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
W(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
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ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
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ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
ConvolutionalModel
AI(t)
RC(t)
S(t)
Geologic model
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AI(t)
RC(t)
Geologic model
ConvolutionalModel
MODELING
W(t)
S(t)
INVERSION
SignalDomain
Time domain
- Amplitude vs Time
Signal
Frequency domain
- Amplitude vs Frequency
- Phase vs Frequency
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RelationshipTimeFrequency
Inverse Fourier
Transform
sum
decompose
Fourier Transform
sum
A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
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22
23
24
25
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Inverse Fourier
Transform
sum
sum
A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
decompose
Fourier Transform
sum
A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
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Inverse Fourier
Transform
sum
decompose
Fourier Transform
sum
A TIME domain wavelet can be synthesized by summing a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
A TIME domain wavelet can be decomposed into a set of single FREQUENCY sinusoids
TimeDomain
Change in amplitude with TIME
at a particular LOCATION
T-domain (time)
X-domain (space)
Seismic signal
Time domain
- Period (T)
- Frequency (F)
Space domain
- Wavelength ( ) = distance required to complete one cycle
- Wavenumber (k) = number of cycle/unit distance
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TimeDomain
Xmin
Offset
Xmax
Time
TransformationTXtoFK
aliased
T-X domain
F-K domain
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Source
strength
absorption
scattering
Curved reflector
Amplitude variation
with angle (AVA)
Dynamic range
Receiver response
Receiver strength
Geophone arrays
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SEISMICDATAPROCESSING
INPRACTICE
ProcessingStages
Data Preparation
PREProcessing
Pre-Migration
Migration
Post-Migration
Archieving
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ProcessingStages
Data Preparation
PREProcessing
Pre-Migration
Migration
Post-Migration
No.
Items
Remark
Survey type
3-D Land
Data format
SEG-D
SPS
softcopy
hardcopy
softcopy
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11
-Well
-Horizon interpretation
Archieving
Reformating
Geometry Assignment
Seismic-Navigation Merge
Trace Editing/Denoise
Geometric Spreading (Amp)Corr.
PREProcessing
Trace Editing/Denoise
Geometric Spreading (Amp)Corr.
Statics Correction
Tidal Correction
Denoise
Deconvolution
Designature
Velocity Analysis-1
Tau-p Deconvolution
Velocity Analysis-2
Pre-Migration
Velocity Analysis
CMP Gathers
CMP Gathers
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Offset Regularization
Migration Precondition
Migration Precondition
Migration Precondition
Depth to Time
Conversion
Depth to Time
Conversion
Velocity Analysis
Velocity Analysis
Datum Correction
Datum Correction
Datum Correction
Datum Correction
Time to Depth
Conversion
Time to Depth
Conversion
Final Volume/Line
Final Volume/Line
Final Volume/Line
Final Volume/Line
Offset Regularization
Migration Precondition
Migration Precondition
Migration Precondition
Depth to Time
Conversion
Depth to Time
Conversion
Velocity Analysis
Velocity Analysis
Residual
(Radon) Demultiple
Residual
(Radon) Demultiple
Time to Depth
Conversion
Time to Depth
Conversion
Final Volume/Line
Final Volume/Line
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SeismicDataProcessing InPractice
PREPROCESSING
Reformat
34
DataSampling
Continuous Analog Signal
Digitized Signal
Reconstructed Signal
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FrequencyAliasing
Input
Output :
1ms sampling
Output :
2ms sampling
Output :
4ms sampling
Output :
8ms sampling
aliased
Memastikan sebelum resampling data di-Hi-Cut filter sekitar Frekuensi Nyquist
Geometryassignment
Geometry assignment
-Geometry update.
-Trace labelling.
-Assign unique numbers.
-Specify coordinate for all source & receiver position.
Data must be updated with the correct geometry. The wrong geometry
assigned will be very fatal. The processing can not be continued to the next
step if the geometry is not correctly updated.
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Incorrectgeometry
Stack section with GEOMETRY ERROR
Surveycoverage
37
Geometry/Navigationfile
Geometry/Navigationfile
38
GeometryQC
Shot Point Gather with LMO applied showing GEOMETRY ERROR
GeometryQC
Shot Point Gather with LMO applied showing CORRECTED GEOMETRY
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Incorrectbinning
Correctbinning
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Traceediting
Trace editing is the process of removing or correcting any traces or records which, in
their originally recorded form, may cause a deterioration of the stack. Individual traces
may be affected by polarity reversals or by noise, (IPIMS, 2010).
Polarity reversal
Noisy trace
Spike
Rawrecord
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Denoising:lowcutfilterapplied
Denoising
Before Noise Attenuation in Shot Domain
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Denoising
After Noise Attenuation in Shot Domain
Denoising
Difference Noise Attenuation
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Denoising:noisemodeling
Input
Processing:
Transformation
Denoise
Filtering
subtraction
Noise modeling
subtraction
Output
Denoising:lowfrequencytarget
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Denoising:lowfrequencytarget
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Denoising:lowfrequencytarget
90
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Denoising:QConstack
Before Noise Attenuation
Denoising:QConstack
After Noise Attenuation
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Denoising:QConstack
Difference Noise Attenuation
before
after
Differences
Smileeffect
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Smileeffectremoved
STATICS
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Shotrecord
Shotrecord
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Surface
A
T0
Respon
seismik
B
C
Reflektor
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Surface
Respon seismik
Reflektor
Surface
A
B
C
Datum
Reflektor
Travel time A ke B > Travel time C ke D.
Perlu referensi yang sama
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Bagaimana mengkompensasi
bagian ini?
C
Surface
Datum
Reflektor
Travel time A ke B > Travel time C ke D.
Perlu referensi yang sama
Elevation Correction
Delay-Time
GLI (bagus untuk model layer-based)
Traveltime Tomography (model grid-based bagus untuk
complex geology)
Waveform Tomography (lebih detail)
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HOWABOUTMARINEDATA?
Staticsonmarinedata
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To remove the dynamic temporal changes in seismic data due to velocity change in the water.
Before water velocity correction
* WesternGeco, 2008
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Staticsonmarinedata
Streamer
Gun
STATICSQCONSTACK
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Stackwithoutstaticscorrection
Stackwithstaticscorrection
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Stackwithresidualstaticscorrection
DECONVOLUTION
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Deconvolution :
Improve the temporal (vertical) resolution
Remove coherent noise of multiple
Inversion process based on convolutional model of the seismic trace
Deconvolution :
1. Spiking Decon : the desire wavelet is a spike or impulse.
2. Predictive/Gap Decon : use early part of the trace to predict and deconvolve the
later part.
3. Wiener Filter : designing a filter which when convolved with an input signal
minimises the difference between actual output and the desired output.
4. Signature Decon : the output is desired wavelet.
Deconvolution Parameters :
1. Length of input data window (gate).
2. Length of decon operator.
3. Whitenoise stability factor.
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ShotPointGatherwithoutdeconvolution
ShotPointGatherwithdeconvolution
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VELOCITY ANALYSIS
Howtogetthecorrectvelocity?
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Velocityanalysis
Raw
2264 m/s
2000 m/s
Overcorrected
uncorrected
velocity correct
2500 m/s
Undercorrected
Velocityanalysis
Survey 3-D
Survey 2-D
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Velocityanalysis
Normally velocity increase with depth, this is becaused of overburden pressure effect
Velocity
Time
Velocityanalysis
containingmultiple
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Velocityanalysis
containingmultiple
Velocityanalysis
Multipleswereremoved
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Velocityanalysis
QC:overlayvelocitywiththestack
Stackwithsinglevelocityfunction
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Stackwithmulti(analized)velocityfunction
AMPLITUDE CORRECTION
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- Also known as geometric spreading amplitude correction and true amplitude recovery (TAR).
- The Decrease in wave strength (energy per unit area of wavefront) with distance as a result of
geometrical spreading.
QCamplitudecorrection
Less Compensation
Good Compensation
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StackwithoutSurfaceConsistentAmplitude
Correction(SCAC)
SURFACE PROBLEM
StackwithSurfaceConsistentAmplitude
Correction(SCAC)
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ShotgatherwithoutSCAC
135
ShotgatherwithSCAC
136
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REGULARIZATION
Offsetregularization
Common Offset
Fold of coverage
before 3-D Offset regularization
Common Offset
Fold of coverage
After 3-D Offset regularization
RMS amplitude
After 3-D regularization
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MIGRATION
MigrationConcept
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MigrationConcept
MigrationConcept
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MigrationConcept
MigrationConcept
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MigrationConcept
MigrationConcept
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Type of Migration :
1. Kirchhoff
- Most popular in recent years
- Trace by trace
- Not the best for imaging complex structures or area with
strong lateral velocities variation
2. Finite-Difference (FD)
- Much more accurate than Kirchhoff
- Time consumming
3. Frequency-wave number or Fourier transform
- More efficient than FD migration
- More accurate than Kirchhoff
- Not accurate for strong lateral velocity variation
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Survey
Input Data
2-D
Post Stack
Migration
Migration
3-D
Pre-Stack
Domain
Time
Migration
Depth
Migration Strategies
Dipping events
Time migration
Pre-stack migration
3-D migration
Depth migration
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MIGRATION
MIGRATION
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MigrationComparison
Special Processing
ANISOTROPY
77
A
www.treehugger.com
Thomsen (2002) :
Anisotropy is the variation of a physical property depending
on the direction in which it is measured.
Seismic anisotropy is defined to be the dependence of
seismic velocity upon angle.
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Z
Isotropic
Anisotropic
P-wave propagation
Axis of symetry
Axis of symmetry
Anisotropy
Axis of symetry
t0
t0 + t
Slower velocity
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Anisotropy
Anisotropy
Well misties
Hockey stick effects
Velocity variations correlating with structure
Problems with imaging different dips
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Anisotropy
Well Mis-tie
Anisotropy
Hockey stick effects
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Anisotropy
Hockey stick effects corrected
Special Processing
SURFACE-RELATED MULTIPLE
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Multiples
Surface-related multiple
Interbed multiple
Sea surface
Sea bottom
Removing the surface-related multiple has increased the S/N ratio and made the
primaries came up. It will very much help on the interpretation.
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Surface Related
Multiple
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Special Processing
COMMON REFLECTION
SURFACE
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Azimuthal processing
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Azimuthal processing
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Advanced Processing
DEPTH IMAGING
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89
Surface
Reflector
P
NMO and Stack adequate to correctly image and position point P.
Surface
Reflector
P
Time migration will correctly image data.
90
Surface
- VE
+VE
Reflector
P
Requires depth migration to correctly image data.
Surface
Normal
incidence
ray
Image ray
Full ray
tracing
90
Reflector
P
Apparent
position of P
on stack trace
P
Apparent
position of P
on stack trace
P
Apparent
position of P
on stack trace
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Depth Imaging
SAMPLES
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PSTM section
PSDM section
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Terima Kasih
teguh.suroso@pertamina.com
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