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FOODPRODUCTION
(ASSISTANTCOOK)

LEARNER'SMANUAL

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FUND

inves tinginnepal's future

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THEHITTPROGRAMME
TheFoodProductionAssistantCookcurriculumandtrainingmaterialareoneofthe
severalskillsbuildingproductsdevelopedbytheHighImpactTourismTrainingforJobsand
Incomeprogramme(HITT)tosupportinformalandpotentialworkersintheNepalesetourism
sectortoenhancetheirproductivityandprofessionalism,andincreasetheiremployability
andincomeopportunities.
TheHITTprogrammeisimplementedbytheNetherlandsDevelopmentOrganisation
(SNV)throughthefinancialassistanceofEuropeanCommission(EC)InvestinginPeople
programme.TheHITTinitiativeaimstocontributetosustainablepropoorgrowthinthe
informaltourismsectorinthesevenleastdevelopedanddevelopingcountriesinSub
SaharanAfricaandAsia.
Withintheframeworkofthisinitiative,SNVanditslocalpartnershavedevelopedaskill
developmentprogrammeforinformalsectoractors,notablywomenandyouth,unskilled
andsemiskilledworkers,inclosecollaborationwiththeprivatesector.InNepal,theHITT
programmehasbeenworkingwiththetourismsectortoidentifyoccupationsthatare
indemand,anddeveloptrainingcurriculums,trainingmaterialanddelivertrainingtoits
beneficiaries.Thesixselectedoccupationsincludeassistantcook,waiter,housekeeper,
serviceexcellenceandhygiene,trekkingguide,andhomestayandlodgeoperators.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
SNVwouldliketofirstthanktheEmploymentFundSecretariat(EFS)forcoordinatingamong
TVETserviceproviderstoproducethetrainingmaterials.Weacknowledgetheexpertise
sharedbytheJhapatechnicalinstitute,GlobalInstituteofHotelManagement,Oriental
HospitalityandTourismTraining,SaharaSchoolofHospitalityManagement,JanahitTrading
andTrainingandLisaGordonDavisinthedevelopmentofthetrainingmodelforFood
ProductionAssistantCook.SNVappreciatesthecontributionofHospitalitySolutions
(HS)andZaeemAhmedindevelopingthetrainingmaterialsandcoordinatingwithkey
stakeholderstodevelopthefinalproduct.ManythanksalsotoMonicaOliveros,Prakriti
SherchanfromHITTfortheirinputs.SpecialthanksgotoBibekShresthawhocoordinated
thepublicationofthisseriesofmanuals.Wewouldalsoliketoexpressoursincerethanksto
SanjayMadnaniandhisteamatUmbrelloDesignfordesignandillustration.

Contributions
ThispublicationhasbeenproducedwiththefinancialassistanceoftheEuropeanUnion.
ThecontentsofthispublicationarethesoleresponsibilityofSNVandcaninnowaybe
takentoreflecttheviewsoftheEuropeanUnion.FormoreinformationonEuropeAid,
pleasevisithttp://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/

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MODULE1:TOURISM,HOSPITALITY,FOODANDBEVERAGESERVICE

TableofContents
AboutFoodProductionAssistantCookcurriculum

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ObjectiveoftheFoodProductionlearnerManual

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Learningoutcomeofthetraining

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CareerPath

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MODULE1:KITCHENMANAGEMENT,OPERATIONS,HYGIENEANDRISKANALYSIS13
1Introduction

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1.1KitchenManagementandOrganization
1.1.1KitchenOrganizationChart

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1.1.2Dutiesandresponsibilitiesofeachposition
1.1.3Kitchenanditstypes

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1.2InterDepartmentalRelation

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1.3PersonalHygiene
1.3.1ImportanceofPersonalHygiene

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1.3.2Personalhygieneinkitchen

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1.4PreparationandSetupofWorkArea
1.4.1MiseenScene

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1.4.2Miseenplace
1.4.3Foodproductionprocess

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1.4.4Foodpreparationprocedure

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1.5KitchenKnifeDrillandSafety
1.5.1Knifeanditstype
1.5.2KnifeSafety

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1.6Kitchenutensils,equipment,cleaningprocedures
1.6.1Kitchencleaningprocedure

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1.7WeightsandMeasurements

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1.7.1Metricmeasurementsystem
1.7.2Standardweightandmeasurements

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1.7.3Measureequivalent
1.7.4OvenTemperatures

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1.7.5Importantofweightandmeasures

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1.8FoodPoisoningandFoodHygiene
1.8.1Causesoffoodpoisoning

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1.8.2Foodpoisoningsymptoms
1.8.3Foodhygiene

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1.8.4ImportanceoffoodHygiene
1.8.5PrinciplesofFoodHygiene

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1.9FoodStorage
1.9.1TypesofFoodStorage

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1.9.2Basicfoodstorageprinciple
1.9.3Coolingprocessofcookedfoodbeforestorage

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1.9.4Temperatureofdifferentstore
1.9.5Perishableitemsrefrigeratingtemperature.

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1.9.6CareandMaintenanceofStorageEquipment

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1.10KitchenWastes
1.10.1Problemsrelatingtokitchenwaste
1.10.2Howtominimisekitchenwaste
1.10.3Principleofhandlingkitchenwaste

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1.11Pest
1.11.1PestControl
1.11.2Importanceofpestcontrolinkitchen
1.11.3Preventivemajorsofpestcontrol
1.12Kitchenhazards,safetymeasuresandhandling
1.13Identifypotentialhazardsinkitchen
1.13.1Hotandharmfulsubstancesinkitchen
1.13.2Dealingwithchemicalsinthekitchen

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1.14Commonkitcheninjuries

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1.15FirstAidinKitchen
1.15.1Treatmentsofcutsandburns

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1.16Fire

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1.16.1Typesoffire
1.16.2Causesoffire

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1.16.3Preventingfireaccidentinthekitchen
1.16.4Typeoffireextinguisher

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1.17Kitchenplanning
1.17.1Pointstobeconsiderwhenplanningakitchen

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MODULE2:PRINCIPLEANDMETHODSOFCOOKERY

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2Introduction

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2.1Cooking
2.1.1Objectivesofcooking

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2.1.2MethodofCooking

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2.1.3CommonKitchenutensilsandequipment
2.2Herbs,SpicesandSeasoning
2.2.1Importanceofherbsandspices
2.2.2Listofthedifferentherbs,spicesanditsusages
2.3PortioningandGarnishing

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2.3.1Importanceofportioning
2.3.2StandardPortionsize

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2.3.3Garnishanditstype
2.3.4ImportanceofGarnish

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2.3.5Howtogarnishfood?

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MODULE3:STOCKS,SAUCESANDSOUPS
3Introduction
3.1Stocks
3.1.1Typesofstock
3.1.2Preparingdifferenttypesofstock
Item:WhiteStock
Item:BrownStock
3.2Sauce

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3.2.1TypesofSauce
3.2.2Preparingdifferenttypesofsauce:

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Item:BchamelSauce
Item:Brown/EspagnaoleSauce

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Item:VelouteSauce
Item:Hollandaise/MayonnaiseSauce

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Item:TomatoSauce

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3.3Soup
3.3.1TypesofSoup
3.3.2Garnishandaccompanimentsofsoup

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3.3.3Preparingdifferenttypesofsoup
Item:FrenchOnionSoup

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Item:MinestroneSoup
Item:CreamofMushroom

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Item:PureeSt.German/ThickPeaSoup
Item:ChickenSweetCornSoup

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Item:YakhniShorba

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MODULE4:VEGETABLES,FRUITSANDSALADS
4Introduction
4.1DefinitionofVegetable
4.1.1TypesofVegetables
4.1.2Seasonalvegetableavailability

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4.1.3Howisvegetableprocessed?
4.1.4Vegetablecutsandpreparationmethod

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4.1.5Typesofvegetablescuts
4.1.6Vegetablecookingmethods

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4.1.7VegetableStorage
4.1.8Garnishandservingvegetables

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4.1.9PreparingdifferenttypesofVegetableDishes
Item:StirFryVegetables

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Item:MismasTarkari
Item:AlooGobiMattarkoTarkari

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Item:PalakPaneer
Item:ParsleyPotato

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4.2Fruits

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4.2.1ClassificationofFruits
4.2.2FruitsCookingMethod

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4.2.3FruitPreservationMethod
4.2.4FruitsandtheirSeason

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4.2.5FruitStoragePrinciple
4.2.6PreparingdifferenttypesofFruitDishes

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Item:FruitSalad
4.3Salad
4.3.1ImportanceofSalad

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4.3.2TypesofSalad
4.3.3Componentsofsalad

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4.3.4Dressinganditstype
4.3.5Preparingdifferenttypesofslaladdressing

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Item:Frenchdressing
Item:Italiandressing

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Item:ThousandIslanddressing
Item:Russiandressing

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Item:Thaipeanutdressing
Item:Yogurtdressing

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Item:Indiandressing
4.3.6PreparingdifferenttypesofSalad

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Item:RussianSalad
Item:ChickenCaesarSalad

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Item:ColeSlaw
Item:GreekSalad

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Item:WaldorfSalad

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MODULE1:TOURISM,HOSPITALITY,FOODANDBEVERAGESERVICE

MODULE5:CEREALSANDPASTA
5Introduction
5.1Cereals
5.1.1TypeofCereals
5.1.2PreparationofdifferentPulseDishes
Item:DalMakhani
Item:DalFry

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5.1.3Rice:
5.1.4Preparationmethodofrice

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5.1.5Preparingdifferenttypeofricedishes
Item:MushroomRissoto

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Item:VegetableFriedRice
Item:JogiBhat

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Item:HydrabadiBiryani

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5.2Pasta
5.2.1TypesofPasta
5.2.2Qualitycheckandstorageofpasta
5.2.3Preparingdifferenttypesofpastadishes

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Item:SpaghettialaCarbonara
Item:PenneNapolitano

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MODULE6:DAIRYPRODUCT

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6Introduction

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6.1DairyProduct
6.1.1Milk

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6.1.2Cream
6.1.3Cheese

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6.1.4Yoghurt

MODULE7:MEAT,POULTRYANDFISH

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7Introduction

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7.1Meat
7.1.1TypesofMeat

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7.1.2Qualitychecksignandstorageofmeat
7.1.3Preparingdifferentbeefdishes

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Items:BeefGoulash
Item:Chateaubriand

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Item:BeefTenderloin

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7.2LambandMutton
7.2.1Qualitycheckandstorage:

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7.2.2PreparationofLambandMuttondishes
Items:IrishLambStew

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Item:RoastedRackofLamb
Item:MuttonCurry(Roghanjosh)

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7.3Pork

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7.3.1Qualitycheckandstorageofpork:
7.3.2Preparingdifferentporkdishes
Item:PorkChop
Item:HongKongSweetandSourPork
7.4Poultry

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7.4.1Qualitycheckandstorageofpoultry:
7.4.2PreparingdifferenttypesofChickensdishes

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Item:ChickenKiev
Item:BuffaloChickenWings

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Item:ChickenCurryKashmiri

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7.5Fish
7.5.1Qualitycheckandsignandstorageoffish:

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7.5.2PreparingdifferentFishDishes
Item:FishandChips

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Item:FishAlmandine
Item:BengaliFishCurry

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MODULE8:BAKERYANDPASTRY

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8Introduction

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8.1Bakery
8.1.1Ingredientsusedinbreadmaking

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8.1.2BreadMakingProcess
8.1.3PreparingdifferentBakeryItems

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Items:SandwichBread
Item:BreadRolls/Sticks/Burger/HotDogs

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Item:Croissant
Item:OrangeMuffin

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8.2Pastry

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8.2.1Typesofpastry
8.2.2Principleofpastrymaking

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8.2.3Preparationmethodofpastry
8.2.4PreparingdifferenttypesofPastryDishes

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Item:PlainSponge
Item:PeachGateaux

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Item:BlackForestCake
Item:GajarkoHalwa

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MODULE9:BREAKFASTANDLIGHTMEALS
9Introduction
9.1Breakfast
9.1.1TypesofBreakfast:
9.1.2PreparingdifferentBreakfastItems

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Item:ScrambledEgg
Item:MasalaOmelette

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Item:SpanishOmelette
Item:PoachedEggs

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Item:PotatoHashBrown
Item:Pancakes

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Item:FriedEgg
Item:SunnySideup

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Items:MixCerealsforBreakfast

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9.2Sandwich
9.2.1TypesofSandwichareasfollows:
9.2.2ComponentsofSandwich
9.2.3PreparingdifferenttypestoSandwiches

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Item:GrilledCheeseSandwich
Item:VegetableSandwiches(opensandwich)

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Item:BLTSandwich
Item:ChickenClubSandwich

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Item:TunaSandwiches

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9.3Burger
9.3.1PreparingdifferenttypestoBurger

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Item:ChickenBurger
Item:Hamburger

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9.4Snacks

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9.4.1PreparingofdifferenttypestoSnacks
Item:ChickenNuggets
Item:FishFinger
Item:Alootikki

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Item:Frenchfries
Item:HaraBharaKebab

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Item:ChickenMalaikebab
Item:ChickenChili

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Item:AlooParatha
Item:Chickenmomo

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Item:VegetableChowmein

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AboutFoodProduction
AssistantCookcurriculum
FoodProductionhasbeendesignedtoequippeopleworkinginthekitchenonthetechnical
andpracticalknowhowofthefoodproduction.Itisespeciallyforthosewhowanttostart
theircareerasanassistantcookinrestaurantsandhotels.Thereisparticularemphasison
basicfoodpreparationprocedures,methodsofcookingandvarioustechniquesandskills
requiredinthefoodproductionsectoraswellasotherrelatedtopicssuchassafetyand
securityatwork.Thismanualcanbeusedbyanyrestaurantorahotelwhowanttoextend
theknowledgeoftheirkitchenpersonnelonfoodproduction.Throughoutthedevelopmentof
thematerial,thecompetenceofthepresentworkforceinKathmanduvalleywasconsidered
throughmarketneedanalysisinthefoodandbeveragesector.Furtherinputs,withthehelpof
TVETserviceprovidersworkinginthefoodandbeveragesectorinNepal,wereincorporated
tothedevelopmentofmaterialsandcontentthiswasfurthercomplimentedbytheindustry
expertswhosharedtheirknowledgeoncurriculumandmaterialdevelopmentstandards.

ObjectiveoftheFoodProductionAssistantCook
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Toequipbeneficiariesonessentialknowledgeneededinfoodproduction.Particularlyon
improvingkitchenhygiene,grooming,kitchenwastehandling,differentcookingmethods,
preparingthedifferentdishes,kitchenequipment,hazards,andworkingeffectivelyand
efficientlyinakitchen.

Learningoutcomeofthetraining
Uponsuccessfulcompletionofthiscourse,thebeneficiariesshouldbeabletodemonstrate
andpractice:
Kitchenmanagementandorganisation(brigadesystem).
Generalkitchencleaningandpreparingforwork.
Foodhygiene,PersonalhygieneandFoodpoisoning.
Properlyhandlekitchenwaste.
Maintainsafetyandsecurityandpestcontrol.
Differentcookingmethods.
Preparationofdifferentdishessuchasstock,sauce,soup,lightmeals,fish,poultry
andmeat.
Identifydifferenttypesofvegetable,fruitsandsalads.
Knowledgeaboutpasta,cereals,cheeseanddairyproduct.

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Targetbeneficiariesoffoodproductionmanual
Thetargetbeneficiariesofthiscoursearethefoodproductionstaffs,foodproductionentry
levelandthosewhowishingtogaintechnicalandpracticalskillstobecomeanassistant
cook.

CareerPath
Aftercompletingthiscourse,alearnerwillbeableto:
Joinhotels,restaurants,fastfoodoutlets,cateringandbanquetsservicesastrainee
chef,assistantchef,commischeforcommisIII.
Startupyourownsmallscalerestaurantorfastfoodoutlet.

Assessment
FormativeAssessment
Learnersmaybeformativelyassessedthroughoutthecourse.Thiswilltakeplaceinthe
formofaquiz,practicalexercisesand/orapplication.
SummativeAssessment
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Afinalsummativeassessmentmaybegiventolearnersattheendofthecourseandwill
bebasedonthelearningoutcomesforthecourse.
Thisassessmentwill(indicatewhatformatthisassessmenttakes,forexample,apaper
basedassessment,practical,simulation)becompletedattheendofthecoursefor
practicalassessments,thepracticalcomponentsofthecoursemustbecombinedinto
anintegratedassessmentsothatlearnerscandemonstratetheentireprocess.
NationalSkillTestingBoardExam(NSTB)
Aftercompletionofthis390hourscourse,thelearnerswillgothroughaNSTB/CTEVT
paperbasedwrittenexamaswellaspracticalexam.Aftersuccessfulcompletionof
exams,certificateswillbeawarded.

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MODULE1
KITCHENMANAGEMENT,OPERATIONS,
HYGIENEANDRISKANALYSIS

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1Introduction:Kitchenmanagement,Operations,
HygieneandRiskAnalysis
Thebeginningmoduleisthemostimportanttopiccoveringbasiccomponentsof
kitchenmanagement,operations,andfunctionsinanestablishment.Issuesrelatedto
yourpersonnelhygiene,foodpreparation,kitchenequipment,foodpoisoning,kitchen
hazards,riskassessmentandpreventivemeasureswillbediscussed.
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1.1KitchenManagementandOrganization
Theartofplanning,preparingandcookingmealsforthecustomersiscalledkitchen
management.Theobjectiveofkitchenmanagementistolead,organizeandcontrol
theproductionandserviceoffood.Chefsaretheexpertsofthekitchenmanagement.
Executivesareatthehighestlevelofallareasinchargeofchefs,pepcooksandjunior
staff.
1.1.1KitchenOrganizationChart
Thekitchenorganizationchartvariesfromrestauranttorestaurant,dependinguponthe
sizeoftheestablishment.Thechartgivenbelowisageneralorganizationalchartofa
restaurant.

ExecutiveChef

SousChef

ChefDePartie
Pastery

ChefDePartie
Banquet

ChefDePartie
CentralKitchen

Banker

CommisI

CommisI

CommiII

CommisII

CommisII

CommiIII

CommisIII

CommisIII

Trainee

Trainee

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1.1.2Dutiesandresponsibilitiesofeachposition
ExecutiveChef:
Developsrecipesandmenusforallretailfoodoperations.
Supervisesfoodproduction.
Maintainsfoodcoststandardsandcost.
Promotessafetyandpropersanitation.
Assistsintakinginventoryandpurchasingsupplies.
Introducesnewproducts.
Actsasareplacementworkerwhenshortstaffed.
Handlescustomers'concernsandsuggestions.
Handlesemployees'concernsandissues.
Controlsfoodwaste.
Mayhavefullorfinalresponsibilityforjobactions(e.g.,hiringnewstaff,promotions,
demotions,transfers,discipline,terminations).
Schedules/assignswork.
Setsproductiongoalsorjobexpectations.
Otherdutiesasrequired.
SousChef:
Runsthekitchenwhentheheadchefisaway.
Actsasaliaisonbetweentheexecutivechefandthekitchenstaff.
Managesfoodpurchasingandstorage.
Maintainsasafeandhygienickitchenenvironment.
Helpscreatenewrecipesandwritemenus.
Instructscookinpreparing,cooking,garnishingandpresentingfood.
ChefdePartie:
Reportsfordutypunctuallywearingthecorrectuniformandnametag.
Maintainsahighstandardofpersonalappearance,hygieneandgroomingstandards.
Providesfriendly,courteousandprofessionalserviceatalltimes.
Maintainsagoodworkingrelationshipswithcolleaguesinallotherdepartments.
Respondstochangesinthedepartmentasdictatedbytheneedsofthehotel.
Flexibleinjobfunctionsandcanperformanyotherreasonabledutiesandassigned
responsibilities.
Attendstrainingsessionsandmeetingsasandwhenrequired.
Commis(I,II,III):
Familiarwithallthefooditemsontheoutletmenu.
Preparesfoodproductsaccordingtotherequiredstandard.
Followsstandardrecipesandminimiseswastetohelpensurethattheoutletsfood
costisinlinewithbudget.
Flexiblewhereverpossibleinmeetingspecialrequestsfromguestsforspecificfood
preparationmethodsandingredients.

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FollowspresentationguidelinesasestablishedbytheChefdePartie,SousChefor
theChefdeCuisine.
Maintainstheassignedstation/sectioninacleanandorderlymanneratalltimes.
Uptodatewiththeavailabilityofseasonalandnewproductsonthemarket.
Treatsalloperatingequipmentandsuppliescarefullytominimisedamageand
reducewaste.
1.1.3Kitchenanditstypes
Thekitchenisanareawherefoodispreparedandcookedforcustomerservice.The
purposeofthekitchenistoproduce,therightquantityandqualityoffoodatinthe
beststandardrequiredbythenumberofpeoplethroughtheeffectiveuseofstaff,
equipmentandmaterials.
Thetypesofkitchenvaryaccordingtotheestablishment.Thebasictypesofkitchensare:
Mainkitchen:Themainkitchenisgenerallylocatedatthecentralpartofthehotel
wheretheoverallsequenceoffoodreceiving,storing,preparing,cooking,servingand
clearingareasareproperlydesignedandmanaged.
SpecialityKitchen:Thespecialitykitchenisconstructedandestablishedapartfromthe
mainkitchentocatertoaparticularlocation.
Fastfoodkitchen:Itisindependentlyestablishedtomeetthepaceofcustomersbusy
life.Itpreparesandservesinexpensivefoodquickly.TheFastFoodkitchenservespre
heatedandprecookedingredientstothecustomerasfastaspossible.Itisspecially
locatedinpublicareas.

1.2InterDepartmentalRelation
Thekitchendependslargelyoncertaindepartmentsforeffectivefunctioning.Smooth
coordinationisimportantandplaysavitalroleinsuccessofanyhotelorrestaurant.
Kitchenstaffmustbefullyawareoftheroleofeachcoordinatingdepartment.
FrontOffice
InformationregardingVIPsinhouse,roomreports,billing,typesofplanduringgueststay.
Kitchenstewarding
Relatestocleaning,polishingandmaintaininginventoryofallutensils.
Purchase
Requisitionofnecessaryutensils,equipmentandmaterials.
Housekeeping
RelatestoplacingofVIPamenitiesandstaffsuniforms.
EngineeringandMaintenance
Relatestorepairandmaintenanceofelectricalequipment,airconditioning,water
supply,gas,steametc.

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Accounts
Requisitionapproval,salariesandinventories.
HumanResources
Hiringandfiringofstaff,increment,appraisal,procurement,developmentandtraining.
SalesandMarketing
Menuplanning,foodpromotion,entertainment,foodtastingandotherevents.

1.3PersonalHygiene
Personalhygieneispersonalcleanliness.Germsandbacteriaarefoundinandaround
humanbodiesandcanbetransferredtoanythingthathascontactwiththebody.
Therefore,careandattentionareessentialinthekitchen.
1.3.1ImportanceofPersonalHygiene
Personalhygieneisimportantbecausebacteriainourbody(skin,nose,mouthorhand)
canbetransferredtofoodsandthepeoplewhoeatthefoodcangetsick.Therefore,
personalhygieneplaysanimportantroleinpreventingcrosscontamination.
Crosscontamination:Crosscontaminationisthetransferofharmfulmicroorganisms
orbacteria,fromonesubstancetoanother.
Personalbehavioursthatcancontaminate
foodareasfollows:
Scratchingthescalp
Runningfingersthroughhair
Touchingthenose
Rubbinganear
Touchingapimple/sore
Wearingadirtyuniform
Coughing/sneezingintothehand
Spitting
1.3.2Personalhygieneinkitchen
Washhandscorrectlyandoften(afterusingtoilet,beforeenteringkitchen,aftera
break,aftersmoking,beforehandlinganyfood,aftercoughing,sneezing,touching
anypartsoftheheadandhair,handlingrubbish,touchinganypetsandanimals).
Bathedaily.
Wearcleanclothesoruniformsdailyandchangeapronsaftertheybecomesoiled.
Eat,drinkorsmokeonlyindesignatednonfoodprepareas.
Dontcometoworkwhensick.
Spitting,touchingthenose,hair,mouthandsoresshouldbeavoided.
Jewelleries,ringsandwatchesshouldnotbewornwhileworkinginthekitchen.
Cutsandburnsshouldbecoveredwithwaterproofdressing.
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Hairshouldbeproperlycovered.
Nailsshouldbecleanandmanicured.
Readytoeatfoodshouldnotbehandledwithbarehands.

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1.4PreparationandSetupofWorkArea
Preparationmeansorganisingandcompletinginadvanceforthepreliminarytask
involvedinthepreparationofameal.Cleaningofthekitchenworkingareameans
keepingthekitchenworkingareaclean,neatandhygienic.
1.4.1MiseenScene
Miseenscenemeanstopreparethekitchenenvironmentinapleasant,comfortable,
safeandhygienicway.Beforeeachservicesession,thekitchenshouldbepresentable
enoughtodeliverfoodorderstotheguests.Thesupervisororchef'steamshouldensure
themiseensceneisready.
1.4.2Miseenplace
Miseenplacemeans"puttingthingsinplace",asinsetup.Itreferstoorganizingand
arrangingtheingredients(e.g.,cutsofmeat,relishes,sauces,precookeditems,spices,
freshlychoppedvegetables,andothercomponents)thatacookneedsforthemenu
itemsthatheorsheexpectstoprepareduringhis/hershift.
1.4.3Foodproductionprocess
Thefoodproductionprocessinvolvesanumberofinterdepartmentalactivitiessuchas:
Orderingofingredients.
Collectionofingredients.
Weighingandmeasuringthemaccordingtoastandardrecipe.
Preparingdifferentfoodsreadyforcooking.
Actualcookinganddishingouttoserve.
1.4.4Foodpreparationprocedure
Bealertandattentive.
Organizeworktominimisetimeandenergy.
Collectutensilsrequiredandcheckforcleanliness.
Putawayutensilsandingredientsnotrequired.
Keeptheworkareacleananduncluttered.
Checkallthefooditemsthatneedtobepreparedaccordingtothemenu.
Collectalltheingredients.
Wash,clean,peel,cut,boilandcookfruits,vegetablesandotheringredientsasrequired.
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Usedifferentchoppingboardsandknivesforvegetables,fruits,cookedmeatand
rawmeat.
Beginwiththedishthatrequiresthelongesttimeforpreparation.
Useapairoftongstohandlehotutensilsandovenglovesforbakingdishes.
Useaspoontotastethefood.Donotuseyourfingerstotastethefood.
Keepthecookedfoodcovered,labelledwiththedateandnamewhereitshould
bestored.
Putthingsneatlyinthedishthatwillbeserved.
Servehotfoodhotandcoldfoodcoldinappropriatedishes.
Removetracesorspotsoffoodfromtherimoftheservingdishwithacleandampcloth.

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1.5KitchenKnifeDrillandSafety
Aknifeisacuttingtoolwithasharpedgeorbladewithorwithoutahandle.Theriskfrom
usingknivesmustbeavoidedtoensurepeopledonotsuffercuts.
1.5.1Knifeanditstype

ParingknifeAmultipurposeknifeusedfor
smalljobssuchastoppingandtailingvegetables,
removingskinsfromonionsandpreparingsmallfruits.

SteakKnifeAsteakknifeisusedatthetable
(asopposedtothekitchen)tocutthroughespecially
toughfoods,suchasmeat.Mostarealsodecorative,
sincetheyaresetonthetablewiththesilverware.
FilletingknifeAfilletingknifehasamediumlength
bladethatisnarrowandflexiblesoitcanbendwhile
runningalongthebonestructureoffish,particularly
flatfish.
BoningknifeAboningknifehasashortto
mediumbladethatispointedattheend.Itshould
bestrongandrigid,notflexiblelikeafilletingknife.
Thepointisdesignedtogetclosetobonesand
cutawaythemeat.
GeneralchefsknifeItcanbeusedonmany
differentcommoditiessuchasvegetables,fruits,
meatandpoultry.Thisknifecanbeusedacrossa
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varietyofcuttingtechniques,includingchopping,
dicingshreddingandslicing
CarvingknifeIthasalong,thinblade.
Theknifeshouldbeverysharptoensure
accurateandefficientcutting.

SerratedknifeThisknifecomeswithserrated
edgesandaredesignedtoslicecertainfoods
withfirmskins,suchastomatoesandcapsicums.

PeelingKnifeAlsoknownasaTourneKnifeor
Bird'sBeakKnife.Theycanbeusedtocutdecorative
garnishes(suchasrosettesorflutedmushrooms),
slicesoftfruits,orpeelskinsorblemishes.

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Howtogripaknife?
Choosekniveswhichfeelmostcomfortableinyourhand.
Gripthechef'sknifeinyourdominanthandwithallfingersonthehandleoftheknife.
Curlthefingersofyourotherhandunderthefirstknucklewiththethumbandlittle
fingerbehindtheotherfingers.Thispositionwillserveasthestabilizerandguidewhile
youareusingthechef'sknife.
Placethebladeofthechef'sknifeagainstthecurledfingersoftheotherhandand
beginchoppingwitharockingmotion.
Keepthebladeofthechef'sknifeincontactwiththecuttingsurfaceatalltimes
andchopwiththebackportionofthebladenotwiththetip.
1.5.2KnifeSafety
Knivesareparticularlydangerouspiecesofequipmentifusedincorrectly,howeverthey
areessentialitemforanyoneworkinginthekitchen.Herearesomereminders:
Knivesareparticularlydangerouspiecesofequipmentifusedincorrectly,howeverthey
essentialitemforanyoneworkinginakitchen.Herearesomereminders:
Alwaysplaceaknifeonthebenchtogivetoanotherperson,ratherthatpassitby
handtotheperson.
Neverholdknivesintheairorholdthemwithfingersoverlappingthecuttingzone.
Neverusetheknifeasascrewdriverorcanopener.
Don'twaveaknifearound,pointwithitorturnaroundwithitinyourhand.Placeon
thebenchandthenturntotalktoothers.Nevertransportfoodonthebladeofaknife.
Neverleaveknivesinsinksorunderitems.Bladesaredangerouswhentheycannotbeseen.
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Alwayskeeptheknivesseparateandindividuallycontained,wrappedorheldwith
thebladeoftheknivessecured,thisincludesinyourtoolboxoreveninthepicnic
basket.Neverhideknivesunderanything.

1.6Kitchenutensils,equipment,cleaningprocedures
Removeplate/panwaste.Stackthesoildishesaccordingtotheorderofwashing.
Thedishwashingprocessisshowninthepicturebelow:
Dishesandpansthathavefoodstickingtothemshouldbesoakedforsometime.
Washthenongreasyitemsfirstinthefollowingorder:glass,cutlery,chinawareand
washthecookingutensilslast.
Letthedishesdry.
Allsurfacesthatcomeincontactwithfoodmustbewashed,rinsedandsanitized:
cuttingboards,plates,utensils,pots,pans,refrigerator,andpreparationtables.
Cleanwipingclothsbeforeandduringusebyrinsingitinasanitarysolution.
12

Rinse,
scrape
orsoak

AirDry

Wash

Rines

Sanitize

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1.6.1Kitchencleaningprocedure
Establisharoutinecleaningschedule.
Maintaingoodventilationinthekitchen.
Reportanymaintenanceissues.
Useexhaustfanstoremoveodoursandsmoke.
Checkexhaustfans/hoodsarecleanandoperatingproperly.
Usedifferentclothsanddustersforcleaningthefloorandcookingarea.
Cleanceilings,wallsandfloorsinsequence.
Removeanysootfromtheceilingandwallswithbroomorbrush.
Cleanwallsaroundthefoodpreparationarea.
Washandwipethestovewithdetergents.
Cleanandwipedrytheworksurface,furniture,cookingrange,racksandshelves
withacleancloth.
Sweep,washandmopthefloorswithwateranddisinfectant.
Cleanupspillsimmediately.
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Emptythewashthewastebins.
Cleanstorageareas.
Storechemicalinoriginalcontainersawayfromfoodwithproperlabelling.
Cleanthecleaningequipment,dryitandstoreitappropriatelyawayfromtheguestarea.

1.7WeightsandMeasurements
Alegaltermforuniformstandardsusedtodefinequantity,capacity,volume,or
dimensionsofanything.Itisalsothetermusedinthekitchenfortheweightandmeasure
ofanyingredientsforthepreparationofanydishes.
1.7.1Metricmeasurementsystem
Themetricsystemisgenerallyusedinthekitchen.Thebasicunitsofthemetricsystem
definelength(meter),mass(kilogram),andtime(second).Themetricsystemisbasedon
standardsacceptedbyinternationalagreement,anditthereforeprovidesacommon
basisforallscientificmeasurements.
1.7.2Standardweightandmeasurements
Abbreviationsused
C

Cup

Tablespoon

Tsp

Teaspoon

Ml

Millilitre

Gram

Kg

Kilogram

Oz

Ounce

Litre

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1.7.3Measureequivalent
1kg

1000g

1L

1000ml

1t

5ml

1C

240ml

1T

15ml

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1oz
8oz

30g
1C

16T

1C

4L

1gallon

1.7.4OvenTemperatures
(ToconvertCtoFmultiplyby9,divideby5andadd32)
VeryCool

110c

Cool

135c

Warm

160c

Moderate

175c

FairlyHot

200c

Hot

220c

VeryHot

240c

OtherTemperatures
Boiling

100c

Frying

175c

PressureCooking

120c

1.7.5Importantofweightandmeasures
Measuringandweighingisimportantforthefollowingreason.
Maintenanceofgoodquality,
Sametasteandconsistencyinfoodproduction,
Costcontrol,
Avoidwastageoffood,
Followstandardrecipe.

1.8FoodPoisoningandFoodHygiene
Foodpoisoningisanillnesscausedbyeatingcontaminatedfood.

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1.8.1Causesoffoodpoisoning

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Foodpoisoningiscausedbybacteria,viruses,toxinsandwildmushrooms.Thisisdueto
severalreasons:
Thefoodisnotfresh.
Foodisstoredatawarmtemperature(inthedangerzone563C)orfortoolong.
Foodiscooledtooslowlybeforebeingrefrigerated.
Foodisnotreheatedtoahighenoughtemperaturetokillthebacteriainit.
Food(especiallymeatandfish)isundercookedorraw.
Cookedfoodiscontaminatedbyrawfood,animals(flies),pestsorunhygienic
behaviour(cookingwithdirtyhands).
1.8.2Foodpoisoningsymptoms
Thesymptomsoffoodpoisoningare:
Vomiting,diarrhoea,stomachcramps,fever,sweating
Otherseriousillnessesrelatedtofoodpoisoninginclude:
Dysentery
HepatitisA
Typhoid
Cholera
1.8.3Foodhygiene
Foodhygienemeansthatthefood
ishandled,stored,preparedand
servedinsuchaway,andunder
suchconditions,astoprevent
thecontaminationoffood.It
meanskeepingpremises,staffand
equipmentcleanandhandlingandstoringfoodsafely.Foodshouldbepreparedas
safelyaspossibletolowertheriskofpeoplefallingill.Goodpracticesshouldalwaysbe
followed.
1.8.4ImportanceoffoodHygiene
Foodhygieneisimportantforhealth:Hygienicfood=healthylife!
Goodfoodhygienecanpreventmanyillnesses,suchas:
Foodpoisoning
Diarrhoea
Dysentery
HepatitisA
Typhoid
Cholera
Ournutritionalstatus,health,physicalandmentalfunctionsdependonthefoodwe
eatandhowweeatit.
Somepeoplearemoresensitivethanotherstounhygienicfood(especiallychildren,
babiesandelderlyorsickpeople)
Toensuregoodhealth,,kitchenstaffshouldbeawareofthestandardnormsand
practicesofhygieneandsanitation.

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1.8.5PrinciplesofFoodHygiene
Ensurefoodhygienebypreventingcrosscontamination:Thisisthetransferofbacteria
fromacontaminatedsurfacetoanuncontaminatedsurface.
Crosscontaminationandfoodpoisoningare100%preventable.
Foodcanbecontaminatedatanystageinthefoodproductionandserviceprocess.
Foodcontaminationiscausedduetothreefactors,theyare:
Biological

Germs

Chemical

Poisons

Physical

PestsandAnimals

BiologicalHazards
Harmfulmicroorganisms(germs)arethecauseofmostfoodpoisoning.Germsarevery
smalllivingthingsandtoosmalltoseeforyournakedeye,forexamplebacteria,viruses,
parasites,moulds.Bacteriamayproducepoisons(toxins)astheymultiply.Theymultiply
bestat40140F(460C).Thisisknownasthe'dangerzone'.
Theycomefromavarietyofsources:
Peopleuncleanhands,coughing,orsneezing,
Unsanitaryfacilitiesandequipment,
Diseasespreadingpestscockroaches,flies,mice.
Prevention
Controltheconditionsforbacterialgrowth.Example:avoidthe'dangerzone'.
Preventpestsandanimals:flies,mice,rats,cockroaches(pestcontrolandtraps).
Coverfood,preventchildrenfromtouchingfood,donotstickfingersinfoodanddo
notletanimalswithinthekitchenordiningarea.
Usedifferentchoppingboardsforcookedmeat,rawmeat,fruitsandvegetables
orwashthechoppingboardthoroughly(withsoap)beforechoppingitemsthat
couldspoileachother(italsospoilstheflavour:forinstanceonions,chilli,andgarlic,
followedbyfruit,fishormeat).
Sterilisefoods,washfreshfoods(vegetables,fruit)inwaterpurifiedwithchlorine,
bleach,piyushoriodine.Thisisespeciallyimportantforvegetablesthatareeatenraw.
Beextremelycarefullywithleafyvegetables,roots(carrotsandradish),cauliflower:
15mlofchlorinein40litresofwaterforcleaningpurposeand3dropsofchlorine
(piyush)perlitrefordrinkingpurpose(wait30minutes).
Afterwashing,avoidcontaminationoffoodsandstoreinanappropriateway.
Usecleandishesandutensils.
Usefreshingredients
Respectexpirydateonproducts,
Discardleakingcansorpackets,
Cansshouldnotbedented,orpuffed(althoughtheytendtoinaltitude,duetoairpressure),
Donotusefoodifthesmellisstrongandunpleasant,
Storefoodandcovercorrectly,donotstorerawandcookedfoodstogetherorthe
rawfoodmaycontaminatethecookedone.

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Keepthefoodinacoldanddryplace.
Coolcookedfooddownasfastaspossible(dangerzonebetween563C).
Donotfreeze(below0C)andunfreezefoodrepeatedly:onceunfrozen,foodshould
bequicklyconsumed.
Usecontainerswithproperlidandlabelthem(nameoftheitemanddate).
Cleanandwashthestore(andfridge)periodically.
Ensurethestoreisfreefromanimals,pestsandrodents(trapscanbeused).
ChemicalHazards
Illnessmayresultsfromharmfulchemicalsgettingintofood.Hazardouschemicalsinclude
bleach,metals,pesticides,chemicalsusedforcleaning,etc.
Prevention
Washandpeelfoods.
Storechemicalinoriginalcontainersawayfromfood.
Properlabellingonchemicals.
Useaccordingtomanufacturersrecommendations.
Washhandsthoroughlyafterworkingwithchemicals.
PhysicalHazards
Foodcanbecontaminatedbyforeignobjectsgettingintofood,contaminantsinclude:
dirt,hair,insects,animals,glass,nails,staples,plastic,andpackagingmaterials.
Prevention
Wearproperclothes,shoesandcoverortiehairappropriately.
Usecommercialscoopforice.
Cleancanopenersregularly.
Removestaples,nailsfromboxesoutsideoffoodpreparationarea.
Cleanandsanitizeequipmentregularly.
Donotwearjewellery.

1.9FoodStorage
Foodstorageistheprocessinwhichbothcookedfoodsandrawmaterialarestored
inappropriateconditionsforfutureusewithouttheentryormultiplicationofmicro
organisms.
1.9.1TypesofFoodStorage
Therearetwowaysinwhichfoodarestored,theyare:

Cold:Meat,poultry,fish,eggs,airyproduct,vegetables(allgreenvegetables)and
freshfruits(exceptbanana).

Dry:Grocery(canned,bottled,dryvegetable,dryherbsandspecies,dryfruitsand

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drymeatsandfish).

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1.9.2Basicfoodstorageprinciple
FoodandbeveragesarestoredaccordingtoBasicFoodStoragePrinciples.
Washitemsthatneedwashing,wipecansthatneedwiping..
Rotationofstock,FIFO(firstinfirstout,firstmanufacturefirstused).
Eachstorageareashouldbeseparatefromeachother.
AlwayscoverCutfooditems.e
Storageareatobecleanedregularly.
Maintainappropriatetemperaturedependingonthetypeoffoodbeingstored.
Overcrowdingandoverstockingofstorageareablocksaircirculationspoilingthe
foodfast.
Anykindofcrosscontaminationmustbeavoided.
Storefreshmeat,vegetables,andeggsbelowcookedandpreparedfoods.
Labelfoodswithnameandprepareddate.
Keepfoodincleanwrappersorcontainers.
Storecannedanddryfoodsinacool,clean,dryplace.
Regularlycheckthetemperatureoftherefrigerator.
Neverstorechemicalsnearfood.
1.9.3Coolingprocessofcookedfoodbeforestorage
Donotleavecookedfoodatroomtemperatureformorethan2hours.
Protectfromcontaminationlooselycoverthefood.
Chillrapidly(icewaterbathandstirring).
Useshallowstoragecontainers.
Nevercoolfoodatroomtemperature.
Whenproperlycooledto<41F(5C),covertightlyandlabelwithnameanddateof
preparation.
Storecookedfoodonuppershelvesofrefrigerator.
1.9.4Temperatureofdifferentstore
Dryfoodstore

10cto21c

Refrigeratedstore

1cto4c

Freezerstore

6cto25c

1.9.5Perishableitemsrefrigeratingtemperature.

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ShellFish

1day

Meat

35days

RawFish

2days

Cheese

2week

MincedMeat

13days

Paneer

5days

Cookedished

3days

Milk

37days

Poultry

23days

Cream

3days

Eggs

14days

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1.9.6CareandMaintenanceofStorageEquipment
Refrigeratordoorsshouldhaveproperrubbersealing.
Walkin/deepfreezerdoorstobetightlysealed.
Airventsmustnotbeblocked.
Properstackingtobedone.
Ensureproperpowersupply.
Cleaningshouldbedoneproperly.

1.10KitchenWastes
Kitchenwastesareleftovers,byproducts,unwanteditemsgeneratedfromperishable
andnonperishableitemsusedinthekitchen.Forexample:vegetableleftovesr,meat
leftovers,packagingmaterials(carton,labels,plastic),etc.
1.10.1Problemsrelatingtokitchenwaste
Openfoodwasteattractspestsandanimals,andincreasestheriskofcontamination.
Kitchenwasteincreasesbacteriasignificantlywhichcausesfoodpoisoning.
Wasteinthekitchenlooksunattractiveandisunhygienictoguests.
1.10.2Howtominimisekitchenwaste
Useleftoverofvegetableandmeatwheneverpossible.Example,usetheleftover
vegetableforsoups,potatoestomakemashpotatoeshelpstoreducefoodcosts
aswell.
Avoidoverstockingasitleadstomorefoodwaste.
Preplanningofmenu(oneweekinadvance)isalsoadvisable.
1.10.3Principleofhandlingkitchenwaste
Separatewastefromthefoodyouarecooking.
Separatethedifferentkindsofwaste:biodegradablewastegoesintothecompost,
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nonbiodegradablewastehastobeburied,recyclablewastecanberesued
throughrecycling.Reusablewastecanbereusedfordifferentpurposes.
Haveatleasttwoseparatecontainersforwasteinthekitchenoneforwetwaste,
andoneforrecyclableordrywaste.
Haveclean,closablecontainers,especiallyforwetwaste.
Securewastefromanimalsandpests.
Emptycontainersoften:disposewasteawayassoonaspossibleandbeforeitstarts
tosmell.
Washcontainersoftenandthoroughly.
Washyourhandsafterhandlingwastetoavoidcontamination.

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1.11Pest
Apestisanorganisminthekitchenthatspreadsdisease,andcausesdestruction.Therefore
everyprecautionmusthaveapestfreeenvironmenttoreducefoodcontaminationand
avoidguestsfallingsick.Goodpestcontrolneedsagoodmechanismandsystemic
control.Withoutpropercleaningandmonitoring,itisimpossibletohavea100%pestfree
workingplace.
Followingtableindicatescommonpestsandnecessarymeasuretoprevent.

TYPEOFKITCHENPESTS

PREVENTIVEANDCONTROLMEASURES

Miceandrats

Keeptheinsectsoutpestsareattractedtoinsects.

Flies
Cockroaches

Insecttrayandflykillingdeviceshouldbeinspected
toseethattheyarestillfunctioning.

Fleas
Flyingand

Hygienemustbemaintainedinalltheareas.
Donotleaveemptybottlesorfoodcansaround.

crawlinginsects
Ants

Disposeallwastefood,crumbssandspiltliquid
properly.

WallLizard

Dustbinareashouldbekeptclean,washedand
brusheddownwithdisinfectantsandbinsshould
havetightfittinglids.
Storageareashouldberegularlyinspected.
Exits,doorways,andcorridorshouldbecleanand
maintainedsothatpestsdonotreside.

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Allentrances,exits,exhaust,andventilationsshould
beproperlyclosed.
Periodicalfumigation.
1.11.1PestControl
Pestcontrolinvolvesremovingundesirableinsectsfromthekitchen.Itisaprocessof
killingofanimalpestsofkitchensuchascockroach,rats,mice,fliesetc.
1.11.2Importanceofpestcontrolinkitchen

AvoidContamination:Goodpestcontrolsreducetheriskofcontaminationand
lessenstheriskofillness.

MaintainsReputation:Thesuccessorfailureoftherestaurantdependsonthe
reputation.Thereputationcanberuinedifpestsareseenorifguestssufferfrom
foodpoisoning.Thelossofreputationofarestaurantcanresulttolossofcustomers
andrevenue.

1.11.3Preventivemajorsofpestcontrol
Hygienemustbemaintainedinallareas.
Donotleaveemptybottlesorfoodcansaround.
Disposeallwastefood,crumbsandspiltliquid.

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Dustbinareashouldbekeptcleanwashedandbrusheddownwithdisinfectants
andtheyshouldhavetightfittinglids.
Insecttrayandflykillingdevicesshouldberegularlyinspectedtochecktheyare
functioning.
Storageareasmustberegularlyinspected.
Exitareasshouldbeproperlymaintainedsothatbirdsandotheranimalscannot
creepinside.
Periodicfumigationshouldbedone.

1.12Kitchenhazards,safetymeasuresandhandling
Thekitchenisaplacewherealotofequipment,tools,powerfulelectricalconnections,
differentwashingandcleaningagentsandwaterreside.Thesethingscanbevery
dangerousandhazardousifpropermeasuresarenottaken.Propermanagementshould
takeplacefromthedesignstage.Kitchenlayoutwillbediscussedlaterinthemodule.

1.13Identifypotentialhazardsinkitchen

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Thefollowingmajorhazardscancauseunwantedincidentsinthekitchen:
Hotsurfaceliquidandfood
Chemical
Electrical
Fire
Spills
Sharpobject
1.13.1Hotandharmfulsubstancesinkitchen
Oilandotherfluidssuchaswaterarecommonplaceinkitchensanditisimportant
thatyoutakeextremecarewhenworkingwithorincloseproximitytohotliquids.It
isimportanttotryandavoidaccidentsfromoccurring.Unlessprecautionsaretaken,
accidentsmayeasilyhappen,sothekitchenpersonnelshouldtakeresponsibilityto
avoidaccidentsintheworkplace.
Inadditiontotrainingthestafftobeawareofthecausesoffireandpersonalinjury,weshould
makethenecessarysafetyinspections,reportstomaintenanceandfollowupthesereports.
Weallhavearoletoplaytoensureweworkandstayinasafeandsecureenvironment.
1.13.2Dealingwithchemicalsinthekitchen
Considerfollowingpointswhendealingwithchemicals:
Donotstorechemicalsinkitchenkeeptheminadesignatedchemicalstoringarea.
Usechemicalsonlyinwellventilatedspaces.
Storechemicalsinalocked,dark,coolstoreroomawayfromheatanddirectfrom
sunlight.Donotstorechemicalsnearhotwaterheatersoroperatingmachines.
Readandfollowthemanufacturersinstructionscarefullybeforeyouusethechemical.
Ensureallchemicalsubstancesarestoredinasecurelocation.
Donotstorechemicalsubstancesonashelfaboveheadheight.
Maintainclearseparationofstorageofhazardoussubstancesfromnonhazardous
substances.

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Ensurethatallhazardoussubstancesarekeptinundamagedcontainerswithsecure
capsorlids.
Recorddetailsofallhazardoussubstanceskeptandclearlymarkthemashazardous.
Disposeofallunidentifiedsubstancesappropriately.
Disposeoffoodwhichhasbeen,orissuspectedofbeingexposedtohazardous
substances.
Warnotherstostayclearofspillagesiteandhaveclearmarkingwherethespillagetookplace.
Keepyourfaceawayfromthechemicalyouareusingavoidbreathinginfumes
assomeofthesecanburnyouandmakeyoufeelsick,dizzyandevenunconscious.
Makesurethatbottlesofcleaningagentsareclearlymarked,andthatchemical
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containersarenotusedforanyotherpurpose,likestoringfood.
Neverusechemicalsnearanopenflameorwhileyouaresmoking.
Protectallpartsofyourbodywhileyouareusingundilutedchemicalsandtake
specialcare.
Wearprotectiveclothingsuchasrubberglovesandsafetyfootwear.
Keepyourmindonwhatyouaredoingonemistakeandthechemicalcouldspill
andinjureyou.
Avoidsplashingcleaningagents,astheycanlandonyourskinandburnyou.
Washyourhandsafterusingcleaningagents.
Keepyourhandsawayfromyourfaceswallowingsmallpartsofsomecleaning
agentscanburnyourmouthandthroat.
Replacecapstightlyimmediatelyafteruse.
Donotdecantcleaningagents.
Donotincinerate(burn)anyemptyaerosolcansastheyexplode.
Nevermixchemicals,suchasbleachwithacidtoiletcleaner.

1.14Commonkitcheninjuries
Themajorcausesofinjuriesandaccidentinakitchenarefromcuts,slips,tripsandfalls,
manualhandling,fire,exposuretohotorharmfulsubstances.Thefollowingtableshows
measuresyoucantaketoavoidinjuriesandminimizeriskofhazardsatwork.

Cuts
Neverleaveobjectsonthefloor.
Dontleaveknivesunattended.
Cleanupanybrokenglassorcansimmediately.Wrapinpaperbeforedisposal.
Keepfingersandhairawayfromthebeatersandblades
Slips,trips,andfalls
Wipeupspillsatonce.
Useasturdystepstoolorladdertoreachhighitems.
Closecabinetdoorsanddrawers.
Storeheavyequipmentonlowshelves.
Avoidoverwettingfloorswhenwashing,astheycouldbeslippery.
Neverrun.
Wearsuitableshoeswithanonslipsole.Youcouldtripinhighheelsorsandals.

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Preventingelectricalshock

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ReadappliancebookletsBEFOREusingappliances.
Keepcordsawayfromwaterandhotobjects.
Onepluginapoweroutletatatimeandunplugatpowersocket(outlet).
UnplugpowercodefrompoweroutletBEFOREcleaningordoinganyservice.
HandsshouldbedryALWAYSwhencomeincontactwithelectricalappliance.
Standonadrysurfacewhenworkingwithappliance.
Checkappliancesforcutorbrokencordsandplugsanddoserviceimmediately.
Neveruseamicrowaveifthedoorhasbeendamaged.
Turnonamicrowaveonlyiffoodorbeveragesareinside.
Removeplasticwrapawayfromyourbodytoavoidsteamburns.
Neverputmetalinthemicrowaveovenoranythingelse,whichisnotsuitablefor
microwave.Alwaysrefertousermanual.
IntheeventofelectricshockSTAYCALM,EVALUATETHESITUATION.

1.15FirstAidinKitchen
Firstaidisanimmediateandtemporarytreatmenttoavictimofsuddenillnessorinjury
inthekitchenwhileawaitingthearrivalofmedicalaid.Theessentialsofkitchenfirstaid
aredesignedtocoverinjuriesthatcanoccurinthekitchenfromburnstoknifecuts.So
topreventfrommajorinjuriesfirstaidkitsshouldbeplacedinthekitchenarea.Firstaid
consistsof:
Firstaidmanual
Adhesivetape
Adhesivebandagesinseveralsizes
Elasticbandage
Antisepticwipes
Soap
Antisepticsolution
Burncream
Sharpscissors
Safetypins
Calaminelotion
Alcoholwipesorethylalcohol
Thermometer

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1.15.1Treatmentsofcutsandburns
Cuts:Ifyoucutyourselfwashthewoundundercoldwaterifthewoundisshallowand
bleedingstopsthendrytheskinaroundthewoundwithpaper,acleanclothorcotton
woolandcoverwithawaterproofcolouredplaster.
Ifthewoundisdeep:
Applypressuretoittostemthebleeding.
Raiseitabovetheheart.
Seekmedicalattention.
Burns:Ifyouburnorscaldyourselfapplycoldwaterorice,placehandundergently
runningcoldwaterorwrapiceinaplasticbagandplacegentlyontheaffected
area.Takecarenottobreaktheskin,ifyouspillquantitieshotliquidontoclothingdo
notremovetheclothinggetunderacoldshowerorintoacoldbathandgetmedical
attention:removingtheclothingwillharmtheskin.

1.16Fire
Fireisthemostthreateningandthemostcommonhazardinthekitchen.Itdoesnot
discriminatebetweenpeopleandproperty.Youhavetotakeeverypossibleprecaution
toreducetheriskfireintheworkingenvironment.Alwaysobserveburningstoves,
microwaves,ovensthatareconnectedtoelectricity.Ensurethatthereisclearfire
evacuationplaninthekitchenthatisvisibletoeveryoneandthateveryonehasbeen
drilledaswhattodointheeventofafire.Itisabsolutelyessentialthatstaffsareequipped
withdealingwithfireinaproperway.
1.16.1Typesoffire

ClassAorOrdinaryCombustibles:Thisincludesfuelssuchaswood,paper,plastic,
rubber,andcloth.
ClassBorFlammableandCombustibleLiquidsandGases:Thisincludesall
hydrocarbonandalcoholbasedliquidsandgasesthatwillsupportcombustion.
ClassCorElectrical:Thisincludesallfiresinvolvingenergizedelectricalequipment.
ClassDorCombustibleMetals:Examplesofthesetypesofmetalsare,titanium,
potassium,andmagnesium.
ClassKisforfiresinunsaturatedcookingoilsinwellinsulatedcookingappliances
incommercialkitchens.

Wood,paper,cloth,Trash&
otherordinarymaterials

Maybeusedonfiresinvolvingliveelectrical
equipmentwithoutdangertotheoperator

Gasolineoil,paintandother
flammableliquids

Cookingmedia(Vegetableor
AnimalOilsandFats)

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1.16.2Causesoffire
Followingarethemajorsourcesthatcancausefireincidentsinthekitchen.
Electricity.
Cleaningsupplies(liquidsubstances).
Flammableliquids.
Combustibleliquids.
Carelesssmoking.
Improperstorage.
Unattendedcooking.
1.16.3Preventingfireaccidentsinthekitchen
Makesurealltheelectricappliancesandburnersareturnedoffbeforeyouleave
thekitchen.
Keepelectricalappliancesawayfromwatertoavoidelectricalshockandfire.
Stayawayfromelectricalsockets,especiallyifyourhandsarewet.
Makesurepapertowels,dishtowelsandpotholdersarekeptawayfromthe
stovetop,sotheydonotcatchfire.
Neveraddwatertodishthathashotoilinitasitcouldsplatter,andhurtsomeone.
Dressproperly,dontwearloosefittingclothes.
Neverleavecookingunattended,ifyoumustleavethekitchenforsomereasonturn
offthecooker/stoveetc.
Avoidreachingoverthestoveforanythingwhilecooking.
Cleananygreasebuildupfromthestove,ovenandexhaustfanregularly,as
cookinggreaseandoilcanstartafirethatcanspreadrapidly.
Keepthestovetopcleanandclearfromgrease.
Donotputmetallicmaterialsinthemicrowaveovenwhichmaycausesparksand
eventuallydamagethemicrowave.
Preventboiloverbynotoverfillingpots.
Useaburnerthatstheappropriatesizeforthepanyoureusing.
Donotsmokeinthekitchen.
Knowhowtousethefireextinguisherandtheirlocation.
Keepcombustibleslikecloth,paper,oiletc.freefromthehotsurface.
Haveagoodlightinginthekitchenandworkarea.

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1.16.4Typeoffireextinguisher
Commonlyusedfireextinguishersforcivilianpurposeare:
Waterbasedextinguisher.
Drychemicalbasedextinguisher.
CO2basedextinguisher.
Foambasedextinguisher.

KNOWYOURFIREEXTINGUISHERCODE
Water

AFFF
FOAM

Co2

Dry
Powder

Vapourising
Liquids

Donot
Use

Wood,Paper
andTextiles

Flammable
Liquids

Donot
Use

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Gaseous
Fires

LiveElectrical

Donot
Use

Donot
Use

Donot
Use

Donot
Use

Equipment

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Whenusingafireextinguisher,alwaysrememberthePASS

PPull(pullthepinthatlocksthehandle)

AAim(aimthenozzleatthebaseofthefire)

SSqueeze(Squeezethehandletodischargetheextinguishingagent)

SSweep(Sweepthenozzlefromsidetoside,tocoverthefire)

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1.17Kitchenplanning
Itisimportanttodesignakitchenthatworksaroundyourneeds.Thelayoutyouchoose
willdependonthesizeoftheroomandthepositionofwindowsanddoors.Mostkitchen
fallintofourbasicdesigns:
Singleline
Doubleline
Ushape
Lshape
1.17.1Pointstobeconsiderwhenplanningakitchen

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Keyaspectswhenplanningakitchenaregas,electricity,water,healthandsafety,
fireequipment,cookers,kitchenutensils,sinks/handsinkandventilation.
Ensurethatthereisenoughspacebetweenthekitchenandtherestroomsewage
anddrainagepipesmustbewellsecured.
AvailableSpace:availablespaceisanimportantconsiderationregardlessof
whetheryouarebuildingfromthegrounduporplacingyourcommercialkitchenin
anexistingbuilding.
EmployeeMobility:awellarrangedcommercialkitchenwillallowemployeesto
easilymovearoundwithoutbumpingintooneanother.
EnergyEfficiency:Energyefficiencyshouldbeaprimaryconsiderationforany
commercialkitchenlayout,becauseitsavesmoneyonutilitycosts.
Locateelectrictoastersawayfromsmokealarmssothesedonotactivate
prematurely.
Installaceilingorwindowmountedextractorfanorarangehoodabovestoveto
dispersesmoke.

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MODULE2
PRINCIPLEANDMETHODSOFCOOKERY

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2Introduction:PrincipleandMethodsofCookery
Thismodulewillprovideyouwithanintroductionaboutcookingandtheobjectiveof
cooking,differentcookingmethods,differentutensilsandequipment.Youwillalsolearn
aboutherbsandspicesandhowtobestusetheminfoodproduction.

2.1Cooking
Cookingisaprocessofchemicalandphysicalchangeinfooditemstocreatea
completedishinwhichmorethantwoingredientsoffoodarecombinedandheated
simultaneouslybyusingvariouscookingmethodsandtools.Cookinggivesvarietytothe
menu,asonefooditemcanbecookedinvariouswaysandgivendifferenttextures.For
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examplemuttoncanbecookedasasoup,roast,steak,kababorstew.
2.1.1Objectivesofcooking
Theobjectivesofcookingareasfollows:
Tokilltheharmfulbacteriaandmicroorganism.
Foreasydigestion.
Toimprovethetasteandflavour.
Toenchancepresentation.
Tocreatepalatability.
Toprovidedifferentshapes.
Topreventthefoodfromdiscolouring.
2.1.2MethodofCooking
Followingcommoncookingmethodsusedinfoodproduction.
DryHeatCooking:
1Roasting:Thisisamethodofcookinganitembyenclosingitinhotanddryair,
generallyinsideanovenattemperatures180C230Cwhichgenerallydepends
uponthefooditems.Example:meat,vegetables,cereals.
2Baking:Itisaprocessofcookingwithhotairinaclosedovenattemperature220C
andabove.ExampleBread,cake,biscuits.
3BroilingandGrilling:Itisamethodofcookingbyradiantordirectheatundera
grilloroverahotfireattemperature200Fandabove.Examples:fish,steak,stuffed
tomato.
FryingCookingMethods:
1DeepFryingMethod:Fryingfoodinalargeamountoffatinadeeppanat
temperature160C200C.Example:frenchfries,chickenfinger,cutlets.
2ShallowFryingMethod:Fryingfoodinenoughfattopreventstickyingattemperature
300Fandabove.Exampleegg,paratha,pancake.
3Sauteing:Fryingandtossingfoodinasmallamountofhotfatinafryingpan.
ExampleVegetables,noodles,beansprouts.

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MoistCookingMethod:
1.BoilingMethod:Cookingfoodinboilingwaterattemperature100C.Theheated
watercooksthefood.Example:eggs,meat,vegetables.
2.PoachingMeathod:Cookingslowlyinaminimiunofwaterthatisheatedbelow
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boilingpointsattemperature93C95C.ExampleFishegg.
3.SteamingMethod:Cookingfoodbysurroundingitwithsteamproducebyboiling
waterattemprature100C100C.Example,mo:mo,vegetables,idli.
4.StewingMethod:Cookinginacoveredpanusingonlysmallquantityofliquidwhichis
keptsimmeringattemprature120C140C.Eaxmplecutsofmeat,fruits,vegetable.
5.BraisingMethod:Acombinedmethodofroastingandstewing.Examplevarious
meatsandvegetables.
2.1.3CommonKitchenutensilsandequipment
Allappliancesusedinthekitchenarecalledkitchenequipmentandutensils.Theyare
usedtosavetimeandenergy.Kitchenequipmentaredividedintothreecatogories:
Largeequipments:Thelargeequipmentarecookingrange,steammer,oven,griller,
deepfatfryer,dishwasher,refrigerator,walkinfreezeretc
Mediumequipments:Toaster,,blender,cutter,slicer,dekchi,tawa,pryingpan,
presscooker,karaietc.
Smallequipments:Differentstypesofknife,choppingboard,ladles,strainer,
spechula,whisk,moxingbowl,spoon,pots,bucket,measuringcups,glass,platesand
traysetc.
Equipmentandutensilsusedforfoodpreparationandprocessingare:
Chopping/cuttingboard:Itisboardusedtoplacematerialontobecut.Itisusedinthe
kitchenforpreparingfood.
FryingPan:Afryingpanorskilletisapanusedforfrying,searing,andbrowningfoods.
Knife:Asharpedgedinstrumentconsistingofhandleattachedtoabladeusedfor
cutting.
MeasuringCup:Usedtomeasurethevolumeofliquidorpowderformcookingingredients
suchaswater,milk,juice,flour,andsugaretc.
MeasuringSpoon:Ameasuringspoonisaspoonusedtomeasureanamountofa
substance,eitherliquidordry,whencooking.
Meatgrinder:Itisforgrinding,finemincingmeat,fish,vegetablesorsimilarfood.
Meatslicer:Toslicemeatsandcheese.
MixingBowl:Itisusedformixingofingredients.
Stove:Itisusedforcookingfoodwhichusesgasasafuelsource.

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Tablespoon:Atypeoflargespoonusuallyusedforserving.Alsocommonlyusedasa
measureofvolumeusedincooking.
Teaspoon:Asmallspoon,suitableforstirringandsippingthecontentsofacupofteaor
coffee.Itisalsousedformeasuring.
Tray:Itisforcarryingthings.
Woodenspoon:Awoodenspoonorspatulaisaspoonmadefromwood,commonly
usedinfoodpreparation.
SoupLadle:Whichisusedforservingsouporstews.
Whisks:Itisforquickblending,mixingandwhipping.
Followingimageshowsdifferentkitchenequipment

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2.2Herbs,SpicesandSeasoning
Herbsaretheleavesorstemsofaromaticplants.Theleavesofherbscontainoilwhich
givesthecharacteristicofsmellandflavour.Theycanbeusedfreshordied.Italso
increasesthetasteoffood.
Spicesarenaturalproductsobtainedfromfruits,seeds,roots,flowerandbarks.Theyare
usedfortheirflavourwhichhelpstoimprovethetasteofthefood.
Seasoningisaprocessofenhancingorimprovingtheflavourofthefood.
Followingimageshowsomeherbsandspices

2.2.1Importanceofherbsandspices
Herbsandspicesareimportantformanydifferentreasons,theyinclude:
Helpsdigestion,forexample:cloveoilincreasesappetite.
Medicalpurposes,forexample:turmericpowderactsasanantiseptic.
Enhancestheflavour,forexample:bayleaves,pepper,clovesetc.
Improvesappearance,forexample:turmericpowder,chilipowder,saffronetc.
Improvepalatability,forexample:salt,pepper,chili,corianderseed,paprikaetc.
Actsaspreservatives,forexample:salt,turmeric,cloves,mustard,gingergarlic.

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2.2.2Listofthedifferentherbs,spicesanditsusages

HerborSpice

Source

Flavour

BestUsed

CookingUse

Basil

Leavesand
stemsofthe
basilplant.

Pungent,
somewhat
sweet

Fresh

Tomatodishes,with
eggplant,forpesto,in
ThaiandVietnamese
foods,additiontosalads
andmanycooked
vegetables.

Bayy

Leavesof
thesweet
baytree.

Mild

Dried

Insoups,stewsand
tomatosauces,and
inshellfishboils.Remove
leafbeforeserving.

BlackPepper
ckPepper

Berriesofthe
peppertree.

Pungent,
somewhat
hot

Dried,
freshly
ground

Ascondiment,inany
dishyouwishtomake
mildlyhot.

Capers

Unopened
flowerbuds
fromthe
caperbush.

Pungent

Pickledin
brine

Insauces,asagarnish,
andasaflavouringwhen
picklingotherfoods.

Caraway
away

Seedsofthe
caraway
plant.

Sweet,
nutty

Whole

Hungariangoulash,
cookiesandcakes,
applesauce,herbal
vinegars.

Cardamom

Seeds
fromthe
cardamom
tree.

Sweetly
spicy

Wholeor
ground

Stews,curries.Use
sparingly,asithas
astrongtaste.

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ChilliPowder
owderr

Dried,
groundchilli.

Spicy,ot
(heat
dependson
varietyof
chillipepper
used)

Ground

Inchilliorotherspicy
dishes.

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Chives
ives

Leavesof
thechive
plant.

Sharp,onion
orgarlic
flavour

Freshfrozen
iffreshnot
available

Garnish,blendedwith
softcheese,addedto
salads

Cinnamon

Driedbark
ofthe
cinnamon
tree.

Pungently
sweet

Asdried
sticksor
ground
powder

Insweetdishesorin
curriesandstews

Cloves

Driedflower
budofthe
clovetree.

Sweetor
bittersweet

Driedand
ground

Addedtosweetdishes
orasacontrastinstews
andcurries.

Coriander

Seedsofthe
coriander
plant.

Spicy,sweet
orhot

Groundor
whole

Incakes,cookies,
breads,asapickling
spiceorincurrymixtures

Cumin

Seedofthe
cuminplant.

Peppery

Wholeor
ground

Soups,stews,sauces.Use
sparingly.

CurryPowder

Combination

Hot

Sparingly

Curries

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ofseveral
ground
spices.

Dill
Dillillilil

Leavesand
seedsofthe
dillplant.

taste
thedish
inwhich
you'reusing
togauge
heatlevel
Mild,
somewhat
sour

Leavesbest
freshseeds
usedwhole

Fish,eggs,potatoes,
meats,breads,salads,
saucesdillseedused
inpicklingandtomake
dillflavouredvinegar.

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Fennel

Leavesand
stemsofthe
fennelplant.

Likeanise,
butsweeter
andlighter

Rawor
cooked

Insalads(raw),insoups
orstews(cooked).

Fenugreek
Fenugreekk

Seeds
fromthe
fenugreek
plant.

Sweet,
somewhat
likeburnt
honey

Wholeor
ground
seed

Inpastries,asa
flavouringformeat
dishesandbeverages,
andtomakesyrups.

Garlicc

Bulbsofthe
garlicplant.

Pungent,
onionlike,
mildlyhotto
veryhot

Fresh
granulated
acceptable
substitute

Roasted,orflavouring
forpastasauces,pork
roasts,herbbutter,
stuffing,andmarinades.

Ginger
nger

Rootsofthe
gingerplant.

Mixof
pepperand
sweetness

Dried
powder
orfreshly
gratedfrom
root

Cakes,breads,cookies,
aswellasAsiandishes.

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Mint

Leavesof
themint
plant.

Various
thereare
morethan
30species
ofmint

Fresh

Insalads,with
vegetables.

Nutmeg

Seedsofthe
nutmegtree.

Warm,spicy,
sweet

Freshly
ground

Incakesandcookies,in
sweetpotatoes.

Oregano

Leavesof
theoregano
plant.

Similarto
marjoram,
butnotas
sweet

Freshor
dried

InItaliandishes,inchili,
withvegetables,soups.

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Parsley y

Leavesof
theparsley
plant.

Mildly
peppery

Freshdried
averypoor
substitute

Asagarnish,insauces,
soupsandsalads.

Rosemary y

Leavesof
therosemary
plant.

Very
aromatic,
faintly
lemony
andpiny

Freshor
dried

Inmeat(especially
lamb)orfishdishesand
Sauces.

Sagee

Leavesof
thesage
plant.

Musty,
slightlybitter

Freshor
dried

Beef,fishdishes,stews,
stuffingcommon
sausageflavouring.

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Salt

Saltmines,
seawater.

Salty

Granular

Baking,preserving,
curing,asacondiment.

SesameSeeds

Seedsof
thesesame
plant.

Nutty

Whole

Inbreadsandcookies,
insaladdressings.

Thyme

Leavesof
thethyme
plant.

Mint,
lemony

Freshor
dried

Inomelettes,stews,
blandsoups,and
stuffingforchicken,or
asflavouringforgreen
saladsandcooked
vegetables.

Turmeric

Rootofthe
turmeric
plant.

Pungent,
somewhat
bitter

Driedand
ground

Curries,EastIndian
recipes.

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2.3PortioningandGarnishing
Portioningistheamountoffoodgiventoonepersonknownasaserving.Garnishingis
thedecorationoffoodordrinkswithsmallcolourfulorsavouryitems.
2.3.1Importanceofportioning
Portioninghelpstobalancethefoodnutrition,tohaveconsistencequantitytocontrol
thecost.
2.3.2StandardPortionsize
FishFillet

180250gms

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BeefSteak
Soup

200250gms
200250ml

Pasta(formaincourse)

65100gms

Salad(appetizer)

90gms

Salad(maincourse)

250gms

2.3.3Garnishanditstype
Edibleitemsareplacedonthetoporaroundthemaindishtocreateanattractivelook.
Theymaybecookedorraw.Therearemainlytwotypesofgarnishes:
Simplegarnish:Itconsistsofsingleelements,forexample:tomatosoupwithcroutons.
Compositegarnish:Itismadefromnumberofingredientsvaryingaccordingtothe
basicdishes,forexample:lemonwedgesandparsleywithfriedfish.
2.3.4ImportanceofGarnish
Garnishcreatesanattractiveappearancetothedish.
2.3.5Howtogarnishfood?
Alwaysgarnishfoodbeforeservingfood
Useappropriateaccompanimentstogarnishthedish
(ExamplecorianderforIndiandishes,lemonforfish)
Usecontrastcolourcombinationforgarnish
Neveroverdothegarnish
Useonlyedibleitemsforgarnish

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3Introduction
Thismoduleprovidesinformationaboutdifferenttypesofstocks,saucesandsoups,
thedifferenttypesandpreparationmethods,garnishingandaccompaniments.Italso
providescommonlyusedrecipes.

3.1Stocks
Stocksarenutritious,flavouredliquidsmadebygentlycookingvegetables,meat,
chickenorfish(withbones)inwater.Theyareimportantfoundationliquidthatareused
inpreparationofvariousdishessuchassauces,soups,stew,curriesandalsocanbeused
forbraisingorpoaching.
3.1.1Typesofstock
Therearetwotypesofstocks:
AwhitestockItismadefrombeeforchickenorfishormutton(bonesandoffcuts)
orvegetablesalongwithamirepoix,(amirepoixareroughlychoppedvegetables,
suchasonions,carrots,celery,andsometimesleek.)bouquetgarni.Keepinastock
pottoboilandsimmerforlonger.Thewhitestockcanbechickenwhitestock,fish
whitestock,beefwhitestock,muttonwhitestockorvegetablewhitestock.
AbrownstockItismadeofchickenorbeeforfishormutton(bonesandoffcuts)
alongwithmirepoixandbouquetgarni.Itislikewhitestock,onlydifferentisthatfora
brownstockthebones,offcutsandmirepoixhavetobebrownintheovenandkeep
inapottoboilandsimmerforlonger.Thebrownstockcanbechickenbrownstock,
fishbrownstock,beefbrownstock,muttonbrownstockandvegetablebrownstock.

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3.1.2Preparingdifferenttypesofstock

Item:WhiteStock,Serving:5litres
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Boneandoffcutsofbeef/
chicken/mutton/fish

2kg

Onion

120gms

Carrots

360gms

Celerystalk

60g

Parsleystalk

30g

Leek

130g

Bayleaf

1nos.

SprigThyme

1nos.

Coldwater

7litres

PreparationMethod
Cutthebonesandmeatinto3to4andremovethemarrow.
Washandplaceintostockpotandaddcoldwater.
Bringtoboilandremovetheskim.Addtheremainingingredients.
Reduceheatandletthestocksimmerfor6hours.
Stain,reboilanduseasrequired.

Item:BrownStock,Serving:5litres
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Boneandoffcutsofbeef/
chicken/mutton/fish

2Kg

Onion

120gms

Carrots

360gms

Celerystalk

60gms

Parsleystalk

30gms

Bayleaf

1nos.

SprigThyme

1nos.

Vegetableoroliveoil

1litres

Coldwater

7litres

PreparationMethod
Preheatovento425F.Cutthebonesandmeatinto3to4piecesandplace
withoilinalargeflameproofroastingtrayalongwithonion,carrots,andcelery.
Roast,untilchickenandvegetablesaregoldenbrown,1to11/4hours.
Transferchickenandvegetablestoastockpotandaddwaterandthenbringtoboil
overhighheat.
Reduceheatandletthestocksimmerfor6hours.Removetheskimtimetotime.
Stain,reboilanduseasrequired.

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3.2Sauce
Sauceisaseasoningservedasanaccompanimenttofood,especiallyaliquiddressing
ortoppingforfood.
Roux
Rouxisacookedmixtureofequalquantityofflourandbutter.Itisusedasthickening
agentforsoupandsauces.
TypesofRoux
TherearethreetypesofrouxWhite,BlondandBrown.Thecolourandtheflavouraredetermined
bylengthofcookingtimeandthemixture.Ingredientsofrouxareflourandbutter.
3.2.1TypesofSauce
Therefivemothersauces.Theyareasfollows:
BchamelSauce:Milkbasedsaucethickenwithawhiteroux.
EspagnaoleSauce/BrownSauce:Itismadefrommeatstock,mirepiox,brownrouxandherbs.
VeloutSauce:Itiswhitestockbasedsauce,thickenedwithwhiteroux.
HollandaiseandMayonnaiseSauce:Theyaremadewithmixtureofeggyolk,butter
andlemonandvinaigrette.
TomatoSauce:Itismadeprimarilyoutoftomatoes.
3.2.2Preparingdifferenttypesofsauce:

Item:BchamelSauce,Serving:Makes800ml
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Flour

80gms

Butter

80gms

Milk

1litre

Shreddedonion

50gms

Clove

4nos.

Bayleaf

1nos.

PreparationMethod
Preparewhiterouxallowoiltocool.
Boilthemilkwithonion,cloveandbayleaf10minutesbycovering.
Strainmilkmixtureandgraduallymixedwithroux.
Simmergentlyfor30mintsstarringfrequentlytopreventsticking.
Passthroughthefinestrainerandfinallythesauceisready.
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DerivativesofBchamelSauce:CreamSauce,CheddarCheeseSauce

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Item:Brown/EspagnaoleSauce,Serving:Makes800ml
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Butter

80gms

Flour

80gms

Tomatopaste

50gms

Brownstock

1litre

Carrot

80gms

Onion

80gms

Bacon

40gms

PreparationMethod
Preparebrownrouxandallowcooling.Addtomatopaste.
Graduallyaddhotbrownstock,boilandstircontinually.
Frycarrot,onion,baconuntilitsgetgoldenbrownandaddtothesauce.
Simmeritforonehour,stirringfrequently.
Passthesaucethroughstrainer.
Sauceshouldbereddishbrownnottoothick.
DrivativesofBrown/EspagnaoleSauce:Bordelaise,Lyonnais

Item:VelouteSauce,Serving:Makes800ml
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Butter

60gms

Flour

60gms

Chickenstock

1litre

Mushroom

50gms

PreparationMethod
Prepareblondrouxallowcooling.
Graduallyaddhotchickenstock,andmushroom,stirfrequently.
Simmeritforonehour,strainandusedasrequired.
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DerivativesofVelouteSauce:SupremeSauce,SauceAllemande

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Item:Hollandaise/MayonnaiseSauce,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Eggsyolk

2nos

LemonJuice

1tablespoon(15ml)

Vinegar

1tablespoon(15ml)

Mustardpaste

1tablespoon(15ml)

Saltandpepper

pinch

Vegetableoil

110ml

PreparationMethod
Placeeggyolk,mustard,vinegar,lemonjuicesalt,andpepperinabowl
Addoilveryslowly,whiskcontinuously,andadd1tablespoonofboilingwateruntil
itgetsthetextureofthesauce.
DrivativesofHollandaise/MayonnaiseSauce:Bavaroise,Mousseline

Item:TomatoSauce,Serving:Makes800ml
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Tomatopaste

80gms

Butter

60gms

Flour

60gms

Whitestock

1litre

Saltandpepper

Totaste

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PreparationMethod
Makeablondroux,stirfrequently,andaddtomatopaste,saltandstock.
Cookfor10minutesandstirfrequentlyandsauceisready.
DerivativesofTomatosauce:MarinarasauceandNapolitanosauce.

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3.3Soup
Soupisaliquidfoodthatispreparedfromfish,meat,vegetables,stockcombinedwith
variousotheringredients.Itisusedtoenhanceflavour,tasteanditcontainnutrients
extractedfromsolidfood.Itiseasilydigestibleandpalatable.Thethicknessofthesoup
mayalsobeadjustedbyusingvarietyofthickeners.Itcanbeservedhot(at90C)
andcold(at10C12C).Aportionofsoupisusuallyservedbetween200mlto250ml
dependinguponthetypeofsoupandthenumberofcoursetofollow.

Soup

Thick
Soup

Soup

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Broth

Bisques

Cream

Chowder

Pure

Conso
mme'

Broth/
Bouillon

3.3.1TypesofSoup
Theretwotypesofsoup.Theyarethickandthinsoup.
ThickSoup:Thicksoupismadefromstockbutarethickenedbyaddingmilkorcream,
vegetables,eggs,riceorgrain.Thicksoupsareofvarioustypessuchasbroth,cream
soup,bisques,chowders,purees.
Broth:Itismadeofafoundationofclearstock.Itcanbeathinsoupbutmoreoften
itismadethicksoupbyadding,rice,vegetableandbarley.
CreamSoup:Tomakeacreamsouptheingredientsareblendedaftercookinga
smallportionofcreamormilkisfoldedintothesoup.
Bisquessoup:Itisgenerallyrichandthickbeingmadefrompoultry,fishorshellfish.
ChowdersSoup:Oftenseafoodformsthebasisofchowderandsupplementedwith
vegetablesandcroutons.
Puree:Itisasmoothsoupmadebyblendingtheingredientaftercookingprocessis
finished.Itisnotasthickascreamsoup.

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ThinSoup:Thinsoupsaremadefromthepreparedstockusingeithermeatorvegetables
togiveitflavour.Themainvarietiesofsoupareconsommandbouillon.

Consomm:Aconsommisarichlyflavouredbrothmadefromfish,meat,poultryor
vegetablestock.Itcanbeservedbyitselforasanappetizer.Forexample:chicken
consomm.
Broth/Bouillon:Brothisgenerallythewaterinwhichbones,meat,fish,grainsand
vegetableshavebeencooked.Itmakesawaterysoupandoftenriceorother
grainsareaddedtomakeitmorerobust.Forexample:minestronesoup.
3.3.2Garnishandaccompanimentsofsoup
Thereisnoruleincookingthatsayseverymealmustbegarnishedhowever,ifgarnishis
useditshouldbefresh,colourful,edibleandshouldbesuitedtothemeal.Garnishhelps
togivevisualappealtothesoup.Garnishshouldbesmallanddainty.Theexamplesare
garnishareasfollows:
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Greetedcheese,choppedfreshherbs,croutons,choppedtoastedalmonds,walnuts,
cream,cudoradotofbutter,macaroni,spaghetti,smalldicesofmeat,vegetables,
smallcheeseballs,friedbreadcubesandpieces,nuts,friedonion,choppedherbsand
spices,sourcream,friedgarlicetc.
Accompanimentsareadditionstothemainingredientofameal.Accompanimentsare
typicallythingslikevegetablesandsidesaladsbuttheyalsoincludesaucesandrelishes.
Sometimestheaccompanimentalsocomeswithagarnishofitsown.
Thesoupaccompanimentsareasfollows:Bread,crackers,croutons,friedbacon,toast,
friedonion,breadsticksetc.
3.3.3Preparingdifferenttypesofsoup

Item:FrenchOnionSoup,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

BrownStock

1litre

SlicedOnion

50gms

Salt,Pepper

Totaste

Oil

100ml

Bread

pkt

GratedCheese

100gms

ChoppedParsley

Forgarnish

PreparationMethod
Heattheoilandslightlybrowntheslicedonionandkeepitaside.
Preparebrownstockandseasonit.
Addbrownslicedonionintobrownstock.
Cutthebreadintoroundshape,topwithgratedcheeseandbakeitinsalamander.
Servesoupwithhotbakedbreadandchoppedparsley.

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Item:MinestroneSoup,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Vegetablesstock

1litre

OliveOil

2tbsp

Beans

50gms

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Bacon

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50gms
50gms

Redwinevinegar

tbsp

Salt,pepper

Totaste

Pasta

100gms

Springonion

30gms

Mixedherbs

1tbsp

Parsleystalk

1tbsp

Tomatopuree

2tbsp

PreparationMethod
Wash,peelandcutcarrot,beans,cabbageintodiceshape.
Cutsmokedbaconintodiceshapeanddeepfryit.
Chopgarlicandcutparsleystalkandspringonionintodiceshape.
Boilpastaandkeepitaside.
Heatoil,frycarrot,beans,onion,garlicandsautforfewminutes.
Addstockandbringtoboil.
Addcabbageandfriedbaconandboilpasta.
Addmixedherbsandspringonion.
Addtomatopuree,redwinevinegarandstirwell.
Addsalt,pepperandstirproperly.

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Item:CreamofMushroom,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Whitestock

1litre

Mirepoix

50gms

Bouquetgarni

1no.

Butter

50gms

Flour/Bchamel

50gms,100ml

Salt,pepper

Totaste

Cream

100ml

Breadslice

1slice

Choppedmushroom

200gms

ChoppedParsley

Forgarnish

Freshcream

Forgarnish

PreparationMethod
Meltbutter,addmirepoixandflourandpreparewhiteroux.
Addwarmstockslowlyandstircontinuously.
Addbouquetgarniandseasonlightlyandsimmerforsometime.
Passthroughfinestrainer.
Returntoacleanpot,addchoppedmushroomandletitsimmerforsometime.
Addcreamandstir.
Whileserving,garnishwithchoppedparsleyandfreshcream.

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MODULE3:STOCKS,SAUCESANDSOUPS
MODULE1:TOURISM,HOSPITALITY,FOODANDBEVERAGESERVICE

Item:PureeSt.German/ThickPeaSoup,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Greenpeas

200gms

WhiteStock

1litre

Carrot

50gms

Onion

50gms

Bouquetgarni

1no.

Bacon

50gms

Tomatopuree

2tbsp

Salt,pepper

Totaste

Butter

50gms

Sautbread

1slice

PreparationMethod
Meltbutter,addcarrot,onionandflourtoit.Cookuntilitgivessandytexture.
Addstock,greenpeas,tomatopureeandbacontothetexture.
Addseasoningsandletitsimmer.
Grindthemixtureandpassitthroughthestrainer.
Replacetothecleansaucepan,reboilforcorrectseasoningandconsistency.
Garnishedwithbreadcrouton.

Item:ChickenSweetCornSoup,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Chicken

400gms

ChickenStock(Whitestock)

1liter

SweetCorn

200gms

Cornflour

40gms

Water

45ml

Salt,pepper

Totaste

Eggwhite

1nos

PreparationMethod
Boilthechickeninthestockfor20minutes.Keepthestockasideandshredthechicken.
Addcorninthestockandcookforfewminutes.
Makeapasteofthecornflourandwaterandittothesoupandcookforfewminutes.
Addseasoningsandletitsimmer.Addthelightlybeateneggwhite.Stirwithafork
inonedirectiontogivethreadsoftheeggwhite.
Servehot,garnishwiththechickenshreds.

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Item:YakhniShorba,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Water

5litre

Muttonbones

Asrequired

Corianderseeds

150gm

Ginger

40gms

Garlic

45ml

Onion

50gm

BlackCardamom

15gm

GreenCardamom

10gm

Mace

5gm

BayLeaf

10gms

Cinnamon

10gms

Cloves

10gms

Cream

20ml

PreparationMethod
Blanchbones.
Preparestockwithaboveingredientsandsimmertillstockisreducedto1litre,addsalt.
Finishoffwithwarmcream.
Servehot.
Pleasenote:Allthesoupsareservedwithbreadstick,breadrolls.

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MODULE4
VEGETABLES,FRUIT
ANDSALADS

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4Introduction:Vegetables,FruitandSalads
Thismodulewillintroducedifferenttypesofvegetables,fruitsandsaladsthatareused
inthekitchen,theirpreparationandcookingandservingmethodsincludingstorage
proceduresandprinciples.

4.1DefinitionofVegetable
Vegetablesaretheedibleportionsofherbaceousplantwhosefruit,seeds,roots,tubers,
bulbs,stems,leaves,orflowerpartsareusedasfood,suchasthetomato,bean,beet,
potato,onion,asparagus,spinach,orcauliflower.Vegetablesaddcolour,textureand
flavourtoameal.Vegetablescanbeservedasamaindishorasanaccompaniment
tothemaindish.
4.1.1TypesofVegetables
Root:Therootanchorstheplanttothegroundandabsorbsandtransportsmoisture
andnutrientsfromthesoiluptotherestoftheplant.Examplesofrootvegetables
arecarrot,turnips,beetroot,radish,horseradishetc.

Tubers:Atuberisanundergroundsteam,whichcarriesnutrientsfromtherootto
therestoftheplant.Exampleoftubersvegetablesarepotatoes,sweetpotatoes,
artichokes,yamsetc.

Bulbs:Theplant,whosenutrientisstoredundergroundinaformofbulb.Themain
ediblepartofthesevegetablesistheirbulb.Exampleofbulbsaregarlic,onion,leeks,
shallotsetc.
Leaves:Usuallygreen,flattened,lateralstructureattachedtoastemandfunctioning
asprincipalorgansofphotosynthesisandtranspirationinmostplantsisleaves.The
examplesofleafyvegetablesarelettuce,cabbage,spinach,Chineseleaves,Swiss
chardetc.
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Steam:Themainbodyportionofatree,shruborotherplantwhichisaboveground
issteam.Theexampleofthestemisasparagus,celery,andfennel.
Fungi:Anyofagroupofunicellular,multicellularorsyncytialsporeproducing
organismsfeedingonorganicmatterisfungi.Theexampleoffungivegetablesare
mushrooms,morelsetc.
Fruits:Thesweetandfleshyproductofatreeorotherplantthatcontainsseedand
canbeeatenasfoodisfruits.Theexamplesoffruitvegetablearetomatoes,peas,
pumpkin,zucchini,avocado,cucumberetc.
Flower:Thereproductivestructureoftheseedbearingplantisknownasflower.The
examplesofflowervegetablesarebroccoli,brussels,caulifloweretc.

Podsorseed:Thegrainsorripenedovuleofplantscapableofgerminationto
produceanewplantisseed.TheexamplesoflegumesorseedareFrenchbeans,
peas,babycornetc.

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Followingimageshowsdifferenttypesofvegetables

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4.1.2Seasonalvegetableavailability
Spring:Asparagus,Carrots,Cauliflowers,Turnips,Broccolietc.
Summer:Artichoke,Broadbeans,Sweetcorn,Peas,Lettuceetc.
Autumn:Celery,Mushrooms,RedCabbage,Shallots,RunnerBeansetc.
Winter:Brusselssprouts,Parsnipsetc.
4.1.3Howisvegetableprocessed?
SEQUENCE/STEP

PROCESS

1.Sinking

Vegetablesaredippedinwatertoloosentheforeignparticles

2.Washing

Washinwatertoensurethecleaningofforeignparticles

3.Trimming

Trimmingisdonetoobtaintheediblepart)

4.Rinsing

Rinsinginrunningwatergivesfinalcleaningtothevegetables

5.Sanitizing

Sterilisevegetablesinwaterpurifiedwithchlorine,bleach,piyush
oriodine.Thisisespeciallyimportantforvtegetablesthatareeaten
raw:15mlofchlorinein40litresofwaterforcleaningpurpose

6.Storing

Storedintherefrigeratorsin510cforfurtheruse

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4.1.4Vegetablecutsandpreparationmethod
Thepreparationmethodsofvegetablesareasfollows:
Peeling:Rovingtheouterskinofvegetableswhichisinedible.Examplepeelingofpotatoes
Skinning:Hasthesamemeaningaspeelingbutusuallyrefertoskinningtomatoes
ratherthanpeelingtomato.
Shelling:Removingthehardoutercoveringortheshell.Exampleremovingpeas

frompods.
Chopping:Cuttingintopieces.Examplechoppingonion,garlicorparsley.

Shredding:Cuttingintolongnarrowstrips.Examplecabbageforchowmein.
Slicing:Cuttingthevegetablestoformcircularinshape.Exampletomatoslice,

onionslice.
Trimming:Cuttingpartsofvegetablewhicharenoteaten.Example:rootofspringonion.

Grating:Rubbingagainsttheserratededgeofagratertoproducefineshreds.
Examplegratingofcarrotforcoleslaw.
ToppingandTailing:CuttingbothendsofawholecarrotorFrenchbean.
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4.1.5Typesofvegetablescuts
Julienne:1mmthinstripes

Mincing:Roughlychopvegetableoncuttingboardwithchef'sknife.
Brunoise:1mmcubes
Macedonia:5mmcubes
Jardinire:2x2x15mmstickshaped
Scallops(slice):12mmdiameter

Paysanne(differentshapes):Triangle10mmeachside,Square10mmeachside,
circle10mmdiameter.
4.1.6Vegetablecookingmethods
Methodsofcookingvegetablesareasfollows:

Boiling:Cookingvegetablesinboilingwater.(boilundergroundvegetablesincold
waterandabovegroundvegetablesinboilingwater)
Blanch:Boilingvegetablesforashorttimeuntilthevegetablesarepartlycooked.
Reheating:Toreheatthecooked/boiled/blanchvegetables.
Steaming:Cookingvegetablesinboilingwatersteam.
Roasting/Baking:Cookingthevegetablewithhotairinanoven.

Grilling:Cookingvegetablesinhotplatewithdirectheat.
Frying:Cookingvegetablesinafat.
Someofthepopularvegetablesdishesare:Frenchfries,sautvegetables,grilled
vegetables,stuffedtomatoes,roastedvegetablesalad,bakedpotatoes.

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Followingimageshowsdifferentvegetablecuts

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4.1.7VegetableStorage
Rememberthefollowingwhenstoringvegetables:
Storepotatoes,onions,garlic,anduncutpumpkininadryplace(notinthefridge).
Mostvegetables,forexample,carrots,cutpumpkin,zucchini,eggplant,capsicum
andbroccoli,arebeststoredinthevegetablecrisperoftherefrigerator.
Keepmushroomsinpaperbagsinthefridge.
Buyfreshvegetablesoftenandconsumethemsoonafterpurchase.Avoidstoring
themformorethan34days.
Storefreshherbsintherefrigeratorinasealedfreezerbag.Theykeepwellfor46days.
Smallquantitiesofleftoverfreshvegetablessuchascarrots,beans,broccoli,snow
peasandceleryaregreatforstirfriesorsoups.
Asparaguslastslongestwhenyoustandthespearsuprightinaglasscontaining
12cmofwater.Coverthetipsofthespearswithaplasticbaganditcanbestore
inthefridgeforuptofivedays.
Broccoli,inasealedplasticbag,canbestoredinthefridgeforuptothreedays.
Capsicumandcarrotsshouldbestoredinaplasticbaginthecrisperforuptooneweek.
Mushrooms,keptinapaperbag,canbestoredinthefridgeforuptofivedays.
Ripetomatoescanbestoredinthefridgeforuptotwodays.
Beans,celery,peas,spinachandzucchiniarebeststoredinasealableplasticbag
inthefridgeforuptofourdays.
Cookedvegetablesshouldbewellcoveredandstoreabovetherawvegetable
andmeatinthefridge.

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4.1.8Garnishandservingvegetables

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Rememberthefollowingwhengarnishingandservingvegetable:
Alwaysgarnishvegetablesbeforeserving.

Usecontrastcolourcombinationforgarnish.

Neveroverdothegarnish.
Useonlyeatableitemsforgarnish.
Cuttingtechniqueenhancethepresentation.
Vegetablesareservedasaccompanimentsandmaindish.
4.1.9PreparingdifferenttypesofVegetableDishes

Item:StirFryVegetables,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

CauliFlower

200gms

Broccoli

200gms

Pokchoy

100gms

CarrotSlice

100gms

Oil

25ml

Choppedgingerandgarlic

40gms

Galangalslice

20gms

Limeleaves

5to6

Soyasauce

10ml

Oystersauce

10ml

Fishsauce

10ml

Seasoning

totaste

Conflour

asrequired

Coriander

5gms

PreparationMethod
Cleanallthevegetablesandcutintoslice.
Blanchandrefreshallvegetables.
Heatoilonapan,sautchoppedginger,garlicandslicedgalangal.
Addallrefreshedvegetablesandstirfryforawhile.
Addthesoyasauce,oystersauces,fishsauceandtheseasonings.
Togetcorrectconsistencyadddilutedcornflourandcookforawhile.
Garnishwithchoppedcoriander.
Servehot.

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Item:MismasTarkari,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

ChoppedOnion

100gm

ChoppedTomato

100gm

Oil

50ml

Carrot

200gm

Capsicum

150gm

CorianderLeaf

1Bunch

Bodi

150gm

Beans

150gm

Turmericpowder

1tbs

CorianderPowder

2tbs

CuminPowder

2tbs

ChilliPaste

1tbs

SeasoningSalt

ToTaste

PreparationMethod
Takeapot,heatitandandaddoil.
AddChoppedonionandandTomatothenstirtillitbecomeslightbrown.
Addturmeric,cumin,coriander,chillipowderandkeeponstirring.
Addblanchedvegetable(asmentionedabove)andstir.
Addtheseasoningandstir.
Coolitslightlyandserveitwithasmile.

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Items:AlooGobiMattarkoTarkari,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Potato

250gm

Cauliflower

250gm

GreenPeas

100gm

Onion

150gm

Tomato

100gm

GingerGarlicPaste

30gm

CuminPowder

2tsp

CuminSeeds

2tsp

Turmeric

1tsp

Salt

ToTaste

Corianderpowder

2tsp

Chilly

5gm

GaramMasala

1tsp

Oil

50ml

CorianderLeaves

1bunch

PreparationMethod
Peelthepotato,Cutintoslicedanddeepfry.
PrepareCauliflower,peaswashthemanddeepfry.
FryOniontillgoldenbrown.Addtomato,gingergarlicpaste,saltturmeric,coriander
powder,chillipowder,cuminpowder.
Thenaddpotato,cauliflowerandgreenpeas.
Cookforsomeminutesandgarnishwithcorianderleaves.

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Item:PalakPaneer,Serving:1portion
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Spinach

150gm

Oil

5ml

CuminSeed

tsp

Onion,chopped

25gm

Tomato,chopped

50gm

Gingerchopped

5gm

Garlicchopped

5gm

PaneerSliced

40gm

Salt

ToTaste

Water

15ml

PreparationMethod
Clean,washandchopthespinach.Boilthespinachforfewminutes.Grindtoapaste.
Heattheoilinapan,frythecuminseed.Addthefinelychoppedonion,ginger,
garlicandfrylightly.Nowaddthechoppedtomatoes.Cooktilltheoilseparates.
Addthegroundspinachandlongthinpiecesofpaneerandallowsimmeringfor
fewminutesandservinghot.

Item:ParsleyPotato,Serving:1portion
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Potato

100gm

Parsley,chopped

5gm

Butter

10gm

PreparationMethod
Boilthepotatoes.Peelanddice.
Creamthebutter,addthechoppedparsleyandmixedwell.
Rollthepotatoesinparsleybutter.Serveasanaccompanimentwithmeatdishes.

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4.2Fruits
Fruitsarethesweetandfleshyproductsofatreeorotherplantthatcontainsseedsand
canbeeatenasfood.Theyarerichinfoodvalue,containingcelluloseminerals,vitamins
andareavaluablesourceoffibre.
Fruitsareusedinmanydifferentways.Theyareusedfreshlyinhorsdoeuvresoffruit
cocktailandjuices.Theyareservedasdessertafteraheavymealorforbreakfast.Fruits
areusedinhotorcoldpastryandspongebaseddishes.Theymaybeusedtogarnish
foodsuchaspoultryandfishdishesandarealsomadeintosaucetoaccompanymeat
dishes.Fruitscanalsobecooked,stewed,jelliedandcanbepreservedasjam.
4.2.1ClassificationofFruits
Followingaregeneralclassificationoffruits:
Stonefruits:Apricot,cherries,peaches,plums,greengages,nectarinesetc.
Convenienceproduct:Canned,syrup,solidpacked,frozen,dehydratedflakesanddried.
Softfruits:Raspberries,strawberries,blackberries,blueberries,gooseberries,currantsetc.
Convenienceproduct:Jam,syrups,squashjellies,canned,frozenpieandfilling.
Hardfruits:Apples,pears,olivesetc.
Convenienceproducts:Solidpack,canned,frozen,driedrings,flakesandjuice.
Citrusfruits:Orange,lemon,grape,lime,lemon,tangerines,tangelos,pomeloesetc.
Convenienceproduct:marmalade,jam,juice,canned,jellies,segment.
Tropicalfruits:Melons,pineapples,bananas,guava,leeches,mangoes,papayas,passion
fruits,cranberries,kiwietc.
Convenienceproduct:Canned,juice,jam,jellies,frozen,driedetc.
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Seethefollowingimagefordifferentfruits

4.2.2FruitCookingMethod
Fruitsaregenerallycookedin4differentways.Theyare:
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Poaching(Softfruits)
Baking(Apples)
Steaming(Apple,Pears)
Deepfrying(Pineapple,Apples,Bananas)
4.2.3FruitPreservationMethod
Fruitsarepreservedfortheconsumptionatalaterstage.Dependingonthetypesoffruits
andpurposetoproduct,variousmethodsareapplied.Theyare:
Drying:Apples,pears,apricots,peaches,figs,grapesaredried
Canning:Almostallfruitsmaybecanned.
Bottling:Bottlingisuseddomesticallybutverylittlefruitsiscommerciallypreservedin
thisway.
Candied:Orangeandlemonpeelarecandied.Otherfruitswithastrongflavour
suchaspineapplearepreservedinthisway.
Glace:Thefruitisfirstcandiedandthendippedinfreshsyrupstogiveaclearfinish,
cherriesareglace.
Crystallizedfruits:Afterthefruithasbeencandieditisleftinfreshsyrupfor24hours
andthenallowedtodryveryslowlyuntilcrystalsformonthesurfaceofthefruits.
Frozen:Apples,gooseberries,blackberries,blueberries,passionfruits,plum,melon,
mixedfruitsarefrozen.
Juices:Orange,grapefruits,tomato,pineapple,apples,tropicalfruitsandmixed
citrusfruitscanbepreservedbymakingjuice.
Jam:Somestoneandallsoftfruitscanbeusedformakingjam.

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4.2.4FruitsandtheirSeason
Apple

Allyearround

Greengage

August

Apricot

MaytoSeptember

Lemon

Allyearround

Avocado

NovembertoJanuary

Melon

Allyearround

Banana

Allyearround

Orange

Allyearround

Blackberry

SeptembertoOctober

Peach

September

Cherry

JunetoAugust

Pear

SeptembertoMarch

Cranberries

NovemberstoJanuary

Pineapple

Allyearround

Grapefruit

OctobertoJanuary

Plum

JulytoOctober

Grapes

Allyearround

Strawberry

JunetoAugust

4.2.5FruitStoragePrinciple
Mostfreshfruitsareperishableandrequirerefrigeration.Somefruitsleaveouttoripen,
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butwhentheyripe,theylastlongerinthefridge.Herearesomesuggestionsonstoring
freshfruit:

Hardfruits:Itshouldbekepyinboxandstoredinacoolplace.

Softfruits:Itshouldbeplacedinbasketandkeptinacoolroom.
Alwaysstorefruitsinatraysothatanydamagedfruitscanbeseenanddiscarded.
Someexamplesareasfollows:

Apples:Refrigerateorstoreinacool,darkplace.Canbestoredforseveralweeks.

Avocados,papayas,kiwis,andmangoes:Keepatroomtemperatureuntilfully
ripenedandthenrefrigeratethemtokeepforseveralmoredays.

Bananas:Bananashouldnotbestoredintoocoolplaceitshouldbestoreatroom
temperature.
Cherriesandberries:Keeprefrigerated.Forbestflavour,consumeonthedayof
purchase.
Citrusfruits(suchaslemons,limes,grapefruit,oranges):Citrusfruits,whichdont
ripenfurtheraftertheyrepickedandarerelativelylongstoragefruits,keepforup
tothreeweeksinthefridge.
Grapes:Keepintherefrigeratorforuptoaweek.
Melonsandtreefruits(suchaspears,peaches,andnectarines):Keepatroom
temperaturesothattheycanripenandgrowsweeter.Aftertheyrefullyripe,store
themintherefrigeratorforseveralmoredays.
Pineapple:Doesntripenafteritspickedbestifeatenwithinafewdaysofpurchase.
Keepatroomtemperature,awayfromheatandsun
Tomatoes:Storeatrefrigeratetokeepthemfromspoiling.

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4.2.6PreparingdifferenttypesofFruitDishes

Item:FruitSalad,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Water

2litre

Sugar

500gms

Apple

100gms

Papaya

100gms

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75gms
100gms

SweetLime

50gms

Rum

20ml

Cream

100ml

PreparationMethod:
Makesugarsyrupbyboilingwaterandsugartogetherandstrainit.
Clean,peelandcutallfruitsindiceshapeexceptappletopreventfromdiscolouring.
Addthecutfruitsintothecoolsugarsyrup.
Addrumtothemixtureforflavour.
Portionoutthefruitsaladandgarnishwithcreamandcherry.

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4.3Salad
Saladisacoldfoodthatismadeofvegetables,fruits,meats,nuts,fish,poultry,cereals,with
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thecombinationofvariousdressing.Saladshouldalwayshavefollowingcharacteristic,
cold,crispy,colourful,aromaticandwellseasoned.

Saladcanbeservedasamaincourse,assaladcourseorasanaccompaniment.
4.3.1ImportanceofSalad
Itincreasesthevalueofanydishesandlooksattractive.Itrequiresnocookingandcan
becookedinadvanceandstored.Therefore,itcanbeservedatanystage.Itcanbe
servedasaccompaniment,appetizer,saladcourseorasmaincourse.
4.3.2TypesofSalad
Saladgenerallyfallsintotwocategories:theyaresimplesaladwithonedominant
vegetable,suchascarrotsaladand"compoundsalad"thatgenerallyconsistsmore
thanonetypeofvegetablesuchasvegetablesaladandmixedgreensalad.
SomeexamplesofSaladsareasfollows:
GreenVegetableSalad:Lettuce,sliceofcucumber,carrot,onion,tomato,radish
andvinaigrettedressingwithseasoning.
PotatoSalad:Cookedpotatoes,lettuce,choppedonion,choppedparsley,
vinaigretteandseasoning.
KidneybeansSalad:Lettuce,cookedbeans,choppedparsley,mayonnaiseand
seasoning.
RussianSalad:Carrot,turnips,Frenchbeans,peas,lettuce,mayonnaiseand
seasoning.
ColeslawSalad:JuliannecutLettuce,carrot,cabbage,onion,mayonnaiseand
seasoning.

MeatSalad:Cookedmeat,cookedFrenchbeans,gherkins,tomato,chopped
onion,choppedparsley,vinaigretteandseasoning.

FishSalad:Cookedfish(boneless),hardboiledegg,vinaigrettedressingand
seasoning)
4.3.3Componentsofsalad
Asaladshouldhave4majorcomponents.However,itmayvarydependinguponthe
typeofsaladandstyleusedtoprepareaparticularsalad.Thefourmajorcomponents
are:
Base:Itisafoundationonwhichsaladisbuild.Itisusuallysomeformofleafy
vegetable.
Body:Itismadeofingredientswhichconstitutethemainpartsofbodyofthesalad.
Saladmadegetsitsnamefromtheingredientsthatareusedforbody.

Dressing:Itisusedtoblendtheingredientandaddflavour.

Garnish:Itgiveseyeappealandmakesitmoreattractiveandenhancestaste.

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4.3.4Dressinganditstype
Dressingsareliquidandsemiliquid,madefromamixtureofoil,vinegar,mustard,
seasoning,eggorcream.Dressingareusuallyservedtoalltypesofsalad,whichmakes
asaladsour,colourful,flavoursome,andvisuallyappealing
Typesofdressing:
ItalianDressing:Mincedgarlic,redwine,vinegar,choppedchives,gratedcheese,
mustardpowder,crushedpeppercorn,salt,andoliveoil.
ThousandIslandDressing:Mayonnaise,chilli,sauceortobascosauce,chopped
hardboileggwhite,choppedparsley,chopped,pimento,paprika,saltandpepper.
Russiandressing:Mayonnaise,chillisauce,paprika,chopped,pimentoandsalt.
Frenchdressing:Mayonnaise,paprika,salt,pepper,Worchestersauce,French
mustard,tomatoketchupandlemonjuice.
YoghurtDressing:Yogurt,orangejuiceandsugar.

HousewifeDressing:Mayonnaise,choppedgherkin,choppedonion,choppedapple
andcream.

ThaiDressing:Mincedchilli,lemonjuice,garlic,corianderrootandgroundpeanut.
IndianDressing:Lemonjuice,salt,chillipowderandchatmasala.
Vinaigrette:Oil,redwinevinegar,capers,pickles,herbs,parsley,mustard,lemon
juice,sugar,Worcestershiresauce.
4.3.5Preparingdifferenttypesofsaladdressing

Item:Frenchdressing,Serving:10portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Worchestersauce

150ml

Mayonnaise

300ml

Whitevinegar

100ml

Oliveoil

250ml

Lemonjuice

100ml

Salt

1tbs

Paprika

1tbs

Gratedonions

50gms

Choppedgarlic

10gms

Tarragon

40gms

PreparationMethod
Mixmayonnaise,Worchestersauce,vinegar,oil,lemonjuice,salt,paprika,onions,
garlicandtarragontoamixingbowl.
Whiskwellandrefrigeratetillserved.

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Item:Italiandressing,Serving:10portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Whitewinevinegar

200ml

Water

130ml

Oliveoil

130ml

Cornsyrup

100ml

Gratedromanocheese

25gms

Drypectin

25gms

Salt

30gms

Lemonjuice

10ml

Mincedgarlic

1Tbs

Driedparsley

1tbs

Crushedredpepperflakes

1tbs

Driedoregano

1tbs

PreparationMethod
Inablender,combinethevinegar,water,oil,cornsyrup,cheese,pectin,salt,lemon
juice,garlic,parsley,redpepperflakesandoregano.
Blendfor30secondsandrefrigerateforatleast1hourbeforeserving.

Item:ThousandIslanddressing,Serving:10portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Eggs

2nos

Worcestershiresauce

40ml

Whitesugar

10gms

Whitevinegar

40ml

Groundcloves

1tbs

Mayonnaise

600ml

Sweetpicklerelish

100ml

Choppedblackolives

50gms

Dicedredbellpepper

50gms

PreparationMethod
Boiltheegg,removefromhotwater,cool,peelandchop.
Inabowl,whisktogetherchoppedeggs,Worcestershiresauce,sugar,vinegar,
cloves,mayonnaise,relish,olivesandredpepperuntilevenlyblended.
Chillandservespoonedoverfreshgreens.
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Item:Russiandressing,Serving:10portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Mayonnaise

150ml

Ketchup

100ml

Redwinevinegar

20ml

Finelychoppedonion

10gms

Saltandpeppertotaste

Totaste

PreparationMethod
Inabowl,whisktogetherthemayonnaise,ketchup,vinegar,onion,saltandpepper
untilthoroughlycombined.
Refrigerateuntilserving.

Item:Thaipeanutdressing,Serving:10portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Cornstarch

1Tbs

Coldwater

60ml

Soysauce

30ml

Peanutbutter

50gms

Brownsugar

20gms

Whitevinegar

1Tbs

Sesameoil

1tbs

Warmwater

120ml

Choppedpeanuts

20gms

Choppedfreshmintleaves

few

PreparationMethod
Dissolvethecornstarchincoldwaterandsetaside.
Whisktogetherthesoysauce,peanutbutter,brownsugar,whitevinegar,sesameoil,
andwarmwaterinasmallsaucepanovermediumheatsimmerandstiruntilsugar
hasdissolved.
Stirinthecornstarchmixturesimmeruntilthesauceisthick.
Servewarmandgarnishwithchoppedpeanutsandmintleavesasdesired.
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Item:Yogurtdressing,Serving:10portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Plainlowfatyogurt

300ml

Lemonjuice

10ml

Dijonstylepreparedmustard

10ml

Choppedfreshparsley

1tbs

Choppedfreshchives

1tbs

PreparationMethod
Inabowl,beattogetheryogurtandlemonjuiceuntilsmooth.
Stirinmustard,parsley,andchives.
Refrigerateuntilreadytoserve.

Item:Indiandressing,Serving:10portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Choppedfreshcilantro

60gms

Lemonjuice

25ml

Groundcumin

1tbs

Plainyogurt

600ml

Sweetchilisauce

25ml

PreparationMethod
Inaservingbowl,stirtogetherthecilantro,lemonjuice,cumin,yogurtandchilli
sauce.
Chillforatleastonehouruntilserved.

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4.3.6PreparingdifferenttypesofSalad

Item:RussianSalad,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Potatoes

200gms

Carrots

200gms

Turnips

100gms

Greenpeas

100gms

Frenchbeans

100gms

Hardboiledeggs

4nos

Tomatoes

100gms

Lettuce

1bunch

Mayonnaisesauce

150ml

PreparationMethod
Peelpotatoes,turnips,carrotsandcutitintodice.
CutFrenchbeansandshellpeas.
Boilpotatoes,turnips,carrots,Frenchbeansandeggsseparatelyinsaltedwater.
Mixalltheboiledvegetableswithmayonnaisesauce.
Pileoverabedoflettuceandgarnishitwithslicedtomatoesandeggswhileserving.

Item:ChickenCaesarSalad,Serving:4Portions
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INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Thickslicescrustywhitebread

4Slices

Oliveoil

50ml

Chickenbreast

450gm

Lettuce

1Largecos

Garlic

50gm

Anchovies

2pcs

ParmesanCheese

80gm

Mayonnaise

5tbsp

Whitewinevinegar

1tbsp

PreparationMethod
Cutthebreadintocubeandbakeitturningthecroutonsbrownevenly.
Marinatechickenbreastswitholiveoilandseasonit.Sautthechickeninapanover
amediumheattillboththesideisdone.
Mixthechoppedgarlic,mashedanchovies,gratedcheese,mayonnaise,and
vinegarinabowlandseasontotaste.Stirittofirmconsistenttexture.
Cutthecheeseandlettuceintolargepiecesandputinabowl.Cutchickeninto
strip.Mixalltheingredientsalongwiththecroutons.Addthedressingtothemixture.
Garnishthecheeseontopandserve.

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Item:ColeSlaw,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS
Greencabbage,shredded

QUANTITY
450gm

Carrots,shredded

120gm

Onion

50gm

Mayonnaise

120gm

LemonJuice

60ml

SaltandPepper

Totaste

PreparationMethod
Placecabbage,onion,andcarrotinabowl.
Whiskmayonnaiseandlemonjuicetogetherandaddtocabbagemixture.Tossto
combine.Seasonwithsaltandpepper.
Serveimmediately.

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Item:GreekSalad,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Oliveoil

45ml

Lemonjuice

25ml

Garlic,minced

1clove

Driedoregano

tsp

Saltandblackpepper

Totaste

Tomato,cutintowedges

200gm

Onion,slicedintoring

100gm

Cucumber,slicethickhalfmoon250gm
Capsicum

150gm

FetaCheese,cutintosmall
cubes

150gm

Olives

16psc

PreparationMethod
Placetheoliveoil,lemonjuice,garlic,salt,pepperandoreganoinasmalljarwitha
screwtoplidandshaketocombine.
Placethesaladingredientsinalargebowl.
Pourthedressingoverthesaladandtossgentlytocombinejustbeforeserving.
GarnishtheGreeksaladwithalittlefreshlygroundblackpepper.

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Item:WaldorfSalad,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Apple

500gm

LemonJuice

35ml

Celery

4stick

Raisins

40gms

Mayonnaise

60gm

Whippedcream

40gm

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Lettuce

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40gm
1leaf

PreparationMethod
PeelandCoretheappleanddiceit.
Sprinklewithlemonjuice.
Combinetheapplecubes,celery,raisinsandmayonnaise.
Foldinthewhippedcream.Justbeforeservingaddthenuts.

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MODULE5
CEREALSANDPASTA

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5Introduction:CerealsandPasta
Thismoduleintroducescereals,pastas,itsdifferenttypes,itsuses,preparation,storage
andqualitycheckingtechniques.Someimportantrecipesarealsoprovided.

5.1Cereals
Cerealsarecultivatedgrasses,whichproducegrainusedforconsumption.Allcereals
productscontainstarch.Thefollowingaretheimportantcerealsusedinthehospitality
industry.
5.1.1TypeofCereals
Varioustypesofcerealsusedforhumanconsumption,theyareasfollows:
Wheat:Wheatisthemostcommoncerealsproduceinthewesternworldandisgrown
inmostmildregions.Wheatisoneofthebestenergyfoods.Thewheatmustbestorein
adryandwellventilatedplace.Itshouldbestoreintightfittinglidcontainers.Flouristhe
productofwheatwhichisthefoundationofbread,pastryandcakesandalsousedin
soup,sauce,batters,malt,starch,gluten,alcoholandotherfoods.
Oat:TheyareoneofthehardiestcerealsandaregrowninlargequantitiesinScotland
andEngland.Oatsshouldbestoreincontainerswithtightfittinglids,storeinacooland
wellventilatedstoreroom.Theoatsaredividedintotwoways:
1Rolledoatsporridgeand
2Ground(coarse,medium,andfine):Porridge,thickeningsoup,coatingfood,cake,
biscuitsetc.
Barley:Barleyisanotherimportantcereal.Thewholegrainofbarleyisknownaspotor
Scotchbarley.Barleywhenroastedischangeintomaltandusedinthebrewingand
distillingifvinegar.Itshouldbestoreincontainerswithtightfittinglids,storeinacooland
wellventilatedstoreroom.
Maize:Maizeisalsoknownascorn,sweetcorn,cornonthecob.Itisprocessedinto
cornflakesandcornflour.Maizeoilissuitableforcooking.Cornflouristheproductof
maize.Cornflourisusedformakingcustardandblancmangepowder.Custardpowder
consistsofcornflour,colouringandflavouring.Cornflourisusedforthickeningsoups,
sauces.Custardisusedinmakingcertainsmallandlargecakes.
Pulses:Pulsesareacollectivenamefortheedibleseedofplantsgrowninvarious
countriesoftheworld.Pulsesarelowinfatandagoodsourceoffibre,vitamin,and
minerals.Theyalsohavehighproteincontent.Mostpilesaredriedandtheyareeasy
tostoreandhaveaquitelongshelflife.Pulsesareofdifferentvarietiesandtheyare
dividedintothreegroup.
1Peas:Chickpeas,Marrowfatpeas,Greensplitpeas,Yellowsplitpeasetc.
2Beans:Adukibeans,Blackeyebeans,Blackbeans,Butterbeans,Cannellinibeans,
Flageoletbeans,Haricotbeans,Mungbeans,Pintobeans,Redkidneybeansetc.
3Lentils:Lentilsistheseedofoneparticularplant.Theycomeinarangeofcolours,
wholeandsplit.

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Pulsesaregenerallysoaked,boiledandcookeduntiltheyaretender.Cookingtimesand
methodmayvaryaccordingtothetypesofdishes.
Followingimageshowsdifferenttypesofcereals

Rice

Speltwheat

Oats

rye

millet

quinoa

Wildrice

wheat

barley

amaranth

triticale

buckwheat

corn

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5.1.2PreparationofdifferentPulseDishes

Item:DalMakhani,Serving:56Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Blacklentils(kaalisabutdal)

220gm

Redkidneybeans(rajma)

110gm

Ghee

30ml

Cuminseeds

5gm

Onions,finelychopped

170gm

Chillies,splitlengthwise

2pcs

Gingergarlicpaste

5gm

Kashmiriredchillipowder

5gm

Turmericpowder

tsp

Salt

totaste

Tomatoes,finelychopped

150gm

Butter

60gm

Garammasalapowder

5gm

Malai(creamofmilk)

45ml

Gingerjuliennesforgarnish

Asrequired

PreparationMethod
Soakblacklentilsandredkidneybeans(rajma)inwaterfor8hoursandpressure
cooktillsoft
Heatgheeinaheavybottomedvessel.Addcuminseedsandletthemsplutter.Add
thechoppedonionsandgreenchillisandsauttheonionstillpink.
Addgingergarlicpasteandfryfor34minutes.Addtheturmericpowder,chilli
powderandsaltandcombine.
Addthechoppedtomatoesandcookfor56minutes.Nowaddthepressure
cookeddalsalongwithacupofwaterandmixthemwelltilltheyarewellcoated
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withthemasalamixture.Cookcoveredfor34minutesonmediumheat.
Addbutter,combineandcookfor5minutes.

Addmalaiandgarammasalaandmixwell.Garnishwithgingerjuliennes.
Servewithhotrotisandrice.

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Item:DalFry,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS
Splitpigeonpea
(toordal/arhardal)

QUANTITY
220gm

Ghee

60gm

Onion,finelychopped

80gm

Garlic,finelychopped

5gm

Turmericpowder

tsp

Salt

totaste

Drymangopowder(amchur)

5gm

Cuminseeds

5gm

Redchillipowder

tsp

PreparationMethod
Heathalfofthegheeinapan.Addhalfofthechoppedonionandgarlicandsaut
tillgolden.
Addturmericpowder,dal,twocupsofwaterandsalttotaste.Stirandbringtoa
boil.Lowertheheatandsimmerfortwentyminutes.
Addmangopowderandsimmerforanotherfifteenminutes.
Heattheremaininggheeinanotherpan.Addcuminseeds.Whentheybeginto
changecolouraddtheremainingonionandgarlicandsauttillpink.
Addredchillipowderandsautfortwotothreeminutes.
Addthisseasoningtothedal,simmerfortwominutesandremovefromheat.Serve
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5.1.3Rice
Riceisthestarchyseedorgraincultivatedinwarmclimatesandusedforfoodthroughout
theworld.Withtheincreasedinterestinthefoodofdifferentpartsoftheworldrice
appearsmuchmoreoftenonthemenu.Itcanbecookedinanumbersofinteresting
waysfairly,quicklyandeasily.Itcanbeservedasthemaindishorasanaccompaniment.
Therearemanydifferentvarietyofricefoundaroundtheworld.Theyare:
Brownrice:Itisricewhichhasundergominimalmillingandhastheoutercoverremoved
butitretainsitsbranandismorenutritious.Ithaslonggrain,anddistinctlynuttyflavour.
Longgrainrice:Itiswhite,slimandfourtofivetimesaslongasitiswide.Ithasasubtle
flavourwhichcomplementsbothriceanddelicatesauce.Theexamplesoflonggrain
ricearebasmati,pokhareli,jasmine,risottoetc.
Shortgrainrice:Itisshorttubbyandchalkyinappearanceandclingtogetheroncooking.
Itisalsocalledaspuddingrice.IttypicallycomesfromItalyespeciallyusedforpudding
andsweets.
Wildrice:Itisnottruerice.Itisanaquaticplantrelatedtothericefamily.Thegrainsof
wildricearelongandslim,andrangeincolourfromdarktoblack.ItisgrowninUSA
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andCanada.Itisoftenmixedwithothertypesofricesuchaswhiteorbrownlongrice,
providingtheattractivecontrastofcolourandflavour.

Followingimageshowsdifferenttypesofrice

ParboiedLongGrainRice

BasmatiRice

WhiteJasmineRice

RisottoRice

RedCargoRice

RoseMattaRice

BlackRice

DarkWildRice

BrownShortGrainRice

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5.1.4Preparationmethodofrice
Preparationofriceincludeswashing,draining,boilingorcookingandmoulding.Rice
requiresamoistcookingmethod,boilingisthemostcommonmethodofcookingrice.
Steamisdonejusttoreheatit.
ForExample,chickencurrywithricemeansboiledrice.Riceisthetraditional
accompanimenttocurriesandmanyethnicdishes.Itisanalternativetopotatoesfor
dishes.Ricecanbecombinedwithawiderangeofotherfoods.

Vegetables:Ricecanbemixedwithvariousvegetablestoaccompanyamain
course.

Stock:Riceiscookedinstockforpilafs,risottosandpaellas.
Cheese:Somepilafsandrisottoshavegratedcheeseaddedatlastmoment.
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Herbsandspices:Toaddflavourtoricedishes.
Eggs:Hardboiledeggmixedwithricedishes.

FishandShellfish:Peallasoftenincludesshellfish
Meat:Stirfried,risottosoftenincludemeat.
Thestoringprocessofriceissameasprocessofstoringothercereals.Itshouldalsobe
keptintightfittingcontainerinacoolandwellventilatedstoreroom.

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5.1.5Preparingdifferenttypeofricedishes

Item:MushroomRissoto,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Oil

20ml

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Smallonions,finelychopped

3nos

Garlic,crushed

1clove

Mincedfreshparsley

1dash

Mincedcelery

3gms

Saltandpeppertotaste

totaste

Slicedfreshmushrooms

100gms

Wholemilk

250ml

Heavycream

60ml

Rice

200gms

Vegetablestock

1litres

Butter

5gms

GratedParmesancheese

100gms

PreparationMethod
Heatoliveoilinalargeskilletovermediumhighheat.
Sauttheonionandgarlicintheoliveoiluntilonionistenderandgarlicislightly
browned.Removegarlic,andstirintheparsley,celery,salt,andpepper.
Cookuntilceleryistender,andthenaddthemushrooms.Reduceheattolow,and
continuecookinguntilthemushroomsaresoft.
Pourthemilkandcreamintotheskillet,andstirintherice.
Heattoasimmer.Stirthevegetablestockintothericeonecupatatime,untilitis
absorbed.
Whenthericehasfinishedcooking,stirinthebutterandParmesancheese.Remove
fromheatandservehot.

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Item:VegetableFriedRice,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

METHODS

Rice

400gms

Greenpeas

50gm

Carrot,smalldiced

50gm

Frenchbeans,diced

50gm

SpringOnion,chopped

1bunch

SaltandPepper

ToTaste

Mincedgarlic

5gms

Soysauce

15ml

Oil

10ml

Preparationmethod
PrepareboiledriceandchilldicedFrenchbeansandcarrot.ChopSpringonion.
ParboilFrenchbeanandcarrot.Boilgreenpeas.
Heatoilinapanandsauteegreenpeas,Frenchbeansandcarrot.
Addcoolboiledricebreakingupanylumpswiththebackofspoon.
Addseasoningandsoyasauce.Fryricewellandaddchoppedspringonions.
Servehot.

Item:JogiBhat,Serving:6Portions
INGREDIENTS

METHODS

PulaoRice

500gms

Spinach

4bunches

Carrot

500gm

Onion

200gm

Butter

100gm

BayLeaf

ToTaste

Cloves

Totaste

Turmeric

tsp

Salt

Totaste

PreparationMethod
Clean,washanddrainrice.Juliennecarrot,boilspinachandshredinto8cmpieces.
Heatbutterinapan.Addsliceonions,bayleafandcloves.Sauteefor2minutes.
Addriceandfrytillgrainseparates.Addcarrotandsautforfewminutes.Add1litre
boilingwatersaltandturmeric.
Reducefireandsimmer.Whenalmostallthewaterhasbeenabsorbedbytherice,
addspinachandkeepthepaninanoven.
Keepitintheoventillriceiswellcookedanddry.
Servehot.

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Item:HydrabadiBiryani,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

METHODS

Mutton

500gm

Basmatirice

400gm

BayLeaf

2pcs

GreenCardamom

10gm

BlackPepperCorn

30gm

Cinnamon

3inchstick

Oil

20ml

OnionSlice

400gm

CarawaySeeds

tsp

Cloves

10gm

Gingergarlicpaste

15gmeach

ChilliPowder

15gm

Yoghurt

240ml

FreshCorianderchoppedleaves30gm
FreshMintChopped

30gm

PureGhee

60gm

BlackCardamom

tsp

Saffronmixwithmilk

60ml

PreparationMethod
HeatWaterinadeeppan.Addrice,salt,bayleaf,greencardamom,peppercorn,
cinnamonstickandcooktilldone.
Drainandsetaside.Heatwellinakadaianddeepfryhalftheonionslicetillgolden.
Takemuttonpieceinabowl,addgingergarlicpasteandsaltandmixwell.
AddallmixedspicespowderRedchillipowder,friedonioncrust,yoghurt,coriander
leaves,halfofthemintleavesandmixwell.
Letitmarinatefor2hoursintherefrigerator..
Heat2tbspgheeinapan,remainingcardamomandblackcardamomandsaut
tillfragrant.
Addremainingonionandsauttillgolden.Addmarinatedmuttonstirandcookon
highheatfor34minutes.
Coverreducesheatandcooktillalmostdone.
Heattheremaininggheeinapan.Spreadhalfthericeinalayer.Spreadthemutton
overtherice.Sprinkleremainingmintleaves.Spreadtheremainingrice.
Sprinklesaffronmilk.Coverandcookunderdumtilldone.
Servehotwithraita.

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5.2Pasta
Pastaisatypeofnoodleandastaplefood.Pastaislowinfat,highinfibreandagood
sourceofprotein.Pastacontainscomplexcarbohydrates,whichthebodydigestsslowly.
Thebasicingredientsofpastaareflourandwater(mix).Pastamaybeservedforlunch,
dinnersnackmealandalsousedasgarnishtootherdishes.
Pastaisanancientfoodnotsoancientthatitpredateswrittenrecords,butnoonewas
takingnoteswhenthispopularfoodfirstcameintothescene.ScholarscredittheChinese
withmakingpastafromriceflourasearlyas1700B.C.E.ThepastacentricItaliansbelieve
pastadatesbacktotheancientEtruscans,whoinhabitedtheEtruriaregionofItaly(the
centralwesternportionofItaly,whatnowareTuscany,LatiumandUmbria)fromtheIron
AgeintoRomantimes(fromthe11thcenturyB.C.E.tothe1stcenturyB.C.E.).Around400
B.C.E.,theybegantopreparealasagnatypenoodlemadeofspelt.TheRomanswho
followedmadelagane,akindoflasagna,fromdoughofwaterandflour.However,both
theEtruscansandtheRomansbakedtheirnoodlesinanoven,soboiledpastahadyet
tobeborninItaly.
5.2.1TypesofPasta
Characteristicsofdifferenttypesofpastaareasfollows:
1.GreenPasta:Pureeofblanchedspinachisaddedtothemix.
2.RedPasta:Tomatopasteisaddedtothemix.
3.BlackPasta:Inkofcuttlefishisaddedtomix.
4.Herbs:Finelychoppedherbs(parsley,basil,tarragon,marjoram,oregano,coriander)
areaddedwithmix
5.Tricolor:Pastaispackedtogiveamixtureofgreen,red,andwhite.
Pastasareavailableintwoforms:driedandfreshorfrozen.Pastacomesinover200
differentshapeswithmorethan600namesfortheseshapes.Someofthemareas
follows:
Spaghetti:Thelongishthin(stringlikewhencooked)

Macaroni:Shorttubeabout25mmlong
Lasagne:Itisinsheetform,mostlyusedforlayereddishes.
Ravioli:Itissquaresorlittlepackedstuffedwithfilling.
Tortellini:Plump,Crescentshaped

Cannelloni:Fattubereadytobestuffed.
Fettuccine:Thin,flat,aboutwide

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Followingimageshowsdifferentpasta

5.2.2Qualitycheckandstorageofpasta
Checkthebestdateondried,frozenandsimilarlonglifepastas.
Thepackingshouldbeingoodcondition.
Driedpastashouldbekeptincool,dryroom.
Usetheolderstockfirstbutalwayscheckthedatestamp.
Onceapackethasbeenopened,transfertoanairtightcontainer.Writethebest
beforedateonthecontainer.
Freshpastashouldbekeptrefrigeratedandwellwrappedsoitdoesnotabsorb
flavoursorsmellfromotherfoods.Keepthemapartfromuncookedfoods.

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5.2.3Preparingdifferenttypesofpastadishes

Item:SpaghettialaCarbonara,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

METHODS

Spaghetti

500gms

(ForCarbonaraSauce)
BchamelSauce

500ml

Smokedhamorbacon

50gms

Salt,whitepepper

totaste

Egg

2nos

GratedCheese

50gms

FreshCream

50ml

Butter

50ml

Parsley

30gms

PreparationMethod
Boilspaghetti,cutthebaconintodiceanddeepfryit,gratecheese.
Mixegg,friedbaconandaddwhitepepperandwhiskproperly.
ForCarbonaraSauce,preparebchamelsauceandaddthepreviousmixturetoit.
Addsalt,whitepepper,gratedcheeseandcreamtothemixture.
Sautethespaghettiinbutterandaddtheseasonings.
Servethepastawithcarbonarasauce,gratedcheeseandchoppedparsley.

Item:PenneNapolitano,Serving:4Portions

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Pasta

AssistantCookLearnersManual(ENGLISH).indd
METHODS

500gms

(ForNapolitanoSauce)
Tomatosauce

300ml

Tomatopuree

200ml

Choppedtomatoes

100gms

Choppedbasil

30gms

Gratedcheese

50gms

Choppedgarlic

20gms

Salt,whitepepper

Totaste

PreparationMethod
Boilpastainwateraddsomesaltandoiltoit.Onceitiscookedkeepitaside.
PrepareNapolitanosauce:preparetomatosauce,addtomatopuree,choppedtomatoes,
Choppedbasilandboilforsometimetoenhanceflavour.
Sauteethespaghettiinbutterchoppedgarlicandaddstheseasonings.
ServethepastawithNapolitanosauce,garnishwithgratedcheeseonthetop.

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MODULE6
DAIRYPRODUCT

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6Introduction:DairyProduct
Thismoduleisaboutdifferenttypesofdairyproductsderivedfrommilk.
itstreatmentandstorageprocess.Suchascheese,yogurtetc.

6.1DairyProduct
Therearedifferenttypesofdairyproductssuchasmilk,cream,cheese,
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yogurtetc.Theyareofdifferenttypes,andstorageprocessisdifferent.They
areasfollows:

6.1.1Milk
Milkiswhiteandnutritiousliquidfoodproducedbyallfemale
mammalsforfeedingtheiryoungones.Milkisobtainedfromcows,
buffalos,yaks,goatsetc.inNepal.Milkisclassifiedonthebasisoftheir
fatcontent,varioustypesofmilkisasfollows:
WholeMilk:Wholemilkhasafatcontentof3.9%andisavailableeitherin
pasteurizedorhomogenizedform.
Skimmedmilk:Ithasafatcontentof0.1%andisavailableonpasteurizedandUHTform.
Semiskimmedmilk:Ithasafatcontentof1.5to1.8%andisavailableinpasteurizedform.
Evaporatedmilk:Concentratedandsterilizedmilkwhichhasaconcentrationastwice
asthatoforiginalmilk
Condensedmilk:Concentratedassameasevaporatedmilkandsugarisaddedfor
preservation.Thismilkisnotpasteurized.
Driedmilkpowder:Milkproducedbythecompleteevaporationofwaterfromthemilk
byheat,oranyothermeans,toproducesolidpowder.
TreatmentofMilk:Milktreatmentistheprocessofmakingmilkfreefromharmfulbacteriawhich
cancauseahealthhazardifnottreatedproperlyandalsogiveslongerlifetotheproduct.
1

Pasteurization:Inthistreatment,milkisheatedat72Cfor15to20minutesand
cooledrapidlyto5C.Thedefinitecreamlineisformedinthisprocess.Maximumlife
ofpasteurizedmilkisupto48hoursifrefrigeratedproperly.

Homogenization:Inthistreatmentthefatglobulesaredispersedthroughoutthemilk,
andthenpasteurized.Milkisforcedthroughafineaperturewhichbreaksupthe
fatglobulestoanevensizesothattheydisperseevenlythroughoutthemilkand
thereforedonotformacreamline.Maximumlifeofpasteurizedmilkisupto48hours
ifrefrigeratedproperly.

3UltraHeatTreatment(UHT):Thisisatypeoftreatmentinwhichthemilkisfirsthomogenized
andthenheatedtoatemperatureof132Cforatleastonesecond.Thistreatedmilkis
thenpackedinasterilizedcontainer.Themaximumlifeofthismilkis6months.

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Storageofmilk
Rememberthefollowingwhenstoringmilkandmilkproducts.
Freshmilkshouldbeordereddaily.
Storeintherefrigeratorbelow5C.
Milkmustbestoredinarefrigeratorbutnotmorethan34days.
Milkshouldnotbekeptopenwithotherfoodsasiteasilyabsorbssmell.
Freshmilkshouldbekeptinthecleancontainer.
Bottledandtinnedmilkshouldbestoredincool,dry,andventilatedrooms.
Powderedmilkshouldbepackedinairtightcontainersandkeptinadrystore.
6.1.2Cream
Creamisthelighterportionofmilkwhichcontainsallthe
constituentsofmilkbutindifferentproportions.Thefatcontent
ofcreamislighterthanthatofmilkandthewatercontent
andtheothercontentsarelower.Creamisseparatedfrom
themilkandheattreated.
Followingtableshowsvarioustypesofcreams
TYPESOFCREAM

FATCONTENT

Halfcream

12%

Singlecream

18%

Souredcream

18%

Whippedcream

35%

Doublecream

48%

Clottedcream

55%

Sterilizedcream

23%

UHTcream

35%

Half

12%

Single

18%

Whipped

35%

Storageofcream
Rememberthefollowingwhenstoringcreamandcreamproducts.
Freshcreamshouldbekeptinthecontainerinwhichitisdelivered.
Freshcreammustbestoredintherefrigeratoruntilrequired.
Creamshouldbekeptcoveredasiteasilyabsorbssmellfromotherfoods,suchas
onionandfish.
Tinnedcreamshouldbestoredincool,dry,ventilatedrooms.
Frozencreamshouldonlybethawedasrequiredandshouldberefrozen.
Artificialcreamshouldbekeptintherefrigerator.

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6.1.3Cheese
Cheeseisagenerictermforadiversegroupof
milkbasedfoodproducts.Cheeseisproduced
throughouttheworldinwiderangingflavours,
textures,andforms.
Cheeseconsistsofproteinsandfatfrommilk,
usuallythemilkofcows,buffalo,goats,orsheep.Itis
producedbycoagulationofthemilkproteincasein.
Cheesecanbeeatenfreshlymadeormaturesome
matureformorethanthreeyears.Therearedifferent
typesofcheeseandthesearetheircharacteristics:
Softwhitecheese:Thisisthesimplesttypeofcheese,
usuallybasedoncowsmilkthathasnotbeen
matured.Itisnotpressedandthetextureissoftand
smooth.Examples:Cottagecheese,PetitSuisse,
Halloumi,buffalomozzarella,fetaandricotta,
Bloomyrindcheese:Duringthecheesemakingprocess,theoutsideofsomesoftcheese
iscoatedwithPenicilliumcardamom.Therindthatformsiswhite,softandsometimes
alittlefuzzy,anditiscalled"bloomy."Thistypeofcheesefirstbeginstoripenonthe
outsidethemiddleofthecheeseisthelastparttoripenandbecomessoftandrunny.
Examples:CamembertandBriearethemostwellknownbloomyrindcheese.
Washedrindcheese:Washedrindcheeseistypicallybathedinasaltedwater,wine,
brandyorlocalspirits,accordingtothetraditionsofeachregion.Thewashingprocess
helpstobreakdownthecurdfromtheoutside,anditgraduallybecomespartofthe
cheese,ratherthanjustaskin.Examples:Munster,Maroilles,Epoisses,Limburgerand
Taleggio.
Pressed,uncookedcheese:Tommeisthebestknownexampleofthispressed,uncooked
family,alsocalledsemihardcheese.Raworpasteurizedmilkisheatedto36Cthecurds
arefragmentedintoverysmallpieces,thesamesizeasagrainofriceandthenputinto
aclothfittedmouldtobepressed.Examples:Cheddar,Cantal,Gouda,Reblochonand
SaintNectaire.
Pressed,cookedcheese:Thesecheese,typicallylargeandveryheavy,fallintotwo
distinctsubgroups:hardtableorgratingcheeseandmountainstylecheese.Bothstart
fromthesameprocess.Thecurds,afterforming,arecutupintosmallerpieces,andthen
furtherheatedtoreleaseexcessmoisture.Theendresultsaresomeoftheworld'smost
popularcheese.Examples:Comt,Appenzeller,RomanoandAsiago.
Bluemouldcheese:Bluemouldsaremembersofthepenicillinfamily,butunlikewhite
moulds,theygrowinsideacheese.Examples:Gorgonzola,Roquefort,Stilton,Fourme
dAmbert.

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Naturalrindcheese:Thesecheesehaverindsthatareselfformedduringtheaging
process.Generally,nomouldsormicrofloraareadded,noriswashingusedtocreate
theexteriorrindsandthosethatdoexhibitmouldsandmicrofloragetthemnaturally
fromtheenvironment.Becausemostnaturalrindcheeseareagedformanyweeks,
todeveloptheirflavouraswellastherinds,theyaretypicallymadefromrawmilk.
Examples:SaintMarcellin,Valenay,SainteMaure,PoulignySaintPierre.
Processedcheese:Thisisarelativelynewfamilyofcheesethatfirstappearedduring
WorldWarI.Processedcheesearemadebyheatingandblendingtogetherseveral
naturalcheesewithanemulsifyingagent.Examples:Kernhem,LaughingCowand
Cancoillotte.
RememberthefollowingwhenhandlingandStorageofCheese
1Wholecheeseshouldbestoredintheiroriginalpackaging.
2Allothercheesewouldbenefitfrombeingwrappedinwaxpaperandthen
aluminiumfoil.
3Avoidstoringcheeseinplasticwrap,whichpreventsitfrombreathingandaltersits
rindorinterior.
4Asageneralrule,thepackagingmustsealthecheesetopreventitfromdryingout.
5Besuretoremovecheesefromtherefrigeratoronehourbeforeservingsothatit
canbeeatenatroomtemperature.
6Vacuumpackingisnotrecommendedexceptforhardcheese,asthisprocesswill
notdamagetheirshape.
7Freezingisgenerallynotrecommendedbecausethecheesestexturecan
deteriorate.However,processedcheeseandcheesethatareusedforcooking,
suchascheddarorEdam,storeverywellinthefreezeriftheyaregrated.
8Ideally,dependingonthetypeofcheese,itshouldbestoredinafreshandwet
environmentbetween2Cand4C,withagoodventilationsystem.
CheeseSuggestionsperMealPeriod
Breakfast:Duringbreakfast,softandmildcheeseare
preferable.Herearesomerecommendedcheese
forabreakfastbuffet:Softwhitecheeselikecottage
cheese,PetitSuisse,Halloumi,buffalomozzarella,feta
andricotta.
BloomyrindcheeselikeCamembertandBriecould
preferablybeservedwithPressed,uncookedcheese
likecheddar,Cantal,Gouda,Tomme,Pressed,cooked
cheeselikeComt,Appenzeller,GruyreorNatural
rindcheese,especiallygoatcheeselikeValenay,
SainteMaure,PoulignySaintPierre.
LunchandDinner:Duringthesetwomealperiods,any
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kindofcheesecanbeserved.Ifyouplatethecheese,
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6.1.4Yoghurt
Yoghurtisaculturedmilkproductmadefromcow,goat,buffalo,ewesmilk.Difference
intasteandtextureoftheproductsdependsonthetypeofmilkusedandtheactivity
ofthemicroorganisminvolved.Abacterial,starterculture,isaddedtothemilkwhich
causesthenaturalsugarLactosetofermentandproducelacticacid.
Allyoghurtisliveandcontainslivebacteriawhichremaindormantwhenkeptaslow
temperatureunlessitisclearlystatedonthepackagingthatithasbeenpasteurized,
sterilizedorultraheattreated.Ifstoredatroomtemperatureorabovethedormant
bacteriabecomeactiveagainandproducemoreacid.Highaciditykillsthebacteria,
impairstheflavourandcausestheyoghurttoseparate.
TypeofYoghurt
Varioustypesofyoghurtareasfollows:
TYPEOF
YOGHURT

CONTENTS

FatFree
Yoghurt

Containsless
than0.5%milkfat

LowFat

Containsmaximum

Yoghurt

of1.5%milkfat

Whole

Contains3.8%milkfat

MilkYoghurt

asinwholemilk

WholeMilk
Yoghurt

Fruitflavoured
Yoghurt

Containsfruitjuiceorsyrup

Containsnocolour
preservatives,establishers
ornaturalyoghurtmaybe
flavouredwithfruitjuice,honey,
chocolatesorsugar.

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MODULE7
MEAT,POULTRYANDFISH

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7Introduction:Meat,PoultryandFish
Thismodulecoverstheessentialknowledgerequiredonmeat,poultryandfish.Different
typesofcuts,cookingmethodsandstorageprocedureswillbecomplimentedwith
menustopracticethelearning.

7.1Meat
Meatreferstoediblefleshofwarmblooded,fourleggedanimalsespeciallythatofa
mammalforexampleBeef,Veal,sheepandpigs.Meatisrichinproteinandcontains
aminoacidwhichisamainbodybuildingelementingrowingbody.
7.1.1TypesofMeat
Meatsareclassifiedintovarioustypeswhichareasfollows:
Beef:Beefisthefleshofafullgrownsteer,bull,ox,orcowslaughteredbetween20to22
months.Itisamostpopularediblemeatinthewesterncountriesandthemainsourceof
proteininthewesterndiet.Thebestbeefmeatisobtainedfromsteers(castratedmales)
andheifers(femalewhichdonothavecalves).Sex,ageandsexualconditionofthe
animalplayavitalroleindeterminingthequalityofthemeat.
ClassificationofBeefcarcass
Thebeefcarcassisclassifiedintofourdifferenttypes,theyare:
1
Steer:Abovinemaleanimalcastratedataveryyoungage.
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2Heifer:Afemalebovineanimalthathasnotborneacalf.
3Cow:Afemalebovineanimalthathasborneacalf.

4Stag:Amalebovineanimalthatiscastratedaftermaturing.
5Calf:Amaleorfemalebovineanimalupto12monthsofage,generallyfrom38
monthsofage.
DifferentCutsandCookingMethods

(Neck)

Chuc)
Rump
steak

Bestrib
Clod

Blade

sirloin

Rump
Brisket,rolledrib

Skin

Lopside
silverside

Flank

Leg
Toprump

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S.NO

CUTS

COOKINGMETHODS

StickingPiece

Stewing

ChuckRibs

Braising,Stewing

MildRibs

Roasting,Braising

ForeRibs

Roasting,Braising

WingRibs

Roasting

SirloinHalfSaddle

Roasting,Poaching

BoneSirloin

Roasting,Grilling,Poaching

Fillet

Roasting,Grilling,Poaching

Rump

Roasting,Braising,Grilling

10

ThickFlank

Braising,Steakforstewing

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11

SilverSide

Braising,Pickling

12

TopSide

Braising,Stewing,Roasting

13

ThinFlank

Stewing

14

Plank

Stewing,Boiling

15

Brisket

Pickling,Boiling

16

Leg

Braising,Stewing

17

ShinandShank

Boiling

7.1.2Qualitychecksignandstorageofmeat
Thecolourofmeatshouldbebrightredandmarbled.
Fatshouldbefirmbrittleandcreamywhite.
Thecarcassishungatatemperatureof1DegreeCentregratetoincreasethe
tendernessofthemeat.
Cutofmeatshouldbekeptontraysandkeptmoist,awayfromothermeats.They
shouldbewelldrained,notlyinginblood.

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7.1.3Preparingdifferentbeefdishes

Items:BeefGoulash,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Macaroni

225gms

Leangroundbeef

340gms

Onion,diced

50gm

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35gm

Slicedmushrooms

35gms

Wholekernelcorn,drained

120gms

Canpeas,drained

100gm

Canstewedtomatoes

50gm

Cancrushedtomatoes

50gm

Canstomatopaste

200gm

Cantomatosauce

100gm

Water

350ml

Choppedgarlic

5gm

GratedParmesancheese

5gm

Driedparsley

tsp

Salt

Totaste

Blackpepper

Totaste

Whitesugar

tsp

PreparationMethod
Bringalargepotoflightlysaltedwatertoaboil.Addmacaroniandcookfor8to
10minutesoruntildoneanddrainthewater.
Inalargesaucepan,brownthebeefwiththeonion,greenpepperandmushrooms.
Addcorn,peas,stewedtomatoes,crushedtomatoes,tomatopaste,tomatosauce
andwater.
Stirandbringtoboilovermediumheat.
Mixingarlic,parmesancheese,parsley,salt,pepper,sugarandsimmerfor20to25
minutes.
Mixtogethercookedmacaroniandmeatsauce.
Servehot.

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Item:Chateaubriand,Serving:4Portions
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INGREDIENTS
Doublefiletsteakcutfromthe
headoffillet3.8to10cmthick

METHODS
340910gm

PreparationMethod
Tripoffallnervesandleavealittlefatonsteak.Grillor
boiltoorderrare,mediumorwelldone.Addseasoning
andserveimmediately.

Item:BeefTenderloin,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Undercuts

1pc

Saltandpepper

totaste

Oil

50ml

Worchestersauce

10ml

Rosemary

5gm

PreparationMethod
Cleanandtrimundercutstoabout500gmandmarinatewithsaltpepperWorchester
sauceandoil.
Seartenderloinwelltillitisbrownonallsideandplaceinanovenat300*Fahrenheit
forabout15minutestillitisdone.
Servehotasperorder.

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7.2LambandMutton
Thefleshofayoungsheepusedasmeatiscalledlamb.Themeatofsheep610weeks
oldiscalledbabylambandspringlambcomesfromsheepbetween56monthsold.
Fleshofthematuredsheeporgoatatleastoneyearoldiscalledmutton.Themeatof
sheep1220monthsoldiscalledyearlingmutton.Therefore,lambshouldbeunderone
yearold.Afteroneyear,itiscalledmutton.
DifferentcutsandcookingmethodsofLamb:

scrag
neck
rib

loin
fillet

Shoulder

breast
leg

S.NO.DIFFERENTCUTS

COOKINGMETHODS

Shoulder

RoastingandStewing

Leg

BoilingandRoasting

Breast

StewingandRoasting

MiddleNeck

Stewing

ScragEnd

Broths(Soups)

Lion/Saddle

Roasting,GrillingandFrying

Rib

GrillingandFrying

Fillet

GrillingandFrying

7.2.1Qualitycheckandstorage:
Thecarcassofanimalshouldbecompact,firmandevenlyfleshed.
Thecolouroflambmeatshouldbebrightredandmuttonshouldbedarkred.
Thefatshouldbeevenlydistributed,brittle,flaky(blistering)andclearwhiteincolour.
Thebonesshouldbepinkandporousinyounganimals.
Skinshouldbesmooth.
Hunginrefrigeratorat1to2degreecentigrade.
Shouldbekeptawayfromotherfooditems.

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7.2.2PreparationofLambandMuttondishes

Items:IrishLambStew,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Thicklyslicedbacon,diced

250gms

Bonelesslambshoulder,cutinto
2inchpieces

1kg

Salt

Totaste

Groundblackpepper

tsp

Flour

25gms

Clovesgarlic,minced

5gm

Onion,chopped

100gm

Water

50ml

Beefstock

400ml

Whitesugar

5gms

Dicedcarrots

200gm

Onions,cutintobite

100gm

Potatoes

80gm

Driedthyme

tsb

Bayleaves

1nos.

Whitewine

100ml

PreparationMethod
Placebaconinalarge,deepfryer.Cookovermediumhighheatuntilevenlybrown.
Drain,crumble,andsetaside.
Putlamb,salt,pepper,andflourinlargemixingbowl.Tosstocoatmeatevenly.
Brownmeatinfryingpanwithbaconfat.
Placemeatintostockpot(leave1/4cupoffatinfryingpan).Addthegarlicand
onionandsauttillonionbeginstobecomegolden.
Deglazefryingpanwith1/2cupwaterandaddthegarliconionmixturetothestock
potwithbaconpieces,beefstock,andsugar.Coverandsimmerfor11/2hours.
Addcarrots,onions,potatoes,thyme,bayleaves,andwinetopot.
Reduceheat,andsimmercoveredfor20minutesuntilvegetablesaretender.
Nowservehot.

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Item:RoastedRackofLamb,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

METHODS

Freshbreadcrumbs

100gms

Mincedgarlic

10gms

Choppedfreshrosemary

10gms

Salt

5gms

Blackpepper

2gms

Oliveoil

20ml

Rackoflamb,trimmedandfrenched1nos
Salt

5gms

Blackpepper

5gms

Oliveoil

20ml

Dijonmustard

10gms

PreparationMethod
Preheatovento230degreesC.Moveovenracktothecentreposition.
Inalargebowl,mixbreadcrumbs,garlic,rosemary,1teaspoonsaltand1/4teaspoon
pepper.
Tossin2tablespoonsoliveoiltomoistenmixture.Setaside.
Seasontherackalloverwithsaltandpepper.
Heat2tablespoonsoliveoilinanovenproofcontaineroverhighheat.
Flamerackoflambfor1to2minutesonallsides.Setasideforafewminutes.
Brushrackoflambwiththemustard.Rollinthebreadcrumbmixtureuntilevenly
coated.
Covertheendsoftheboneswithfoiltopreventcharring.
Arrangetherackbonesidedowninthecontainer.
Roastthelambinpreheatedovenfor12to18minutes,dependingonthedegree
ofdonenessyouwant.
Letitcoolfor5to7minutes,looselycovered,beforecarvingbetweentheribsand
serveithot.

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Item:MuttonCurry(Roghanjosh),Serving:1portion
INGREDIENTS

METHODS

Corianderseed

tsp

PoppySeed

tsp

Cuminseed

tsp

Almond

5gms

BlackCardamom

5gm

Peppercorn

3pc

Cloves

2pc

Nutmegpowder

Pinch

Maceblade

1pc

Kashmirichilli

5gm

Ginger

10gm

Garlic

5gm

Oil

15ml

Onion

30gm

Redchillipowder

tsp

Turmeric

tsp

Curd

30ml

Tomatochopped

30gm

Mutton

120gm

Salt

Totaste

GreenCardamom

tsp

Corianderleaveschopped

ASprig

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Water

Asrequired

PreparationMethod
Roastcorianderseed,poppyseed,cuminseed,almond,blackcardamom,
peppercorn,cloves,nutmegandmace,mixtogetherandmakepowder.
SoaktheKashmirichillipowderinhotwaterforfewminutes.
GrindthegingergarlicKashmirimirchandthepowderspicestothepaste.
Heattheoilinthepan,addthecrushedgreencardamomandgratedonionandfrytillbrown.
Removethepanfromheat,addredchillipowder,turmericpowderandthespiced
pasteandfryonslowheat.
Beatthecurdandaddtothepaste,keepstirring.
Addthechoppedtomatoandcookforfewminutes.Addthemuttonandsaltand
brownslowlyonmediumheat.
Addthewaterandcooktilltender.
Sprinklewithfinelychoppedcorianderleavesandservehot.

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7.3Pork
Fleshofapigiscalledpork.Mostoftheporkmeatcomesfromtheanimalusually
slaughteredbetweentheagesofsixmonthsandoneyear.Itgenerallyhasmorefat
thanothermeats.Theworld'smostpopularmeat,itisconsumedfreshinvariouscuts
orpreparations,includingchopsandsausage,orcuredorsmokedforham,bacon,dry
sausageorotherproducts.Becausepigscanbeeasilyinfectedbythemicroorganism,
porkmustbecookedwell.
DifferentCutsandCookingmethods:

Head
(Tauko)

Neckend
(Ghan
tikoAntim
Bhag)
SpareRib
(AtiriktaRib)

ForeLoin
HindLoin
(Pachhadiko
Masu)

(Agadiko
Masu)

Filletand
ChumpChop(Put
thoRa
Chump
Chup)

Hand&
spring

Agadiko

belly

Leg
(Khutta)

Pachhadiko

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Khutta

Khutta

S.NO.DIFFERENTCUTS

COOKINGMETHODS

Leg

RoastingandBoiling

Lion

Roasting,FryingandGrilling

SpareRibs

RoastingandPies

Bladebone

RoastingandPies

Shoulder

Roasting,SausagesandPies

Belly

FryingandGrilling

Hindleg

Smoking,FryingandGrilling

7.3.1Qualitycheckandstorageofpork:
Skinshouldbesmooth.
Thefleshoftheporkshouldbepalepinkandfirm.
Thefatshouldbewhiteandnotexcessive.
Bonesmustbesmallandpinkish.
Storedat1degreecentigradeinarefrigeratorinatray.
Shouldnotbehung.
Shouldnotbestoredtogetherwithothermeat.

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7.3.2Preparingdifferentporkdishes

Item:PorkChop,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

METHODS

Soysauce

100ml

Brownsugar

50gms

Lemonjuice

20ml

Vegetableoil

20ml

Groundginger

tsp

Garlicpowder

tsp

Bonelessporkchops

4nos

PreparationMethod
Inabowl,mixthesoysauce,brownsugar,lemonjuice,vegetableoil,ginger,and
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garlicpowder.
Setasidesomeofthemixtureinaseparatebowlformarinatingduringcooking.
Piercetheporkchopsonbothsideswithafork,placeinalargeresealableplastic

bag,andcoverwiththeremainingmarinademixture.
Refrigerate6to8hours.
Preheatthegrillforhighheat.
Lightlyoilthegrillgrate.Discardmarinade,andgrillporkchops6to8minutesperside,
ortodesireddoneness,marinatingoftenwiththereservedportionofthemarinade.

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Item:HongKongSweetandSourPork,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

METHODS

Lightsoysauce

10ml

Whitesugar

tsp

Potatostarch

5gm

Sesameoil

5ml

Groundblackpepper

totaste

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Porkloin,cutinto1inchcube
500gm
Water
250ml

Whitevinegar

30ml

Ketchup

60ml

Whitesugar

50gm

Salt

Totaste

Potatostarch

5gm

Redfoodcolouring

1dash

Beatenegg

1no.

Potatostarch

150gm

Peanutoilforfrying

500ml

Greenbellpepper,cutintolarge
chunks

35gm

Cayennepeppers,sliced

50gm

Slicescannedpineapple,chopped

200gm

Clovesgarlic,sliced

10gm

Greenonions,sliced

100gm

PreparationMethod
Whisktogetherthesoysauce,sugar,2teaspoonspotatostarch,sesameoil,and
blackpepperinalargebowl.
Mixtheporkintothemarinadeandturnuntilalltheporkiscovered.Allowittosoakforsometime.
Tomakethesauce,whisktogetherthewater,vinegar,ketchup,1/4cupsugar,salt,
2teaspoonspotatostarch,andredfoodcolouringinaseparatebowl.
Diptheporkpiecesinthebeatenegg,andthenaddpotatostarch,assurea
consistentcoating.
Heatthepeanutoilinawokovermediumhighheattemperature.
Frytheporkpiecesinthehotoiluntilcrispandlightbrown.
Removetheporkfromtheoilanddrain.
Heat1tablespoonofreservedoilinthewokovermediumheat.
Sautthegreenbellpepper,cayennepepper,pineapple,garlic,andgreenonionin
theheatedoil.
Addthesauceandstiruntilitthickens.
Pourintheporkandtossuntiltheporkiscoatedwithsauce.
Removefromheatandserve.

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7.4Poultry
Thetermpoultryreferstoanydomesticatedbirdssuchaschicken,duck,turkeyetc.
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whicharebredtobeeatenorforvariousdishes.InNepalchickenismostextensively
consumedandusedinthekitchen.

Differentcutsandcookingmethods:

S.NO.

DIFFERENTCUTS

COOKINGMETHODS

Breast

Stuffing,FryingandGrilling

Winglet

Frying

Fillet

Boiling,GrillingandRoasting

Thigh

FryingandGrilling

Carcass

Boiling

DrumStick

Frying

7.4.1Qualitycheckandstorageofpoultry:
Theskinshouldbewhiteandunbrokenwithafaintbluishtinge.
Thebreastofthechickenshouldbestraight,wellfleshedandbroad.
Theventendofthebreastboneofchickenmustbepliable.
Birdshouldnothavecuts,scalesorbloodpatches.
Shouldnothavetoomuchfatespeciallyinabdominalcavity.
Feetandlegsshouldbescalywithstrongclaws.

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7.4.2PreparingdifferenttypesofChickensdishes

Item:ChickenKiev,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

METHODS

Butter

50g

Groundblackpepper

tsp

Chickenbreast

605gm

Eggs

2nos

Water

30ml

Groundblackpepper

tsp

Garlicpowder

tsp

Drieddillweed

tsp

Flour

60g

Drybreadcrumbs

55g

Vegetableoil

315ml

Lemon,sliced

3slice

Choppedfreshparsley

10g

PreparationMethod
Mixbutter,pepperandgarlicpowderinabowl.Onapieceofaluminiumfoil,
spreadmixturetoabout2x3inches.Placethismixtureinthecoldestsectionofyour
freezerandfreezeuntilfirm.
Removeallfatfromthechickenbreast.Cutchickenbreastsintohalf.Placeeach
chickenbreasthalfbetween2piecesofwaxedpaperandusingamallet,pound
carefullytoabout1/4inchthickness.
Whenbuttermixtureisfirm,removefromfreezerandcutinto6equalpieces.Place
onepieceofbutteroneachchickenbreast.Foldinedgesofchickenandthen
rolltoencasethebuttercompletely.Securethechickenrollwithsmallskewersor
toothpicks.
Inamixingbowl,beateggswithwateruntilfluffy.Inaseparatebowl,mixtogether
1/4teaspoonblackpepper,1/2teaspoongarlicpowder,dillweedandflour.Coat
thechickenwellwiththeseasonedflour.Diptheflouredchickenintheeggmixture
andthenrollinthebreadcrumbs.Placecoatedchickenonashallowtrayandchill
inrefrigeratorfor30minutes.
Inamediumsizedeepfryingpan,heatvegetableoiltomediumhigh.Frychicken
forabout5minutesthenturnoverandfryfor5minuteslongeroruntilthechicken
isgoldenbrown.Totestfordoneness,cutintooneoftherolledchickenbreaststo
makesureitdoesn'thaveapinkinterior.Serveimmediately,garnishedwithasliced
lemontwistandasprinklingorparsley.

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Item:BuffaloChickenWings,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Chickenwings

1nos

Butter

30g

Whitevinegar

10ml

Hotpeppersauce

40ml

Saltandpepper

totaste

Vegetableoil

500ml

PreparationMethod
Heattheoilinadeepfryer.Deepfrychickenwingsinoiluntildone.
Removethechickenfromthedeepfryeranddrainonpapertowels.
Meltthebutterinadeepfryerandstirinthevinegarandhotpeppersauce.
Seasonwithsaltandpeppertotaste.
Addcookedchickentosauceandstiroverlowheattocoat.
Thelongerthewingssimmerinthesauce,thehottertheywillbe.
Servewarm.

Item:ChickenCurryKashmiri,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

WholeChicken

1kg

Ginger

5gm

Garlic

5gm

Turmeric

tsp

KashmiriChilli

10gm

Coriander

5gm

Onion

150gm

WholeGarammasala

5gm

Oil

30ml

Tomato

60gm

Salt

10gm

Cashewnut

15gm

Raisin

15gm

PreparationMethod
Cleanandcutchickenintosmallpieces.Slicehalftheonionsandgrindtherestwiththemasala.
Simmermasalaoverchickenandsetitaside.Heatfatandputinthewholegram
masala,slicedonionandfryonionlightbrown.
Addchickenandmasalaandfrywell.
Addblanchedandchoppedtomatoandlittlewater.Simmerchickenistender.
Frydryfruitsandnutsandgarnish.
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Servehot.

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7.5Fish
Fish,likemeat,iscomposedofmuscle,tissue,fatandbonewhichhavehighprotein
andprovideswidevarietyofdishes.Ascomparedtoothermeatitems,fishtakesshort
cookingtimebecauseofitssofttissue.
Fishcanbeobtainedfromlakes,riversorsea.Freshwaterfishareconsideredtobe
superiorinflavourtosaltwaterfish.Fishcontainslessfatincomparisontoothermeats.
Thefatcontenthelpstodeterminethemethodofpreparation.
Fishthathasfatwillproducesuperioreatingqualityifcookedorboiledbecauseoftheir
naturalfatwhichkeepsthemfromdryingduringcooking.Leanfisharebestpoached,
boiledorsteamed.Thefleshwillbefirmandwillholdtogetherduringthecookingperiod.
Bothleanandfishwithfatcanbesauted,fried,baked,poachedetc.
Typesoffish
Thereisnotanexactclassificationoffishinthecookingworld.Fisharegenerallyclassified
onthebasisoftheirshapeandthetypeofwaterinwhichtheyarefarmedortaken
from.However,fishescanalsobeclassifiedonthebasisoftheirsizeandoilcontent.The
mostcommonlyusedclassificationisonthebasisofthewaterinwhichtheyarefarmed:
1.Freshwaterfish:Thefishesthatarefarmedinfreshwatersuchaslakes,riverand
ponds.ExampleTrout,Eel,Carp,Salmon,Blackbetsetc.
2.Saltwaterfish:ThefishesthatarefarmedinsaltywatersuchasseaforexampleRed
Snapper,Sturgeon,RedMullet,Tuna,Sole,andSkateetc.

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Differenttypesoffishcutsandcookingmethod
S.N.

DIFFERENTCUTS

COOKINGMETHODS

Fillet

Poaching,Grilling,FryingandBaking

Supreme

Poaching,Grilling,FryingandBaking

Goujons

FryingandPoaching

Troncon

BoilingandGrilling

Darne

Boiling,GrillingandFrying

Delice

Poached

Paupiette

Poaching

7.5.1Qualitycheckandsignandstorageoffish:
Theeyesshouldbebright.
Thegillsshouldberedandnobacterialsign.
Thetailshouldbestiff.
Thescaleshouldbefirmandelastic.
Ifthescaleinthefishcomesoutitselfthenitisstale.
Thereshouldbenounpleasantsmell.
7.5.2PreparingdifferentFishDishes

Item:FishandChips,Servings:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Redsnapperfillets

200g

Eggbeaten

1nos

Drybreadcrumbs

55g

Vegetableoil

500ml

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PreparationMethod
Heatoilinadeepfryer.
Dipfilletsintobeateneggandrollinbreadcrumbs.
Gentlyslidefishintohotoilandfryuntilgoldenbrown.
Drainbrieflyonpapertowels.
Servehot.

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Item:FishAlmandine,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Trout

4whole

Flour

60g

Blanchedsliveredalmonds

100g

Choppedfreshparsley,for
garnish

8g

Saltandpepper

Totaste

Butter

115g

Lemonjuice

60ml

Lemon,forgarnish

1slices

Preparationmethod
Rinseandpatdrytrout.Seasoninsideandoutwithsaltandpeppertotaste.Dredge
troutinflour.
Heat2tablespoonsbutterinlargeskilletoverhighheatuntilmelted.Addtroutand
brownbothsides.Lowerheattomediumandcookforabout5minutesoneach
sideoruntilcookedthrough.Removetrouttoaservingplateandkeepwarm.
Wipeoutpanandadd2tablespoonsbutter.Cookbutterovermediumheatuntilit
justbeginstobrown.Addthealmondsandbrown.
Poursauceandalmondsoverfishandsprinklewithlemonjuiceandparsley.Garnish
withfreshlemonslices.
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Item:BengaliFishCurry,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Rohufish

inch(8slices)

LemonJuice

30ml

Turmericpowder

5gm

Salt

Totaste

MustardOil

60ml

Mustardseed

5gm

Onionseed

5gm

Wholedryredchilli

4pcs

Bayleaf

4pcs

Gingerandgarlicpaste

10gmeach

Onionchopped

180gm

Mustardpaste

5gm

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Redchillipowder

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5gm

Corianderpowder

10gm

Greenchilli

4slit

Freshchoppedcorianderleaves30gm
Preparationmethod
Marinatefishfilletswithlemonjuice,halfateaspoonofturmericpowderandsalt.
Setasideforthirtyminutes.Heattwotablespoonsofmustardoilinapanandshallow
fryfishpiecesonbothsidesuntilslightlybrowned.
Drainonabsorbentpaperandsetaside.Heatremainingoilinthesamepan,add
mustardseeds,onionseeds,wholeredchilliesandbayleaf,cookforafewminutes
tillseedscrackle.
Addgingerpaste,garlicpasteandcookagainforamoment.Addchoppedonions
andcookuntilslightlybrownincolour.
Addmustardpaste,redchillipowder,corianderpowderandremainingturmeric
powder.Stirandcookmasalauntiloilstartsseparating.
Addtwocupsofwaterandsaltbringtoaboilandthenaddshallowfriedfish.Add
slitgreenchilliesandcookonalowheatuntilfishiscookedandoilstartsfloatingon
top.
Removeandgarnishwithchoppedcorianderleavesandservehotwithsteamed
rice.

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MODULE8
BAKERYANDPASTRY

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8Introduction:BakeryandPastry
Thismoduleisaboutbakeryitemssuchasdifferenttypesofbreadandthebreadmaking
processaswellaspastriesanditsmakingprocess.

8.1Bakery
Bakeryisaplacewherebakedfooditemssuchasbreads,cakesandpastriesare
preparedforthepurposeofselling.
8.1.1Ingredientsusedinbreadmaking
Therearenumerousofingredientsusedinbreadmakingaccordingtotheirowndistinctive
flavour.Themainingredientsareasfollows:
Flour
Whiteflourcomesinvariousstrengthsaccordingtohowmuchproteintheflourcontains
andhowmuchgluten(anelasticsubstance)itwillmake.
1Strongorhardflour:Theyaresuitableforbreadmakingbecausetheydevelops
thelotofgluten.Itcontainsthe1011%ofgluten.Theyareusedfortheproductlike
choux,puffpastriesetc.
2Weekflour:Itcontains1011.5%ofgluten.Theyaresuitableforproducingitemsof
shorteranddensertexturesuchascakes,biscuits,sponges,shortandsweetpastries.
Yeast
Yeastisamicroorganismthatreproducesbyabuddingprocess.Byproductsofthe
growthprocessareresponsiblefordoughrising.Forgrowth,yeastcellsneedtohavethe
followingconditionsavailable.
1Food:Intheformofsugarandgluten
2Temperature:Warmthoftheliquidusedandtheconditionforproofingthedough
3Moisture:Suppliedbytheliquidused
4Oxygen:Takenfromtheatmosphere.
Yeastisavailableinseveralvarieties.Generallyfreshyeastanddryyeastareusedin
bakery.
Egg
Eggisusedtoproducerichness,flavourandcolourtothedough.
Sugar
Sugarisusedtosweeteningdoughanditalsomakesthedoughlightness,browning,
tendernessandmoistness.

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Waterormilk
Yeastneedswateroraliquidtodoitstask.Forsomebreadandmanyofthesweater
doughproducts,theliquidi.e.milkorwaterisneed.Themilkaddsflavour.
Salt
Saltaddsthreeimportantrolesinyeastdough,besidesaddingflavour.Itstrengthens
thegluten,helpscolourandcrustandimproveskeepingqualityofcookedproduct.
Howeveritslowsdowntheactionoftheyeast.
8.1.2BreadMakingProcess
Thedryingredients(flour,salt,milkpowder,spicesetc.)areusuallysievedtogether.This
helpsthemmixandremoveanylumps.Insomerecipetheflourandfatarerubbed
together,beforeotheringredientsareadded,toproducethesandytexture.Careshould
betakentoensurethattheyeastandsaltareseparatelymixedintothedough.Preparing
thebakingcontainer:Alwaysbrushtinswithcookingfatsothatthebreaddontstick.If
thebreadtinsarecold,warmthemlightlybeforeputtingthedoughin.
Mixing:Thefirststageofcombiningthedryingredientwithliquid,eggs(ifused)and
yeastisdonebymixing(machine/hand).

Kneading:Thisismixingthedoughvigorously,continueuntilthedoughisnolonger
stickytotouchandhasashinysurface.Itisdonetodevelopthegluten.

Proving:Thedoughissetasideafterkneadingtoproveorferment.Whileproving
thedoughiskeptintheprovingchamberorkeptinroomtemperaturebycovering

withpolytheneandlightlyoiledtokeepitmoist.
Folding:Thisispartofthekneadingprocess,foldingandpushingdowntogetairinto
thedough.Inbreadmakingthedoughisrolledtomakeloavesthenfoldedtoget
intothebreadtin.Thisgivesitagooddepthandtherightshape.

Shaping:Rollsandloavesaremadeintomanydifferentshapesbycutting,folding
androllingthedough.

Portioning:Forrolls,buns,pizzas,breadetc.thedoughhastodividebyweighing
eachportion.Thisiswhyitisalsocalleddividingandscaling.
Baking:Thetemperaturerangeforbreadisbetween232C260Cwithagood
averagebeing246Cthebakingofbreadextractsalotofheatfromtheoven.The
timeofbakingdependsuponthesizeoftheloafandthevolumebeingbakedat
onetime.

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8.1.3PreparingdifferentBakeryItems

Items:SandwichBread,Serving:For10portion
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Flour

1kg

FreshYeast

40gms

Sugar

100gms

Eggs

2nos

Butter

100gms

Salt

15gms

Milkpowder

50gms

Warmwater

500ml

PreparationMethod:
Dissolveyeastinalittlesugarandwarmwater,sprinklesomeflourontopandcover
withadampclothtocheckthefermentationofyeast.
Mixflour,sugar,salt,egg,butterandmilkpowder.
Addfermentedyeastandwater,kneadwelltomakesmoothdough,proveto
double.
Kneadthedoughbacktonormalsize.
Keepforsecondprovingandkneadbackagain.
Scaleintorequiredsize.
Placeingreasedbreadtinsandcoverwithdampmuslincloth.
Letthedoughprovetill4/5sizeofbreadtinandbakeinhotoven.
Bakingtimeis3045minsandthetemperatureshouldbe200C225C.

Item:BreadRolls/Sticks/Burger/HotDogs,Serving:2portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Flour

200gms

Freshyeast

10gms

Sugar

25gms

Salt

5gms

Eggs

1nos

Butter

50gms

Milkpowder

10gms

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Warmwater

100ml

PreparationMethod:
TheMethodissameassandwichbread,butthebakingtimingis1215minutes.

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Item:Croissant,Serving:2portions
INGREDIENTS

QUALITY

Flour

200gms

Freshyeast

10gms

Salt

5gms

Sugar

5gms

Milkpowder

10gms

Warmwater

100ml

Butter

50gms

PreparationMethod:
Dissolveyeastinalittlesugarandwarmwater,sprinklesomeflourontopandcover
withadampclothtocheckthefermentationofyeast.
Mixflour,salt,butterandmilkpowder.
Addthefermentedyeastandwater,kneadwelltomakesmoothdough,provetodoublesize.
Thenmakeitrectangleorsquareshapeandkeepintherefrigeratorforabouthalf
anhour.Nowrollitlikepuffpaste.
Keepdoughinroundsphericalshape,cuttsignwithknifeatmiddleandextract
fourwingskeepingcentrefourtimesthickerthanwings.
Keepsquarebutteratthecentreandwrapwithflapsandrolltomakerectangular
shape,thenkeepinplasticbagandkeepitinafreezefor20mins.
Againrollandkeepitinafreezefor34times.
Finallyrollitintothincrustof5mmandcutitintorectangularshape.
Now,cutlittleonbaseormiddleandrollbystretching.
Keepitonagreasedtrayandleaveitforproving.
Eggwashitandplaceitinaovenfor1520mins
Serveitwithasoup.

Item:OrangeMuffin,Serving:18pcs
INGREDIENTS

QUALITY

Flour

115gms

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Bakingpowder

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tsp

Butter

85gms

Sugar

115gms

Milk

50ml

Orangejuice

50ml

Egg

2nos

Orangerindfinelychopped

1tsp

PreparationMethod:
Creambutterandsugar.Blendinbeateneggandorangerind.
Siftflourbakingpowderandsalt.Addalternatelywithmilkandorangejuice,mixwell.
Fillgreasemuffinpans.Bakeat205*Cfor1520minutes.

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8.2Pastry
Sweetbakedgoodsmadeofdoughhavingahighfatcontentarecalledpastries.To
makeagoodpastryitisnecessarytobefamiliarwiththebasictechniquesandrulesand
followtherecipecarefully.
8.2.1Typesofpastry
Thedifferenttypesofpastryareasfollows:
ShortPastry:Itismadefromblendingflourwithhalfitsweightoffat(butterorpastry
margarine)thenaddwatertoproduceapastethatcanberolledtomakedifferent
shortpastry.Bakingisdoneforshortpastry.
SweetPastry:Thebasicingredientsforsweetpastryareflour,fat,sugar,usuallyinthe
ratioof1partsugar,2partsfatand3partsflour.Usetheeggeintheplacewater
whichproducetherichertaste.Sweetpasrtiesarebaked.
SuetPasrtry:Usechoppedbeefsuetasfatwithalittlebakingpowder(togivethe
pastrylightness).Thebakingpowderissievedwiththeflourandsalt.Mixthesuetin
well,addthewaterandlightlymixtoformapaste.Suetpastryissteamed.
Chouxpastry:Usesmorewaterandeggthantheothertypesofpastry.Thmixtureis
variouslybeatentogether,whichgivesthepastrythestrengthelasticityasitneedsto
expand,asalltherecipewaterturnstosteam.Whencooked,thepastemorethan
doublesinsizewithasofthollowcentre.
PuffPastry:Thebasicingredientsusedtopreparedpuffpastryareflour,fatsalt,
lemonjuice,iceandwater.Whilemakingitisessentialtohavethefatanddought
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ofequalconsistency.Puffpastryconsistoflaminatedstructurebuildupofalternate
layerofdoughandfat.Whenthepastryisbakedtheexpandingairandwater
vapoirpufftheseparatelayerapartfromeashotherresultingindelightful,crispy,

lightpastry.Bakingmethodofcookingisdoneforpuffpastry.
Roughpufforflakypastry:Ithassimilarlighttexturetopuffpastry,butriseinmore
randamway.Thepastehassmalllumpsoffatinit,ratherthanwholelayers.Baking
isdoneforroughpuffpastry.
8.2.2Principleofpastrymaking
Goodmixingtechniqueisthebasisofgoodpastry.Allthepasrtydoughshouldbe
mixedonsmoothtable(marble/stainlesssteel).Themajorityofthepastrydough
needscoolconditions.
Theratioofflourtofatdependsonthetypeofpastry.Dryingredientsmustbemixed
thoroughly,especiallyforshortpaste.
Itisimpotranttohavethecorrectamountofliquidformixing.
Doughneedrestingandtheyshouldbeallowedtorelaxafterrolling.
Whenbaking,ovenmustbealwayspreheatedtothecorrecttempraturebefore
placinganypastryintheoven.

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8.2.3Preparationmethodofpastry
Rubbingin:Theprocessofblendingfatandflourtoacquiresandymixtureforshort
andsweetpastary.
Mixing:Thisisthesimpleprocessofmixingthechoppedsuetwiththeflour.
Relaxingorresting:Leaveshortandsweetpastrypasteincoolplacebeforeand
afterrolling.Ithelpsthefatfirmupsothepastrykeepsabettertexture,shapsand
cutsmoreeasilyandshrinkslesswhencooking.
Kending:Makingaproperlyblendedmixture.
8.2.4PreparingdifferenttypesofPastryDishes
Followrecipeinstructionsontempratureandtimeandthereshouldbeagoodresult.
Thefaultsoftenoccurwithpastrysuchastoosolidordense,toughorchewytextures,
shrinkingorunevenshapes.Itcanhappenbecauseoftoolowoventemperature,over
mixed,notrestedsufficiently,oranerrorinmeasuringtheingredientssoonandsofor.

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Differenttypesofpastrydisheswithrecipeareasfollows.

Item:PlainSponge,Serving:12portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Egg

5nos

Sugar

150gm

Flour

120gm

CornFlour

30gm

PreparationMethod:

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PutEggandSugarinamixingbowlandwhiskit.
Takeasteelbowlandaddtheflour,Cornflourandstiralltheingriedents.
Whenthetexturecomesatribbonstage,slowlyfoldthemixture.

Pourthemixtureonthegreasedlinedtrayandbakeitat200degreecentigradefor
2025minutes.

Item:PeachGateaux,Serving:12portion
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

PlainSponge

1nos

OrangeJuice

300ml

Rum

5ml

Peaches

400gm

Cream

1/2gm

Almond

100gm

PreparationMethod:
Cutthespongeintothreelayers,soakthemintothemixtureofOrangejuice
andRum.
Spreadthe1stlayerwithfreshwhippedcreamandchoppedpeach,thenputthe
2ndlayerontopofthefirstoneandrepeatthesameprocesswiththe2ndlayer
aswell.
Placethe3rdlayerontopandcoveritbyspreadingallthefreshcreamoverit.
Decoratethecakebystickingalmondsonthesideofthecakeandputtingthe
slicedpeachesontop.

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Item:BlackForestCake,Serving:12portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Flour

250gms

WhiteSugar

400gms

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UnsweetenedCocoapowder

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60gms

BakingPowder

3gms

BakingSoda

10gms

Salt

5gms

Milkpowder

200gms

Egg

3nos

Vegetableoil

120gms

Vanilla

5ml

SourCherries

500gms

WhippedCream

250ml

IcingSugar
GratedBlackChocolate

80gms
50gms

PreparationMethod:
Placeathickbottomedpanonverylowflameandmeltbutterinit
Removefromtheflameandletthebuttercool.
Addcondensedmilkandmixwell.
Sieveflour,cocoapowder,bakingpowder,cookingsodaandsalttogether.Make
suretherearenolumpsinthemixture.
Greaseabakingtraywithlittlebutter.
Dustitwithflourandkeepitaside.
Takeapanwithlittlebutterandputtheflourmixturewiththecondensedmilkbutter
mixture.
Nowaddaeratedcolaandmixitwell.
Pourthebatterintothegreasedbakingtrayandbakefor30to40minutes
at175C.
Whenitisdone,letitcoolandthenslitithorizontallyintotwo.
Whipthecreamtilllightandfluffy.
Sandwichthetwolayersofcakewithwhippedcreamandcherries.
Topwithwhippedcreamandcherries.
Gratedairymilkchocolatebarandsprinkleoverthecake.

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Item:GajarkoHalwa,Serving:1portion
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Carrot

150gms

Ghee

15gm

Greencardamomcrushed

tsp

Milk

30ml

Sugar

30gm

Khuwamalai

30gm

Almondshredded

tsp

Cashewnutshredded

tsp

Pistachios

tsp

Kewraessence

2drops

PreparationMethod:
Cleanandgratethecarrot.Heatthegheeinthekadai,addthecardamomseed
andgratedcarrot.Cookuncoveredforfewminutes.
Addthemilkreduceheatandsimmer.Cooktillthecarrotaredoneandwaterdries
up.
Addthesugarandcookonslowheattillthehalwaisdry.
Stirinofthekhuwaverywell,addthechoppednutsandremovefromheat.
Addessence,servehot,dcorwithremainingkhuwaandnuts.

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MODULE1:TOURISM,HOSPITALITY,FOODANDBEVERAGESERVICE

MODULE9
BREAKFASTANDLIGHTMEALS

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9Introduction:BreakfastandLightMeals
Thismoduleisaboutlightmealssuchasbreakfast,sandwiches,burgersandsnacks,theirtypes,
theirdifferentcomponentsandthemostcommonbreakfastrecipesforyoutoapplylearning.

9.1Breakfast
Breakfastisthefirstmealofthedayhencethename,tobreakafast.Breakfastmenus
varydependinguponthecountry,customandtheoccupationofthemealtaker.Hence,
breakfastdishesvarydependinguponthecustoms,foodhabitandthenatureofjobthey
perform.Breakfastbeingthefirstmealoftheday,itshouldbenourishing,digestibleandfilling.
Normallythebreakfastistakenbetween7to11amandusuallyitconsistsofitemssuch
asjuice,fruits,cereals,breadtoasts,eggs,meat,vegetables,teaandcoffee.
9.1.1TypesofBreakfast:
Therearemanydifferenttypesandconceptsofbreakfast,followingaresomepopular
breakfasts.
ContinentalBreakfast
AmericanBreakfast
EnglishBreakfast
IndianBreakfast
NepaliBreakfast
ContinentalBreakfast:Continentalbreakfastisusuallylightfarefor
breakfast,usuallyhavingjuices,rolls,muffins,andofcoursecoffee.The
traditionalcontinentalbreakfastconsistssimplyofhotcroissant,toast,
butteroranyreversesandcoffeeashotbeverages.Thecurrenttrendin
thecontinentalbreakfastmenuistowardsofferingwideveritiesofchoice.
ComponentsofContinentalBreakfast:
1.Choiceofjuice:mango,pineapple,tomato,orangeetc.
2.Choiceofbreadwithpreserves:toast(whiteandbrown),rolls,
croissant,muffins,jam,butter,honey,marmaladesetc.
3.Choiceofteaorcoffee:milktea,blacktea,milkcoffee,black
coffeeetc.
EnglishBreakfast:AfullEnglishbreakfastmenuconsistsmoreelaboratedandeleven
coursesofmeal.Theextentandvarietyofthemenudepends
uponthetypeofestablishmentinwhichitisbeingserved.
ComponentsofEnglishBreakfast:
1.Choiceofjuice:mango,pineapple,tomato,orangeetc.
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2.Choiceofcereals:cornflakes,muesli,oatmeal,porridgeetc.
3.Choiceofbreadwithpreserves:toast(whiteandbrown),

rolls,croissant,muffins,jam,butter,honey,marmaladesetc.
4.Eggtoorder:poached,fried,scrambled,omelettes
servedwithbacon,ham,sausagesetc.

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5.Choiceofmeatandfish:bacon,ham,sausage,fishcake,kippers,tunaetc.
6.Choiceoffreshfruits:mango,banana,apple,orangeetc.
7.Choiceofsweets:pastries,fruitcakes,icecreamsetc.
8.Choiceofteaorcoffee:milktea,blacktea,milkcoffee,blackcoffeeetc.
Americanbreakfast:AmericanbreakfastisalmostassameasEnglish
breakfastbutthedifferenceisthatinAmericanBreakfast,Meat
items,FishitemsandCheeseitemsarenotserved.Inatraditional
typeofAmericanbreakfastcerealsitemswerenotincludedwhere
asinamodernAmericanbreakfastconsistsofcerealitemstomake
itmoreelaborate,completeandheavy.
ComponentsofAmericanbreakfast:
1.Choiceofjuice:mango,pineapple,tomato,orangeetc.
2.Choiceofcereals:cornflakes,muesli,oatmeal,porridgeetc.
3.Choiceofbreadwithpreserves:toast(whiteandbrown),
rolls,croissant,muffins,jam,butter,honey,marmaladesetc.
4.Eggtoorder:poached,fried,scrambled,omelette.
5.Choiceofteaorcoffee:milktea,blacktea,milkcoffee,blackcoffeeetc.
IndianBreakfast:ThebreakfastoriginatedfromIndiaandeatenall
overtheworld.TheIndianbreakfastconsistsofsomeamountoffats
andcarbohydrate.
ComponentsofIndianBreakfast:
1.Choiceofjuice:Lassi,Jaljeera,mango,pineappleetc.
2.Choiceofegg:masalaomelet,eggbhujeeetc.
3.Choiceofbread:puri,chappati,parathi,bhaturaetc
4.Choiceofvegetablecurry:chola,bhaji,mixed
vegetablesetc
5.Choiceoffreshfruitswithcurd:mango,banana,
apple,orangeetc.
6.Choiceofteaorcoffee:masalatea,milktea,blacktea,milkcoffeeetc.
NepaliBreakfast:TheNepalibreakfastrepresentstypicalsetofitems
usuallyservedinarestaurantitmaydifferfromplacetoplace.

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ComponentsofNepaliBreakfast:
1.Choiceofjuice:Lassi,mango,pineapple,etc.
2.Choiceofegg:Boiledegg,nepaliomeletetc.
3.Choiceofbread:Jeri,swari,selroti,malpuwaetc.
4.Choiceofvegetablecurry:Tarkari,mixedvegetablesetc.
5.Choiceofteaorcoffee:Blacktea,milktea,blacktea,milk
coffeeetc.

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9.1.2PreparingdifferentBreakfastItems

Item:ScrambledEgg,Servings:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Butter

20gms

Eggs

8eggs

Milk

100ml

Salt

totaste

Groundblackpepper

totaste

PreparationMethod:
Beattheeggs,milk,saltandpeppertogetherinasmallbowl.
Meltthebutterinapanovermediumheat,pourintothepanandcook,stirring
continuallyuntiltheeggshavenearlyset,butarestillslightlymoist.
Servehot.

Item:MasalaOmelette,Servings:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Oil

20ml

Choppedonion

120gms

Choppedchillies

50gms

Choppedtomatoes

120gms

Eggs

8nos.

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50ml

Milk
Choppedcoriander

5gms

Saltandblackpepper

totaste

Redchillipowder

5gms

PreparationMethod
Beattheeggs,addmilk,choppedonion,tomatoes,chillies,coriander,saltandchilli
power.
Beatthemixtureuntilfoamed.
Heatoilinafryingpanandaddthemixturetoit.
Cookoverlowheattillthemixtureisfirmandflipittotheothersideandfry.
Servehot.

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Item:SpanishOmelette,Serving:2portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Oliveoil

80ml

Slicedpotatoes

150gms

Slicedonion

60gm

Eggs

4nos

Saltandpeppertotaste

totaste

Choppedtomatoes

60gm

Choppedgreenonions

60gm

PreparationMethod
Inafryingpan,heatoliveoilovermediumhighheat.
Sprinklepotatoeslightlywithsaltandpepper.
Cookuntilgoldenbrownandcrisp.
Oncethepotatoesaregolden,stirintheonions.
Cook,stirringoccasionally,untilonionssoftenandbegintobrown.
Meanwhile,beateggstogetherwithsaltandpepper.Poureggsintopanandstir
gentlytocombine.Reduceheattolowandcookuntileggsbegintoturnbrownon
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thebottom.
Loosenbottomofomelettewithaspatula,invertalargeplateoverthepan,and

carefullyturntheomeletteoutontoit.Slidetheomelettebackintothepanwiththe
uncookedsidedown.Cookuntileggsareset.
Garnishomelettewithtomatoandgreenonionandservewarm.

Item:PoachedEggs,Serving:2portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Water

1litre

Smalleggs

4nos.

Vinegar

50ml

PreparationMethod
Boilthewaterinadeeppan.
Reduceheattomediumlowandaddvinegartotheboil.
Cracktheeggsintoindividualbowlsandgentlydropthemintothesyrup.
Cooktheeggononesideuntilthewhiteispartiallysetandopaque.
Gentlyturnovertocooktheothersideuntileggwhiteisopaquebutnothard,and
theyolkisstillliquidortodesireddoneness.
Spoontheeggsintoindividualbowlsandspoonsyrupovereachegg,servewarm.

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Item:PotatoHashBrown,Serves:1Portion
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Potato

250gms

ButterorOil

50gms

Salt

Sprinkle

Pepper

Dash

Onion

50gms

Capsicum

50gms

CorianderLeaves

1to2bunch

PreparationMethod
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Peelandcutthepotatointoroundsliceandboiltheslicepotatotillcooked
Thinlyroundslicetheonionandcapsicum
Heatoil/butterinapan,addslicedonionandcapsicuminthepanandcooktill
lightbrown
Nowputtheboiledpotato,mixedwellandaddseasoning
Cook57minutestilllightbrownandservehotwithtoastoromelettes

Item:Pancakes,Serves:1
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Flour

40gms.

BakingPowder

1gms

Salt

0.5gms

WhiteSugar

4gms

Milk

80ml

Egg

2nos.

Oil

10ml

PreparationMethod

Combineflour,sugar,bakingpowder,bakingsodaandsalt
Makeawellinthecentre.Inaseparatebowl,beattogetheregg,milkandoil
Pourmilkmixtureintoflourmixture.Beatuntilsmooth.
Heatalightlyoiledpanovermediumhighheat
Pourorscoopthebatterontothepan,usingapproximately1/4cupforeach
pancake
Brownonbothsidesandservehot.

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Item:FriedEgg,Serving:1portion
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Oil

10ml

Eggs

2nos.

Salt

totaste

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totaste

PreparationMethod
Getyourfryingpanonamediumtolowheat
andaddoiltolightlycoatthebottomofalargenonstickpan.
Cracktheeggsintothepan.
Cookuntilthetopsofthewhitesononesideisfirm.
Fliptheeggtoothersideandcookuntilfirm.
Seasonwithsaltandpepperandservehot.

Item:SunnySideup,Serving:1Portion
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Oil

10ml

Eggs

2nos.

Salt

totaste

Blackpepper

totaste

PreparationMethod
Getyourfryingpanonamediumtolowheatandadd
oiltolightlycoatthebottomofalargenonstickpan.
Cracktheeggsintothepan.
Cookuntilthetopsofthewhitesaresetbuttheyolkisstillrunny.
Placeonaplateandservewithsaltandpeppertotaste.

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Items:MixCerealsforBreakfast,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Water

500gms

Choppedpittedprune

4nos.

Raisins

50gms

Oatbran

50gms

Wheatbran

50gms

Wheatgarm

50gms

Flaxseed

50gms

Honey

20ml

PreparationMethod
Bringthewaterwiththepruneandraisinstoaboilinapotandcookforsometime.
Stirtheoatbran,wheatbran,wheatgram,flaxseedandhoneyintothefruitmixture.
Removefromheatandservehot.

9.2Sandwich
Asandwichisafooditem,consistingoftwoormoreslicesofbreadwithoneormore
fillingsbetweenthem.Sandwichesareawidelypopulartypeoflunchfood,typically
takentowork,school,orpicnicstobeeatenaspartofapackedlunch.Theygenerally
containacombinationofsaladvegetables,meat,cheese,andavarietyofsaucesor
savouryspreads.Thebreadcanbeusedasitis,oritcanbecoatedwithanycondiments
toenhanceflavourandtexture.Theyarewidelysoldinrestaurantsandcafes.
9.2.1TypesofSandwichareasfollows:
HotSandwich:Sandwichwhichareservedhotareknownascoldsandwiches.Theyare
servedopenandclosed.Grilledchickensandwich,grilledcheesesandwich,grilledham
andcheesesandwich,roastedvegetablesandwichandclubsandwicharesomeofthe
examplesofhotsandwich.
ColdSandwich:Sandwichwhichareservedcoldarecoldsandwich.Theyareserved
openandclosed.Chickensaladsandwich,tunasaladsandwich,tomatoandcucumber
sandwich,cheeseandhamsandwich,turkeysandwich,veggieandcheesesandwich
aresomeoftheexamplesofcoldsandwich.
9.2.2ComponentsofSandwich
Base

Bread,breadrollsetc.

Spread

Butter,mayonnaise,margarine,coldsauce,creametc

Body

Fillingssuchasmeat,poultry,fish,cheese,egg,vegetablesetc.

Accompaniment

Usuallycrunchyfoodssuchaswaferchips,Frenchfriesetc.

Garnishes

Usuallyleafyvegetables.

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9.2.3PreparingdifferenttypestoSandwiches

Item:GrilledCheeseSandwich,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Whitebread

8slice

Butter

100gms

Cheddarcheese

4slice

PreparationMethod
Preheatthesalamanderinmediumheat.
Spreadbutterononesideofasliceofbread.
Placebreadbuttersidedownontothesalamanderandadd1sliceofcheese.
Butterasecondsliceofbreadononesideandplacebuttersideupontopof
sandwich.
Grilluntillightlybrownedandflipovercontinuegrillinguntilcheeseismelted.
Repeatwithremainingslicesofbread,butterandsliceofcheese.
Servehot

Item:VegetableSandwiches(opensandwich),Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Choppedtomatoes,chopped

150gms

Choppedonion,chopped

100gms

Choppedredbellpepper,

2gms

chopped
Choppedgreenbellpepper,

5gms

chopped
Oliveoil

10ml

WhiteAmericancheese

4slice

Whitebread

4slice

PreparationMethod
Preheattheovensbroiler.
Inamediumbowl,tosstogetherthetomatoes,onion,redbellpepper,andgreen
bellpepper.
Placetheslicesofbreadonabakingsheetandplaceitunderthebroiler.
Broilforabout2minutes,justuntillightlytoasted.
Removefromtheoven,andturnthebreaduntoastedsideup.
Placeahandfulofthevegetablemixtureontopofeachslice.Drizzlewithabitof
oliveoil,andthentopwithasliceofcheese.
Returnthebreadslicestothebroiler,andtoastuntilthecheeseismelted.
Serveimmediately.

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Item:BLTSandwich,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Bacon

8slices

Lettuce

8leaves

Tomato

250gms

Toastedbread

8slices

Mayonnaise

60ml

PreparationMethod
Grillthebacononagrilluntilevenlybrownedandkeepitaside.
Slicethetomatoes.
Arrangethegrilledbacon,lettuce,andtomatoslicesonasliceofbread.
Spreadonesideofremainingbreadslicewiththemayonnaise.
Bringthetwopiecestogethertomakeasandwich.

Item:ChickenClubSandwich,Serving:4Portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Toastedbread

12slices

Mayonnaise

180ml

Lettuce

8leaves

Boiledchickenbreast

250gms

Tomato

200gms

Eggs

4nos

Oil

20ml

Saltandpepper

totaste

PreparationMethod
Prepareplainomelette,toastthebreadandplaceitaside.
Spreadeachsliceofbreadwithmayonnaise.
Ononesliceoftoast,placethechickenandlettuceandcoverwithasliceoftoast.
Addomeletteandtomatofillingsonthetop.
Coverthelayerwithsliceoftoast.
Servehot

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Item:TunaSandwiches,Serving:2portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Tuna

1can

Finelychoppedcelery

30gms

Choppedgreenonion

20gms

Mayonnaise

30ml

Lemonjuice

15ml

Englishmuffins,split,toastedand
buttered

2nos

Cheddarcheese

4slices

PreparationMethod
Preheattheoven'sbroiler.
Inamediumbowl,mixtogetherthetuna,celery,greenonion,mayonnaiseand
lemonjuice.
SpoonequalamountsontoeachEnglishmuffinhalf,andtopwithasliceofcheese.
Placethesandwichesonabakingsheet.
Broilfor2to3minutes,oruntilcheeseismeltedandtoasty.
Servehot.

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9.3Burger
Ahamburger(alsocalledahamburgersandwich,burgerorhamburger)isasandwich
consistingofacookedpattyofgroundmeatusuallyplacedinsideaslicedbreadroll.
Hamburgersareoftenservedwithlettuce,bacon,tomato,onion,pickles,cheeseand
condimentssuchasmustard,mayonnaise,ketchupandrelish.
9.3.1PreparingdifferenttypestoBurger

Item:ChickenBurger,Serving:1Burger
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

ChickenMince

200gm

Mayonnaise

30gm

Salt

Sprinkle

Pepper

1Dash

Onion

100gm

Tomatoes

50gm

Lettuce

50gm

Cucumber

50gm

Bun

1nos

Egg

1nos

PreparationMethod
Addpepper,saltandfinelychoppedoniontochickenmincemeat.
Bindwitheggandmakeevensizedflatcakeandgrilltillcooked
Peelandslicethetomato,cucumberandonion,cutthebunintohalf.
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Spreadmayonnaise,lettuce,sliceonion,tomatoandcucumberonbaseofbunand
nowputthecookedmeatpettyonitandcoveritwithtoppart.
Servedwithfriesonside.

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Item:Hamburger,Serving:1Burger
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

BeefMince

200gm

Mayonnaise

30gm

Salt

Sprinkle

Pepper

1Dash

Onion

100gm

Tomatoes

50gm

Lettuce

50gm

Cucumber

50gm

Bun

1nos

Egg

1nos

PreparationMethod:
Addpepper,saltandfinelychoppedoniontobeefmincemeat.
Bindwitheggandmakeevensizedflatcakeandgrilltillcooked
Peelandslicethetomato,cucumberandonion,cutthebunintohalf.
Spreadmayonnaise,lettuce,sliceonion,tomatoandcucumberonbaseofbunand
nowputthecookedmeatpettyonitandcoveritwithtoppart.
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Servedwithfriesonside.

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9.4Snacks
Asnackisaportionoffoodoftensmallerthanaregularmeal,generallyeatenbetween
meals.Snackscomeinavarietyofformsincludingpackagedandprocessedfoodsand
itemsmadefromfreshingredientsathome.
9.4.1PreparingofdifferenttypestoSnacks

Item:ChickenNuggets,Serving:10portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Vegetableoil

1000ml

Flour

650gms

Garlicsalt

125gms

Groundblackpepper

25gms

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5nos

Eggs

Chickenbreastcutintosmallslice

2kgs

BreadCrumbs

Asrequired

PreparationMethod
Heatoilinalargesaucepan.
Stirtogethertheflour,garlicsalt,andpepperinabowl.
Dipthechickenpiecesindividuallyintothebeateneggsbeforepressingintothe
flourmixturetocoatshakeofftheexcessflour.
Placethecoatedchickenpiecesontoabreadcrumbsuntilallthechickenhasbeencoated.
Cookthechickeninbatchesinthehotoiluntilgoldenbrownandnolongerpinkinthecentre.

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Item:FishFinger,Serving:4portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Filletofbektifish

1kg

Breadcrumbs

250gm

Oil

1litre

Eggs

2nos

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Water

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20ml

Lemonwedges

1lemon

Saltandpepper

Totaste

PreparationMethod:
Inabowl,beattheegg,water,andsalt,andpeppertotaste.Inaseparatebowl,
pourthebreadcrumbs.
Rinsethefishandcutitinto4by2inchsticks.Lightlycoatthefishwiththeegg
wash,thenthebreadcrumbs.
Heattheoliveoilinalargeskilletovermediumhighheat.Addthefishandcook
untilitturnsgolden.
Servewithlemonwedgesandtartarsauce.

Item:Alootikki,Serving:2portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Potato

350gm

Greenchillichopped

10gm

FreshCorianderleaves
chopped

Fewsprigs

Rocksalt

Totaste

Asafoetida

Apinch

Redchillipowder

10gm

Ghee

Tofry

PreparationMethod:
Washboilpeelandmashpotatoes.Addgreenchilli,corianderleaves,rocksalt,
asafoetidaandredchillipowdertothemashpotatoandmixwell.
Divideinto12pcs,shapethemintoroundtikka.
Heatatawaandshallowfrythetikkasonbothsideswithgheetillgoldenbrown.
Servehotwithchutney.

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Item:Frenchfries,Serving:3portions

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QUANTITY

Potato

500gm

Oil

Tofry

Salt

Totaste

PreparationMethod:
Peelandcutthepotatointostripofabout1/3to
inchthicknessandwide.
Soakpotatointocoldwaterforonehouratroom
temperature.Drainwellanddrywithpapertowel.
Heatwellinadeepfryertoabout375*F.Fryitinhotoiluntil
thecolourturnsgoldenbrownandtender.
Servehotwithketchup.

Item:HaraBharaKebab,Serving:2portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Potato

200gm

Greenpea

200gm

Ginger

5gm

Greenchilli

5gm

Cuminseed

5gm

Blackpepper

tsp

Salt

Totaste

Oil

Tofry

PreparationMethod:
Boilpeelandgratepotato,.
Boilpeasandstrain.
Makeafinepasteofgingerandgreenchillies.
Heatoilinapanandcrackcuminseed.
Nowfrypeasgingerchillipaste,coriander,saltandblackpepper.
Mixproperlyandremoveitfromheat.
Addthistothepotatomixture,makekebaboflongshape.
Heatoilinapananddeepfryallkebabsuntiltheyturngoldenbrown.
Servehotwithmintchutney.

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Item:ChickenMalaikebab,Serving:5portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Chickenboneless

1kg

Vinegar

30ml

Egg

1nos

Cheese

60gm

Corianderleavesfinechopped

10gm

Oil

100ml

Salt

Totaste

Gingergarlicpaste

50gm

Cornflour

10gm

Greenchilli

10gm

Freshcream

120ml

Butter

50gm

PreparationMethod:
Cleanandmakepiecesofchicken.
Marinatewithsalt,ginger,garlicpasteandvinegar,leaveatleastforhalfanhour.
Squeezelightlyagainstpalmsandkeepaside.
Inatrayrubcheesewithpalmtosmoothpaste,halfeggtoit,cornflourandmix
themwell.
Addapartofcreamtosoftenit.
Addbonelessmarinatedchickentothismixturethenaddchoppedgreenchilliand
coriander.
Pourinremainingcreamandmixtogether.Letitrestfor23hours.
Pourthemarinatedchickenpiecesonskewerandhalfcookintandoor.Takeitout
andhangitfor10minutes.
Basteitwithrefinedoilandcookingbuttermixtureandputbackintandoortillitgets
lightgoldencolor.
Servehotwithlemonslice,garnishwithcorianderleavesaccompaniedbymint
chutney.

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FOODANDBEVERAGESERVICELEARNERMANUAL

Item:ChickenChilli,Serving:1portion
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Chicken(with/withoutbone)

150Gm.

Onion

50Gm.

Capsicum

50Gm.

Tomato

80Gm.

Pepper

1Dash

Salt

Totaste

SoyaSauce

1Tbsp.

Vinegar

0.25Tsp.

TomatoSauce

1Tsp.

GreenChilliSauce

1/2Tbsp.

GreenChillies

2Pcs

Garlic

1/2Tbsp.

Cornflour

1/2Tbsp.

Flour

1/2Tbsp.

Egg

1/2No.

Oil

Tofry

PreparationMethod:
Cleanandmakepiecesofchicken.
Marinatethechickeninhalfsoyasauce,egg,salt,pepper,flour,cornflour,halfthe
garlicandhalfthegreenchillisauceforatleast30mines.Leaveitforanhourortwo
ifyouhavethetime.
Heatapanwithoilandlightlyfrythechickenpiecesuntilgoldenbrown.Setaside.
Intheremainingoil,addchoppedgarlicandchilliesandfryfor2minutes
Next,addtheonions,capsicumandtomato,fryuntilsoft(23mines).Addvinegar
andmixwell
Addfriedchickenandtheremainingingredients.(soyasauce,greenchillisauce,
tomatosauce,saltandpepper).
Stiralltheingredientsuntilwellcombinedandfryforanother34mines.
Garnishwithsomechoppedspringonionsandservehot.

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MODULE9:BREAKFASTANDLIGHTMEALS
MODULE1:TOURISM,HOSPITALITY,FOODANDBEVERAGESERVICE

Item:AlooParatha,Serving:2portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Flour

100gms.

Salt

1gms

Water

45ml

Oil

15gms

ForStuffing
Potato

80gms

Onion(minced)

20gms

GingerGrated

1gms

Salt

totaste

Grammasala

1gms

Corianderleveeschopped

1Sprig

Roastedcuminseeds

1gms

GreenChilliChopped(optional)1Pcs
Flour

80gms

Salt

1gms

Water

45ml

PreparationMethod:
Preparedthedoughaschapati.Boilthepotatowithskin,cool,peelandmash
Addmincedonion,ginger,greenchilliandseasoningstothemashedpotatoand
mixwell.
Makesmallroundballsflatten.Putaportionofpotatomixtureinthecentre,foldthe
doughovertocoverandreshapeintoaballandrolloutthinly.
Greasethehottawaandplacetheparathaonit.
Cookononesidefor1minute,turnoverandapplyoil.Similarlyapplyoilontheother
sideandcooktillgoldenbrownonbothsides.Servedhotwithcurdandpickle.

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FOODPRODUCTION(ASSISTANTCOOK)LEARNER'SMANUAL
FOODANDBEVERAGESERVICELEARNERMANUAL

Item:Chickenmomo,Portion:5portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Flour

500gm

Mincedchicken

500gm

Choppedonion

250gm

Choppedgreenchilli

10gm

Choppedginger

5gm

Salt

10gm

Soyasauce

1tsp

Ajinomoto

tsp

PreparationMethod:
Mixflourandwaterandmakesoftdoughkneadingvigorously.
Setthedoughasideforaboutanhour.
Mixchoppedonion,greenchilli,gingerandmincedmeat.Addsoyasauce,saltand
ajinomotointhemixture.
Dividedoughevenlyintosmallballsweighingabout10gmseachandrolltoabout
2andinchdiameter.
Put1tspofmincedmeatintocentreofeachflourandsealit.
Boilwaterinasteamergreaseperforatedcompartmentsandplacemomoskeeping
thematleastinchapart.
Steammomosfor10minutes.Servesteaminghotaccompaniedbytomatogarlic
chutney.

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MODULE9:BREAKFASTANDLIGHTMEALS
MODULE1:TOURISM,HOSPITALITY,FOODANDBEVERAGESERVICE

Item:VegetableChowmein,Portion:2portions
INGREDIENTS

QUANTITY

Greenpeas

100gms

Carrot

100gms

Capsicum

100gms

Onion

100gms

Cabbage

50gms

Tomatoes

50gms

Frenchbeans

50gms

Oil

20ml

Noodles

200gms

SlicedGingerandgarlic

10gms

PreparationMethod
Boilanddrainnoodles.
Heatpanandsautallthementionedvegetables.
Sauteenoodlesinalittlefatandaddsautedvegetables,ajinomoto,saltand
pepper
Servehotaccompaniedbyketchupandchillisauce.

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Thefuture
CongratulationsforsuccessfullycompletingtheFoodProductionAssistantCookcourse.
Nowyouarefullyequippedtostartyourcareerinfoodproductionwithcomplete

understandingofindustrydemands.Itisoneofthemostrewardingandevolving
professioninthehospitalitysector.

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FOODANDBEVERAGESERVICELEARNERMANUAL

FOODPRODUCTION
(ASSISTANTCOOK)

LEARNER'SMANUAL

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Alsoavailableinthisseries
FoodProductionAssistantCook,TrainerGuide
FoodandBeverageServiceWaiter/Waitress,LeanerManual
FoodandBeverageServiceWaiter/Waitress,TrainerGuide
HousekeepingRoomAttendant,LearnerManual
HousekeepingRoomAttendant,TrainerGuide
OtherseriesdevelopedbytheHITTprogrammeinNepal:
MountainLeadersTrainingCourse
HomestayandSmallLodgeOperatorsTrainingCourse
ServiceExcellenceandFoodHygiene

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