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The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the

cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, faci
al expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, fo
r they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceiv
ed. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a s
et of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accept
ability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be g
rouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others f
eelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gif
t), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarras
sment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any v
ariations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicatio
ns for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communi
cation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressi
ons and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direc
tives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acco
rding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (198
6) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while s
elf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations r
elated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for rese
arch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effect
s of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of e
motional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soci
ety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spe
ech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observ
ations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives estab
lished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional e
xpressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to th
eir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineat
es two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support so
cial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protect
ive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster sel
f-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess d
isplay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to a
ge and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chi
ld psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultur
al and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional st
ates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have be
en the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by w
hich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functio
n; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two majo
r categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules p
rotect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (M
isailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule

usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gend
er. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholo
gy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gend
er stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwee
n individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways i
n which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focu
s of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunt
ary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concep
t of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fr
iesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the clas
sification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categorie
s: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sa
ying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indi
viduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2
007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in s
chool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inf
ormation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenti
ng and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereoty
pes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individua
ls is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emo
tions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much p
sychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotion
al control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975
). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soci
al rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank y
ou after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fro
m punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The o
bjectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age c
hildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information ga
ined will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teac
hing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on deve
loping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is funda
mental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are d
isplayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologica
l research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was f
ormulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determ
ine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method empl
oyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pr
eserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bei
ng given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishmen
t and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives o
f this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will h
ave implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and a
lso illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mind
s. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to t
he cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, f
acial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perc
eived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acc
eptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can b
e grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gne
pp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve othe

rs feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embar
rassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curr
ent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as an
y variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implica
tions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumin
ate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The comm
unication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expre
ssions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they a
re the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It w
as from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of di
rectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped a
ccording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (
1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whil
e self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, a
nd bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study a
re to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variation
s related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for r
esearch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the eff
ects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication o
f emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human s
ociety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prim
ary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obs
ervations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives es
tablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotiona
l expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delin
eates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prot
ective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asses
s display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related t
o age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cul
tural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means b
y which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations t
hat the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established a
nd enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressio
ns (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their func
tion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two m
ajor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social nor
ms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rule
s protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display r
ule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and g
ender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psych
ology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and g
ender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states bet
ween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the way
s in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the f
ocus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vol
untary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the con
cept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced

by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &


Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the c
lassification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major catego
ries: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect i
ndividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi
, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage i
n school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pare
nting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stere
otypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indivi
duals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of muc
h psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emot
ional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of disp
lay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultu
re that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1
975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificati
on method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-s
ocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Than
k you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). Th
e objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-ag
e children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and t
eaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on d
eveloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fu
ndamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions ar
e displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholog
ical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contr
ol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules wa
s formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that det
ermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displ
ay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method e
mployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punish
ment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objective
s of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wil
l have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, an
d also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing m
inds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental t
o the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed
, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resear
ch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be p
erceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulate
d: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules ca
n be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve o
thers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and em
barrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this c
urrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impl
ications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illu
minate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The c
ommunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohes
ion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial ex

pressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for the
y are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. I
t was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabili
ty of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be groupe
d according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hes
s (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelin
gs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), w
hile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment
, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stud
y are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variat
ions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications fo
r research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicatio
n of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of huma
n society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions a
nd speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the p
rimary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emoti
onal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) de
lineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and supp
ort social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-p
rotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolst
er self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to as
sess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relate
d to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotio
nal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech h
ave been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mean
s by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observation
s that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establishe
d and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expres
sions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their f
unction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates tw
o major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective r
ules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-est
eem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displa
y rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age an
d gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child ps
ychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural an
d gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been th
e focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfor
ced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekma
n & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; th
e classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cat
egories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protec
t individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misail
idi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usag
e in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. T
he information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, p

arenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender st
ereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between ind
ividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whi
ch emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary e
motional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of d
isplay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cu
lture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen
, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classific
ation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pr
o-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying T
hank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individua
ls from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school
-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informat
ion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting an
d teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes o
n developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycho
logical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional co
ntrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rule
s was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Di
splay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification metho
d employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social ru
les preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you aft
er being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pun
ishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The object
ives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childr
en, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developin
g minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamenta
l to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displa
yed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological res
earch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can b
e perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formul
ated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine t
he acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserv
e others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being gi
ven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of thi
s current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have i
mplications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also i
lluminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. Th
e communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the co
hesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived
. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptab
ility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gro
uped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fee
lings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift)
, while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassm

ent, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current s
tudy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any var
iations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate t
he effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communica
tion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of h
uman society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expression
s and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are th
e primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fr
om observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directi
ves established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of em
otional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accord
ing to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and s
upport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while sel
f-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bo
lster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rel
ated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resear
ch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emo
tional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human societ
y. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speec
h have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary m
eans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observat
ions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establi
shed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional exp
ressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to thei
r function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soci
al norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protectiv
e rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster selfesteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess dis
play rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional stat
es between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all t
he ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whi
ch voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that t
he concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and en
forced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (E
kman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (s
uch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pro
tect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mis
ailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule u
sage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender
. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology
, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntar
y emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Frie
sen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classi

fication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayi
ng Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indivi
duals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 200
7). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sch
ool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The infor
mation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotype
s on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emoti
ons are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psy
chological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display r
ules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture th
at determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification me
thod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you
after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obj
ectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chi
ldren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gain
ed will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachi
ng, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develo
ping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundame
ntal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are dis
played, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control ca
n be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was for
mulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determin
e the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display ru
les can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employ
ed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pres
erve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as w
ell as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will hav
e implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and als
o illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fac
ial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, f
or they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be percei
ved. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accep
tability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others
feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gi
ft), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarra
ssment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curren
t study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicati
ons for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminat
e the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commun
ication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion o
f human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial express
ions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was

from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dire
ctives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acc
ording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (19
86) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings an
d support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for res
earch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effec
ts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soc
iety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and sp
eech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primar
y means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obser
vations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives esta
blished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to t
heir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delinea
tes two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support s
ocial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protec
tive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster se
lf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in ch
ild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultu
ral and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional s
tates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of al
l the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have b
een the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations tha
t the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functi
on; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two maj
or categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (
Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rul
e usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gen
der. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychol
ogy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gen
der stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwe
en individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the foc
us of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volun
tary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conce
pt of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced b
y a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & F
riesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cla
ssification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categori
es: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as s
aying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect ind
ividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The in
formation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parent
ing and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereot
ypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individu

als is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which em
otions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotio
nal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displa
y rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 197
5). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soc
ial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fr
om punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information g
ained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and tea
ching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on dev
eloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fund
amental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologic
al research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that deter
mine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emp
loyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules p
reserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after be
ing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishme
nt and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, a
s well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing min
ds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research
, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be per
ceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the ac
ceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gn
epp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve oth
ers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emba
rrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cur
rent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as a
ny variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implic
ations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumi
nate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The com
munication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesio
n of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expr
essions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of d
irectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whi
le self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variatio

ns related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the ef
fects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pri
mary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from ob
servations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives e
stablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotion
al expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according t
o their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deli
neates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppor
t social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pro
tective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asse
ss display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cu
ltural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotiona
l states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech hav
e been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressi
ons (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fun
ction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social no
rms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rul
es protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-estee
m (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psyc
hology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states be
tween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the wa
ys in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vo
luntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the co
ncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforce
d by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categ
ories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such a
s saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailid
i, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, par
enting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ster
eotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indiv
iduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of mu
ch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emo
tional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of dis
play rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cult
ure that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificat
ion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Prosocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Tha

nk you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). T
he objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-a
ge children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informatio
n gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is f
undamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions a
re displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholo
gical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional cont
rol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules w
as formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that de
termine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Disp
lay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rule
s preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punis
hment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectiv
es of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children
, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wi
ll have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, a
nd also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displaye
d, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resea
rch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulat
ed: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules c
an be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being give
n a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and e
mbarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well a
s any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have imp
lications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also ill
uminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohe
sion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial e
xpressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for th
ey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set o
f directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabil
ity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be group
ed according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & He
ss (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeli
ngs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassmen
t, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stu
dy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any varia
tions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications f
or research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicati
on of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hum
an society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directive
s established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emot

ional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordin
g to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) d
elineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and sup
port social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while selfprotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bols
ter self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to a
ssess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relat
ed to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emoti
onal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mea
ns by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observatio
ns that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establish
ed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expre
ssions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates t
wo major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-es
teem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displ
ay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age a
nd gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child p
sychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural a
nd gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been t
he focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfo
rced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekm
an & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; t
he classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major ca
tegories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (suc
h as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prote
ct individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misai
lidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usa
ge in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender s
tereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between in
dividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in wh
ich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of
display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a c
ulture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friese
n, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifi
cation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: P
ro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying
Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individu
als from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007)
. The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoo
l-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informa
tion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting a
nd teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals i
s fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotion
s are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psych

ological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional c
ontrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rul
es was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). D
isplay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification meth
od employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social r
ules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you af
ter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pu
nishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objec
tives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age child
ren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching
, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developi
ng minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundament
al to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displ
ayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological re
search, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formu
lated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rule
s can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preser
ve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being g
iven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment an
d embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of th
is current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as wel
l as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. T
he communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the c
ohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facia
l expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceive
d. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a se
t of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accepta
bility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gr
ouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fe
elings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift
), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrass
ment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any va
riations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implication
s for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communic
ation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressio
ns and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are t
he primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was f
rom observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direct
ives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of e
motional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accor
ding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986
) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while se
lf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and b
olster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are t
o assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations re
lated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resea
rch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects

of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of em


otional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human socie
ty. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spee
ch have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observa
tions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establ
ished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional ex
pressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to the
ir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineate
s two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soc
ial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protecti
ve rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self
-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess di
splay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to ag
e and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chil
d psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultura
l and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional sta
tes between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have bee
n the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by wh
ich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and e
nforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (
Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function
; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (
such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pr
otect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mi
sailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gende
r. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholog
y, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gende
r stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunta
ry emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fri
esen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the class
ification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories
: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as say
ing Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indiv
iduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 20
07). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sc
hool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The info
rmation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parentin
g and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotyp
es on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individual
s is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emot
ions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much ps
ychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotiona
l control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture t
hat determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975)
. Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification m
ethod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-socia
l rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank yo
u after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The ob

jectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age ch
ildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gai
ned will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teach
ing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on devel
oping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundam
ental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are di
splayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control c
an be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was fo
rmulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determi
ne the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display r
ules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emplo
yed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pre
serve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bein
g given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will ha
ve implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and al
so illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds
. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to th
e cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fa
cial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perce
ived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acce
ptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnep
p & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve other
s feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a g
ift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarr
assment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curre
nt study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicat
ions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumina
te the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commu
nication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expres
sions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they ar
e the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It wa
s from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dir
ectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability o
f emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped ac
cording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1
986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings a
nd support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, an
d bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study ar
e to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for re
search in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effe
cts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human so
ciety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and s
peech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prima
ry means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obse
rvations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives est
ablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deline

ates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prote
ctive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster s
elf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in c
hild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cult
ural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of a
ll the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations th
at the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established an
d enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expression
s (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their funct
ion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two ma
jor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norm
s (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display ru
le usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and ge
nder. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycho
logy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and ge
nder stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betw
een individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the fo
cus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volu
ntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conc
ept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cl
assification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categor
ies: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect in
dividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The i
nformation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, paren
ting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereo
types on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individ
uals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which e
motions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emoti
onal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displ
ay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultur
e that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 19
75). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificatio
n method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-so
cial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals f
rom punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and te
aching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on de
veloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fun
damental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologi
cal research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contro
l can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was

formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that dete


rmine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displa
y rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method em
ployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after b
eing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishm
ent and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mi
nds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological researc
h, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be pe
rceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated
: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the a
cceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by G
nepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve ot
hers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emb
arrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cu
rrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impli
cations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illum
inate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The co
mmunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesi
on of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial exp
ressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabilit
y of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeling
s and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), wh
ile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variati
ons related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the e
ffects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions an
d speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pr
imary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from o
bservations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotio
nal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) del
ineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppo
rt social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pr
otective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolste
r self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to ass
ess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research i
n child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of c
ultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotion
al states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. O

f all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech ha
ve been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional express
ions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fu
nction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social n
orms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective ru
les protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-este
em (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psy
chology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states b
etween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the w
ays in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which v
oluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the c
oncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforc
ed by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cate
gories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misaili
di, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. Th
e information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pa
renting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ste
reotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indi
viduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whic
h emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of m
uch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary em
otional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of di
splay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cul
ture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifica
tion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro
-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Th
ank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individual
s from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoolage children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informati
on gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychol
ogical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional con
trol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules
was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that d
etermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Dis
play rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rul
es preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you afte
r being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from puni
shment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objecti
ves of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childre
n, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained w

ill have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are display
ed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological rese
arch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formula
ted: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine th
e acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed b
y Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being giv
en a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have im
plications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also il
luminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the coh
esion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for t
hey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabi
lity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grou
ped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & H
ess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feel
ings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassme
nt, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current st
udy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any vari
ations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate th
e effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicat
ion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hu
man society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fro
m observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directiv
es established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emo
tional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordi
ng to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and su
pport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self
-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bol
ster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rela
ted to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for researc
h in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects o
f cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emot
ional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society
. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary me
ans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observati
ons that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establis
hed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expr
essions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support socia
l norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective

rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-e
steem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess disp
lay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional state
s between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all th
e ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whic
h voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that th
e concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enf
orced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ek
man & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major c
ategories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (su
ch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prot
ect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misa
ilidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule us
age in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between i
ndividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in w
hich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus o
f much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept o
f display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fries
en, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classif
ication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayin
g Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individ
uals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007
). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in scho
ol-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inform
ation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotio
ns are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psyc
hological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display ru
les was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture tha
t determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification met
hod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you a
fter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from p
unishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obje
ctives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chil
dren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gaine
d will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachin
g, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develop
ing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamen
tal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are disp
layed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological r
esearch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was form
ulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rul

es can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employe


d by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules prese
rve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment a
nd embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of t
his current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as we
ll as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, faci
al expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, fo
r they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceiv
ed. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a s
et of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accept
ability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be g
rouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others f
eelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gif
t), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarras
sment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any v
ariations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicatio
ns for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communi
cation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressi
ons and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direc
tives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acco
rding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (198
6) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while s
elf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations r
elated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for rese
arch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effect
s of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of e
motional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soci
ety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spe
ech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observ
ations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives estab
lished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional e
xpressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to th
eir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineat
es two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support so
cial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protect
ive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster sel
f-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess d
isplay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to a
ge and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chi
ld psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultur
al and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional st
ates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have be
en the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by w

hich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functio
n; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two majo
r categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules p
rotect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (M
isailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gend
er. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholo
gy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gend
er stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwee
n individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways i
n which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focu
s of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunt
ary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concep
t of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fr
iesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the clas
sification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categorie
s: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sa
ying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indi
viduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2
007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in s
chool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inf
ormation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenti
ng and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereoty
pes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individua
ls is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emo
tions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much p
sychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotion
al control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975
). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soci
al rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank y
ou after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fro
m punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The o
bjectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age c
hildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information ga
ined will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teac
hing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on deve
loping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is funda
mental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are d
isplayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologica
l research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was f
ormulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determ
ine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method empl
oyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pr
eserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bei
ng given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishmen
t and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives o
f this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will h
ave implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and a
lso illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mind

s. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to t


he cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, f
acial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perc
eived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acc
eptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can b
e grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gne
pp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve othe
rs feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embar
rassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curr
ent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as an
y variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implica
tions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumin
ate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The comm
unication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expre
ssions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they a
re the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It w
as from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of di
rectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped a
ccording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (
1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whil
e self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, a
nd bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study a
re to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variation
s related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for r
esearch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the eff
ects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication o
f emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human s
ociety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prim
ary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obs
ervations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives es
tablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotiona
l expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delin
eates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prot
ective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asses
s display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related t
o age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cul
tural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means b
y which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations t
hat the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established a
nd enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressio
ns (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their func
tion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two m
ajor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social nor
ms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rule
s protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display r

ule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and g
ender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psych
ology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and g
ender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states bet
ween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the way
s in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the f
ocus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vol
untary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the con
cept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the c
lassification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major catego
ries: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect i
ndividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi
, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage i
n school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pare
nting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stere
otypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indivi
duals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of muc
h psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emot
ional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of disp
lay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultu
re that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1
975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificati
on method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-s
ocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Than
k you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). Th
e objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-ag
e children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and t
eaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on d
eveloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fu
ndamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions ar
e displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholog
ical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contr
ol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules wa
s formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that det
ermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displ
ay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method e
mployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punish
ment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objective
s of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wil
l have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, an
d also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing m
inds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental t
o the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed
, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resear
ch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be p
erceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulate
d: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules ca
n be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve o

thers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and em
barrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this c
urrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impl
ications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illu
minate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The c
ommunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohes
ion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial ex
pressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for the
y are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. I
t was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabili
ty of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be groupe
d according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hes
s (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelin
gs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), w
hile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment
, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stud
y are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variat
ions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications fo
r research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicatio
n of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of huma
n society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions a
nd speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the p
rimary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emoti
onal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) de
lineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and supp
ort social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-p
rotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolst
er self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to as
sess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relate
d to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotio
nal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech h
ave been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mean
s by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observation
s that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establishe
d and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expres
sions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their f
unction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates tw
o major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective r
ules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-est
eem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displa
y rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age an
d gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child ps
ychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural an
d gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been th
e focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfor

ced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekma


n & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; th
e classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cat
egories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protec
t individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misail
idi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usag
e in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. T
he information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, p
arenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender st
ereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between ind
ividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whi
ch emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary e
motional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of d
isplay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cu
lture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen
, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classific
ation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pr
o-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying T
hank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individua
ls from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school
-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informat
ion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting an
d teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes o
n developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycho
logical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional co
ntrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rule
s was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Di
splay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification metho
d employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social ru
les preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you aft
er being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pun
ishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The object
ives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childr
en, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developin
g minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamenta
l to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displa
yed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological res
earch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can b
e perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formul
ated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine t
he acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserv
e others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being gi
ven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of thi
s current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have i
mplications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also i
lluminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. Th
e communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the co
hesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial

expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived
. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptab
ility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gro
uped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fee
lings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift)
, while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassm
ent, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current s
tudy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any var
iations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate t
he effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communica
tion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of h
uman society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expression
s and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are th
e primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fr
om observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directi
ves established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of em
otional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accord
ing to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and s
upport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while sel
f-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bo
lster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rel
ated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resear
ch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emo
tional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human societ
y. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speec
h have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary m
eans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observat
ions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establi
shed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional exp
ressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to thei
r function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soci
al norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protectiv
e rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster selfesteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess dis
play rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional stat
es between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all t
he ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whi
ch voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that t
he concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and en
forced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (E
kman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (s
uch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pro
tect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mis
ailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule u
sage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender
. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology

, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntar
y emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Frie
sen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classi
fication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayi
ng Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indivi
duals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 200
7). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sch
ool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The infor
mation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotype
s on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emoti
ons are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psy
chological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display r
ules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture th
at determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification me
thod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you
after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obj
ectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chi
ldren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gain
ed will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachi
ng, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develo
ping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundame
ntal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are dis
played, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control ca
n be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was for
mulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determin
e the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display ru
les can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employ
ed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pres
erve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as w
ell as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will hav
e implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and als
o illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fac
ial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, f
or they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be percei
ved. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accep
tability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others
feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gi
ft), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarra

ssment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curren
t study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicati
ons for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminat
e the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commun
ication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion o
f human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial express
ions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dire
ctives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acc
ording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (19
86) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings an
d support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for res
earch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effec
ts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soc
iety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and sp
eech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primar
y means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obser
vations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives esta
blished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to t
heir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delinea
tes two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support s
ocial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protec
tive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster se
lf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in ch
ild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultu
ral and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional s
tates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of al
l the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have b
een the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations tha
t the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functi
on; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two maj
or categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (
Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rul
e usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gen
der. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychol
ogy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gen
der stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwe
en individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the foc
us of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volun
tary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conce
pt of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced b
y a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & F
riesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cla

ssification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categori
es: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as s
aying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect ind
ividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The in
formation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parent
ing and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereot
ypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individu
als is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which em
otions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotio
nal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displa
y rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 197
5). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soc
ial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fr
om punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information g
ained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and tea
ching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on dev
eloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fund
amental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologic
al research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that deter
mine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emp
loyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules p
reserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after be
ing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishme
nt and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, a
s well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing min
ds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research
, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be per
ceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the ac
ceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gn
epp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve oth
ers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emba
rrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cur
rent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as a
ny variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implic
ations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumi
nate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The com
munication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesio
n of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expr
essions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It

was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of d
irectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whi
le self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variatio
ns related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the ef
fects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pri
mary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from ob
servations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives e
stablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotion
al expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according t
o their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deli
neates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppor
t social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pro
tective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asse
ss display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cu
ltural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotiona
l states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech hav
e been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressi
ons (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fun
ction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social no
rms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rul
es protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-estee
m (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psyc
hology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states be
tween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the wa
ys in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vo
luntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the co
ncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforce
d by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categ
ories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such a
s saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailid
i, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, par
enting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ster
eotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indiv

iduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of mu
ch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emo
tional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of dis
play rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cult
ure that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificat
ion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Prosocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Tha
nk you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). T
he objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-a
ge children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informatio
n gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is f
undamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions a
re displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholo
gical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional cont
rol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules w
as formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that de
termine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Disp
lay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rule
s preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punis
hment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectiv
es of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children
, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wi
ll have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, a
nd also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displaye
d, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resea
rch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulat
ed: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules c
an be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being give
n a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and e
mbarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well a
s any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have imp
lications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also ill
uminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohe
sion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial e
xpressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for th
ey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set o
f directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabil
ity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be group
ed according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & He
ss (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeli
ngs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassmen
t, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stu
dy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any varia

tions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications f
or research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicati
on of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hum
an society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directive
s established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emot
ional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordin
g to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) d
elineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and sup
port social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while selfprotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bols
ter self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to a
ssess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relat
ed to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emoti
onal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mea
ns by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observatio
ns that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establish
ed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expre
ssions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates t
wo major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-es
teem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displ
ay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age a
nd gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child p
sychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural a
nd gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been t
he focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfo
rced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekm
an & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; t
he classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major ca
tegories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (suc
h as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prote
ct individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misai
lidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usa
ge in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender s
tereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between in
dividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in wh
ich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of
display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a c
ulture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friese
n, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifi
cation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: P
ro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying

Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individu
als from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007)
. The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoo
l-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informa
tion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting a
nd teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals i
s fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotion
s are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psych
ological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional c
ontrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rul
es was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). D
isplay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification meth
od employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social r
ules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you af
ter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pu
nishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objec
tives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age child
ren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching
, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developi
ng minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundament
al to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displ
ayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological re
search, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formu
lated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rule
s can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preser
ve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being g
iven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment an
d embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of th
is current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as wel
l as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. T
he communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the c
ohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facia
l expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceive
d. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a se
t of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accepta
bility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gr
ouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fe
elings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift
), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrass
ment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any va
riations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implication
s for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communic
ation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressio
ns and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are t
he primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was f
rom observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direct
ives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of e

motional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accor
ding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986
) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while se
lf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and b
olster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are t
o assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations re
lated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resea
rch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of em
otional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human socie
ty. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spee
ch have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observa
tions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establ
ished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional ex
pressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to the
ir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineate
s two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soc
ial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protecti
ve rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self
-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess di
splay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to ag
e and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chil
d psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultura
l and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional sta
tes between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have bee
n the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by wh
ich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and e
nforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (
Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function
; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (
such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pr
otect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mi
sailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gende
r. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholog
y, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gende
r stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunta
ry emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fri
esen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the class
ification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories
: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as say
ing Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indiv
iduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 20
07). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sc
hool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The info
rmation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parentin
g and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotyp
es on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individual
s is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emot
ions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much ps

ychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotiona
l control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture t
hat determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975)
. Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification m
ethod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-socia
l rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank yo
u after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The ob
jectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age ch
ildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gai
ned will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teach
ing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on devel
oping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundam
ental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are di
splayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control c
an be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was fo
rmulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determi
ne the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display r
ules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emplo
yed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pre
serve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bein
g given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will ha
ve implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and al
so illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds
. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to th
e cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fa
cial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perce
ived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acce
ptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnep
p & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve other
s feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a g
ift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarr
assment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curre
nt study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicat
ions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumina
te the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commu
nication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expres
sions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they ar
e the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It wa
s from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dir
ectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability o
f emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped ac
cording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1
986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings a
nd support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, an
d bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study ar
e to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for re
search in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effe

cts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of


emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human so
ciety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and s
peech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prima
ry means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obse
rvations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives est
ablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deline
ates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prote
ctive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster s
elf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in c
hild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cult
ural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of a
ll the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations th
at the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established an
d enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expression
s (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their funct
ion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two ma
jor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norm
s (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display ru
le usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and ge
nder. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycho
logy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and ge
nder stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betw
een individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the fo
cus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volu
ntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conc
ept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cl
assification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categor
ies: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect in
dividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The i
nformation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, paren
ting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereo
types on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individ
uals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which e
motions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emoti
onal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displ
ay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultur
e that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 19
75). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificatio
n method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-so
cial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals f
rom punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The

objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and te
aching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on de
veloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fun
damental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologi
cal research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contro
l can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that dete
rmine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displa
y rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method em
ployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after b
eing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishm
ent and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mi
nds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological researc
h, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be pe
rceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated
: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the a
cceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by G
nepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve ot
hers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emb
arrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cu
rrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impli
cations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illum
inate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The co
mmunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesi
on of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial exp
ressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabilit
y of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeling
s and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), wh
ile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variati
ons related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the e
ffects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions an
d speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pr
imary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from o
bservations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotio
nal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) del

ineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppo
rt social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pr
otective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolste
r self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to ass
ess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research i
n child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of c
ultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotion
al states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. O
f all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech ha
ve been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional express
ions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fu
nction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social n
orms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective ru
les protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-este
em (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psy
chology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states b
etween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the w
ays in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which v
oluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the c
oncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforc
ed by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cate
gories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misaili
di, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. Th
e information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pa
renting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ste
reotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indi
viduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whic
h emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of m
uch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary em
otional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of di
splay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cul
ture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifica
tion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro
-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Th
ank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individual
s from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoolage children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informati
on gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychol
ogical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional con
trol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules

was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that d


etermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Dis
play rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rul
es preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you afte
r being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from puni
shment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objecti
ves of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childre
n, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained w
ill have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are display
ed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological rese
arch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formula
ted: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine th
e acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed b
y Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being giv
en a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have im
plications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also il
luminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the coh
esion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for t
hey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabi
lity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grou
ped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & H
ess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feel
ings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassme
nt, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current st
udy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any vari
ations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate th
e effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicat
ion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hu
man society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fro
m observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directiv
es established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emo
tional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordi
ng to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and su
pport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self
-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bol
ster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rela
ted to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for researc
h in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects o
f cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emot
ional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society

. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary me
ans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observati
ons that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establis
hed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expr
essions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support socia
l norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-e
steem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess disp
lay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional state
s between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all th
e ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whic
h voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that th
e concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enf
orced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ek
man & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major c
ategories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (su
ch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prot
ect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misa
ilidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule us
age in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between i
ndividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in w
hich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus o
f much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept o
f display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fries
en, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classif
ication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayin
g Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individ
uals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007
). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in scho
ol-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inform
ation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotio
ns are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psyc
hological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display ru
les was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture tha
t determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification met
hod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you a
fter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from p
unishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obje
ctives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chil
dren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gaine

d will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachin
g, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develop
ing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamen
tal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are disp
layed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological r
esearch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was form
ulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rul
es can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employe
d by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules prese
rve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment a
nd embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of t
his current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as we
ll as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, faci
al expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, fo
r they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceiv
ed. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a s
et of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accept
ability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be g
rouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others f
eelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gif
t), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarras
sment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any v
ariations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicatio
ns for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communi
cation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressi
ons and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direc
tives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acco
rding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (198
6) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while s
elf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations r
elated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for rese
arch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effect
s of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of e
motional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soci
ety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spe
ech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observ
ations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives estab
lished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional e
xpressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to th
eir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineat
es two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support so
cial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protect

ive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster sel
f-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess d
isplay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to a
ge and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chi
ld psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultur
al and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional st
ates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have be
en the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by w
hich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functio
n; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two majo
r categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules p
rotect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (M
isailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gend
er. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholo
gy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gend
er stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwee
n individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways i
n which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focu
s of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunt
ary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concep
t of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fr
iesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the clas
sification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categorie
s: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sa
ying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indi
viduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2
007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in s
chool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inf
ormation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenti
ng and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereoty
pes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individua
ls is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emo
tions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much p
sychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotion
al control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975
). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soci
al rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank y
ou after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fro
m punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The o
bjectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age c
hildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information ga
ined will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teac
hing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on deve
loping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is funda
mental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are d
isplayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologica
l research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was f
ormulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determ
ine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display

rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method empl
oyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pr
eserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bei
ng given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishmen
t and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives o
f this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will h
ave implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and a
lso illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mind
s. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to t
he cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, f
acial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perc
eived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acc
eptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can b
e grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gne
pp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve othe
rs feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embar
rassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curr
ent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as an
y variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implica
tions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumin
ate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The comm
unication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expre
ssions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they a
re the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It w
as from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of di
rectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped a
ccording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (
1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whil
e self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, a
nd bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study a
re to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variation
s related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for r
esearch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the eff
ects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication o
f emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human s
ociety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prim
ary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obs
ervations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives es
tablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotiona
l expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delin
eates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prot
ective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asses
s display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related t
o age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cul
tural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means b

y which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations t


hat the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established a
nd enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressio
ns (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their func
tion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two m
ajor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social nor
ms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rule
s protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display r
ule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and g
ender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psych
ology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and g
ender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states bet
ween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the way
s in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the f
ocus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vol
untary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the con
cept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the c
lassification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major catego
ries: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect i
ndividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi
, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage i
n school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pare
nting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stere
otypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indivi
duals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of muc
h psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emot
ional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of disp
lay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultu
re that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1
975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificati
on method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-s
ocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Than
k you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). Th
e objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-ag
e children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and t
eaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on d
eveloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fu
ndamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions ar
e displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholog
ical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contr
ol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules wa
s formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that det
ermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displ
ay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method e
mployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punish
ment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objective
s of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wil
l have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, an
d also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing m

inds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental t


o the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed
, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resear
ch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be p
erceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulate
d: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules ca
n be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve o
thers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and em
barrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this c
urrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impl
ications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illu
minate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The c
ommunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohes
ion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial ex
pressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for the
y are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. I
t was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabili
ty of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be groupe
d according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hes
s (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelin
gs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), w
hile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment
, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stud
y are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variat
ions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications fo
r research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicatio
n of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of huma
n society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions a
nd speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the p
rimary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emoti
onal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) de
lineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and supp
ort social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-p
rotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolst
er self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to as
sess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relate
d to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotio
nal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech h
ave been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mean
s by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observation
s that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establishe
d and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expres
sions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their f
unction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates tw
o major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective r
ules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-est
eem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displa

y rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age an


d gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child ps
ychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural an
d gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been th
e focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfor
ced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekma
n & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; th
e classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cat
egories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protec
t individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misail
idi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usag
e in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. T
he information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, p
arenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender st
ereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between ind
ividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whi
ch emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary e
motional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of d
isplay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cu
lture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen
, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classific
ation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pr
o-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying T
hank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individua
ls from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school
-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informat
ion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting an
d teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes o
n developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycho
logical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional co
ntrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rule
s was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Di
splay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification metho
d employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social ru
les preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you aft
er being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pun
ishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The object
ives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childr
en, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developin
g minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamenta
l to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displa
yed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological res
earch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can b
e perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formul
ated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine t
he acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserv

e others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being gi
ven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of thi
s current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have i
mplications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also i
lluminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. Th
e communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the co
hesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived
. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptab
ility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gro
uped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fee
lings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift)
, while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassm
ent, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current s
tudy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any var
iations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate t
he effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communica
tion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of h
uman society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expression
s and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are th
e primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fr
om observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directi
ves established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of em
otional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accord
ing to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and s
upport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while sel
f-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bo
lster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rel
ated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resear
ch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emo
tional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human societ
y. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speec
h have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary m
eans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observat
ions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establi
shed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional exp
ressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to thei
r function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soci
al norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protectiv
e rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster selfesteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess dis
play rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional stat
es between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all t
he ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whi
ch voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that t
he concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and en

forced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (E


kman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (s
uch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pro
tect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mis
ailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule u
sage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender
. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology
, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntar
y emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Frie
sen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classi
fication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayi
ng Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indivi
duals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 200
7). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sch
ool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The infor
mation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotype
s on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emoti
ons are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psy
chological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display r
ules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture th
at determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification me
thod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you
after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obj
ectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chi
ldren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gain
ed will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachi
ng, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develo
ping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundame
ntal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are dis
played, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control ca
n be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was for
mulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determin
e the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display ru
les can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employ
ed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pres
erve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as w
ell as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will hav
e implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and als
o illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fac

ial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, f
or they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be percei
ved. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accep
tability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others
feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gi
ft), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarra
ssment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curren
t study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicati
ons for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminat
e the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commun
ication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion o
f human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial express
ions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dire
ctives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acc
ording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (19
86) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings an
d support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for res
earch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effec
ts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soc
iety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and sp
eech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primar
y means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obser
vations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives esta
blished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to t
heir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delinea
tes two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support s
ocial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protec
tive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster se
lf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in ch
ild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultu
ral and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional s
tates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of al
l the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have b
een the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations tha
t the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functi
on; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two maj
or categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (
Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rul
e usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gen
der. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychol

ogy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gen
der stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwe
en individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the foc
us of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volun
tary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conce
pt of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced b
y a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & F
riesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cla
ssification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categori
es: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as s
aying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect ind
ividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The in
formation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parent
ing and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereot
ypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individu
als is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which em
otions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotio
nal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displa
y rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 197
5). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soc
ial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fr
om punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information g
ained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and tea
ching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on dev
eloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fund
amental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologic
al research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that deter
mine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emp
loyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules p
reserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after be
ing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishme
nt and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, a
s well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing min
ds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research
, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be per
ceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the ac
ceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gn
epp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve oth
ers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emba

rrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cur
rent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as a
ny variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implic
ations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumi
nate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The com
munication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesio
n of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expr
essions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of d
irectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whi
le self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variatio
ns related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the ef
fects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pri
mary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from ob
servations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives e
stablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotion
al expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according t
o their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deli
neates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppor
t social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pro
tective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asse
ss display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cu
ltural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotiona
l states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech hav
e been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressi
ons (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fun
ction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social no
rms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rul
es protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-estee
m (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psyc
hology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states be
tween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the wa
ys in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vo
luntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the co
ncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforce
d by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the

classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categ
ories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such a
s saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailid
i, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, par
enting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ster
eotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indiv
iduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of mu
ch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emo
tional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of dis
play rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cult
ure that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificat
ion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Prosocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Tha
nk you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). T
he objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-a
ge children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informatio
n gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is f
undamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions a
re displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholo
gical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional cont
rol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules w
as formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that de
termine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Disp
lay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rule
s preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punis
hment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectiv
es of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children
, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wi
ll have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, a
nd also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displaye
d, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resea
rch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulat
ed: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules c
an be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being give
n a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and e
mbarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well a
s any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have imp
lications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also ill
uminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohe
sion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial e
xpressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for th
ey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.

It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set o
f directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabil
ity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be group
ed according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & He
ss (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeli
ngs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassmen
t, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stu
dy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any varia
tions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications f
or research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicati
on of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hum
an society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directive
s established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emot
ional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordin
g to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) d
elineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and sup
port social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while selfprotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bols
ter self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to a
ssess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relat
ed to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emoti
onal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mea
ns by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observatio
ns that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establish
ed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expre
ssions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates t
wo major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-es
teem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displ
ay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age a
nd gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child p
sychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural a
nd gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been t
he focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfo
rced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekm
an & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; t
he classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major ca
tegories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (suc
h as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prote
ct individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misai
lidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usa
ge in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender s
tereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between in

dividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in wh


ich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of
display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a c
ulture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friese
n, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifi
cation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: P
ro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying
Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individu
als from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007)
. The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoo
l-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informa
tion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting a
nd teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals i
s fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotion
s are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psych
ological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional c
ontrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rul
es was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). D
isplay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification meth
od employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social r
ules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you af
ter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pu
nishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objec
tives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age child
ren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching
, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developi
ng minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundament
al to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displ
ayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological re
search, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formu
lated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rule
s can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preser
ve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being g
iven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment an
d embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of th
is current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as wel
l as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. T
he communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the c
ohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facia
l expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceive
d. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a se
t of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accepta
bility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gr
ouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fe
elings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift
), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrass
ment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any va

riations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implication
s for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communic
ation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressio
ns and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are t
he primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was f
rom observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direct
ives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of e
motional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accor
ding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986
) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while se
lf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and b
olster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are t
o assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations re
lated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resea
rch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of em
otional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human socie
ty. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spee
ch have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observa
tions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establ
ished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional ex
pressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to the
ir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineate
s two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soc
ial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protecti
ve rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self
-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess di
splay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to ag
e and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chil
d psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultura
l and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional sta
tes between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have bee
n the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by wh
ich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and e
nforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (
Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function
; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (
such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pr
otect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mi
sailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gende
r. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholog
y, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gende
r stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunta
ry emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fri
esen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the class
ification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories
: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as say

ing Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indiv
iduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 20
07). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sc
hool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The info
rmation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parentin
g and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotyp
es on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individual
s is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emot
ions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much ps
ychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotiona
l control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture t
hat determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975)
. Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification m
ethod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-socia
l rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank yo
u after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The ob
jectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age ch
ildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gai
ned will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teach
ing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on devel
oping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundam
ental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are di
splayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control c
an be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was fo
rmulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determi
ne the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display r
ules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emplo
yed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pre
serve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bein
g given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will ha
ve implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and al
so illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds
. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to th
e cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fa
cial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perce
ived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acce
ptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnep
p & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve other
s feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a g
ift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarr
assment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curre
nt study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicat
ions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumina
te the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commu
nication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expres
sions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they ar
e the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It wa
s from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dir
ectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability o

f emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped ac
cording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1
986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings a
nd support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, an
d bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study ar
e to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for re
search in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effe
cts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human so
ciety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and s
peech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prima
ry means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obse
rvations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives est
ablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deline
ates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prote
ctive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster s
elf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in c
hild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cult
ural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of a
ll the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations th
at the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established an
d enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expression
s (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their funct
ion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two ma
jor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norm
s (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display ru
le usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and ge
nder. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycho
logy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and ge
nder stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betw
een individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the fo
cus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volu
ntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conc
ept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cl
assification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categor
ies: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect in
dividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The i
nformation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, paren
ting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereo
types on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individ
uals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which e
motions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much

psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emoti
onal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displ
ay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultur
e that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 19
75). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificatio
n method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-so
cial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals f
rom punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and te
aching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on de
veloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fun
damental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologi
cal research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contro
l can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that dete
rmine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displa
y rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method em
ployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after b
eing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishm
ent and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mi
nds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological researc
h, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be pe
rceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated
: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the a
cceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by G
nepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve ot
hers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emb
arrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cu
rrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impli
cations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illum
inate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The co
mmunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesi
on of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial exp
ressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabilit
y of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeling
s and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), wh
ile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variati
ons related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the e

ffects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication


of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions an
d speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pr
imary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from o
bservations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotio
nal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) del
ineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppo
rt social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pr
otective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolste
r self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to ass
ess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research i
n child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of c
ultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotion
al states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. O
f all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech ha
ve been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional express
ions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fu
nction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social n
orms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective ru
les protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-este
em (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psy
chology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states b
etween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the w
ays in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which v
oluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the c
oncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforc
ed by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cate
gories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misaili
di, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. Th
e information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pa
renting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ste
reotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indi
viduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whic
h emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of m
uch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary em
otional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of di
splay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cul
ture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifica
tion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro
-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Th
ank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individual
s from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).

The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoolage children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informati
on gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychol
ogical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional con
trol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules
was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that d
etermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Dis
play rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rul
es preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you afte
r being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from puni
shment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objecti
ves of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childre
n, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained w
ill have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are display
ed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological rese
arch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formula
ted: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine th
e acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed b
y Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being giv
en a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have im
plications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also il
luminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the coh
esion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for t
hey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabi
lity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grou
ped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & H
ess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feel
ings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassme
nt, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current st
udy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any vari
ations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate th
e effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicat
ion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hu
man society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fro
m observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directiv
es established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emo
tional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordi
ng to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)

delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and su
pport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self
-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bol
ster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rela
ted to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for researc
h in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects o
f cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emot
ional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society
. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary me
ans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observati
ons that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establis
hed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expr
essions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support socia
l norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-e
steem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess disp
lay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional state
s between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all th
e ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whic
h voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that th
e concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enf
orced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ek
man & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major c
ategories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (su
ch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prot
ect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misa
ilidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule us
age in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between i
ndividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in w
hich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus o
f much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept o
f display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fries
en, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classif
ication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayin
g Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individ
uals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007
). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in scho
ol-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inform
ation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotio
ns are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psyc
hological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display ru

les was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture tha
t determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification met
hod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you a
fter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from p
unishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obje
ctives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chil
dren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gaine
d will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachin
g, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develop
ing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamen
tal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are disp
layed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological r
esearch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was form
ulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rul
es can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employe
d by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules prese
rve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment a
nd embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of t
his current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as we
ll as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, faci
al expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, fo
r they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceiv
ed. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a s
et of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accept
ability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be g
rouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others f
eelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gif
t), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarras
sment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any v
ariations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicatio
ns for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communi
cation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressi
ons and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direc
tives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acco
rding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (198
6) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while s
elf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations r
elated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for rese
arch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effect
s of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of e
motional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soci

ety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spe
ech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observ
ations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives estab
lished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional e
xpressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to th
eir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineat
es two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support so
cial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protect
ive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster sel
f-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess d
isplay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to a
ge and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chi
ld psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultur
al and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional st
ates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have be
en the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by w
hich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functio
n; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two majo
r categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules p
rotect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (M
isailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gend
er. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholo
gy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gend
er stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwee
n individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways i
n which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focu
s of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunt
ary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concep
t of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fr
iesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the clas
sification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categorie
s: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sa
ying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indi
viduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2
007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in s
chool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inf
ormation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenti
ng and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereoty
pes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individua
ls is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emo
tions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much p
sychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotion
al control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975
). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soci
al rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank y
ou after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fro
m punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The o
bjectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age c
hildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information ga

ined will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teac
hing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on deve
loping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is funda
mental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are d
isplayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologica
l research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was f
ormulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determ
ine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method empl
oyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pr
eserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bei
ng given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishmen
t and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives o
f this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will h
ave implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and a
lso illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mind
s. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to t
he cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, f
acial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perc
eived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acc
eptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can b
e grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gne
pp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve othe
rs feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embar
rassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curr
ent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as an
y variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implica
tions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumin
ate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The comm
unication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expre
ssions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they a
re the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It w
as from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of di
rectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped a
ccording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (
1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whil
e self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, a
nd bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study a
re to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variation
s related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for r
esearch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the eff
ects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication o
f emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human s
ociety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prim
ary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obs
ervations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives es
tablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotiona
l expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delin
eates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prot

ective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asses
s display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related t
o age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cul
tural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means b
y which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations t
hat the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established a
nd enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressio
ns (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their func
tion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two m
ajor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social nor
ms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rule
s protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display r
ule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and g
ender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psych
ology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and g
ender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states bet
ween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the way
s in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the f
ocus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vol
untary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the con
cept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the c
lassification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major catego
ries: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect i
ndividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi
, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage i
n school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pare
nting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stere
otypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indivi
duals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of muc
h psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emot
ional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of disp
lay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultu
re that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1
975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificati
on method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-s
ocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Than
k you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). Th
e objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-ag
e children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and t
eaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on d
eveloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fu
ndamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions ar
e displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholog
ical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contr
ol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules wa
s formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that det
ermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displ

ay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method e


mployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punish
ment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objective
s of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wil
l have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, an
d also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing m
inds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental t
o the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed
, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resear
ch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be p
erceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulate
d: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules ca
n be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve o
thers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and em
barrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this c
urrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impl
ications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illu
minate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The c
ommunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohes
ion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial ex
pressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for the
y are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. I
t was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabili
ty of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be groupe
d according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hes
s (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelin
gs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), w
hile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment
, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stud
y are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variat
ions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications fo
r research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicatio
n of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of huma
n society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions a
nd speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the p
rimary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emoti
onal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) de
lineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and supp
ort social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-p
rotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolst
er self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to as
sess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relate
d to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotio
nal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech h
ave been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mean

s by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observation


s that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establishe
d and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expres
sions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their f
unction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates tw
o major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective r
ules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-est
eem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displa
y rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age an
d gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child ps
ychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural an
d gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been th
e focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfor
ced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekma
n & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; th
e classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cat
egories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protec
t individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misail
idi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usag
e in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. T
he information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, p
arenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender st
ereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between ind
ividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whi
ch emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary e
motional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of d
isplay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cu
lture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen
, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classific
ation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pr
o-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying T
hank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individua
ls from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school
-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informat
ion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting an
d teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes o
n developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycho
logical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional co
ntrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rule
s was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Di
splay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification metho
d employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social ru
les preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you aft
er being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pun
ishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The object
ives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childr
en, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developin

g minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamenta


l to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displa
yed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological res
earch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can b
e perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formul
ated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine t
he acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserv
e others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being gi
ven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of thi
s current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have i
mplications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also i
lluminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. Th
e communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the co
hesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived
. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptab
ility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gro
uped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fee
lings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift)
, while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassm
ent, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current s
tudy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any var
iations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate t
he effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communica
tion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of h
uman society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expression
s and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are th
e primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fr
om observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directi
ves established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of em
otional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accord
ing to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and s
upport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while sel
f-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bo
lster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rel
ated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resear
ch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emo
tional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human societ
y. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speec
h have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary m
eans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observat
ions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establi
shed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional exp
ressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to thei
r function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soci
al norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protectiv
e rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster selfesteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess dis

play rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional stat
es between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all t
he ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whi
ch voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that t
he concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and en
forced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (E
kman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (s
uch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pro
tect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mis
ailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule u
sage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender
. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology
, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntar
y emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Frie
sen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classi
fication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayi
ng Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indivi
duals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 200
7). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sch
ool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The infor
mation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotype
s on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emoti
ons are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psy
chological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display r
ules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture th
at determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification me
thod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you
after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obj
ectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chi
ldren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gain
ed will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachi
ng, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develo
ping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundame
ntal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are dis
played, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control ca
n be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was for
mulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determin
e the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display ru
les can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employ
ed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pres

erve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as w
ell as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will hav
e implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and als
o illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fac
ial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, f
or they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be percei
ved. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accep
tability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others
feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gi
ft), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarra
ssment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curren
t study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicati
ons for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminat
e the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commun
ication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion o
f human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial express
ions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dire
ctives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acc
ording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (19
86) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings an
d support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for res
earch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effec
ts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soc
iety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and sp
eech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primar
y means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obser
vations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives esta
blished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to t
heir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delinea
tes two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support s
ocial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protec
tive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster se
lf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in ch
ild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultu
ral and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional s
tates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of al
l the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have b
een the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations tha
t the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and

enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions


(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functi
on; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two maj
or categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (
Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rul
e usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gen
der. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychol
ogy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gen
der stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwe
en individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the foc
us of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volun
tary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conce
pt of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced b
y a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & F
riesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cla
ssification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categori
es: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as s
aying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect ind
ividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The in
formation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parent
ing and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereot
ypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individu
als is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which em
otions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotio
nal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displa
y rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 197
5). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soc
ial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fr
om punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information g
ained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and tea
ching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on dev
eloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fund
amental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologic
al research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that deter
mine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emp
loyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules p
reserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after be
ing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishme
nt and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, a
s well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing min
ds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,

facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research
, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be per
ceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the ac
ceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gn
epp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve oth
ers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emba
rrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cur
rent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as a
ny variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implic
ations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumi
nate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The com
munication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesio
n of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expr
essions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of d
irectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whi
le self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variatio
ns related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the ef
fects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pri
mary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from ob
servations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives e
stablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotion
al expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according t
o their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deli
neates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppor
t social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pro
tective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asse
ss display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cu
ltural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotiona
l states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech hav
e been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressi
ons (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fun
ction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social no
rms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rul
es protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-estee
m (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psyc

hology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states be
tween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the wa
ys in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vo
luntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the co
ncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforce
d by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categ
ories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such a
s saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailid
i, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, par
enting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ster
eotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indiv
iduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of mu
ch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emo
tional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of dis
play rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cult
ure that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificat
ion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Prosocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Tha
nk you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). T
he objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-a
ge children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informatio
n gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is f
undamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions a
re displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholo
gical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional cont
rol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules w
as formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that de
termine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Disp
lay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rule
s preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punis
hment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectiv
es of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children
, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wi
ll have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, a
nd also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displaye
d, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resea
rch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulat
ed: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules c
an be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being give
n a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and e

mbarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this


current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well a
s any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have imp
lications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also ill
uminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohe
sion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial e
xpressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for th
ey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set o
f directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabil
ity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be group
ed according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & He
ss (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeli
ngs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassmen
t, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stu
dy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any varia
tions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications f
or research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicati
on of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hum
an society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directive
s established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emot
ional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordin
g to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) d
elineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and sup
port social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while selfprotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bols
ter self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to a
ssess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relat
ed to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emoti
onal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mea
ns by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observatio
ns that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establish
ed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expre
ssions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates t
wo major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-es
teem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displ
ay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age a
nd gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child p
sychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural a
nd gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been t
he focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfo
rced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekm
an & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; t

he classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major ca
tegories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (suc
h as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prote
ct individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misai
lidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usa
ge in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender s
tereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between in
dividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in wh
ich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of
display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a c
ulture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friese
n, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifi
cation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: P
ro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying
Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individu
als from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007)
. The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoo
l-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informa
tion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting a
nd teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals i
s fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotion
s are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psych
ological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional c
ontrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rul
es was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). D
isplay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification meth
od employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social r
ules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you af
ter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pu
nishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objec
tives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age child
ren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching
, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developi
ng minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundament
al to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displ
ayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological re
search, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formu
lated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rule
s can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preser
ve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being g
iven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment an
d embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of th
is current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as wel
l as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. T
he communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the c
ohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facia
l expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceive

d. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a se
t of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accepta
bility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gr
ouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fe
elings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift
), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrass
ment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any va
riations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implication
s for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communic
ation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressio
ns and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are t
he primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was f
rom observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direct
ives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of e
motional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accor
ding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986
) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while se
lf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and b
olster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are t
o assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations re
lated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resea
rch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of em
otional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human socie
ty. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spee
ch have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observa
tions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establ
ished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional ex
pressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to the
ir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineate
s two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soc
ial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protecti
ve rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self
-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess di
splay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to ag
e and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chil
d psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultura
l and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional sta
tes between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have bee
n the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by wh
ich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and e
nforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (
Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function
; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (
such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pr
otect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mi
sailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gende
r. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholog
y, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gende
r stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between

individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in


which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunta
ry emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fri
esen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the class
ification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories
: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as say
ing Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indiv
iduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 20
07). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sc
hool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The info
rmation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parentin
g and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotyp
es on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individual
s is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emot
ions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much ps
ychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotiona
l control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture t
hat determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975)
. Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification m
ethod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-socia
l rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank yo
u after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The ob
jectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age ch
ildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gai
ned will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teach
ing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on devel
oping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundam
ental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are di
splayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control c
an be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was fo
rmulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determi
ne the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display r
ules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emplo
yed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pre
serve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bein
g given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will ha
ve implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and al
so illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds
. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to th
e cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fa
cial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perce
ived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acce
ptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnep
p & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve other
s feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a g
ift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarr
assment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curre
nt study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any

variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicat
ions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumina
te the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commu
nication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expres
sions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they ar
e the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It wa
s from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dir
ectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability o
f emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped ac
cording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1
986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings a
nd support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, an
d bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study ar
e to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for re
search in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effe
cts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human so
ciety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and s
peech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prima
ry means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obse
rvations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives est
ablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deline
ates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prote
ctive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster s
elf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in c
hild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cult
ural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of a
ll the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations th
at the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established an
d enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expression
s (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their funct
ion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two ma
jor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norm
s (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display ru
le usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and ge
nder. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycho
logy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and ge
nder stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betw
een individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the fo
cus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volu
ntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conc
ept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cl
assification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categor
ies: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as

saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect in
dividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The i
nformation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, paren
ting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereo
types on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individ
uals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which e
motions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emoti
onal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displ
ay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultur
e that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 19
75). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificatio
n method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-so
cial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals f
rom punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and te
aching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on de
veloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fun
damental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologi
cal research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contro
l can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that dete
rmine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displa
y rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method em
ployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after b
eing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishm
ent and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mi
nds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological researc
h, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be pe
rceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated
: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the a
cceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by G
nepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve ot
hers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emb
arrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cu
rrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impli
cations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illum
inate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The co
mmunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesi
on of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial exp
ressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabilit

y of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeling
s and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), wh
ile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variati
ons related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the e
ffects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions an
d speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pr
imary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from o
bservations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotio
nal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) del
ineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppo
rt social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pr
otective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolste
r self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to ass
ess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research i
n child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of c
ultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotion
al states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. O
f all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech ha
ve been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional express
ions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fu
nction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social n
orms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective ru
les protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-este
em (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psy
chology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states b
etween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the w
ays in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which v
oluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the c
oncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforc
ed by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cate
gories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misaili
di, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. Th
e information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pa
renting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ste
reotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indi
viduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whic
h emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of m

uch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary em
otional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of di
splay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cul
ture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifica
tion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro
-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Th
ank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individual
s from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoolage children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informati
on gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychol
ogical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional con
trol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules
was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that d
etermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Dis
play rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rul
es preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you afte
r being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from puni
shment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objecti
ves of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childre
n, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained w
ill have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are display
ed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological rese
arch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formula
ted: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine th
e acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed b
y Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being giv
en a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have im
plications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also il
luminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the coh
esion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for t
hey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabi
lity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grou
ped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & H
ess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feel
ings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassme
nt, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current st
udy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any vari
ations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate th

e effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicat


ion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hu
man society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fro
m observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directiv
es established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emo
tional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordi
ng to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and su
pport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self
-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bol
ster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rela
ted to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for researc
h in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects o
f cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emot
ional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society
. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary me
ans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observati
ons that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establis
hed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expr
essions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support socia
l norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-e
steem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess disp
lay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional state
s between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all th
e ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whic
h voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that th
e concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enf
orced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ek
man & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major c
ategories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (su
ch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prot
ect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misa
ilidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule us
age in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between i
ndividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in w
hich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus o
f much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept o
f display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fries
en, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classif
ication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayin
g Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individ
uals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007

). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in scho
ol-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inform
ation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotio
ns are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psyc
hological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display ru
les was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture tha
t determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification met
hod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you a
fter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from p
unishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obje
ctives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chil
dren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gaine
d will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachin
g, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develop
ing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamen
tal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are disp
layed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological r
esearch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was form
ulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rul
es can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employe
d by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules prese
rve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment a
nd embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of t
his current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as we
ll as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, faci
al expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, fo
r they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceiv
ed. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a s
et of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accept
ability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be g
rouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others f
eelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gif
t), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarras
sment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any v
ariations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicatio
ns for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communi
cation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressi
ons and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direc
tives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acco
rding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (198

6) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while s
elf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations r
elated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for rese
arch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effect
s of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of e
motional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soci
ety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spe
ech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observ
ations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives estab
lished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional e
xpressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to th
eir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineat
es two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support so
cial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protect
ive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster sel
f-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess d
isplay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to a
ge and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chi
ld psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultur
al and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional st
ates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have be
en the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by w
hich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functio
n; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two majo
r categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules p
rotect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (M
isailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gend
er. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholo
gy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gend
er stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwee
n individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways i
n which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focu
s of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunt
ary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concep
t of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fr
iesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the clas
sification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categorie
s: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sa
ying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indi
viduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2
007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in s
chool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inf
ormation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenti
ng and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereoty
pes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individua
ls is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emo
tions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much p
sychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotion
al control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display

rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture


that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975
). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soci
al rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank y
ou after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fro
m punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The o
bjectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age c
hildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information ga
ined will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teac
hing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on deve
loping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is funda
mental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are d
isplayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologica
l research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was f
ormulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determ
ine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method empl
oyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pr
eserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bei
ng given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishmen
t and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives o
f this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will h
ave implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and a
lso illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mind
s. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to t
he cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, f
acial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perc
eived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acc
eptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can b
e grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gne
pp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve othe
rs feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embar
rassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curr
ent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as an
y variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implica
tions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumin
ate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The comm
unication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expre
ssions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they a
re the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It w
as from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of di
rectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped a
ccording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (
1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whil
e self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, a
nd bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study a
re to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variation
s related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for r
esearch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the eff
ects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication o
f emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human s

ociety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prim
ary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obs
ervations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives es
tablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotiona
l expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delin
eates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prot
ective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asses
s display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related t
o age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cul
tural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means b
y which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations t
hat the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established a
nd enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressio
ns (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their func
tion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two m
ajor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social nor
ms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rule
s protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display r
ule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and g
ender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psych
ology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and g
ender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states bet
ween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the way
s in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the f
ocus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vol
untary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the con
cept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the c
lassification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major catego
ries: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect i
ndividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi
, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage i
n school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pare
nting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stere
otypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indivi
duals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of muc
h psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emot
ional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of disp
lay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultu
re that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1
975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificati
on method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-s
ocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Than
k you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). Th
e objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-ag
e children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information

gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and t
eaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on d
eveloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fu
ndamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions ar
e displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholog
ical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contr
ol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules wa
s formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that det
ermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displ
ay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method e
mployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punish
ment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objective
s of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wil
l have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, an
d also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing m
inds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental t
o the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed
, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resear
ch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be p
erceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulate
d: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules ca
n be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve o
thers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and em
barrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this c
urrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impl
ications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illu
minate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The c
ommunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohes
ion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial ex
pressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for the
y are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. I
t was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabili
ty of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be groupe
d according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hes
s (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelin
gs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), w
hile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment
, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stud
y are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variat
ions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications fo
r research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicatio
n of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of huma
n society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions a
nd speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the p
rimary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emoti
onal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) de
lineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and supp
ort social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-p

rotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolst
er self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to as
sess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relate
d to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotio
nal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech h
ave been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mean
s by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observation
s that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establishe
d and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expres
sions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their f
unction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates tw
o major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective r
ules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-est
eem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displa
y rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age an
d gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child ps
ychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural an
d gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been th
e focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfor
ced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekma
n & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; th
e classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cat
egories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protec
t individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misail
idi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usag
e in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. T
he information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, p
arenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender st
ereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between ind
ividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whi
ch emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary e
motional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of d
isplay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cu
lture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen
, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classific
ation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pr
o-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying T
hank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individua
ls from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school
-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informat
ion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting an
d teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes o
n developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycho
logical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional co
ntrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rule
s was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Di

splay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification metho
d employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social ru
les preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you aft
er being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pun
ishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The object
ives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childr
en, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developin
g minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamenta
l to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displa
yed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological res
earch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can b
e perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formul
ated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine t
he acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserv
e others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being gi
ven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of thi
s current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have i
mplications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also i
lluminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. Th
e communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the co
hesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived
. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptab
ility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gro
uped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fee
lings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift)
, while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassm
ent, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current s
tudy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any var
iations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate t
he effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communica
tion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of h
uman society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expression
s and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are th
e primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fr
om observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directi
ves established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of em
otional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accord
ing to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and s
upport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while sel
f-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bo
lster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rel
ated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resear
ch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emo
tional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human societ
y. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speec
h have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary m

eans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observat
ions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establi
shed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional exp
ressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to thei
r function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soci
al norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protectiv
e rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster selfesteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess dis
play rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional stat
es between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all t
he ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whi
ch voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that t
he concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and en
forced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (E
kman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (s
uch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pro
tect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mis
ailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule u
sage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender
. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology
, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntar
y emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Frie
sen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classi
fication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayi
ng Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indivi
duals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 200
7). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sch
ool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The infor
mation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotype
s on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emoti
ons are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psy
chological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display r
ules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture th
at determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification me
thod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you
after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obj
ectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chi
ldren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gain
ed will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachi
ng, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develo

ping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundame


ntal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are dis
played, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control ca
n be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was for
mulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determin
e the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display ru
les can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employ
ed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pres
erve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as w
ell as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will hav
e implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and als
o illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fac
ial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, f
or they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be percei
ved. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accep
tability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others
feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gi
ft), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarra
ssment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curren
t study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicati
ons for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminat
e the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commun
ication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion o
f human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial express
ions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dire
ctives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acc
ording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (19
86) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings an
d support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for res
earch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effec
ts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soc
iety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and sp
eech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primar
y means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obser
vations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives esta
blished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to t
heir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delinea
tes two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support s
ocial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protec
tive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster se
lf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess

display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to


age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in ch
ild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultu
ral and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional s
tates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of al
l the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have b
een the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations tha
t the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functi
on; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two maj
or categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (
Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rul
e usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gen
der. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychol
ogy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gen
der stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwe
en individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the foc
us of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volun
tary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conce
pt of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced b
y a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & F
riesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cla
ssification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categori
es: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as s
aying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect ind
ividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The in
formation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parent
ing and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereot
ypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individu
als is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which em
otions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotio
nal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displa
y rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 197
5). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soc
ial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fr
om punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information g
ained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and tea
ching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on dev
eloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fund
amental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologic
al research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that deter
mine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emp
loyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules p

reserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after be
ing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishme
nt and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, a
s well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing min
ds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research
, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be per
ceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the ac
ceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gn
epp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve oth
ers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emba
rrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cur
rent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as a
ny variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implic
ations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumi
nate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The com
munication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesio
n of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expr
essions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of d
irectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whi
le self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variatio
ns related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the ef
fects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pri
mary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from ob
servations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives e
stablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotion
al expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according t
o their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deli
neates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppor
t social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pro
tective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asse
ss display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cu
ltural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotiona
l states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech hav
e been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established

and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressi


ons (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fun
ction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social no
rms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rul
es protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-estee
m (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psyc
hology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states be
tween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the wa
ys in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vo
luntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the co
ncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforce
d by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categ
ories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such a
s saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailid
i, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, par
enting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ster
eotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indiv
iduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of mu
ch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emo
tional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of dis
play rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cult
ure that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificat
ion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Prosocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Tha
nk you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). T
he objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-a
ge children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informatio
n gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is f
undamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions a
re displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholo
gical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional cont
rol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules w
as formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that de
termine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Disp
lay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rule
s preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punis
hment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectiv
es of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children
, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wi
ll have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, a
nd also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displaye

d, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resea
rch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulat
ed: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules c
an be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being give
n a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and e
mbarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well a
s any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have imp
lications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also ill
uminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohe
sion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial e
xpressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for th
ey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set o
f directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabil
ity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be group
ed according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & He
ss (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeli
ngs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassmen
t, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stu
dy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any varia
tions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications f
or research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicati
on of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hum
an society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directive
s established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emot
ional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordin
g to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) d
elineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and sup
port social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while selfprotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bols
ter self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to a
ssess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relat
ed to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emoti
onal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mea
ns by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observatio
ns that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establish
ed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expre
ssions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates t
wo major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-es
teem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displ
ay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age a
nd gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child p

sychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural a
nd gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been t
he focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfo
rced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekm
an & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; t
he classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major ca
tegories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (suc
h as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prote
ct individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misai
lidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usa
ge in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender s
tereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between in
dividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in wh
ich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of
display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a c
ulture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friese
n, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifi
cation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: P
ro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying
Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individu
als from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007)
. The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoo
l-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informa
tion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting a
nd teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals i
s fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotion
s are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psych
ological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional c
ontrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rul
es was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). D
isplay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification meth
od employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social r
ules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you af
ter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pu
nishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objec
tives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age child
ren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching
, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developi
ng minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundament
al to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displ
ayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological re
search, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formu
lated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rule
s can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preser
ve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being g
iven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment an

d embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of th


is current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as wel
l as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. T
he communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the c
ohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facia
l expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceive
d. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a se
t of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accepta
bility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gr
ouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fe
elings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift
), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrass
ment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any va
riations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implication
s for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communic
ation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressio
ns and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are t
he primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was f
rom observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direct
ives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of e
motional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accor
ding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986
) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while se
lf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and b
olster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are t
o assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations re
lated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resea
rch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of em
otional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human socie
ty. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spee
ch have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observa
tions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establ
ished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional ex
pressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to the
ir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineate
s two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soc
ial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protecti
ve rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self
-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess di
splay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to ag
e and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chil
d psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultura
l and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional sta
tes between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have bee
n the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by wh
ich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and e
nforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (
Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function

; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (
such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pr
otect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mi
sailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gende
r. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholog
y, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gende
r stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunta
ry emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fri
esen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the class
ification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories
: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as say
ing Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indiv
iduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 20
07). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sc
hool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The info
rmation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parentin
g and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotyp
es on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individual
s is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emot
ions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much ps
ychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotiona
l control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture t
hat determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975)
. Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification m
ethod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-socia
l rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank yo
u after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The ob
jectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age ch
ildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gai
ned will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teach
ing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on devel
oping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundam
ental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are di
splayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control c
an be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was fo
rmulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determi
ne the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display r
ules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emplo
yed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pre
serve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bein
g given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will ha
ve implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and al
so illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds
. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to th
e cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fa
cial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perce

ived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acce
ptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnep
p & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve other
s feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a g
ift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarr
assment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curre
nt study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicat
ions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumina
te the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commu
nication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expres
sions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they ar
e the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It wa
s from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dir
ectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability o
f emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped ac
cording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1
986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings a
nd support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, an
d bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study ar
e to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for re
search in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effe
cts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human so
ciety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and s
peech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prima
ry means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obse
rvations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives est
ablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deline
ates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prote
ctive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster s
elf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in c
hild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cult
ural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of a
ll the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations th
at the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established an
d enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expression
s (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their funct
ion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two ma
jor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norm
s (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display ru
le usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and ge
nder. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycho
logy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and ge
nder stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betw

een individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the fo
cus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volu
ntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conc
ept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cl
assification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categor
ies: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect in
dividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The i
nformation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, paren
ting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereo
types on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individ
uals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which e
motions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emoti
onal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displ
ay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultur
e that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 19
75). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificatio
n method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-so
cial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals f
rom punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and te
aching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on de
veloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fun
damental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologi
cal research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contro
l can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that dete
rmine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displa
y rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method em
ployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after b
eing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishm
ent and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mi
nds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological researc
h, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be pe
rceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated
: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the a
cceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by G
nepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve ot
hers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emb
arrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cu
rrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as

any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impli
cations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illum
inate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The co
mmunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesi
on of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial exp
ressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabilit
y of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeling
s and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), wh
ile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variati
ons related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the e
ffects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions an
d speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pr
imary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from o
bservations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotio
nal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) del
ineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppo
rt social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pr
otective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolste
r self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to ass
ess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research i
n child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of c
ultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotion
al states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. O
f all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech ha
ve been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional express
ions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fu
nction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social n
orms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective ru
les protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-este
em (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psy
chology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states b
etween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the w
ays in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which v
oluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the c
oncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforc
ed by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cate
gories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such

as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misaili
di, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. Th
e information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pa
renting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ste
reotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indi
viduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whic
h emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of m
uch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary em
otional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of di
splay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cul
ture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifica
tion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro
-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Th
ank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individual
s from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoolage children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informati
on gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychol
ogical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional con
trol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules
was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that d
etermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Dis
play rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rul
es preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you afte
r being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from puni
shment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objecti
ves of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childre
n, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained w
ill have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are display
ed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological rese
arch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formula
ted: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine th
e acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed b
y Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being giv
en a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have im
plications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also il
luminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the coh
esion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for t
hey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabi

lity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grou
ped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & H
ess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feel
ings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassme
nt, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current st
udy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any vari
ations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate th
e effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicat
ion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hu
man society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fro
m observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directiv
es established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emo
tional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordi
ng to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and su
pport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self
-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bol
ster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rela
ted to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for researc
h in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects o
f cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emot
ional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society
. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary me
ans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observati
ons that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establis
hed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expr
essions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support socia
l norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-e
steem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess disp
lay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional state
s between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all th
e ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whic
h voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that th
e concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enf
orced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ek
man & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major c
ategories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (su
ch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prot
ect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misa
ilidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule us
age in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between i
ndividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in w
hich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus o

f much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept o
f display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fries
en, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classif
ication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayin
g Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individ
uals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007
). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in scho
ol-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inform
ation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotio
ns are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psyc
hological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display ru
les was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture tha
t determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification met
hod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you a
fter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from p
unishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obje
ctives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chil
dren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gaine
d will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachin
g, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develop
ing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamen
tal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are disp
layed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological r
esearch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was form
ulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rul
es can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employe
d by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules prese
rve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment a
nd embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of t
his current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as we
ll as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, faci
al expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, fo
r they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceiv
ed. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a s
et of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accept
ability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be g
rouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others f
eelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gif
t), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarras
sment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any v
ariations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicatio
ns for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate

the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communi
cation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressi
ons and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direc
tives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acco
rding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (198
6) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while s
elf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations r
elated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for rese
arch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effect
s of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of e
motional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soci
ety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spe
ech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observ
ations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives estab
lished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional e
xpressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to th
eir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineat
es two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support so
cial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protect
ive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster sel
f-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess d
isplay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to a
ge and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chi
ld psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultur
al and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional st
ates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have be
en the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by w
hich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functio
n; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two majo
r categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules p
rotect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (M
isailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gend
er. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholo
gy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gend
er stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwee
n individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways i
n which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focu
s of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunt
ary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concep
t of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fr
iesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the clas
sification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categorie
s: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sa
ying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indi
viduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2

007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in s
chool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inf
ormation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenti
ng and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereoty
pes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individua
ls is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emo
tions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much p
sychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotion
al control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975
). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soci
al rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank y
ou after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fro
m punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The o
bjectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age c
hildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information ga
ined will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teac
hing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on deve
loping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is funda
mental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are d
isplayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologica
l research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was f
ormulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determ
ine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method empl
oyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pr
eserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bei
ng given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishmen
t and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives o
f this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will h
ave implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and a
lso illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mind
s. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to t
he cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, f
acial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perc
eived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acc
eptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can b
e grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gne
pp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve othe
rs feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embar
rassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curr
ent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as an
y variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implica
tions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumin
ate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The comm
unication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expre
ssions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they a
re the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It w
as from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of di
rectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped a
ccording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (

1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whil
e self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, a
nd bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study a
re to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variation
s related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for r
esearch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the eff
ects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication o
f emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human s
ociety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prim
ary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obs
ervations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives es
tablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotiona
l expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delin
eates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prot
ective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asses
s display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related t
o age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cul
tural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means b
y which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations t
hat the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established a
nd enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressio
ns (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their func
tion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two m
ajor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social nor
ms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rule
s protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display r
ule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and g
ender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psych
ology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and g
ender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states bet
ween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the way
s in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the f
ocus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vol
untary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the con
cept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the c
lassification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major catego
ries: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect i
ndividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi
, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage i
n school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pare
nting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stere
otypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indivi
duals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of muc
h psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emot
ional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of disp

lay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultu
re that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1
975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificati
on method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-s
ocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Than
k you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). Th
e objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-ag
e children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and t
eaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on d
eveloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fu
ndamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions ar
e displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholog
ical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contr
ol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules wa
s formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that det
ermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displ
ay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method e
mployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punish
ment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objective
s of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wil
l have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, an
d also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing m
inds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental t
o the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed
, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resear
ch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be p
erceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulate
d: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules ca
n be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve o
thers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and em
barrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this c
urrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impl
ications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illu
minate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The c
ommunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohes
ion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial ex
pressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for the
y are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. I
t was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabili
ty of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be groupe
d according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hes
s (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelin
gs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), w
hile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment
, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stud
y are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variat
ions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications fo
r research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicatio
n of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of huma

n society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions a
nd speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the p
rimary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emoti
onal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) de
lineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and supp
ort social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-p
rotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolst
er self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to as
sess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relate
d to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotio
nal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech h
ave been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mean
s by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observation
s that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establishe
d and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expres
sions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their f
unction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates tw
o major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective r
ules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-est
eem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displa
y rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age an
d gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child ps
ychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural an
d gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been th
e focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfor
ced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekma
n & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; th
e classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cat
egories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protec
t individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misail
idi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usag
e in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. T
he information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, p
arenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender st
ereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between ind
ividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whi
ch emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary e
motional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of d
isplay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cu
lture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen
, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classific
ation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pr
o-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying T
hank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individua
ls from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school
-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informat

ion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting an
d teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes o
n developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycho
logical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional co
ntrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rule
s was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Di
splay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification metho
d employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social ru
les preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you aft
er being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pun
ishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The object
ives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childr
en, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developin
g minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamenta
l to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displa
yed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological res
earch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can b
e perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formul
ated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine t
he acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserv
e others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being gi
ven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of thi
s current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have i
mplications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also i
lluminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. Th
e communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the co
hesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived
. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptab
ility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gro
uped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fee
lings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift)
, while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassm
ent, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current s
tudy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any var
iations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate t
he effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communica
tion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of h
uman society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expression
s and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are th
e primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fr
om observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directi
ves established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of em
otional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accord
ing to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and s
upport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while sel

f-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bo


lster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rel
ated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resear
ch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emo
tional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human societ
y. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speec
h have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary m
eans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observat
ions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establi
shed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional exp
ressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to thei
r function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soci
al norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protectiv
e rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster selfesteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess dis
play rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional stat
es between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all t
he ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whi
ch voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that t
he concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and en
forced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (E
kman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (s
uch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pro
tect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mis
ailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule u
sage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender
. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology
, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntar
y emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Frie
sen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classi
fication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayi
ng Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indivi
duals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 200
7). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sch
ool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The infor
mation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotype
s on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emoti
ons are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psy
chological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display r
ules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture th
at determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).

Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification me


thod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you
after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obj
ectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chi
ldren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gain
ed will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachi
ng, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develo
ping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundame
ntal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are dis
played, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control ca
n be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was for
mulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determin
e the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display ru
les can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employ
ed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pres
erve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as w
ell as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will hav
e implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and als
o illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fac
ial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, f
or they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be percei
ved. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accep
tability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others
feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gi
ft), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarra
ssment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curren
t study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicati
ons for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminat
e the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commun
ication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion o
f human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial express
ions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dire
ctives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acc
ording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (19
86) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings an
d support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for res
earch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effec
ts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soc
iety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and sp
eech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primar

y means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obser
vations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives esta
blished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to t
heir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delinea
tes two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support s
ocial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protec
tive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster se
lf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in ch
ild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultu
ral and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional s
tates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of al
l the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have b
een the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations tha
t the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functi
on; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two maj
or categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (
Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rul
e usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gen
der. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychol
ogy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gen
der stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwe
en individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the foc
us of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volun
tary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conce
pt of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced b
y a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & F
riesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cla
ssification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categori
es: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as s
aying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect ind
ividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The in
formation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parent
ing and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereot
ypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individu
als is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which em
otions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotio
nal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displa
y rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 197
5). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soc
ial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fr
om punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information g
ained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and tea
ching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on dev

eloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fund


amental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologic
al research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that deter
mine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emp
loyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules p
reserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after be
ing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishme
nt and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, a
s well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing min
ds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research
, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be per
ceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the ac
ceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gn
epp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve oth
ers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emba
rrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cur
rent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as a
ny variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implic
ations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumi
nate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The com
munication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesio
n of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expr
essions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of d
irectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whi
le self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variatio
ns related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the ef
fects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pri
mary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from ob
servations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives e
stablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotion
al expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according t
o their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deli
neates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppor
t social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pro
tective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asse

ss display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related


to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cu
ltural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotiona
l states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech hav
e been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressi
ons (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fun
ction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social no
rms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rul
es protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-estee
m (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psyc
hology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states be
tween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the wa
ys in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vo
luntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the co
ncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforce
d by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categ
ories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such a
s saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailid
i, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, par
enting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ster
eotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indiv
iduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of mu
ch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emo
tional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of dis
play rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cult
ure that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificat
ion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Prosocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Tha
nk you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). T
he objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-a
ge children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informatio
n gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is f
undamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions a
re displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholo
gical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional cont
rol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules w
as formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that de
termine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Disp
lay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rule

s preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punis
hment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectiv
es of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children
, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wi
ll have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, a
nd also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displaye
d, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resea
rch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulat
ed: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules c
an be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being give
n a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and e
mbarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well a
s any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have imp
lications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also ill
uminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohe
sion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial e
xpressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for th
ey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set o
f directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabil
ity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be group
ed according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & He
ss (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeli
ngs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassmen
t, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stu
dy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any varia
tions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications f
or research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicati
on of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hum
an society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directive
s established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emot
ional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordin
g to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) d
elineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and sup
port social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while selfprotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bols
ter self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to a
ssess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relat
ed to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emoti
onal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mea
ns by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observatio
ns that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establish

ed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expre


ssions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates t
wo major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-es
teem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displ
ay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age a
nd gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child p
sychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural a
nd gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been t
he focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfo
rced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekm
an & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; t
he classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major ca
tegories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (suc
h as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prote
ct individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misai
lidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usa
ge in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender s
tereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between in
dividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in wh
ich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of
display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a c
ulture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friese
n, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifi
cation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: P
ro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying
Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individu
als from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007)
. The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoo
l-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informa
tion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting a
nd teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals i
s fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotion
s are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psych
ological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional c
ontrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rul
es was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). D
isplay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification meth
od employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social r
ules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you af
ter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pu
nishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objec
tives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age child
ren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching
, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developi
ng minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundament
al to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displ

ayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological re
search, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formu
lated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rule
s can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preser
ve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being g
iven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment an
d embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of th
is current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as wel
l as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. T
he communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the c
ohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facia
l expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceive
d. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a se
t of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accepta
bility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gr
ouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fe
elings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift
), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrass
ment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any va
riations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implication
s for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communic
ation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressio
ns and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are t
he primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was f
rom observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direct
ives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of e
motional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accor
ding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986
) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while se
lf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and b
olster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are t
o assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations re
lated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resea
rch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of em
otional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human socie
ty. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spee
ch have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observa
tions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establ
ished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional ex
pressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to the
ir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineate
s two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soc
ial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protecti
ve rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self
-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess di
splay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to ag
e and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chil

d psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultura
l and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional sta
tes between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have bee
n the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by wh
ich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and e
nforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (
Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function
; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (
such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pr
otect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mi
sailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gende
r. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholog
y, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gende
r stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunta
ry emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fri
esen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the class
ification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories
: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as say
ing Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indiv
iduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 20
07). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sc
hool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The info
rmation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parentin
g and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotyp
es on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individual
s is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emot
ions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much ps
ychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotiona
l control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture t
hat determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975)
. Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification m
ethod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-socia
l rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank yo
u after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The ob
jectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age ch
ildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gai
ned will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teach
ing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on devel
oping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundam
ental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are di
splayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control c
an be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was fo
rmulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determi
ne the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display r
ules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emplo
yed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pre
serve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bein
g given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment

and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of


this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will ha
ve implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and al
so illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds
. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to th
e cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fa
cial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perce
ived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acce
ptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnep
p & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve other
s feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a g
ift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarr
assment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curre
nt study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicat
ions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumina
te the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commu
nication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expres
sions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they ar
e the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It wa
s from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dir
ectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability o
f emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped ac
cording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1
986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings a
nd support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, an
d bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study ar
e to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for re
search in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effe
cts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human so
ciety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and s
peech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prima
ry means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obse
rvations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives est
ablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deline
ates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prote
ctive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster s
elf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in c
hild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cult
ural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of a
ll the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations th
at the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established an
d enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expression
s (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their funct

ion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two ma
jor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norm
s (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display ru
le usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and ge
nder. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycho
logy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and ge
nder stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betw
een individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the fo
cus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volu
ntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conc
ept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cl
assification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categor
ies: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect in
dividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The i
nformation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, paren
ting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereo
types on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individ
uals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which e
motions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emoti
onal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displ
ay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultur
e that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 19
75). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificatio
n method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-so
cial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals f
rom punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and te
aching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on de
veloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fun
damental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologi
cal research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contro
l can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that dete
rmine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displa
y rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method em
ployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after b
eing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishm
ent and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mi
nds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological researc
h, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be pe

rceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated
: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the a
cceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by G
nepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve ot
hers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emb
arrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cu
rrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impli
cations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illum
inate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The co
mmunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesi
on of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial exp
ressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabilit
y of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeling
s and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), wh
ile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variati
ons related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the e
ffects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions an
d speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pr
imary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from o
bservations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotio
nal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) del
ineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppo
rt social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pr
otective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolste
r self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to ass
ess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research i
n child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of c
ultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotion
al states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. O
f all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech ha
ve been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional express
ions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fu
nction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social n
orms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective ru
les protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-este
em (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psy
chology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states b

etween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the w


ays in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which v
oluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the c
oncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforc
ed by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cate
gories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misaili
di, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. Th
e information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pa
renting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ste
reotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indi
viduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whic
h emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of m
uch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary em
otional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of di
splay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cul
ture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifica
tion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro
-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Th
ank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individual
s from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoolage children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informati
on gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychol
ogical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional con
trol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules
was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that d
etermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Dis
play rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rul
es preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you afte
r being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from puni
shment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objecti
ves of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childre
n, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained w
ill have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are display
ed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological rese
arch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formula
ted: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine th
e acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed b
y Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being giv
en a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well

as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have im
plications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also il
luminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the coh
esion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for t
hey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabi
lity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grou
ped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & H
ess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feel
ings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassme
nt, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current st
udy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any vari
ations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate th
e effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicat
ion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hu
man society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fro
m observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directiv
es established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emo
tional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordi
ng to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and su
pport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self
-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bol
ster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rela
ted to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for researc
h in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects o
f cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emot
ional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society
. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary me
ans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observati
ons that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establis
hed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expr
essions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support socia
l norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-e
steem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess disp
lay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional state
s between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all th
e ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whic
h voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that th
e concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enf
orced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ek
man & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major c
ategories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (su

ch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prot
ect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misa
ilidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule us
age in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between i
ndividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in w
hich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus o
f much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept o
f display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fries
en, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classif
ication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayin
g Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individ
uals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007
). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in scho
ol-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inform
ation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotio
ns are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psyc
hological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display ru
les was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture tha
t determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification met
hod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you a
fter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from p
unishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obje
ctives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chil
dren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gaine
d will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachin
g, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develop
ing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamen
tal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are disp
layed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological r
esearch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was form
ulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rul
es can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employe
d by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules prese
rve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment a
nd embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of t
his current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as we
ll as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, faci
al expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, fo
r they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceiv
ed. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a s
et of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accept

ability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be g
rouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others f
eelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gif
t), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarras
sment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any v
ariations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicatio
ns for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communi
cation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressi
ons and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direc
tives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acco
rding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (198
6) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while s
elf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations r
elated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for rese
arch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effect
s of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of e
motional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soci
ety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spe
ech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observ
ations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives estab
lished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional e
xpressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to th
eir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineat
es two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support so
cial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protect
ive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster sel
f-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess d
isplay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to a
ge and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chi
ld psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultur
al and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional st
ates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have be
en the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by w
hich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functio
n; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two majo
r categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules p
rotect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (M
isailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gend
er. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholo
gy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gend
er stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwee
n individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways i
n which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focu

s of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunt
ary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concep
t of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fr
iesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the clas
sification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categorie
s: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sa
ying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indi
viduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2
007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in s
chool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inf
ormation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenti
ng and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereoty
pes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individua
ls is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emo
tions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much p
sychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotion
al control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975
). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soci
al rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank y
ou after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fro
m punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The o
bjectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age c
hildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information ga
ined will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teac
hing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on deve
loping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is funda
mental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are d
isplayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologica
l research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was f
ormulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determ
ine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method empl
oyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pr
eserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bei
ng given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishmen
t and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives o
f this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will h
ave implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and a
lso illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mind
s. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to t
he cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, f
acial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perc
eived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acc
eptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can b
e grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gne
pp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve othe
rs feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embar
rassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curr
ent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as an
y variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implica
tions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumin

ate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The comm
unication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expre
ssions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they a
re the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It w
as from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of di
rectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped a
ccording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (
1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whil
e self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, a
nd bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study a
re to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variation
s related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for r
esearch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the eff
ects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication o
f emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human s
ociety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prim
ary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obs
ervations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives es
tablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotiona
l expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delin
eates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prot
ective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asses
s display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related t
o age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cul
tural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means b
y which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations t
hat the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established a
nd enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressio
ns (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their func
tion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two m
ajor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social nor
ms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rule
s protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display r
ule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and g
ender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psych
ology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and g
ender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states bet
ween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the way
s in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the f
ocus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vol
untary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the con
cept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the c
lassification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major catego
ries: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect i
ndividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi

, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage i
n school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pare
nting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stere
otypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indivi
duals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of muc
h psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emot
ional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of disp
lay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultu
re that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1
975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificati
on method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-s
ocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Than
k you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). Th
e objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-ag
e children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and t
eaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on d
eveloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fu
ndamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions ar
e displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholog
ical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contr
ol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules wa
s formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that det
ermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displ
ay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method e
mployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punish
ment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objective
s of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wil
l have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, an
d also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing m
inds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental t
o the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed
, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resear
ch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be p
erceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulate
d: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules ca
n be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve o
thers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and em
barrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this c
urrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impl
ications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illu
minate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The c
ommunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohes
ion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial ex
pressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for the
y are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. I
t was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabili
ty of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be groupe
d according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hes

s (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelin
gs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), w
hile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment
, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stud
y are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variat
ions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications fo
r research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicatio
n of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of huma
n society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions a
nd speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the p
rimary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emoti
onal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) de
lineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and supp
ort social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-p
rotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolst
er self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to as
sess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relate
d to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotio
nal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech h
ave been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mean
s by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observation
s that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establishe
d and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expres
sions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their f
unction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates tw
o major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective r
ules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-est
eem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displa
y rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age an
d gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child ps
ychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural an
d gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been th
e focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfor
ced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekma
n & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; th
e classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cat
egories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protec
t individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misail
idi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usag
e in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. T
he information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, p
arenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender st
ereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between ind
ividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whi
ch emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary e
motional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of d

isplay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cu


lture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen
, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classific
ation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pr
o-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying T
hank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individua
ls from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school
-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informat
ion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting an
d teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes o
n developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycho
logical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional co
ntrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rule
s was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Di
splay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification metho
d employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social ru
les preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you aft
er being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pun
ishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The object
ives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childr
en, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developin
g minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamenta
l to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displa
yed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological res
earch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can b
e perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formul
ated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine t
he acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserv
e others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being gi
ven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of thi
s current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have i
mplications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also i
lluminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. Th
e communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the co
hesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived
. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptab
ility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gro
uped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fee
lings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift)
, while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassm
ent, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current s
tudy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any var
iations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate t
he effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communica
tion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of h

uman society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expression
s and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are th
e primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fr
om observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directi
ves established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of em
otional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accord
ing to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and s
upport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while sel
f-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bo
lster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rel
ated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resear
ch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emo
tional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human societ
y. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speec
h have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary m
eans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observat
ions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establi
shed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional exp
ressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to thei
r function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soci
al norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protectiv
e rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster selfesteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess dis
play rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional stat
es between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all t
he ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whi
ch voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that t
he concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and en
forced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (E
kman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (s
uch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pro
tect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mis
ailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule u
sage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender
. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology
, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntar
y emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Frie
sen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classi
fication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayi
ng Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indivi
duals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 200
7). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sch
ool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The infor

mation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotype
s on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emoti
ons are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psy
chological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display r
ules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture th
at determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification me
thod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you
after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obj
ectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chi
ldren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gain
ed will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachi
ng, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develo
ping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundame
ntal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are dis
played, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control ca
n be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was for
mulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determin
e the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display ru
les can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employ
ed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pres
erve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as w
ell as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will hav
e implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and als
o illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fac
ial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, f
or they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be percei
ved. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accep
tability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others
feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gi
ft), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarra
ssment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curren
t study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicati
ons for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminat
e the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commun
ication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion o
f human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial express
ions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dire
ctives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acc
ording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (19
86) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings an
d support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while

self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and


bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for res
earch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effec
ts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soc
iety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and sp
eech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primar
y means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obser
vations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives esta
blished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to t
heir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delinea
tes two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support s
ocial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protec
tive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster se
lf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in ch
ild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultu
ral and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional s
tates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of al
l the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have b
een the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations tha
t the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functi
on; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two maj
or categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (
Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rul
e usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gen
der. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychol
ogy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gen
der stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwe
en individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the foc
us of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volun
tary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conce
pt of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced b
y a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & F
riesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cla
ssification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categori
es: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as s
aying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect ind
ividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The in
formation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parent
ing and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereot
ypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individu
als is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which em
otions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotio
nal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displa
y rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 197

5). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soc
ial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fr
om punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information g
ained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and tea
ching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on dev
eloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fund
amental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologic
al research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that deter
mine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emp
loyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules p
reserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after be
ing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishme
nt and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, a
s well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing min
ds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research
, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be per
ceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the ac
ceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gn
epp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve oth
ers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emba
rrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cur
rent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as a
ny variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implic
ations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumi
nate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The com
munication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesio
n of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expr
essions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of d
irectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whi
le self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variatio
ns related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the ef
fects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pri

mary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from ob
servations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives e
stablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotion
al expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according t
o their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deli
neates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppor
t social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pro
tective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asse
ss display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cu
ltural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotiona
l states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech hav
e been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressi
ons (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fun
ction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social no
rms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rul
es protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-estee
m (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psyc
hology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states be
tween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the wa
ys in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vo
luntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the co
ncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforce
d by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categ
ories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such a
s saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailid
i, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, par
enting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ster
eotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indiv
iduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of mu
ch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emo
tional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of dis
play rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cult
ure that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificat
ion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Prosocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Tha
nk you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). T
he objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-a
ge children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informatio
n gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on

developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is f


undamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions a
re displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholo
gical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional cont
rol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules w
as formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that de
termine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Disp
lay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rule
s preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punis
hment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectiv
es of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children
, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wi
ll have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, a
nd also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displaye
d, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resea
rch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulat
ed: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules c
an be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being give
n a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and e
mbarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well a
s any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have imp
lications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also ill
uminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohe
sion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial e
xpressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for th
ey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set o
f directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabil
ity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be group
ed according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & He
ss (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeli
ngs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassmen
t, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stu
dy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any varia
tions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications f
or research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicati
on of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hum
an society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directive
s established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emot
ional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordin
g to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) d
elineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and sup
port social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while selfprotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bols
ter self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to a

ssess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relat
ed to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emoti
onal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mea
ns by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observatio
ns that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establish
ed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expre
ssions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates t
wo major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-es
teem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displ
ay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age a
nd gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child p
sychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural a
nd gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been t
he focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfo
rced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekm
an & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; t
he classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major ca
tegories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (suc
h as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prote
ct individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misai
lidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usa
ge in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender s
tereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between in
dividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in wh
ich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of
display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a c
ulture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friese
n, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifi
cation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: P
ro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying
Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individu
als from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007)
. The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoo
l-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informa
tion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting a
nd teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals i
s fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotion
s are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psych
ological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional c
ontrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rul
es was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). D
isplay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification meth
od employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social r

ules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you af
ter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pu
nishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objec
tives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age child
ren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching
, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developi
ng minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundament
al to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displ
ayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological re
search, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formu
lated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rule
s can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preser
ve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being g
iven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment an
d embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of th
is current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as wel
l as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. T
he communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the c
ohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facia
l expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceive
d. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a se
t of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accepta
bility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gr
ouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fe
elings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift
), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrass
ment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any va
riations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implication
s for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communic
ation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressio
ns and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are t
he primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was f
rom observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direct
ives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of e
motional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accor
ding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986
) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while se
lf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and b
olster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are t
o assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations re
lated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resea
rch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of em
otional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human socie
ty. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spee
ch have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observa
tions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establ

ished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional ex


pressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to the
ir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineate
s two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soc
ial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protecti
ve rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self
-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess di
splay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to ag
e and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chil
d psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultura
l and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional sta
tes between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have bee
n the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by wh
ich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and e
nforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (
Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function
; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (
such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pr
otect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mi
sailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gende
r. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholog
y, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gende
r stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunta
ry emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fri
esen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the class
ification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories
: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as say
ing Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indiv
iduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 20
07). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sc
hool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The info
rmation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parentin
g and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotyp
es on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individual
s is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emot
ions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much ps
ychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotiona
l control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture t
hat determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975)
. Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification m
ethod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-socia
l rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank yo
u after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The ob
jectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age ch
ildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gai
ned will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teach
ing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on devel
oping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundam
ental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are di

splayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control c
an be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was fo
rmulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determi
ne the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display r
ules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emplo
yed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pre
serve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bein
g given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will ha
ve implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and al
so illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds
. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to th
e cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fa
cial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perce
ived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acce
ptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnep
p & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve other
s feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a g
ift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarr
assment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curre
nt study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicat
ions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumina
te the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commu
nication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expres
sions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they ar
e the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It wa
s from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dir
ectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability o
f emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped ac
cording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1
986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings a
nd support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, an
d bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study ar
e to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for re
search in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effe
cts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human so
ciety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and s
peech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prima
ry means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obse
rvations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives est
ablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deline
ates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prote
ctive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster s
elf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in c

hild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cult
ural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of a
ll the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations th
at the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established an
d enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expression
s (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their funct
ion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two ma
jor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norm
s (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display ru
le usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and ge
nder. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycho
logy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and ge
nder stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betw
een individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the fo
cus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volu
ntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conc
ept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cl
assification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categor
ies: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect in
dividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The i
nformation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, paren
ting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereo
types on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individ
uals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which e
motions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emoti
onal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displ
ay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultur
e that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 19
75). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificatio
n method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-so
cial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals f
rom punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and te
aching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on de
veloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fun
damental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologi
cal research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contro
l can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that dete
rmine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displa
y rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method em
ployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after b
eing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishm

ent and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mi
nds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological researc
h, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be pe
rceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated
: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the a
cceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by G
nepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve ot
hers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emb
arrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cu
rrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impli
cations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illum
inate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The co
mmunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesi
on of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial exp
ressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabilit
y of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeling
s and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), wh
ile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variati
ons related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the e
ffects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions an
d speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pr
imary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from o
bservations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotio
nal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) del
ineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppo
rt social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pr
otective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolste
r self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to ass
ess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research i
n child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of c
ultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotion
al states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. O
f all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech ha
ve been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional express
ions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fu

nction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social n
orms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective ru
les protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-este
em (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psy
chology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states b
etween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the w
ays in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which v
oluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the c
oncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforc
ed by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cate
gories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misaili
di, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. Th
e information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pa
renting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ste
reotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indi
viduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whic
h emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of m
uch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary em
otional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of di
splay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cul
ture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifica
tion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro
-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Th
ank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individual
s from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoolage children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informati
on gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychol
ogical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional con
trol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules
was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that d
etermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Dis
play rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rul
es preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you afte
r being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from puni
shment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objecti
ves of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childre
n, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained w
ill have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are display
ed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological rese
arch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be

perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formula
ted: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine th
e acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed b
y Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being giv
en a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have im
plications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also il
luminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the coh
esion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for t
hey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabi
lity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grou
ped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & H
ess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feel
ings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassme
nt, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current st
udy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any vari
ations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate th
e effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicat
ion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hu
man society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fro
m observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directiv
es established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emo
tional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordi
ng to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and su
pport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self
-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bol
ster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rela
ted to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for researc
h in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects o
f cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emot
ional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society
. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary me
ans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observati
ons that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establis
hed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expr
essions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support socia
l norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-e
steem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess disp
lay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional state

s between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all th


e ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whic
h voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that th
e concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enf
orced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ek
man & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major c
ategories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (su
ch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prot
ect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misa
ilidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule us
age in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between i
ndividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in w
hich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus o
f much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept o
f display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fries
en, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classif
ication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayin
g Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individ
uals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007
). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in scho
ol-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inform
ation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotio
ns are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psyc
hological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display ru
les was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture tha
t determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification met
hod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you a
fter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from p
unishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obje
ctives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chil
dren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gaine
d will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachin
g, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develop
ing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamen
tal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are disp
layed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological r
esearch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was form
ulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rul
es can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employe
d by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules prese
rve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment a
nd embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of t
his current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as we

ll as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, faci
al expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, fo
r they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceiv
ed. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a s
et of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accept
ability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be g
rouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others f
eelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gif
t), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarras
sment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any v
ariations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicatio
ns for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communi
cation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressi
ons and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direc
tives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acco
rding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (198
6) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while s
elf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations r
elated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for rese
arch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effect
s of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of e
motional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soci
ety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spe
ech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observ
ations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives estab
lished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional e
xpressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to th
eir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineat
es two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support so
cial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protect
ive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster sel
f-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess d
isplay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to a
ge and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chi
ld psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultur
al and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional st
ates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have be
en the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by w
hich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functio
n; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two majo
r categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms

(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules p
rotect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (M
isailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gend
er. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholo
gy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gend
er stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwee
n individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways i
n which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focu
s of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunt
ary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concep
t of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fr
iesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the clas
sification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categorie
s: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sa
ying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indi
viduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2
007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in s
chool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inf
ormation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenti
ng and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereoty
pes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individua
ls is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emo
tions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much p
sychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotion
al control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975
). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soci
al rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank y
ou after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fro
m punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The o
bjectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age c
hildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information ga
ined will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teac
hing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on deve
loping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is funda
mental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are d
isplayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologica
l research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was f
ormulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determ
ine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method empl
oyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pr
eserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bei
ng given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishmen
t and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives o
f this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will h
ave implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and a
lso illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mind
s. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to t
he cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, f
acial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perc
eived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acc

eptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can b
e grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gne
pp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve othe
rs feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embar
rassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curr
ent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as an
y variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implica
tions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumin
ate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The comm
unication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expre
ssions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they a
re the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It w
as from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of di
rectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped a
ccording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (
1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whil
e self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, a
nd bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study a
re to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variation
s related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for r
esearch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the eff
ects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication o
f emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human s
ociety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prim
ary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obs
ervations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives es
tablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotiona
l expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delin
eates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prot
ective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asses
s display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related t
o age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cul
tural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means b
y which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations t
hat the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established a
nd enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressio
ns (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their func
tion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two m
ajor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social nor
ms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rule
s protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display r
ule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and g
ender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psych
ology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and g
ender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states bet
ween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the way
s in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the f

ocus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vol
untary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the con
cept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the c
lassification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major catego
ries: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect i
ndividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi
, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage i
n school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pare
nting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stere
otypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indivi
duals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of muc
h psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emot
ional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of disp
lay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultu
re that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1
975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificati
on method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-s
ocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Than
k you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). Th
e objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-ag
e children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and t
eaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on d
eveloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fu
ndamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions ar
e displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholog
ical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contr
ol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules wa
s formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that det
ermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displ
ay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method e
mployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punish
ment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objective
s of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wil
l have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, an
d also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing m
inds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental t
o the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed
, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resear
ch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be p
erceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulate
d: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules ca
n be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve o
thers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and em
barrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this c
urrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impl
ications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illu

minate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The c
ommunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohes
ion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial ex
pressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for the
y are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. I
t was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabili
ty of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be groupe
d according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hes
s (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelin
gs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), w
hile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment
, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stud
y are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variat
ions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications fo
r research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicatio
n of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of huma
n society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions a
nd speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the p
rimary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emoti
onal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) de
lineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and supp
ort social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-p
rotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolst
er self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to as
sess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relate
d to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotio
nal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech h
ave been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mean
s by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observation
s that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establishe
d and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expres
sions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their f
unction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates tw
o major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective r
ules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-est
eem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displa
y rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age an
d gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child ps
ychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural an
d gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been th
e focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfor
ced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekma
n & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; th
e classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cat
egories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protec
t individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misail

idi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usag
e in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. T
he information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, p
arenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender st
ereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between ind
ividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whi
ch emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary e
motional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of d
isplay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cu
lture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen
, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classific
ation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pr
o-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying T
hank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individua
ls from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school
-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informat
ion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting an
d teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes o
n developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycho
logical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional co
ntrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rule
s was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Di
splay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification metho
d employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social ru
les preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you aft
er being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pun
ishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The object
ives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childr
en, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developin
g minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamenta
l to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displa
yed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological res
earch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can b
e perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formul
ated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine t
he acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserv
e others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being gi
ven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of thi
s current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have i
mplications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also i
lluminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. Th
e communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the co
hesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived
. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptab
ility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gro
uped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &

Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fee
lings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift)
, while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassm
ent, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current s
tudy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any var
iations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate t
he effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communica
tion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of h
uman society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expression
s and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are th
e primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fr
om observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directi
ves established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of em
otional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accord
ing to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and s
upport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while sel
f-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bo
lster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rel
ated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resear
ch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emo
tional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human societ
y. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speec
h have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary m
eans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observat
ions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establi
shed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional exp
ressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to thei
r function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soci
al norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protectiv
e rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster selfesteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess dis
play rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional stat
es between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all t
he ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whi
ch voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that t
he concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and en
forced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (E
kman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (s
uch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pro
tect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mis
ailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule u
sage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender
. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology
, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntar
y emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept

of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a


culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Frie
sen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classi
fication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayi
ng Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indivi
duals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 200
7). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sch
ool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The infor
mation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotype
s on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emoti
ons are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psy
chological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display r
ules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture th
at determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification me
thod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you
after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obj
ectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chi
ldren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gain
ed will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachi
ng, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develo
ping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundame
ntal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are dis
played, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control ca
n be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was for
mulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determin
e the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display ru
les can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employ
ed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pres
erve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as w
ell as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will hav
e implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and als
o illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fac
ial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, f
or they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be percei
ved. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accep
tability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others
feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gi
ft), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarra
ssment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curren
t study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicati
ons for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminat
e the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commun
ication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion o

f human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial express
ions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dire
ctives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acc
ording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (19
86) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings an
d support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for res
earch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effec
ts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soc
iety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and sp
eech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primar
y means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obser
vations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives esta
blished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to t
heir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delinea
tes two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support s
ocial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protec
tive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster se
lf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in ch
ild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultu
ral and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional s
tates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of al
l the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have b
een the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations tha
t the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functi
on; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two maj
or categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (
Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rul
e usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gen
der. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychol
ogy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gen
der stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwe
en individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the foc
us of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volun
tary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conce
pt of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced b
y a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & F
riesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cla
ssification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categori
es: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as s
aying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect ind
ividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The in

formation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parent
ing and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereot
ypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individu
als is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which em
otions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotio
nal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displa
y rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 197
5). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soc
ial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fr
om punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information g
ained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and tea
ching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on dev
eloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fund
amental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are
displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologic
al research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that deter
mine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emp
loyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules p
reserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after be
ing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishme
nt and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, a
s well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing min
ds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research
, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be per
ceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the ac
ceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gn
epp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve oth
ers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emba
rrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cur
rent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as a
ny variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implic
ations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumi
nate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The com
munication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesio
n of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expr
essions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of d
irectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whi

le self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,


and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variatio
ns related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the ef
fects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pri
mary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from ob
servations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives e
stablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotion
al expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according t
o their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deli
neates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppor
t social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pro
tective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asse
ss display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cu
ltural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotiona
l states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech hav
e been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressi
ons (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fun
ction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social no
rms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rul
es protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-estee
m (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psyc
hology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states be
tween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the wa
ys in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vo
luntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the co
ncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforce
d by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categ
ories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such a
s saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailid
i, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, par
enting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ster
eotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indiv
iduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of mu
ch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emo
tional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of dis
play rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cult
ure that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,

1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificat
ion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Prosocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Tha
nk you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). T
he objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-a
ge children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informatio
n gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is f
undamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions a
re displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholo
gical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional cont
rol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules w
as formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that de
termine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Disp
lay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rule
s preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punis
hment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectiv
es of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children
, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wi
ll have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, a
nd also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displaye
d, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resea
rch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulat
ed: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the
acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules c
an be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being give
n a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and e
mbarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well a
s any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have imp
lications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also ill
uminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohe
sion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial e
xpressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for th
ey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set o
f directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabil
ity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be group
ed according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & He
ss (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeli
ngs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassmen
t, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stu
dy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any varia
tions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications f
or research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicati
on of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hum
an society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the

primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directive
s established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emot
ional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordin
g to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) d
elineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and sup
port social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while selfprotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bols
ter self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to a
ssess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relat
ed to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emoti
onal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mea
ns by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observatio
ns that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establish
ed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expre
ssions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their
function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates t
wo major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-es
teem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displ
ay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age a
nd gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child p
sychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural a
nd gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been t
he focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfo
rced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekm
an & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; t
he classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major ca
tegories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (suc
h as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prote
ct individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misai
lidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usa
ge in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender s
tereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between in
dividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in wh
ich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of
display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a c
ulture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friese
n, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifi
cation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: P
ro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying
Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individu
als from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007)
. The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoo
l-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informa
tion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting a
nd teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes

on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals i


s fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotion
s are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psych
ological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional c
ontrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rul
es was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). D
isplay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification meth
od employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social r
ules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you af
ter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pu
nishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objec
tives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age child
ren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching
, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developi
ng minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundament
al to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displ
ayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological re
search, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can
be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formu
lated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rule
s can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preser
ve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being g
iven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment an
d embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of th
is current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as wel
l as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. T
he communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the c
ohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facia
l expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceive
d. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a se
t of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accepta
bility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gr
ouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fe
elings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift
), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrass
ment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any va
riations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implication
s for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communic
ation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressio
ns and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are t
he primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was f
rom observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direct
ives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of e
motional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accor
ding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986
) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while se
lf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and b
olster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are t

o assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations re


lated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resea
rch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of em
otional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human socie
ty. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spee
ch have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observa
tions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establ
ished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional ex
pressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to the
ir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineate
s two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soc
ial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protecti
ve rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self
-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess di
splay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to ag
e and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chil
d psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultura
l and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional sta
tes between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all
the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have bee
n the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by wh
ich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and e
nforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (
Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function
; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (
such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pr
otect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mi
sailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gende
r. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholog
y, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gende
r stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunta
ry emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fri
esen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the class
ification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories
: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as say
ing Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indiv
iduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 20
07). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sc
hool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The info
rmation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parentin
g and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotyp
es on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individual
s is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emot
ions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much ps
ychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotiona
l control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture t
hat determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975)
. Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification m
ethod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-socia

l rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank yo
u after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The ob
jectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age ch
ildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gai
ned will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teach
ing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on devel
oping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundam
ental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are di
splayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control c
an be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was fo
rmulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determi
ne the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display r
ules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method emplo
yed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pre
serve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bein
g given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as
well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will ha
ve implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and al
so illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds
. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to th
e cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fa
cial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perce
ived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acce
ptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnep
p & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve other
s feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a g
ift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarr
assment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curre
nt study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicat
ions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumina
te the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commu
nication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expres
sions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they ar
e the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It wa
s from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dir
ectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability o
f emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped ac
cording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1
986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings a
nd support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, an
d bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study ar
e to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for re
search in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effe
cts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human so
ciety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and s
peech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prima
ry means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obse
rvations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives est

ablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional


expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) deline
ates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prote
ctive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster s
elf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in c
hild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cult
ural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of a
ll the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations th
at the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established an
d enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expression
s (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their funct
ion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two ma
jor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norm
s (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display ru
le usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and ge
nder. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycho
logy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and ge
nder stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betw
een individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the fo
cus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volu
ntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conc
ept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cl
assification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categor
ies: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect in
dividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The i
nformation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, paren
ting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereo
types on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individ
uals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which e
motions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emoti
onal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displ
ay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultur
e that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 19
75). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificatio
n method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-so
cial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank
you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals f
rom punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The
objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age
children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and te
aching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on de
veloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fun
damental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are

displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologi
cal research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contro
l can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was
formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that dete
rmine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displa
y rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method em
ployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after b
eing given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishm
ent and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives
of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will
have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and
also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mi
nds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to
the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed,
facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological researc
h, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be pe
rceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated
: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the a
cceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can
be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by G
nepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve ot
hers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and emb
arrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this cu
rrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impli
cations for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illum
inate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The co
mmunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesi
on of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial exp
ressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they
are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It
was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabilit
y of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped
according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess
(1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feeling
s and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), wh
ile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment,
and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study
are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variati
ons related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for
research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the e
ffects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication
of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human
society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions an
d speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the pr
imary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from o
bservations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotio
nal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) del
ineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and suppo
rt social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-pr
otective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolste
r self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to ass
ess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related
to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research i

n child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of c
ultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotion
al states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. O
f all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech ha
ve been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means
by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations
that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established
and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional express
ions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their fu
nction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two
major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social n
orms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective ru
les protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-este
em (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display
rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and
gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psy
chology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and
gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states b
etween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the w
ays in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the
focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which v
oluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the c
oncept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforc
ed by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman
& Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the
classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cate
gories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect
individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misaili
di, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage
in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. Th
e information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pa
renting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender ste
reotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indi
viduals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whic
h emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of m
uch psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary em
otional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of di
splay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cul
ture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen,
1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classifica
tion method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro
-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Th
ank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individual
s from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in schoolage children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informati
on gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and
teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on
developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychol
ogical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional con
trol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules
was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that d
etermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Dis
play rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method
employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rul
es preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you afte
r being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from puni

shment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objecti
ves of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childre
n, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained w
ill have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing
minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental
to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are display
ed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological rese
arch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be
perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formula
ted: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine th
e acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed b
y Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve
others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being giv
en a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this
current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have im
plications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also il
luminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The
communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the coh
esion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for t
hey are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived.
It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabi
lity of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grou
ped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & H
ess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feel
ings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift),
while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassme
nt, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current st
udy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any vari
ations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate th
e effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicat
ion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of hu
man society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions
and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the
primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fro
m observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directiv
es established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emo
tional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accordi
ng to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and su
pport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self
-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bol
ster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rela
ted to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for researc
h in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects o
f cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emot
ional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society
. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech
have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary me
ans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observati
ons that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establis
hed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expr
essions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their

function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support socia
l norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective
rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-e
steem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess disp
lay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional state
s between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all th
e ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whic
h voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that th
e concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enf
orced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ek
man & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major c
ategories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (su
ch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules prot
ect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misa
ilidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule us
age in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender.
The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology,
parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between i
ndividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in w
hich emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus o
f much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary
emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept o
f display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fries
en, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classif
ication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayin
g Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individ
uals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007
). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in scho
ol-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inform
ation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes
on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotio
ns are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psyc
hological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display ru
les was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture tha
t determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification met
hod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you a
fter being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from p
unishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obje
ctives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chil
dren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gaine
d will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachin
g, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develop
ing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamen
tal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are disp
layed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological r
esearch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can

be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was form
ulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine
the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rul
es can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employe
d by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules prese
rve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment a
nd embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of t
his current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as we
ll as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have
implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also
illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, faci
al expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, fo
r they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceiv
ed. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a s
et of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accept
ability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be g
rouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp
& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others f
eelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gif
t), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarras
sment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current
study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any v
ariations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicatio
ns for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate
the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communi
cation of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of
human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressi
ons and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of direc
tives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acco
rding to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (198
6) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and
support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while s
elf-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations r
elated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for rese
arch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effect
s of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of e
motional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soci
ety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and spe
ech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary
means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observ
ations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives estab
lished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional e
xpressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to th
eir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineat
es two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support so
cial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protect
ive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster sel
f-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess d
isplay rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to a
ge and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in chi
ld psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultur
al and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional st

ates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all


the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have be
en the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by w
hich voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that
the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functio
n; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two majo
r categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules p
rotect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (M
isailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule
usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gend
er. The information gained will have implications for research in child psycholo
gy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gend
er stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwee
n individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways i
n which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focu
s of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volunt
ary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concep
t of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by
a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Fr
iesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the clas
sification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categorie
s: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sa
ying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indi
viduals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2
007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in s
chool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The inf
ormation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenti
ng and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereoty
pes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individua
ls is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emo
tions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much p
sychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotion
al control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display
rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975
). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soci
al rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank y
ou after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals fro
m punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The o
bjectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age c
hildren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information ga
ined will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teac
hing, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on deve
loping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is funda
mental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are d
isplayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychologica
l research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control
can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was f
ormulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determ
ine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display
rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method empl
oyed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pr
eserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after bei
ng given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishmen
t and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives o
f this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as

well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will h
ave implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and a
lso illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing mind
s. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to t
he cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, f
acial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research,
for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perc
eived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated:
a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acc
eptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can b
e grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gne
pp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve othe
rs feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a
gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embar
rassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curr
ent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as an
y variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implica
tions for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illumin
ate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The comm
unication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion
of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expre
ssions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they a
re the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It w
as from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of di
rectives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability
of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped a
ccording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (
1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings
and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), whil
e self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, a
nd bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study a
re to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variation
s related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for r
esearch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the eff
ects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication o
f emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human s
ociety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and
speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the prim
ary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obs
ervations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives es
tablished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotiona
l expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to
their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delin
eates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support
social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-prot
ective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster
self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to asses
s display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related t
o age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in
child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cul
tural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional
states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of
all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have
been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means b
y which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations t
hat the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established a
nd enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressio
ns (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their func
tion; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two m
ajor categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social nor

ms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rule
s protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem
(Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display r
ule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and g
ender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psych
ology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and g
ender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states bet
ween individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the way
s in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the f
ocus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which vol
untary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the con
cept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced
by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman &
Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the c
lassification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major catego
ries: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as
saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect i
ndividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi
, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage i
n school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The
information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, pare
nting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stere
otypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between indivi
duals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which
emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of muc
h psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emot
ional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of disp
lay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cultu
re that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1
975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classificati
on method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-s
ocial rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Than
k you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals
from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). Th
e objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-ag
e children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information
gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and t
eaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on d
eveloping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fu
ndamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions ar
e displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycholog
ical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional contr
ol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules wa
s formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that det
ermine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Displ
ay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method e
mployed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules
preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after
being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punish
ment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objective
s of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children,
as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained wil
l have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, an
d also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing m
inds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental t
o the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed
, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological resear
ch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be p
erceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulate
d: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the

acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules ca


n be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by
Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve o
thers feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given
a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and em
barrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this c
urrent study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as
any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have impl
ications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illu
minate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The c
ommunication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohes
ion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial ex
pressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for the
y are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. I
t was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of
directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptabili
ty of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be groupe
d according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hes
s (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelin
gs and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), w
hile self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment
, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current stud
y are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variat
ions related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications fo
r research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the
effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communicatio
n of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of huma
n society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions a
nd speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the p
rimary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from
observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives
established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emoti
onal expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according
to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) de
lineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and supp
ort social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-p
rotective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolst
er self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to as
sess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations relate
d to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research
in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of
cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotio
nal states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society.
Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech h
ave been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary mean
s by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observation
s that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establishe
d and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expres
sions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their f
unction; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates tw
o major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social
norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective r
ules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-est
eem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displa
y rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age an
d gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child ps
ychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural an
d gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states
between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the
ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been th

e focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which
voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the
concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enfor
ced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekma
n & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; th
e classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major cat
egories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such
as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protec
t individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misail
idi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usag
e in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. T
he information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, p
arenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender st
ereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between ind
ividuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in whi
ch emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of
much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary e
motional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of d
isplay rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a cu
lture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen
, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classific
ation method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pr
o-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying T
hank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individua
ls from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007).
The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school
-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The informat
ion gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting an
d teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes o
n developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is
fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions
are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psycho
logical research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional co
ntrol can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rule
s was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that
determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Di
splay rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification metho
d employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social ru
les preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you aft
er being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from pun
ishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The object
ives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age childr
en, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained
will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching,
and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developin
g minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamenta
l to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displa
yed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological res
earch, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can b
e perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formul
ated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine t
he acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules
can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed
by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserv
e others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being gi
ven a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and
embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of thi
s current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well
as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have i
mplications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also i

lluminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. Th


e communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the co
hesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial
expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for
they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived
. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set
of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptab
ility of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be gro
uped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp &
Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others fee
lings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift)
, while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassm
ent, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current s
tudy are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any var
iations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications
for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate t
he effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communica
tion of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of h
uman society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expression
s and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are th
e primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was fr
om observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directi
ves established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of em
otional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped accord
ing to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986)
delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and s
upport social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while sel
f-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bo
lster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to
assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations rel
ated to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for resear
ch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects
of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emo
tional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human societ
y. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speec
h have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary m
eans by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observat
ions that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives establi
shed and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional exp
ressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to thei
r function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates
two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support soci
al norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protectiv
e rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster selfesteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess dis
play rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age
and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child
psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural
and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional stat
es between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all t
he ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been
the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by whi
ch voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that t
he concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and en
forced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (E
kman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function;
the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major
categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (s
uch as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules pro
tect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Mis

ailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule u
sage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender
. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology
, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender
stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between
individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in
which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus
of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntar
y emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept
of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a
culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Frie
sen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classi
fication method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories:
Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as sayi
ng Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect indivi
duals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 200
7). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in sch
ool-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The infor
mation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting
and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotype
s on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals
is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emoti
ons are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psy
chological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional
control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display r
ules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture th
at determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975).
Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification me
thod employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social
rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you
after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from
punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The obj
ectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age chi
ldren, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gain
ed will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teachi
ng, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on develo
ping minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundame
ntal to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are dis
played, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological
research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control ca
n be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was for
mulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determin
e the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display ru
les can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employ
ed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules pres
erve others feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being
given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment
and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of
this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as w
ell as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will hav
e implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and als
o illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds.
The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the
cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, fac
ial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, f
or they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be percei
ved. It was from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a
set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the accep
tability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be
grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp

& Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others
feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gi
ft), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarra
ssment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this curren
t study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any
variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implicati
ons for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminat
e the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The commun
ication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion o
f human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial express
ions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are
the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was
from observations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of dire
ctives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of
emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped acc
ording to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (19
86) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings an
d support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while
self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and
bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are
to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations
related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for res
earch in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effec
ts of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of
emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human soc
iety. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and sp
eech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primar
y means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from obser
vations that the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives esta
blished and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional
expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to t
heir function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delinea
tes two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support s
ocial norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protec
tive rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster se
lf-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess
display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to
age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in ch
ild psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultu
ral and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional s
tates between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of al
l the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have b
een the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by
which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations tha
t the concept of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and
enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their functi
on; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two maj
or categories: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms
(such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules
protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (
Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rul
e usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gen
der. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychol
ogy, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gen
der stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states betwe
en individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways
in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the foc
us of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which volun
tary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the conce

pt of display rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced b


y a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & F
riesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the cla
ssification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categori
es: Pro-social rules preserve others feelings and support social norms (such as s
aying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect ind
ividuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi,
2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in
school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The in
formation gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parent
ing and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereot
ypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individu
als is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which em
otions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much
psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotio
nal control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of displa
y rules was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture
that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 197
5). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification
method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-soc
ial rules preserve others feelings and