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# SETTING OUT OF CIRCULAR CURVES

Curves are used in linear project to (produce) provide a smooth change from one straight to
another straight
Project such as a roads, railways, canals, water & oil pipelines are curves for this purpose.

TYPES OF CURVES
1. Simple curve: these are circular curves of constant radius

## 2. Compound Curves these are two or more consecutive.

R1

R2
R3

3. Reverse curves- these are two or more consecutive simple curves of the some of or
different radii with centres on opposite side of the common tanges (s)

spirals)

R1

R2

## 5. Combines curves Consists of consecutive transition and simple curves transition

and simple curves

This is the usually manner in which transition curves are used in roads and railway
design i.e link straight and circular curves or two branches of compound or reserve
curves.

Transition curves are also used to provide distances for applying the super elevation of

6. Vertical curves These are used to connect two intersecting straight (Gradients) in
vertical plane

## Vertical curves can be circular or paraboloc

PROPERTIES OF CIRCULAR CURVES

I
Q=180-

T1

T2
90-

R
R
D1 Straight
O

D2

Two straight

## The straight where projected forward meet at I the intersection point IP

The angle a is called the deflection Angle and equal the angle

## subtended at the centre of the curve O.

The angle
at pt I is called the apex angle

## The curve commences at

points.
Distance T1I and T2I are called tangent lengths and they are equal to

and

and ends at

## these pts are called the tangent

The length of the curve is T1 AT2 and it is obtained from the curve length =

## BA is the rise of the curve and is given as

=

THROUGH CHAINAGE
Through chaining is the horizontal distance from the start of the project of a
construction scheme. Normally straight part of the project is set out on 50m interval
while on the curve the marking is at half that interval.

Each peg is set out is marked by the thorough chainage on which it is placed e.g. if a peg
is placed at 3174.5m from the start of the project the peg is will be marked as 31+74.5 (
or 3+174.5) to indicate the chainage.

## The location of the straight and their intersection points

The deflection angles or the radii and other some parameters e.g. tangent length
or length of curve
However these parameters can be derived from the deflection angle and radious

## 1. Setting Out Using Theodolite and Tape.

Also called deflection Angle method or Tangential Angle method
The curve is established by a series of chords.
IP

T1
Y
Z

## The curves is established by a series of chords

T1X, XY,YZ etc thus the peg at pt X is fixed by sighting to the IP with theodalite
Turning off the angle
and measuring the chord length T,X along the line.
The instrument is set to lead

## fixed by measuring the distance XY from X. peg at z measuring the distance XY

from X. Peg at Z is fixed by turning angle from T1 and measuring distance YZ
from Y. The process
continues until the whole curve is set out.
To IP

T1

## consider the figure and from OT,X if OA bisects

the chord T1X at right singles then from OT,A the angle AT,O =

## Approximate are T1X to chord T1X

Or
Example
Compute the setting out parameters on through chaninage basis of a curve given
the following

R= 200m

Chainage of IP = 22+59.59
Setting out to be 20m standard chord
Solution
Tangent length

=
= 53.59m

Curve length =

## 1st subchord =14m

2nd , 3rd 4,th 5th, standard 20m
Final subchord = 10.72m
Calculate the deflection angles
1st suchord
Standard chord
Final Subchord

Chord
1
2
3
4
5
6

Chord Length
(m)
14
20
20
20
20
10.72

Chainage
(m)
22+20.00
22+40.00
22+60.00
22+80.00
23+00.00
23+10.72

Deflection
angle 0
2 00 19
2 51 53
2 51 53
2 51 53
2 51 53
1 32 08

Setting angle
0
2 00 19
4 52 12
7 44 05
10 35 58
13 27 51
14 59 59

Remarks
Peg 1
Peg 2
Peg 3
Peg 4
Peg 5
T2