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This involves processes that can be followed in setting out horizontal curves

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Curves are used in linear project to (produce) provide a smooth change from one straight to

another straight

Project such as a roads, railways, canals, water & oil pipelines are curves for this purpose.

TYPES OF CURVES

1. Simple curve: these are circular curves of constant radius

Simple curves of different radii

R1

R2

R3

3. Reverse curves- these are two or more consecutive simple curves of the some of or

different radii with centres on opposite side of the common tanges (s)

spirals)

R1

R2

and simple curves

This is the usually manner in which transition curves are used in roads and railway

design i.e link straight and circular curves or two branches of compound or reserve

curves.

Transition curves are also used to provide distances for applying the super elevation of

the road

6. Vertical curves These are used to connect two intersecting straight (Gradients) in

vertical plane

PROPERTIES OF CIRCULAR CURVES

I

Q=180-

T1

T2

90-

R

R

D1 Straight

O

D2

Two straight

The angle a is called the deflection Angle and equal the angle

The angle

at pt I is called the apex angle

points.

Distance T1I and T2I are called tangent lengths and they are equal to

and

and ends at

The length of the curve is T1 AT2 and it is obtained from the curve length =

( being in radians)

=

THROUGH CHAINAGE

Through chaining is the horizontal distance from the start of the project of a

construction scheme. Normally straight part of the project is set out on 50m interval

while on the curve the marking is at half that interval.

Each peg is set out is marked by the thorough chainage on which it is placed e.g. if a peg

is placed at 3174.5m from the start of the project the peg is will be marked as 31+74.5 (

or 3+174.5) to indicate the chainage.

The deflection angles or the radii and other some parameters e.g. tangent length

or length of curve

However these parameters can be derived from the deflection angle and radious

Also called deflection Angle method or Tangential Angle method

The curve is established by a series of chords.

IP

T1

Y

Z

T1X, XY,YZ etc thus the peg at pt X is fixed by sighting to the IP with theodalite

readings 00

Turning off the angle

and measuring the chord length T,X along the line.

The instrument is set to lead

from X. Peg at Z is fixed by turning angle from T1 and measuring distance YZ

from Y. The process

continues until the whole curve is set out.

To IP

T1

the chord T1X at right singles then from OT,A the angle AT,O =

By radious are arc length

Or

Example

Compute the setting out parameters on through chaninage basis of a curve given

the following

R= 200m

Chainage of IP = 22+59.59

Setting out to be 20m standard chord

Solution

Tangent length

=

= 53.59m

Curve length =

2nd , 3rd 4,th 5th, standard 20m

Final subchord = 10.72m

Calculate the deflection angles

1st suchord

Standard chord

Final Subchord

Chord

1

2

3

4

5

6

Chord Length

(m)

14

20

20

20

20

10.72

Chainage

(m)

22+20.00

22+40.00

22+60.00

22+80.00

23+00.00

23+10.72

Deflection

angle 0

2 00 19

2 51 53

2 51 53

2 51 53

2 51 53

1 32 08

Setting angle

0

2 00 19

4 52 12

7 44 05

10 35 58

13 27 51

14 59 59

Remarks

Peg 1

Peg 2

Peg 3

Peg 4

Peg 5

T2

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