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Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

SMK SEKSYEN 10 KOTA DAMANSARA


47810 PETALING JAYA, SELANGOR

CHEMISTRY MODULE
(FIRST TERM, 2012)
TOPIC 1 :
ATOMS, MOLECULES AND
STOICHIOMETRY

CHECKLIST TO SCORE A IN CHEMISTRY

Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

(Tick after tutorial /revision class)


Topic
1.1
Fundamental
particles of an
atom

Sub-topics
1. describe the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons
in terms of their relative charges and relative masses

Tick

2. predict the behaviour of beams of protons,neutrons, and


electrons in both electric and magnetic fields
3. describe the distribution of mass and charges within an
atom
4. determine the numbers of protons, neutrons, and
electrons present in both neutral and charged species of a
given proton number and nucleon number
5. describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to
atomic nuclei in terms of proton and nucleon number
6. distinguish between isotopes based on the Number of
neutrons present; state examples of both stable and
unstable isotopes

1.2
Relative
atomic,
isotopic,
molecular &
formula
masses

1. define the terms relative atomic mass, Ar, relative isotopic


mass, relative molecular mass, Mr, and relative formula
mass based on 12C;
2. interprete mass spectra in terms of relative abundance of
isotopes and molecular fragments;
3. calculate relative atomic mass of an element from the
relative abundance of its isotopes or its mass spectrum.
1. define mole in terms of the Avogadro constant;

1.3
The mole and
the
Avogadro
constant

2. calculate the number of moles of reactants, volumes of


gases, volumes and concentrations of solutions;
3. deduce stoichiometric relationships from the calculations
above

**SEKIRANYA

MASIH ADA SUB-TOPIC YANG TIDAK


FAHAM, SILA JUMPA GURU ANDA DENGAN SEGERA
ATAU
MEMBUAT
ULANGKAJI
SERTA-MERTA.

PRACTICE MAKE PERFECT

Sub-topic 1.1 : Fundamental particles of an atom

Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry


Learning outcomes: Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the properties of protons, neutrons and electrons in terms of their relative
charges and relative masses;
(b) predict the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in both electric and
magnetic fields;
(c) describe the distribution of mass and charges within an atom;
(d) determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both neutral and
charged species of a given proton number and nucleon number;
(e) describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton
number and nucleon number;
(f) distinguish isotopes based on the number of neutrons present, and state examples of both
stable and unstable isotopes.

1. The properties of the subatomic particles of an atom:


Particle
Symbol
Charge
Relative mass
(a.m.u)
Proton
Neutron
Electron
2. The effect of electric field on subatomic particles:

3. The effect of magnetic field on subatomic particles:

4. The distribution of mass and charges within an atom:


In this atomic model (James
Chadwick):
(a) The nucleus of an atom consists
of ___________ and ____________
occupying a small space in the
centre of the atom.
(b) Electrons are moving around the
nucleus in permissible orbits or
electron shells
This implies that a big section of an atom is made up of empty space. However, 99.98%
of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus.
5. Number of neutron in a nucleus = nucleon number proton number

Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

Element

Sym
bol

Number of
protons

Number of
nucleons

Number of
electrons

No. of
electrons

Aluminium
Aluminium
ion
Argon
Beryllium
Boron
Calcium
Carbon
Chlorine
Chloride
ion
Fluorine
Fluoride
ion
Helium
Hydrogen
Lithium
Lithium ion
Magnesiu
m
Neon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphoru
s
Potassium

6. The contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton number and
nucleon number
a) The ____________________is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Atoms
are neutral particles. Hence, the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is the
same as the number of electrons surrounding the nucleus.
b) The elements in the Modern Periodic Table are arranged in ascending order of proton
numbers

Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry


7. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same __________ number but different
________ number.
a) The isotopes of an elementhave the same __________ properties because they have
the same electron arrangement but their __________ properties differ.
b) Stable isotopes : the nuclei of stable isotopes will not disintegrate spontaneously

c) Unstable isotopes = radioactive isotopes, which will disintegrate spontaneously by


emitting alpha particles ( particles, 42He2+), beta particles ( particles, 0-1e) and
gamma-rays ( rays) which are electromagnetic waves with very short wavelength.
This disintegration is known as radioactive decay.

Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

Sub-topic 1.2 : Relative atomic,isotopic, molecular & formula masses


Learning outcomes: Candidates should be able to:
a) define the terms relative atomic mass, Ar, relative isotopic mass, relative molecular mass,
Mr, and relative formula mass based on 12C;
b) interprete mass spectra in terms of relative abundance of isotopes and molecular
fragments;
c) calculate relative atomic mass of an element from the relative abundance of its isotopes or
its mass spectrum.
1. Relative atomic mass, Ar = the average mass of an atom of the element compared to 1/12
the mass of 12C

Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

2. Relative molecular mass, Mr = the ratio of the average mass of 1 molecule of a

substance to 1/12 the mass of

12

3. Relative isotopic mass = the ratio of the mass of an atom of the isotope to 1/12 the mass of
12
C
Formula:

4. Relative formula mass = the ratio of the average mass of 1 molecule of ionic compound to
1/12 the mass of 12C

Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

5. Mass Spectrometry
a) Is used to determine the
i.
Relative isotopic mass
ii.
Relative abundance of an isotopes in a sample of the element
iii.
Relative atomic mass
iv.
Relative molecular mass
v.
Structure of organic compounds
b) Apparatus used : mass spectrometer

c) Ar = ah1 + bh2
h1+h2

Relative abundance
h1
h2

a
b
d) relative abundance/isotopic
abundance
=
the
abundance of each isotope in
m/e
the mixture. It can be express in terms of fractional abundance or percentage
abundance.
e) The mass spectrum of methane :

Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

The CH4+ is called the molecular ion (M) or the parent ion and appear at the
m/e value of 16, corresponding to the Mr of methane. Naturally occurring
carbon is made up of 99% of 12C isotope and 1% 13C isotope (peak M+1). The
peak M+1 can be ignored in the determining of the M r of the compound.
f) The mass spectrum of ethanol :

Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

Sub-topic 1.2 : Relative atomic,isotopic, molecular & formula masses


Learning outcomes: Candidates should be able to:
a) define mole in terms of the Avogadro constant;
b) calculate the number of moles of reactants, volumes of gases, volumes and concentrations
of solutions;
c) deduce stoichiometric relationships from the calculations above.
1. One mole is defined as the quantity of a substance that contains the same number of particles ( atoms, ions,
or molecules) as there are atoms in exactly 12g of 12C. The number of atoms present in 1 mol of 12C is called
the Avogadro constant and is equivalent to 6.02 X 1023.

Topic 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

Source :
1. ,Ace Ahead Chemistry Volume 1, Oxford Fajar
2. Chemistry for SPM, Cengage Learning
3. Pre-U Text STPM Physical Chemistry, Longman
4. Success Chemistry SPM, Oxford Fajar