The Geopolitical Intelligence and Joint Operations Executive (GIJOE

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Agency Description The Geopolitical Intelligence and Joint Operations Executive (GIJOE) is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with the clandestine and/or covert collection of actionable geopolitical intelligence in hostile foreign territory and its analysis. The bulk of GIJOE operators are individual augmentees from the armed forces, with a number of civilian personnel seconded from the the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of State, as well as employees hired from the private sector rounding out the remainder of the agency's approximately 300-strong workforce. GIJOE's current operational focus is the gathering of intelligence on the network of relationships linking established corporate entities to conventional weapons proliferation, terrorism, and state and/or state-sponsored terrorism in the United States and abroad. Of particular interest to the agency at this time are certain private military contractors and arms manufacturers suspected of directly or indirectly providing training and materiel to militant organizations, terrorist groups, and state sponsors of terrorism. Agency History GIJOE's direct predecessor is generally considered to be the 1st Unconventional Reconnaissance and Intervention Force (nicknamed "FURY Force"), a platoon-sized joint service task force established by USSOCOM leadership in early 1994 as a response to the criticisms it drew from the way it handled Operation Gothic Serpent (particularly the events of the Battle of Mogadishu). Current agency director Joseph Colton, himself a former member of FURY Force and whose research in strategic studies provided much of the theoretical framework for the formation of GIJOE, also cites the United Kingdom's Special Operations Executive (1940-1946) as strongly influencing the operational concepts GIJOE would be founded upon. FURY Force was USSOCOM's first attempt at creating a truly full-time and inter-service special reconnaissance and limited direct action unit. It consisted of members drawn from Army Special Operations Command and Naval Special Warfare Command and a number of enlisted technical experts from the Marines and the Air Force. FURY Force was initially deployed during Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti, as part of a clandestine USSOCOM forward element tasked with conducting reconnaissance and forcibly securing a local airhead for the impending assault by USSOCOM and 82nd Airborne Division paratroopers. FURY Force's next deployment would be as part of the multinational Task Force Eagle, charged with long-range special reconnaissance and enforcing the terms of the Dayton Agreement in Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of Operation Joint Endeavor (1996), Operation Joint Guard (1997), and Operation Joint Forge (1998). When NATO forces conducted airborne bombing operations (code-named Operation Allied Force) against hostile Serbian military and paramilitary elements in March of 1999, FURY Force served as a pathfinding and target acquisition unit. With the cessation of NATO air strikes in June 1999, FURY Force was relieved of its duties in the Balkan theater. On a flight back to USSOCOM headquarters at MacDill Air Force Base, the AFSOC C-130 transport carrying 32 members of FURY Force developed engine trouble over the Norwegian Sea, subsequently crashing into the water roughly 500 kilometers southeast of the Greenland coast, killing all passengers and crew. A six month-long USAF Safety and Accident Board investigation into the cause of the crash yielded inconclusive results. With a decimated team roster, looming budget cuts and seemingly no impending threat requiring FURY Force's unique set of capabilities, FURY Force was deactivated in August of 2000. The idea of a small, partially autonomous, interagency antiterrorism intelligence gathering unit with limited organic combat and logistics assets was revived by retired colonel and former FURY Force individual augmentee Joseph Colton in his 2004 doctoral thesis entitled "Modeling Adaptive Organizations in the Current Irregular Warfare Context." Drawing upon organization modeling theory and the real-world lessons learned from the Intelligence Community's lapses prior to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, the misrepresentation of intelligence by key government figures that led to the contentious invasion of Iraq in 2003, and USSOCOM's past successes and failures in managing the growing threat of 21st century terrorism, Colton argued that an independent, operationally agile formation composed of individual military augmentees and government and private sector intelligence professionals would be more responsive, effective, and accountable than the traditionally organized and regimented CIA, USSOCOM, and Homeland Security units in countering unconventional emergent threats posed by rising foreign terrorism. It was Colton's theories that provided the initial impetus for the joint proposal by the US House Committees on Armed Services and Homeland Security for the creation of an independent government agency capable of clandestine and covert human-resource intelligence gathering and limited armed engagement of targets of opportunity. Congress authorized the formation of the Geopolitical Intelligence and Joint Operations Executive in September of 2008 and Colton himself was nominated by an ad hoc expert committee to head the newly-minted agency. President Barack Obama appointed Colton as the first director of GIJOE in January of 2009. In April of the same year, President Obama issued Executive Order 12333a, amending Executive Order 12333 and granting GIJOE limited license to conduct covert operations in support of its mandate, making it only the second government agency (after the Central Intelligence Agency) authorized to perform legally deniable military and paramilitary actions. Congress would provide an authorizing resolution for the executive order the following month via the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009. After an initial round of organizing, recruiting, and training that stretched over several months, the agency was formally stood up on 20 December 2009 at its base of operations, the re-commissioned Fort Wadsworth installation on New York's Staten Island.

Agency Insignia The Agency's insignia is an escutcheon-shaped heraldic device:

Figure 1. GIJOE agency insignia
The escutcheon is emblazoned with a charge composed of crossed gold-colored emblems of the main services that contribute to the GIJOE membership. The Fairbairn-Sykes knife represents the Army, the trident stands for the Navy, the lightning bolt is the symbol for the Air Force, and the anchor corresponds to the Marine Corps and the Coast Guard. The azure tincture of the escutcheon's field symbolizes the unit's air and sea insertion capabilities. The vert tincture stands for the military element's land navigation and armed reconnaissance capabilities, while the sable tincture represents the clandestine and occasionally covert nature of GIJOE's work. The agency's motto is printed on an heraldic scroll below the escutcheon: The Latin phrase "ex scientia victoria" translates into English as "from knowledge, victory".

Organization The Geopolitical Intelligence and Joint Operations Executive is structured as a permanent inter-agency joint task force.

Figure 2. GIJOE organizational structure
Military operator positions in GIJOE are open to any member of the five armed services, provided they fulfill the job-specific requirements for available positions in the agency. Selected applicants are seconded from their parent units with the joint approval of the President and the secretary of the respective service. Accepted military operators incur a three-year obligatory term of service with the agency. Applications for an extension of the term of service can be submitted to the office of the director six months prior to the term's expiration. Civilian employees

are drawn from other federal government departments and agencies and in rare cases, from regional and local government agencies and the private sector. The Command and Control (C2) Element comprises the task force's overall command personnel and staff (both civilian and military), as well as tailored service support units.

Figure 3. GIJOE C2 Element organizational structure
• The element's Executive Headquarters is responsible for mission planning and analysis, as well as coordinating the actions of GIJOE's four elements. ◦ The Office of the Director plans and oversees GIJOE's activities and analyzes their effects. The director has ultimate authority over the agency. The director and deputy director are appointed by the president from a list of candidates prepared by an independent, non-partisan, ad hoc committee composed of leading antiterrorism, intelligence, military, political, and security analysts from the public and private sector. There is no statutory provision which specifically excludes active military personnel from being nominated for the position, although GIJOE's charter stipulates that the director and deputy director positions cannot be simultaneously filled by active-duty military officers. Neither the candidate list nor appointments require Congressional or Senate approval. Advisers and analysts assigned to the office are hand-picked by the director after a stringent screening process. The Command Post is the director's primary staff resource for planning, coordinating, prioritizing, and synchronizing GIJOE's intelligence-gathering operations. ▪ The Forward Command Team acts as the primary control agent for intelligence collection, reconnaissance, and surveillance operations and coordinates critical support operations with the other headquarters offices. It oversees current operations and plans future operations, providing the Office of the Director with critical information and

disseminating the director’s decisions and guidance to the individual element leaders. ▪ ▪ ▪ The Information Operations Cell, composed of representatives from GIJOE's supporting and related capabilities, coordinates operations focused on affecting adversary information and information systems, while defending GIJOE’s information and information systems. The Plans and Direction Team is a functional component of the Command Post responsible for the determination of intelligence requirements, development of appropriate intelligence architecture, preparation of collection plans, and issuance of orders and requests to GIJOE's reconnaissance and intelligence collection elements. The SIGINT Analysis Team performs collection, processing, and reporting on all signals intelligence. Members of the team are also tasked with directly or remotely operate the Aerial Reconnaissance Element's airborne SIGINT systems and ground-based signals interception devices deployed by the Armed Reconnaissance Element's surveillance and reconnaissance teams. The Cryptologic Linguist Team analyzes foreign voice communications and establishes target identification and communication patterns. Members of the team can be assigned to directly or remotely operate the Aerial Reconnaissance Element's airborne HF, VHF, and UHF direction-finding systems. The ELINT Analysis team performs collection, processing, and reporting on all noncommunications electromagnetic emanations. Members of the team can be assigned to directly or remotely operate the Aerial Reconnaissance Element's airborne ELINT systems. The Computer Network Operations Team is responsible for protecting, monitoring, analyzing, detecting, and responding to unauthorized activity within GIJOE information systems and computer networks. The team is also tasked with gathering, degrading, or destroying information resident in adversary computers and computer networks and serves as the primary planning resource for all command and control computer networking operations.

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The Administrative Affairs Section is responsible for maintaining unit strength and conducting personnel actions. The section identifies and reports critical personnel shortages to the director and deputy director. It ensures assigned personnel transition smoothly into and out of GIJOE. and handles routine day-to-day tasks such as preparing element status and strength reports, monitoring training qualifications, preparing personnel awards and orders, scheduling, and other administrative support as required. The Operational Intelligence Team provides timely and accurate intelligence products in support of the Office of the Director. The section makes analytical predictions on the effects of the operational environment on friendly and enemy courses of action and capabilities. The office is also responsible for evaluating the enemy in terms of doctrine, order of battle, high-value and or high-pay-off targets, capabilities, and vulnerabilities. The Logistics Team is role is the provision of logistical planning and support to GIJOE. It functions as the director's primary logistics planner and provides timely and accurate logistical information required to support and sustain the individual GIJOE elements with all classes of supply. The team supports the synchronization of intelligence collection and sustainment operations. It also coordinates logistics resupply and unit replacements as required. The Communications (COMMO) team is the primary planning resource for all executive command and control communication operations. The team's personnel work closely with the Command Post to ensure and maintain clear lines of communication during operations.

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The Element Headquarters supports the Executive Headquarters by facilitating the environment in which they operate. The Element Headquarters also provides tailored combat service support to the entire GIJOE organization. ◦ ◦ The Element Command Team is tasked with command and control over the element and provides limited administrative, personnel, and logistical support. The Service Support Platoon provides tailored combat service support to the GIJOE organization. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ◦ The Platoon Headquarters is responsible for command and control over the platoon's individual combat service support units. The Food Service Section is tasked with the planning, management, and execution of all GIJOE installation, dining facility, and special food service operations. The Wheeled Vehicle Maintenance Team provides organizational, direct support, and general support level maintenance of GIJOE's fleet of light wheeled vehicles. The Small Craft Maintenance Team provides organizational, direct support, and general support level maintenance of GIJOE's collection of combat rubber craft. The Aircraft Maintenance Team is responsible for organizational, direct support, and general support level maintenance of GIJOE's two aerial reconnaissance aircraft.

The COMMO Platoon is tasked with the provision of clear communications between the Headquarters Element and the three other Elements. It is also responsible for the maintenance of all radio, COMSEC, and IEW equipment organic to the Element. ▪ The Platoon Headquarters is responsible for command and control over the platoon's individual units and coordinates and plans all relevant maintenance activities.

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The Platoon's two Transmission and Reception (TRX) Teams operate and perform organizational level maintenance on GIJOE's combat net radio equipment. The COMMO Systems Maintenance Team performs direct support and general support level maintenance on GIJOE's combat net radio equipment. The team is also responsible for organizational, direct support, and general support level maintenance of all COMSEC systems. The IEW Systems Maintenance Team is charged with the organizational, direct support, and general support level maintenance of GIJOE's intelligence and electronic warfare equipment.

The Protective Services Detail provides "enhanced response" to developed threats against persons within the Headquarters Element Leader's area of responsibility which includes, but is not limited to, high-ranking GIJOE personnel, domestic and foreign dignitaries on official business with GIJOE, and other individuals as designated by the Headquarters Element Leader. ▪ ▪ The Detail Headquarters analyzes physical security threats, plans protective service operations, and coordinates with other security organiztions. The detail's three Protective Services Shifts provide expert personnel protective services and also serve as GIJOE installation security on a rotating basis.

The Medical Treatment Team provides medical support to the Headquarters Element and coordinates required medical support and evacuation.

The Aerial Reconnaissance Element provides GIJOE with manned aerial surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities. The Element's aircraft also serve as platforms for airborne HF, VHF, and VHF communication signals direction-finding, airborne SIGINT intercept, and airborne ELINT intercept and electromagnetic emitter direction-finding.

Figure 4. GIJOE Aerial Reconnaissance Element organizational structure
• • The Element Command Team is tasked with command and control over the element and provides limited administrative, personnel, and logistical support. The Flight/Operations Platoon is charged with the conduct of aerial surveillance, aerial direction-finding, and aerial SIGINT and ELINT collection missions. ◦ ◦ ◦ The Platoon Headquarters provides command and control, aviation safety and standardization, regulatory compliance, and unit supply services. The Flight Section performs aerial surveillance of target areas by flying assigned aircraft equipped with specialized direction-finding, SIGINT, and ELINT systems. Aviation Operations Team performs aviation operations planning, aircraft scheduling, flight records maintenance, and aviation safety oversight of flight operations.

The Airfield Operations Platoon is responsible for operating and maintaining GIJOE's airfield facility at Miller Field. Platoon personnel can also be deployed with the Flight/Operations Platoon to serve as expeditionary aviation support personnel. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ The Platoon Headquarters provides command and control, limited air traffic/ground control, and unit supply services. The Fuels Team operates airfield refueling equipment and wheeled fuel tanker transports. The Motorized Transport Team is tasked with towing grounded aircraft and transporting passengers and cargo to and from Miller Field. The Engineering Team's primary role is the preparation and maintenance of the airfield's runway and taxiing surfaces and field level maintenance of airfield lighting systems. The Crash/Fire/Rescue Team fight aviation is charged with fighting aviation fires and rescuing victims involved in aircraft crashes.

The Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) Element is tasked with multidisciplinary intelligence collection and counterintelligence activities, including, but not limited to, the subversion of adversary intelligence services, interrogation of prisoners of war, interpretation of ground, aerial and satellite imagery; and battlefield criminal and forensic investigation.

Figure 5. GIJOE TIARA Element organizational structure
• • • The Element Command Team is tasked with command and control over the element and provides limited administrative, personnel, and logistical support. The Analysis and Production Team is responsible for the conversion of processed information into actionable intelligence through the integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of all source data and the preparation of intelligence products in support of known or anticipated GIJOE requirements. The Tactical Intelligence Platoon is responsible for counterintelligence, human resource intelligence collection, and imagery analysis. ◦ ◦ The Platoon Headquarters provides command and control, limited analysis, and unit supply services. The Counterintelligence Team is responsible for supervising and conducting operations to detect, identify, assess, counter, exploit and neutralize adversary intelligence services.

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The Debriefing/IPW Team conducts source operations, interrogations and debriefings to collect human resource intelligence. The Imagery Processing Team use overhead and aerial imagery, geospatial data, full motion video, and other electronic monitoring data in order to collect and analyze information regarding assigned targets.

The Battlefield Forensics Unit is a multidisciplinary formation tasked with conducting systematic investigations that support the collection and analysis of tactical intelligence. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ The Unit Headquarters oversees and coordinates the conduct of the unit's multidisciplinary investigative activities. The Criminal Intelligence Team is charged with investigating criminal activities that overlap with terrorism. The Forensics Laboratory Response Team collects, analyzes, and preserves battlefield and crime scene evidence, including, but not limited to, latent fingerprints, physiologic evidence such as hair and blood, gunshot residue, trace mineral and synthetic fibers, and entomological evidence. The Digital Forensics Team's primary responsibility is the extraction of information from captured adversary information and communication technology (such as personal computers, cellular phones, and other devices). The team is also in charge of recovering data in the event of GIJOE information systems hardware or software failure. The Detection Canine Handling Team utilizes specially trained dogs to aid in the detection of explosives, firearms, human remains, and other evidence to aid in the unit's investigations. The Weapons Intelligence Team collects, collates, assesses, and disseminates information on the capabilities of adversary weapon systems, including, but not limited to, conventional munitions, IEDs, and small arms. All members of the Weapons Intelligence Team are qualified in explosive ordnance disposal.

The Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) Element conducts surveillance and reconnaissance operations that provide GIJOE with detailed real-time information regarding adversary orders of battle, movement plans, offensive and defensive capabilities, and disposition. All members of the RSTA Element are qualified in parachuting and at minimum, fulfill the USMC's CWS3 swimming requirements.

Figure 6. GIJOE RSTA Element organizational structure
• The Headquarters Platoon comprises the Element's command, administrative, logistics, support, and target acquisition personnel. ◦ ◦ • The Element Command Section exercises command and control over the element. The section also contains personnel tasked with planning and coordination of reconnaissance and surveillance team employment, as well as personnel necessary for supply and logistics support. The Surveillance and Target Acquisition (STA) Sniper Section is composed of three two-man teams specially trained in close reconnaissance. Their primary role is that of information gathering to support element missions, with the secondary mission of using long-range precision fires to neutralize targets of opportunity.

The two COMMO Stations provide continuous long range signal communication with reconnaissance and surveillance teams and communication links with Headquarters Element

communication networks. • The Long Range Surveillance (LRS) Platoon conducts clandestine and/or covert infiltration and exfiltration surveillance missions by air, land, or water, and is capable of deploying at night or in periods of limited visibility. ◦ ◦ The Platoon Headquarters provides command and control and provides the capability for the surveillance teams to remain in hostile territory or in an area of operation for extended periods of time, if required and resupplied. The six five-man LRS Teams collect information on adversary activities, battlefield terrain, weather conditions and they are also trained in damage assessment and fieldexpedient CBRN monitoring. Team members are trained in the employment of hand-emplaced sensors, photographic equipment, night-vision devices, and non-organic surveillance devices, as required. LRS Teams are capable of operating independently for periods of up to a week at distances up to 100 kilometers from any friendly forces.

The Special Reconnaissance (SR) Platoon is tasked with reconnaissance and surveillance actions conducted as a special operation in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments to collect or verify information of strategic or operational significance, employing military capabilities not normally found in conventional forces. Platoon members are trained in clandestine and/or covert infiltration and exfiltration methods via air, land, or water. ◦ ◦ The Platoon Headquarters provides command and control and provides the capability for the recon teams to remain in hostile territory or in an area of operation for extended periods of time, if required and resupplied. The six four-man Special Reconnaissance Teams have the same deep reconnaissance and surveillance capabilities as the LRS Teams, and are additionally qualified in the use of HALO/HAHO parachuting equipment, combat diving/swimming techniques, and other capabilities associated with special operations forces. The SR teams are also occasionally assigned armed reconnaissance missions, locating and neutralizing targets of opportunity in assigned general areas.