Name of student Cameron West Code and name of subject MS409C ² Introduction to discipleship Assignment title Discuss the

view that God·s mission for every local church is to make disciples of Christ who make disciples of Christ. Make reference, at least, to the following questions: a. what is a disciple of Jesus? b. what is the relationship between the kingdom of God and living as a disciple of Christ? c. what key biblical practices characterise and sustain disciples of Christ? d. how do disciples of Christ make other disciples of Christ? Make reference to both the Bible and your immediate social context in your answers. Assignment type Major essay Assignment word limit 3500 Assignment word count 3794 Assignment weight 60%

Comment [MSOffice1]: Good clear, well written.

Introduction The function of local churches is ultimately to make disciples of Christ who make disciples of Christ. By examining how the term ¶discipleship· was understood in the ancient near eastern context and how it was used in the New Testament, comparisons and contrasts with the term·s contemporary usage can be discerned. This essay draws on both the similarities and differences between biblical and contemporary meanings associated with discipleship to propose a definition of discipleship, and a contemporary illustration of it to illustrate subsequent ideas. The direct relationship of discipleship to the kingdom of God is examined in terms of the ministry of Jesus ² who both called disciples and inaugurated the kingdom of God ² and also in terms of the actions of disciples themselves. The uniqueness of Jesus· role in bringing about the kingdom is discussed, but so it is shown to be the foundation that remains the pre-requisite for his disciples· proclamation and demonstration of the kingdom of God. From this foundation, the ongoing work of disciples in responding to the kingdom and extending the witness to its present reality (rather than repeating its inception) is shown to be integral to discipleship. Spiritual disciplines are shown to be important for equipping disciples to do act in accordance with the presence of the kingdom of God, privileging this reality and reorienting their lives around its proclamation and demonstration. After addressing potential misunderstandings or misuses of the disciplines, various approaches to implementing them are considered and evaluated, and a model that exhibits comprehensively and flexibility is offered as a way to identify the disciplines of most benefit to disciples previously unfamiliar with them. Finally, the role of disciples in making more disciples is considered, with disciple making being shown to be intrinsic to discipleship. Recognising the biblical imperative to
Comment [MSOffice2]: meaning?

MS409C Essay


make disciples has the potential to be misunderstood according to cultural practices at odds with the kingdom of God, Jesus is reaffirmed as the standard for both means and end of not only disciple-making, but the discipleship of which this activity is integrally a part. Parallels are drawn between the biblical motifs of ´kingdom of Godµ and ´new creationµ in order to show that disciples have an ongoing role in co-operating with God·s larger plan beyond (but not excluding) their individual salvation.
Comment [MSOffice3]: Maybe needs new sentence to be wuite clear of meaning?

Discipleship Apart from Jesus· disciples, the New Testament also mentions disciples of the Pharisees (Mt 22:15-16; Mk 2:18), of John the Baptist (Mk 2:18), and of Moses (Jn 9:24-29), using the Greek term (math t s) as essentially equivalent to the Hebrew

(talmi ). Wilkins (1992: 176-177) notes that while outside the New Testament, the terms ´designated adherents or followers who were committed to a recognized leader, teacher, or movement, from philosophical to technical to sectarian to revolutionaryµ, the gospel writers distinguish the crowds who followed Jesus (Mt 4:25) from the disciples. The former group·s relationship to Jesus was characterised more by curiosity than commitment, and had little or no cost; ´following Jesus,µ now, as then, cannot simply be directly correlated with discipleship. The proximity of the disciple to the master (in the Jewish context, often a rabbi), was the means of discipleship, and not its goal. The goal of discipleship, rather, was ² and is ² to become like one·s master (Mt 10:25) by carrying out the master·s teaching and carrying on the master·s methods. Theologically stated, Christian discipleship is the process of conformation to Jesus through obedience to his instruction and imitation of his example. Thus discipleship is much closer to an apprenticeship than a university course in both means and ends: learning consisted of practising those things that the disciple had observed the master do
Comment [MSOffice5]: Any external support for this? Comment [MSOffice4]: Great point

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as well as listening to what the master said, and competence consisted of being able to comply with both the pattern and instruction received. Willard·s definition of a disciple (2009b) is consistent with that given above: A disciple or apprentice, then, is simply someone who has decided to be with another person, under appropriate conditions, in order to become capable of doing what that person does or to become what that person is. He also notes (2006: 6-7) that within the original context, this meaning of discipleship as apprenticeship was straightforward and readily understood by the first disciples, but is not directly available to Jesus· subsequent disciples. When Jesus walked among humankind there was a certain simplicity to being a disciple. Primarily it meant to go with him, in an attitude of observation, study, obedience and imitation... The mechanics are not the same today. We cannot literally be with him in the same way as his first disciples could. But the priorities and intentions³the heart or inner attitudes³of disciples are forever the same. The continuities that Willard notes are still applicable for contemporary disciples² priorities and intentions ² must then at least be consistent with the original understanding of discipleship. An understanding of the priority of discipleship ² for both Jesus· initial and subsequent disciples ² distinguishes it from and elevates it above a mere consumer preference. Undertaking the apprenticeship of a disciple does not differ from other socalled lifestyle choices in degree, but in kind. The intention of discipleship is conformity to Christ through obedience to his instruction and imitation of his example.

Comment [MSOffice6]: Competence ? for what?

Comment [MSOffice7]: Excellent, but is kingdom living the continuity?

Comment [MSOffice8]: You have argued this well.

Discipleship and the kingdom of God If an appropriate illustration of this definition ² conformity to Christ through obedience to his instruction and imitation of his example ² is apprenticeship, then ´the kingdom of Godµ can be said to be Jesus ´tradeµ or ´craftµ. Apprenticeship to Jesus therefore entails his disciples continuing the pattern of proclamation and demonstration of the kingdom of God that Jesus established.

MS409C Essay


Jesus· proclamation of the kingdom of God demonstrated both continuities and discontinuities with the expectations of the preceding inter-testamental era. Significant for discipleship, discontinuities between previous expectations and Jesus· proclamation include the kingdom's nature as dynamic rather than geographic entity, its connection to the Son of man, the requirements for entry into it, and its apocalyptic and eschatological relationship to the present and the future (Caragounis 1992: 420). Jesus· teaching in Luke 13:20-37 that the kingdom of God does not come with careful observation is not to undermine its nature as a tangible reality, but to reverse expectations about its manifestation. Rather than being forced by the tumult of human history, divine action would cause the kingdom to ´appear in a gentle, quiet, and unobtrusive mannerµ; the coming of the kingdom retained a catastrophic element however because of the crisis that it posed: either it would be rejected or accepted (Caragounis 1992: 420, 424). Even when it was accepted, Jesus warned of the upheaval that would follow (Lk 14:25 & Mt 10:32-42). -35 As Peterson (2007: 9) notes, Jesus· metaphor, kingdom of God, defines the world in which we live. We live in a world where Christ is King. If Christ is King, everything, quite literally every thing and every one, has to be re-imagined, re-configured, re-oriented to a way of life that consists in an obedient following of Jesus. This is not easy. It is not accomplished by participating in a prayer meeting or two, or signing up for a seven-step course in discipleship at school or church, or attending an annual prayer breakfast. A total renovation of our imagination, our way of looking at things ² what Jesus commanded in his no-nonsense imperative, ´Repent!µ is required. The demand for repentance was the condition of entry to the kingdom, and the negative corollary of the positive invitation to discipleship. While Jesus· ministry focused narrowly but not exclusively on Jewish repentance, following his resurrectio the n commission that Jesus gives his disciples to continue to demand repentance and invite discipleship ² entry into the kingdom of God ² is clearly universal in scope (Mt 28:18 & -20 Ac 1:7-8). Because response to Jesus (his demand and invitation) and not the participation
Comment [MSOffice10]: Good quote, getting to repentance as condition is key ± well done! Comment [MSOffice9]: This is a very important point!

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in the covenant is the basis for entry into the kingdom of God, Gentiles as well as Jews can now qualify to enter into it, becoming apprenticed to Jesus as his disciples. The universality of the kingdom of God is evidence of its eschatological nature. That which was expected to follow the apocalypse ² the re-establishment of God·s direct rule over his people, and through them, the rest of his creation ² has already begun. Decisive proof that this is indeed the case is Jesus· resurrection, demonstrating that already God has begun the re-creation that will characterise the life of the coming age. Jesus· healing and deliverance ministry were earlier indications that God·s re -creating power was already at work and that his kingdom was already present, as Jesus claimed. Jesus· disciples participated in this work, and as noted above, after the resurrection extended its scope. Finally, a clarification is necessary here: as Jesus· apprentices, his disciples continue the pattern of proclamation and demonstration of the kingdom of God that Jesus established. But in no way does this imitation amount to a ´re-inaugurationµ of the kingdom. While Jesus and his disciples are both authorised agents of the kingdom, a distinction needs to be made between the inherent authority of Jesus, uniquely identified as the Son of man, and the derived authority of his disciples delegated to them by him. An (obvious) example of what this means in practice when considering the content of the disciples· proclamation: while Jesus referred to himself as the locus of the inauguration of God·s kingdom (Lk 4:18-21), disciples follow Jesus· pattern, not by also referring to themselves as another locus of the kingdom, but by affirming Jesus· claim. So, as Jesus· disciples, his apprentices are to carry on his trade, the proclamation and demonstration of the kingdom. The declaration of God·s reign and demand for repentance are foundational to this task and will be discussed at length below. Further, Jesus· disciples need to be clear that for them, and any others who want to enter the kingdom of God and become disciples, a radical realignment of their lives with Jesus· is involved. This includes the potential ² the near certainty ² of conflict with existing
Comment [MSOffice13]: Mt 28:16ff? Comment [MSOffice12]: Good distinction Comment [MSOffice11]: to resurrection?


f what, why? Link

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relationships and confrontation with established patterns. This further means that entry into the kingdom of God and discipleship result in demonstration of these realities. As his apprentices, Jesus· disciples seek to become adeptat fashioning tokens and signs of the presence of the kingdom of God. Jesus· ministry establishes the pattern for such demonstration: particular concern for those marginalised or excluded from society, those suffering from physical or mental illness, those oppressed by sub-personal structures or powers.
Comment [MSOffice14]: Perhaps an example needed?

Discipleship and the disciplines As Jesus· apprentices, his disciples learn their craft² the proclamation and demonstration of the kingdom of God ² from their master. The spiritual disciplines might then be seen as tools that are wielded by disciples. Disciplines, though powerful, are neutral, and just as they may be employed to craft something of great beauty they can also be misused and become destructive. They are not the goal of discipleship (which is outlined above) but the means, and even then, only an indirect means, as Foster and Helmers note that ´[w]e do not produce change by practicing the Disciplines²we receive it.µ Yet indirection does not mean passivity: the disciplines are ´intentionally directed action[s] which place us in a position to receive from God the power to do what we cannot accomplish on our ownµ (2008: 156, 135, also Willard 2006: 34). What we cannot achieve by our own striving, but receive through practicing the disciplines is ´the ability to do the right thing at the right time for the right reasonµ (Foster and Helmers 2008: 153) ² the positive aspect of change that is the complement of the ¶negative· aspect, repentance. Recognising that ´spiritual formation of one kind or another happens to everyoneµ (Willard 2002: 2, also Foster and Helmers 2008: 139) the practice of disciplines merely , demonstrate the desire to be decisively formed by God above any other influence. Unless one turns away from that which has previously formed him or her, then these things will
Comment [MSOffice17]: Another definition eneded. Comment [MSOffice16]: I think you presume a definition of disciplines not given Comment [MSOffice15]: Tools of their craft? Unclear here how they are wielded?

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continue to be influential. If however, one turns away from previous formative influences and instead becomes oriented towards God, then he or she will find that [a]s we place ourselves before God with various Disciplines, we can be filled with more of God·s life as we are baptized into the milieu of the Holy Spirit. The mind conforms to the order of what it concentrates upon. The heart conforms to the beauty of what it gazes upon. As they are reformed, we take on more of Christ·s likeness. Vices will naturally diminish and virtues increase. (Foster and Helmers 2008: 157) Recognising that the disciplines are ´not righteousness but wisdomµ (Willard 2009a), shows that they are not incompatible with grace, but a response to it; not instead of repentance, but a demonstration of it. In the same way that the tools used in a particular trade are not fixed, and are often selected according to the manner in which they will be employed and the outcome that is desired from their use, so there is no fixed set of spiritual disciplines for the disciple of Jesus in his or her apprenticeship. Instead, the particular work ² the concrete ways of proclaiming and demonstrating the kingdom of God ² of disciples in their particular context will determine the disciplines that will be learned and practiced. Similarly, d ifferent protégés ² skilled apprentices ² of the master Jesus have offered different ways of organising the toolbox of disciplines available to all apprentices. Dallas Willard offers two categories of disciplines ² abstinence and engagement ² and Richard Foster three ² internal, external, and corporate ² but ´what is important are not the boundaries of such categories but what they reveal about the role of the Disciplines in our lives.µ (Foster and Helmers 2008: 142) Yet another categorisation of the disciplines is that proposed by David Augsburger (2006: 19-20) ² a ´tripartite spiritualityµ of self-surrender, love of God, and love of others. This threefold categorisation is particularly helpful because of what it does reveal about the role of the disciplines. Of course, there is likely to be significant overlap betwe the en three categories, and indeed, it is a positive thing that this should be the case. However, it may be helpful to consider the kind of manner in which a particular tool is to be employed.
Comment [MSOffice20]: Which is? Comment [MSOffice19]: I like the way you consistently seek to give this a contemporary explanation. Comment [MSOffice18]: This quote is very helpful, but you need to explain (n your won words) what is meant by disciplines and why they are so central

MS409C Essay


For example, tithing could fit any one (or all three) of the categories ² self-surrender, love of God, and love of others ² and for a particular disciples to consider according to their particular work of proclamation and demonstration the primary use of this tool could itself be a helpful consideration. For some, tithing may be a way to repent of the economic growth fetish common in western culture, for others it may be a way to build reliance upon God·s provision, for yet others still it may be a way to form a disposition that recognises the responsibilities to others entailed in the stewardship of resources, and finally, hopefully it is easier within this framework for all to avoid the temptation of tithing to become its own end, or worse ² a means to legalism or self-righteousness. Even within this fluid framework, however, certain disciplines remain key, at least for the author. Two key disciplines of self-surrender are Sabbath and fasting, signalling an acknowledgement of the frailties of humanity and intention to (not always) produce and consume at full capacity, but demonstrate restraint. Within the category of love of God, prayer and Bible reading are key disciplines, signalling the importance of both speaking and listening in one·s relationship with God. Finally, confession and tithing are disciplines that are key to love of others, recognising the potential for both positive and negative results in one·s interaction with others. No doubt other disciples will find a place for other key disciplines ² perhaps such as silence or journaling ² that are more significant for them or in their contexts, but these are the disciplines which are most meaningful (and challenging) for this author.
Comment [MSOffice23]: Using Augsburger¶s categories is useful, though there is obvious overlap. Comment [MSOffice21]: Perhaps give some examples of specific disciplines ? Comment [MSOffice22]: Very good use of one example.

Making disciples If a disciple of Jesus is one who has been apprenticed to him, one who witnesses to the coming of the kingdom of God in Jesus, and one whose life is shaped by practices that demonstrate the values of the kingdom of God, then a disciple of Jesus is also necessarily one who makes more disciples. Before considering the process ofhow disciples make
Comment [MSOffice24]: This is not so evident? You need to make the argument.

MS409C Essay


more disciples, it is important to note two qualifications of what disciple-making is not. Both arise from the common translation of (math teusate

panta ta ethn ) in Matthew 28:19 as ´make disciples of all the nationsµ (as in, for example, the ESV, NASB, NIV, NLT, NRSV ), but which could also be translated as ´discipling all the nationsµ. Firstly discipling (or making disciples) cannot be carried out according to the increasingly dominant model of production in our economy ² McDonaldization ² which characterised by efficiency, calculability, predictability and, especially, control(Drane 2000: 34-39). Arising from this first qualification is the second: that discipling is carried out because of the disciples· own apprenticeship to Jesus and has as its goal, not forming an apprentice to the disciple, but to Jesus himself; that is, making disciples is primarily and ultimately about being formed by Jesus and only indirectly about being formed by his disciples. Discipling, or making disciples, then, is not something additional or separate from being a disciple, and needs to be seen as intrinsic to what it is to be a disciple of Jesus, as Jacob (2002: 107) notes: While mission entails the making of disciples (Mt 28:19), discipleship is mission... [because] to be a disciple is not simply to be a learner of teachings. It is to be a witness to reflect the way of Jesus and the kingdom, i.e. to follow Jesus· way. It is mission in the way of Jesus An important implication of this insight is that the manner in which a disciple undertakes making more disciples cannot be inconsistent with the other activities involved in discipleship. As with everything else involved in discipleship, making disciples must be done in obedience to and in imitation of Jesus; if this axiom is suspended in the interests of evangelistic expediency then it is not only the intention of disciple-making that is undermined, but also one·s very discipleship itself. Thus, as 1 Peter 3:19 states, ´readiness to give an answer for the hope that you haveµ (apologetics) must always be
Comment [MSOffice28]: Avoid double negative. Comment [MSOffice26]: Excellent! Comment [MSOffice25]: This is Drane¶s concept, you need your own or explain his meaning.

Comment [MSOffice27]: Excellent argument!

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expressed with ´gentleness and respectµ (humility); humble apologetics is a tautology, it is the only effective kind of apologetics there is. A further, more positive insight is that discipleship is both the medium and the message that is offered to those who would become apprentices of Jesus. Those who are already apprenticed to Jesus tell people that his words are true: the kingdom of God is an urgent reality that requires a radical reorientation of the way people live and they show , how to begin to undertake this radical reorientation in their practice of spiritual disciplines. Realising that is the life of discipleship that is the means of making disciples has the twofold consequence of emphasising the value of the disciples· words and actions, at the same time as it relieves the pressure that might otherwise accompany evangelism. Because it is instrumental in that task, one·s apprenticeship is not seen as something that competes for time and effort with making disciples, as with previous arguments within evangelicalism that set doing ´good worksµ against telling the ´good newsµ. Another aspect of being apprenticed to Jesus also has the same twofold consequence of emphasising the value of the discipleship and at the same time relieving the pressure on disciples to evangelise is highlighted by Wilson (2006: 76), who points out that ´when Jesus commissions his disciples, he commissions themas a whole, not as individuals.µ Just as discipleship cannot be undertaken apart from one·s fellow apprentices, neither is disciple-making to be thought of as the obligation of individual disciples. The variety and scope of the radical change that is a part of becoming a disciple of Jesus simply cannot be observed in an individual disciple, as Augsburger(2006: 179) notes: What makes witness authentic is neither the charismatic personality of an individual nor the perfection of a particular life; it is the presence of a community of witnesses who verify, validate, and authenticate their life together. Witness is a shared task, not an independent one.
Comment [MSOffice31]: What is the link to evangelism? Comment [MSOffice30]: This needs expansion« Comment [MSOffice29]: A paradox typical of Jesus

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Not only does a community of disciples stand as a contrast to the idolatry of individualism, it also, he goes on to say stand as ´an alternative community²an alternative to human communities that live by coercion, competition, and collective self-interestµ (Augsburger 2006: 75). Such communities are guilds of apprentices working together to help each other hone their skills, places where the disciple ´learns virtuesµ(Augsburger 2006: 73). Communities of disciples become places where the kingdom of God is most tangible and most visible. Because they are communities of disciples who are not yet fully like their master and undergoing formation, there continues to be a need for grace to be given and received among the apprentices, but this in itself can constitute part of the individual formation and the collective witness. Finally, these communities of disciples demonstrate that God·s work of re-forming is not limited to humans, and indeed that humans have a part to play expressing the ´creative goodnessµ that comes as a result of obedience to and imitation of Jesus by co operating with God in his broader plans for non-human creation (Hunter 2009: 99). Wright (2008: 229) speaks of these extensive plans in terms of the biblical idea of the ´new creationµ in which everything that God has created (and not just humanity) is re-formed afresh, and explains the importance of this context for disciple-making: Seeing evangelism and any resulting conversions in terms of new creation means that the new convert knows from the start that he or she is part of God's kingdom project, which stretches out beyond "me and my salvation" to embrace, or rather to be embraced by, God's worldwide purposes« Putting evangelism and conversion within the context of new creation means that the convert, who has heard the message in terms of the sovereign and saving lordship of Jesus himself, will never be inclined to think that Christian behaviour ² saying no to the things that diminish human flourishing and God's glory and saying yes to the things that enhance them ² is an optional extra or simply a matter of wrapping your head around some rather strange rules and regulations.
Comment [MSOffice34]: A little too lengthy, better to use your own explanation. Comment [MSOffice33]: This is a very good point, and integral to your argument! Comment [MSOffice32]: You are borrowing too much from these authors.


MS409C Essay


Having shown that discipleship can be imagined as an apprenticeship to Jesus, in which one obeys and imitates him, the primary concern of this essay has been with how disciples in their apprenticeship become more like their master and more able to do the kind of work in which he engaged. For apprentices of Jesus, the kingdom of God is not only Jesus· work, but theirs as well, their ¶trade·. Spiritual disciplines are like tools, in the sense that they do no work of themselves, but rather the disciple develops his or her craft as he or she grows in the wisdom that comes through practice; not the practice of handling one·s tools well, but in practicing how to handle oneself. As a disciple of Jesus, apprenticeship intrinsically involves making disciples; this is inherent in what it is to become like the master craftsperson, Jesus. Continuing this apprentice-artisan example, we can see that local churches functions as guilds, where skills are passed on and practiced, where work is shared, and where the craft is expressed in concrete ways beyond the restrictions of the abilities of any one particular apprentice. The guild also serves as an example of apprenticeship itself ² not just an exposition of what apprentices do ² and an invitation to become an apprentice of Jesus. Because of the way in which discipleship is embodied by the apprentices and the guild, there can be no mistaking that becoming a disciple involves not just ¶believing in· Jesus, or merely followin in proximity g to him, but being changed to become more like him and sharing in the work which he initiated. This work, which Jesus initiated ² the inauguration of the kingdom of God ² involves both the proclamation and demonstration of the way in which the kingdom of God is already present. Joining this work anticipates the depth and breadth of the future transformation of all creation, but is also in preparation for it. For the apprentice of Jesus, there is no conflict between becoming like the master Jesus, and joining him at work; as the disciple is conformed to Christ, he or she increasingly participates in the expansive re forming that God is already undertaking. Neither is there any conflict between discipleship
Comment [MSOffice37]: A good conclusion! Comment [MSOffice36]: In all of this, you have not mentioned values of the kingdom? Comment [MSOffice35]: I think you have tried to contemporarise the language well - apprentice, tools and craft

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and disciple-making, but again, a necessary corollary: there certainly is no way it can be argued that an apprentice can refuse to become like his or her master, or decline to co operate in the master·s work in order to invite others to become an apprentice.

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Bibliography Augsburger, David W. 2006 Dissident discipleship: a spirituality of self-surrender, love of God, and love of neighbor. Grand Rapids, Mi.: Brazos Press. Caragounis, Chris C. 1992 "Kingdom of God/heaven" in Green, Joel B., Scot McKnight & I. Howard Marshall (Eds.) Dictionary of Jesus and the gospels. Downers Grove, Il.: InterVarsity Press, 417-430. Drane, John W. 2000 The McDonaldization of the church: spirituality, creativity, and the future of the church. London: Darton Longman & Todd. Foster, Richard J. & Kathryn A. Helmers 2008 Life with God: reading the Bible for spiritual transformation. New York, N.Y.: HarperOne. Hunter, Todd D. 2009 Christianity beyond belief : following Jesus for the sake of others. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press. Jacob, Emmanuel M. 2002 "Discipleship and mission: a perspective on the gospel of Matthew" in International Review of Mission 91:360, 102-110. Peterson, Eugene H. 2007 The Jesus way: a conversation on the ways that Jesus isthe way. Grand Rapids, Mi.: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Wilkins, Michael J. 1992 "Disciples" in Green, Joel B., Scot McKnight & I. Howard Marshall (Eds.) Dictionary of Jesus and the gospels. Downers Grove, Il.: InterVarsity Press, 176 182. Willard, Dallas 2002 Renovation of the heart: putting on the character of Christ. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press. Willard, Dallas 2006 The great omission: rediscovering Jesus' essential teachings on discipleship. San Francisco, Ca: HarperSanFrancisco. Willard, Dallas 2009a "How does the disciple live?" last accessed 23 June 2009. Willard, Dallas

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2009b "How to be a disciple." last accessed 02 July 2009. Wilson, Jonathan R. 2006 Why church matters: worship, ministry, and mission in practice.Grand Rapids, Mi.: Brazos Press. Wright, N. T. 2008 Surprised by hope: rethinking heaven, the resurrection, and the mission of the church. New York, N.Y.: HarperOne.

Fail (<50%)

Pass (50-64%)
Generally reaches accepted tertiary standards Shows a basic understanding of the topic/question

Credit (65-74%)
Reaches, and sometimes exceeds, accepted tertiary standards Shows a good understanding of the topic/question

Distinction (75-84%)
Reaches, and often exceeds, accepted tertiary standards Shows a very good understanding of the topic/question

High Distinction (85-100%)
Almost always exceeds accepted tertiary standards Shows an exceptional understanding of the topic/question

Standard 1: Overall Quality of Written Work Standard 2: Content (35%)

Does not reach accepted tertiary standards

Shows little or no understanding of the topic/question

Addresses the question or topic Addresses the question or topic in the manner specified Is characterised by tertiary level thought and/or depth of analysis Support key statements with evidence


Poorly organised, unclear Basically organised, generally clear Well organised, clear Very well organised, very clear Exceptionally well organised, ¶crystal· clear

Standard 3: Organisation & Clarity (30%)
Is arranged in coherent paragraphs Begins with an introduction and finishes with a conclusion.

Many notable errors Some notable errors Few notable errors No notable errors No/few errors of any kind

Standard 4: Conventions (Spelling, Grammar, In-text References) (15%)
Is written in formal English Is free from slang, colloquialisms and conversational language Avoids the use of the first person Is free from plagiarism

Poor presentation Acceptable presentation Good presentation Very good presentation Beautiful presentation

Standard 5: Presentation (10%) Be presented as a formal assignment Standard 6: Bibliography (10%)
Interact with a range of sources

Less than 8 academic references 8-12 academic references 13-17 academic references 18-22 academic references 23 or more academic references


MS409C Essay

Uses an accurate referencing system
Comments on essay (minimum 100 words):


Cam, this is a well argued essay, demonstrating that you understand the key issues in the course content. You write with an awareness of the need to contemporaries concepts and your chosen language is somewhat helpful. I also like the way you use the Bible and external sources, though at times you allow them to speak too much for you ² better to use your own wording. Another weakness is the failure to be clear on how and why you introduce certain terms eg spiritual disciplines ² it is unclear what you mean by them, especially when you use the term tools of the craft ² tools usually are applied externally, yet the thrust here is with formation ² internal. But the flow of your argument is very clear and you make some very important points. One of your strengths is how well read you are, and the sources you use do bring added explanation to cou rse content, which is what I am looking for and worthy of a high mark. Your essay also has coherence and cohesion ² you seem to have carefully planned the structure and written wit this in mind. What would further improve this piece is to be clearer about how and why you introduce some content eg kingdom of God bringing about a new creation in which disciples are the instrument of God·s purposes ² reconstructing by bringing Christ-like values and influence etc. well done! SH Final Mark: 47 / 60 Grade: