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LTE/SAE Overview

ZTE University

Objectives
After this course, you will be able to:

Know the mobile network evolution

Know the LTE protocol standard

Know the LTE architecture

Understand the LTE key technologies

Master the eNodeB function

Know ZTE LTE solution

Contents

Mobile Network Evolution

LTE Architecture and Benefits

LTE Key Technology

ZTE LTE Solution

Driving Forces of Mobile Network Evolution

Big
Transition

Profitability

User
Experience/
Dependency

Wireless InternetA New Paradigm for Mobile Communication


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Evolution Trend of Mobile Technology


GSM

GPRS

EDGE

eEDGE

TDSCDMA
WCDMA
R99

HSPA

HSDPA
R5

MC-HSPA
MBMS
HSUPA
R6

HSPA+
R7

TDD

LTE

4G

MBMS
FDD

cdma 1x

cdma 2000

cdma 2000
EV-DO

EV-DO
Rev. A
EV-DO
Rev. B

802.16 d

2G

2.5G

2.75G

802.16 m

802.16 e

3G

3.5G

UMB

3.75G

3.9G

4G

Multi-standard coexistence: OFDM, OFDMA, MIMO, and basic technologies in different standards are
employed in multiple wireless access technologies.
Multi-frequency coexistence: More frequency bands are available and standardized.
Mobile broadband: Increases spectrum utilization, reduces the cost of wireless data services, and
ready for multimedia-based services.
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Evolution of Speed

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Technology Comparison
802.16e (WiMAX)

LTE

HSPA+

FEATURE

TDD

OFDMA

FDD

WCDMA

FDD

OFDMA

MIMO

64QAM

MIMO

64QAM DL

TDD

SC-FDMA

16QAM UL

MIMO

64QAM

BW: 1.2520MHz

BW: 5MHz

1.4 | 3 | 5 | 10 | 20MHz

DATA RATE

63.36Mbps DL

42Mbps DL

150Mbps DL

2*2 10MHz

2*2 5MHz

2*2 20MHz

28.22Mbps UL

11.5Mbps UL

75Mbps UL

2*2 10MHz

5MHz

2*2 20MHz

STANDARD

2005.12

2008. Q3

2009. Q3

New spectrum

3G spectrum

3G spectrum
New spectrum

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Organizations Leading in LTE Ecosystem

NGMN

3GPP
Standard

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LSTI

Key Requirements
Enhanced
Coverage

Enhanced
Spectrum
Efficiency

Peak Data Rate


DL: 100 Mbps
UL: 50 Mbps

Variety of
Bandwidth

Less Latency
CP: 100ms
UP: 5ms

Less OPEX
and CAPEX

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Contents

Mobile Network Evolution

LTE Architecture and Benefits

LTE Key Technology

ZTE LTE Solution

LTE/SAE System Architecture Evolution


PCRF: Policy and Charging Rules Function
HSS: Home Subscriber Server
MME: Mobile Management Entity

GERAN

SGSN

HSS

UTRAN
S6a

S3
S1-MME

MME

PCRF
S4

S7

S11

Rx+

S10
LTE-Uu
UE

E-UTRAN
S1-U

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Serving
Gateway

S5

PDN
Gateway

SGi
Operator's IP Services

(for example, IMS and


PSS)

EPS Structure
MME / S-GW

MME / S-GW

Mobility Management
Serving Gateway

EPC
S1

EPS

Interface between
MME/SGW & eNodeB

eNodeB

RNC
EUTRAN

Node B

X2

X2
X2
eNodeB

eNodeB

eNodeB

Interface between
eNodeBs
Only one Node in E-UTRANeNodeB

Flexible bandwidth

Evolved Packet CoreEPC

Higher spectrum efficiency

Evolved Packet SystemEPS

High peak rate and lower latency

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EUTRAN/EPC Functional Modules


eNB
Inter Cell RRM

3GPP TS 36.300

RB Control
Connection Mobility Cont.
Radio Admission Control

MME

eNB Measurement
Configuration & Provision

NAS Security

Dynamic Resource
Allocation (Scheduler)

Idle State Mobility


Handling

RRC

PDCP

SAE Bearer Control

RLC
SAE Gateway

MAC
S1
PHY

Mobility Anchoring

E-UTRAN

EPC

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internet

eNodeB Functions
Radio resource management
Compression and encryption
MME selection
Routing
Scheduling and transmission

eNodeB

Measurement and measurement reporting


CSG handling

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MME Functions
NAS signalling
AS security control

Idle mode UE reachability


Tracking area list management
PDN GW/Serving GW/MME/SGSN

MME

Roaming
Authentication

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SGW Functions
Mobility anchoring
E-UTRAN idle mode downlink packet
buffering and initiation
Lawful interception

Packet routing and forwarding

SGW
Transport level packet marking

UL and DL charging per UE and PDN

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PDN GW Functions

Per-user packet filtering

Lawful interception

UE IP address allocation
Transport level packet marking in the
downlink

PDN GW

UL and DL service level charging, gating


control, and rate enforcement

AMBR-based DL rate enforcement

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EPS Bearer

End-to-end services (for example, IP services) are multiplexed on different EPS


bearers. There is a many-to-one relation between end-to-end services and EPS
bearers.
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Architecture Comparison of LTE and 3G

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Flat and IP-based Network Architecture of LTE

MSCS

Less investment

GGSN
HLR

MGW
RNC

MME

x-GW

HSS

PCRF

EPC

SGSN

Node B

Easy maintenance
Reduced transmission
delay

RNC

IP Backbone
Node B

Without RNC

LTE Flat Architecture

WCDMA/HSPA

Better reliability

IP Backbone
eNode B

eNode B

MME/x-GW

Integrates CN & partial


RNC functions
eNode B

Flat and IP-based network architecture can reduce the


TCO of the LTE network.

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Full function of Node B


and major function of
RNC

LTE Characteristics
LTE Key Technologies

LTE Highlights

Higher Peak Data Rate:


Instantaneous data rate of 150 Mbps
for downlink and 50 Mbps for uplink
in 20 MHz

OFDM Modulation

64QAM

Higher Spectrum Efficiency: 3-4


times of HSDPA, and 2-3 times of

LTE Requirements

HSUPA

Flexible Spectrum Allocation:


Scalable channel bandwidth
configuration, and both FDD & TDD
supported

Better Business Experience:


Lower latency with less than 5 ms in

ideal conditions

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Evolution Path of LTE Standards


LTE
R8

LTE-A
R9

Data Service
Commercial
Ready

So far, initial commercial


deployments are mainly
based on R8

R10

Data & VoIP


Large-scale commercial
networks

R11
LTE-Advanced
Higher efficiency and
throughput

Large scale commercial


networks begin from 2011
to 2012

R8 can fulfill the requirements of initial commercialization


R10 is a complete version for large-scale commercialization

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LTE Frequency and Bandwidth


E-UTRAN Band

UL: eNode B receive, UE transmit

DL: eNode B transmit, UE receive

FUL_low FUL_high

FDL_low FDL_high

Duplex
Mode

1920 MHz

1980 MHz

2110 MHz

2170 MHz

FDD

1850 MHz

1910 MHz

1930 MHz

1990 MHz

FDD

1710 MHz

1785 MHz

1805 MHz

1880 MHz

FDD

1710 MHz

1755 MHz

2110 MHz

2155 MHz

FDD

824 MHz

849 MHz

869 MHz

894MHz

FDD

830 MHz

840 MHz

875 MHz

885 MHz

FDD

2500 MHz

2570 MHz

2620 MHz

2690 MHz

FDD

880 MHz

915 MHz

925 MHz

960 MHz

FDD

1749.9 MHz

1784.9 MHz

1844.9 MHz

1879.9 MHz

FDD

10

1710 MHz

1770 MHz

2110 MHz

2170 MHz

FDD

11

1427.9 MHz

1452.9 MHz

1475.9 MHz

1500.9 MHz

FDD

12

[TBD]

[TBD]

[TBD]

[TBD]

FDD

13

777 MHz

787 MHz

746 MHz

756 MHz

FDD

14

788 MHz

798 MHz

758 MHz

768 MHz

FDD

33

1900 MHz

1920 MHz

1900 MHz

1920 MHz

TDD

34

2010 MHz

2025 MHz

2010 MHz

2025 MHz

TDD

35

1850 MHz

1910 MHz

1850 MHz

1910 MHz

TDD

36

1930 MHz

1990 MHz

1930 MHz

1990 MHz

TDD

37

1910 MHz

1930 MHz

1910 MHz

1930 MHz

TDD

38

2570 MHz

2620 MHz

2570 MHz

2620 MHz

TDD

39

1880 MHz

1920 MHz

1880 MHz

1920 MHz

TDD

40

2300 MHz

2400 MHz

2300 MHz

2400 MHz

TDD

...

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Strong and Healthy LTE Industry Chain


3GPP Org.
Partners

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Chipset
Provider

Terminals
Provider

Network
Provider

Instruments
Provider

LTE Benefits for Operators and Users


User Experience ARPU
Throughput

Investment Protection

Latency

Reuse of
Sites and
infrastructure

HSPA

LTE

HSPA

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HSPA+

Frequency bands

Scalable Bandwidth

cost per Mbps

HSPA

Backhaul

LTE

Low Cost per Mbps

3G

LTE

Optimized spectrum usage

LTE Enriches the Mobile Services


Mobile Broadband Changes the Future Life
Mobile Email
Netmeeting
HD Video
Conference

Video Sharing

Video Blog
Video Chat
Information

Video on
Demand

Mobile
Shopping

Online Game

Mobile Bank

HD video
streaming

Mobile Stock

LTE improves user experience by high capacity,


quick response, high data-rate, and better QoS.
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LTE Improves Broadband Applications

Online Gaming <50 ms Latency

Permanent Sync.
DL/UL 1-2 Mbps
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Live Video/ Video Blogging


DL 6-8 Mbps/UL 2 Mbps

HD Video Streaming (720i or 1080i)


DL 6-10 Mbps

LTE Investment World Map

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Contents

Mobile Network Evolution

LTE Architecture and Benefits

LTE Key Technologies

ZTE LTE Solution

LTE Key Technology Overview

OFDM

MIMO

AMC

HARQ

Channel Scheduling and Fast Scheduling

ICIC (Inter Cell Interference Coordination)

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Key Technology Evolution

1G
FDMA

2G
TDMA

3G
CDMA

LTE
OFDM+MIMO+IP

LTE enhanced technologies: OFDM and MIMO

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Link Adaption Technology

Link adaption technology can be realized by two methods: power


control and data rate control.

In most cases, the link adaption technology refers to data rate


control. In LTE, the Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)
technology is used. AMC can make the eNodeB adjust the
modulation mode (QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM) and coding rate in
accordance with the channel status that is fed back by the UE.

For long-delay packet data, AMC can improve the system


capacity but do not cause interference to the neighboring cells.

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Link Adaption Technology: Power Control

Dynamically adjusts the Tx power, maintains the receiver SNR, and


consequently guarantees the link transmission quality.

When the channel condition becomes worse, the Tx power needs to be


increased. When the channel condition becomes better, the Tx power
needs to be decreased. Therefore, the invariable transmission data rate
can be guaranteed.
Power control can avoid inner-cell user interference

Tx Power

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Channel Quality

Data Speed

HARQ
FECForward Error Correction
ARQAutomatic Repeat reQuest
HARQ = FEC + ARQ

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FEC Communication System

Data
Transmission

Advantages:

FEC
Coding

Higher system transmission


efficiency
Automatic error correct, no feed
back and retransmission
Lower time delay

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Channel

FEC
Decoding

Disadvantages:

Data
Receiver

Lower reliability
Lower channel adaptive ability
Longer codes, lower coding efficiency,

and higher complexity and cost

ARQ Communication System


Data
Transmission

Data
Receiver

Channel

ACK/NACK

Advantages:

Disadvantages:
Lower continuity and real-time

Lower complexity

Higher reliability

ability

Higher Adaptability

Lower

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transmission efficiency

HARQ Mechanism

FEC Coding

Forward
Channel

After receiving an ACK, transmits


the next packet.
After receiving an NACK,
Retransmits the original packet. Reverse

FEC error check and verification

After receiving a correct packet,


sends an ACK.
Otherwise, sends an NACK.

Controller

Transmitter

Receiver

HARQ combines the high reliability of ARQ and the high

efficiency of FEC
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Channel Scheduling (1)

For one resource block, the eNodeB schedules the user with the
best channel transmission condition to maximize the system
throughput.
Multi-user diversity
Channel Quality

BS valid channel change

User1
User2
User3

time
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Channel Scheduling (2)

LTE supports channel scheduling based on frequency domain.


Time domain decline
Time domain decline

Downlink: Based on common


reference signals
Uplink: Based on test reference
signals

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User#1 scheduling
User#2 scheduling

Fast Scheduling
Fast scheduling means packet scheduling and fast service.
Scheduling Principle

Round Robin (RR)

Max C/I

Proportional Fairness (PF)

Scheduling Methods: TDM, FDM, and SDM

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Fast Scheduling
Polling based on time

Each user is served one by one, and has


the same average server time. But the
flux for each user is different due to the
diverse environment.

Polling based on flux

No matter what kind of environment the


user is located in, the user can be served
one by one and be guaranteed to get
the same flux.

Max C/I

The system traces the wireless channel


C/I of each user, and confirms the
users priority by C/I to ensure that the
served user at each moment has the
maximum C/I.

PF

Integrates the methods above, satisfies


most users, and guarantees high system
throughput.

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

ICIC

ICIC (Inter Cell Interference Coordination)

Scrambling

Frequency-Hopping Transmit

Beamforming and IRC

Inter Cell Interference Coordination

Power Control

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Power Control

Power control is used on the PUSCH, PUSCH, and SRS.

The TPC on the PUSCH is determined by scheduling signaling (DCI format 0) of the PUSCH or
multiplexed with other users TPC (DCI format 3/3A).

The TPC on the PUCCH is determined by scheduling signaling(DCI format 0) of the PDSCH or
multiplexed with other users TPC (DCI format 3/3A).

No specific TPC is used for SRS. The TPC on the PUSCH is used. The power warp is informed
by the higher layer.

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

Contents

Mobile Network Evolution

LTE Architecture and Benefits

LTE Key Technologies

ZTE LTE Solution

Product Solution

Transport Solution

Antenna Solution

Terminal Solution

ZTE All-Around LTE Solution


E-UTRAN

UE

EPC

HSS
Rural

Urban
Express
card

Dense
Urban

Transmission
Network

Handset

PCRF

Hotspot

Suburban

Home

IMS

Internet

eNodeB
MME/SGW PGW
USB
dongle

CPE

BS8800

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BS8900

B8200+
R8860

B8300+
Micro/Pico RRU

Femto ENB

Full Series LTE Product Line


LTE TERMINAL

WITH VOICE
SOLUTION

LTE ACCESS

SINGLE RAN &


PLUS

LTE TRANSPORT

LTE CORE

MICROWAVE

uMAC
xGW

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

ZTE Unified Radio Sub-System Platform


One Network Target
GSM/EDGE

UMTS/HSPA

TD-SCDMA

CDMA2000

WiMAX

LTE

ZTE Universal SDR Platform

GSM/EDGE
UMTS/HSPA
LTE

Distributed

IntegratedUniversal

RRU
RRU

RSU

Features

MicroTCA architecture
Multi-Standard support
BBU

Baseband sharing and


software configurable
RRU sharing and

BBU

software configurable

Future-Proof Platform with Smooth Evolution Support


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Coexistence of GSM/LTE Dual-Mode System and


UMTS
ZTE SDR Platform

09 Q3 launch

GSM

LTE

LTE hardware ready


Cost effective solution
GSM/LTE Dual-mode Platform

+10 years GSM system


1.
Replaced by GSM/LTE
dual-mode system

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

LTE system

G/L dual-mode
2. Software upgrade

Future Evolution-UMTS/LTE Dual-Mode System


UMTS/LTE system

UMTS/LTE system
GSM system

Existing GSM system

2. Replace GSM by
U/L system
1.
Build a new UMTS/LTE
dual-mode system

3. Upgrade the software

LTE system

UMTS

LTE

UMTS/LTE dual-mode platform

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

ZTE SDR-Based Uni-RAN Solution


GSM & WCDMA CN
& SAE

BSC/RNC

IP based
backhaul

LTE

RRU@2.6GHz

LTE & UMTS

Iub/Abis
S1

LTE, GSM, UMTS


Baseband Unit

RRU @2.1GHz

LTE & GSM

Distributed system
architecture

Multimode operation

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

RRU @900/1800MHz

ZTE Unified O&M Solution


3rd Party
NMS/OSS/BSS

NMS/OSS/
BSS

CORBA

EMS

FM/PM/CM/IM

NetNumenTM

M31

FILE

SNMP
FM

FM/PM/CM/IM

ASCII
FM

DB
FM/PM/CM/IM

Fault
Management

Performance
Management

Configuration
Management

Accounting
Management

SON
Functions

Security
Management

Inventory
Management

System
Management

Topology
Management

NE

BSS
ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

UTRAN

EPS

TD-SCDMA

WiMAX

Contents

Mobile Network Evolution

LTE Architecture and Benefits

LTE Key Technology

ZTE LTE Solution

Product Solution

Transport Solution

Antenna Solution

Terminal Solution

LTE Backhaul Transmission Bandwidth


Requirement
S1_MME

ePC

eNB
MME
S1_MME
S11

X2_U
X2_C

S1_U

S-GW
eNB

S1_U
O&M i/f

O&M i/f

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53

O&M
System

HKCSL LTE Trial Network Architecture


GE

To
Internet

BMI
BMP
7609

xGW
MME

BPO

2/3G
core

6513

OAM

switch

Fiber

6513
01

Server
(FTP,
WWW)

8902
01

8902
02

6513
02

8902
91

6513
01

8902
92

8902
01

LTE core site

NWT

eNB

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

2/3G
core

eNB

WTT

eNB

eNB

HGC

eNB

TRAXC
OMM

eNB

8902
02

6513
02

8902
91

8902
92

HKCSL LTE Trial QoS Requirement

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

HKCSL LTE Trial QoS Solution


BMI

GE

To
Internet

2/3G core

router

xGW
MME

Fiber

Server
(FTP,
WWW)

6513
01

switch

OAM

IEEE1588v2
Grand Master
Server

8902
01

8902
02

6513
02

8902
91

8902
92

LTE core site

L2 service
provider

Service
COS tag
UMTS/GSM signal
7
UMTS/GSM VoIP/conference 6
UMTS/GMS stream media
5
UMTS/GSM WWW/FTP
4
UMTS/GSM best effort
3
LTE signal
2
LTE VoIP/stream
1
LTE background
0

ZXR2818s

eNB

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

Service
COS tag
UMTS/GSM signal
7
UMTS/GSM VoIP/conference 6
UMTS/GMS stream media
5
UMTS/GSM WWW/FTP
4
UMTS/GSM best effort
3
LTE signal
2
LTE VoIP/stream
1
LTE background
0

UMTS

GSM

DSCP
high
high
high
middle
middle
low
low
low

HKCSL LTE Trial Security Solution


AAA Server
DHCP Server

xGW

Secure domain

IP/MPLS
xGW

SR

SR

xGW

Security gateway

DPI

802.1x Access Authentication


ACL
Traffic Injection Policing

IPSec

e-NB

e-NB

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

Non-secure
domain

e-NB

e-NB

e-NB

HKCSL LTE Trial DHCP server Deployment


xGW

DHCP Server

MME

DHCP
request

OAM
Router

DHCP Relay

LTE Core site


Multicast flow

GE
DHCP request

Unicast flow
L2 service provider
DHCP reply

eNB

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

eNB

eNB

eNB

eNB

Contents

Mobile Network Evolution

LTE Architecture and Benefits

LTE Key Technology

ZTE LTE Solution

Product Solution

Transport Solution

Antenna Solution

Terminal Solution

Scheme1:
GSM900+GSM1800/UMTS2100+LTE2600
900M

1710-2170M

1920-2690M

2.6 GHz LTE involved

1800/2100
combiner

900M
GSM
RRU

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

1800M
GSM
RRU

2100M
UMTS
RRU

2600M
LTE
RRU

Scheme 2:
GSM900+GSM1800+UMTS2100/LTE1800
900M

1710-2170M

1920-2690M

1.8 GHz LTE involved


Tips : intra-band
combination leads around 3
db loss
1800/2100
combiner

900M
GSM
RRU

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

1800M
GSM
RRU

2100M
UMTS
RRU

1800M
LTE
RRU

Scheme 3: GSM900+GSM1800/UMTS2100
+ LTE1800 /LTE2600
900M

1710-2170M

1920-2690M

2.6 GHz LTE and 1.8 GHz cosite

1800/2100
combiner

900M
GSM
RRU

1800M
GSM
RRU

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved

2100M
UMTS
RRU

1800/2600
combiner

1800M
LTE
RRU

2600M
LTE
RRU

Contents

Mobile Network Evolution

LTE Architecture and Benefits

LTE Key Technology

ZTE LTE Solution

Product Solution

Transport Solution

Antenna Solution

Terminal Solution

IOT with the Third Party


ES
(700 MHz)

Sept.09

FPGA IOT test


(ongoing)

Oct.09

09 Dec. IOT start


(2.6 GHz)

09 Oct. PHY IOT


(2.6 GHz)

FFA (2.6 GHz)

Apr.10

10.Mar. IOT start


(1.8 GHz)

09 Dec. L1/L2/L3 IOT


(2.6 GHz)

S1/S11 IOT
(2.6 GHz)
Nov.09

09Q3

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09Q4

10Q1

10Q2

10Q3