Chapter 1


Mobile devices and mobile services have become part of people’s everyday lives and they are changing the way people live, work and play. Consumers are progressively moving beyond just using their phones to call people. We see them increasingly using mobile devices to access email, browse the web, play games, and enjoy multimedia like music and video. The next generation of phones and mobile devices need greater processing power to support these capabilities. Snapdragon delivers the unprecedented combination of 3G, processing performance, powerful multimedia capabilities and optimized power consumption all in a single chip to enable a new generation of smart mobile devices. Snapdragon has become the solution of choice for any device manufacturer designing a high-performance,next-generation mobile device. Snapdragon is the name of the architecture of a family of chipsets with an ARM-based CPU. The architecture was developed by Qualcomm (which calls Snapdragon a "platform") for use in smartphones and mobile computing devices. Qualcomm's Snapdragon platform offers an unprecedented combination of processing performance and optimized power consumption for the new generation of smart mobile devices. With Snapdragon chipsets, devices are always connected and aware and can offer all the communications users demand, including 3G mobile broadband, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPS. Snapdragon-based devices are thin, ultra-portable and easy to use, with an intuitive user interface and mobile OS With powerful 1GHz-plus processors, Snapdragon-powered devices are bringing a new type of user experience to market, redefining mobility for consumers around the world. Mobile devices based on the Snapdragon family of chipsets deliver real-time ubiquitous communication, high-performance multimedia, location-aware content, Internet browsing and productivity applications, all with the lowest levels of power consumption for all-day battery life and always-on connectivity. Powered by Snapdragon chipsets, smart phones now coming to market are lighter and more powerful than ever. With larger, high-resolution display screens and faster processing, smartphones give you reliable voice, data, Internet, and GPS navigation-but now in an even

Snapdragon thinner form factor that still fits in your pocket. With Snapdragon power in your Smartphone, you can quickly access all your favourite applications and take advantage of 3G mobile broadband connectivity and an extended battery life. The Snapdragon platform is designed for real time ubiquitous computing with low power consumption for day-long battery life. The first chipsets in the Snapdragon family were the QSD8650 and the QSD8250, available since the fourth quarter of 2008,both integrating a 1 GHz, applications processor, a cellular modem and GPS. The Snapdragon application processor core is called Scorpion and is similar to the ARM Cortex-A8 core. All Snapdragon processors contain the circuitry to decode High-Definition (HD) video at 720p resolution. The latest QSD8672 chip uses 45 nm technology and includes two CPU cores running at up to 1.5 GHz. QSD8672 product targets advanced mobile computing devices and includes integrated HSPA+, GPS, Bluetooth, full high definition video recording and playback, Wi-Fi and mobile TV technologies (MediaFLO, DVB-H and ISDB-T). Mobile devices using the QSD8672 are expected to become available in the second half of 2010.

1.2 Overview

Snapdragon Qualcomm's Snapdragon platform offers an unprecedented combination of processing performance and optimized power consumption for the new generation of smart mobile devices. With Snapdragon chipsets, devices are always connected and aware and can offer all the communications users demand, including 3G mobile broadband, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPS. Snapdragon-based devices are thin, ultra-portable and easy to use, with an intuitive user interface and mobile OS. With powerful 1GHz-plus processors, Snapdragon-powered devices are bringing a new type of user experience to market, redefining mobility for consumers around the world. Mobile devices based on the Snapdragon family of chipsets deliver real-time ubiquitous communication, high-performance multimedia, location-aware content, Internet browsing and productivity applications, all with the lowest levels of power consumption for all-day battery life and always-on connectivity. Snapdragon technology is the next step in the evolution of mobility that Qualcomm brings to market. Smartbooks: The New Breed of Mobility and Ability Snapdragon chipsets power smartbooks, a new breed of mobile devices that merge the intuitive, instant-on and always-connected user experience of smartphones with the versatility and power of a laptop in a smaller and thinner design than the traditional or mini-notebook. Smartbooks offer high-quality multimedia performance with 3D graphics, HD video, built-in GPS and more. Smartbooks let you enjoy movies, stream videos, play games, surf the web and social networking sites, connect and locate friends and places and more-wherever you are. A sizable high-resolution display and all the high-performance advantages of Snapdragon chipsets round out an incomparable mobile experience in a sleek and slim form factor. A wide variety of Snapdragon-based smartbooks are already in design today. Smartphones: Now Smarter and More Powerful Powered by Snapdragon chipsets, smartphones now coming to market are lighter and more powerful than ever. With larger, high-resolution display screens and faster processing, smartphones give you reliable voice, data, Internet, and GPS navigation-but now in an even thinner form factor that still fits in your pocket. With Snapdragon power in your Smartphone, you can quickly access all your favourite applications and take advantage of 3G mobile broadband connectivity and an extended battery life.

Not that long ago, competition in the microprocessor world centred on x86 designs for desktop PCs and RISC devices for workstations. “In the 1990s, [CPU design] was all about

Snapdragon performance – nobody cared about power consumption or how much it cost,” said Linley Gwennap, principal analyst of The Linley Group. But, as the market matured, x86 players either left the market or were acquired, leaving Intel and AMD to fight it out. Today, it is the mobile computing market that is fiercely contested, especially processors for smartphones and sub notebooks – a computer class known variously as mobile internet devices, netbooks or smartbooks. “With mobile processors, it is not just the processor, but also 3d graphics, audio and video processing and cellular, all designed with an incredibly low power budget and constrained cost,” said Gwennap. For Gwennap, mobile processors are driving semiconductor innovation. “Mobile processors are the hardest design task to take on – the same performance as a pc crammed onto one chip,” he said. Qualcomm’s Snapdragon is one such device and is already used to power Google’s high profile Nexus One Smartphone. Qualcomm has several Snapdragon ICs based on the ARM Cortex-A8 instruction set and plans to adopt the design across more of its product families. Snapdragon’s origins date back five years when Qualcomm brought onboard a low power PowerPC processor design team released by IBM. “We hired the team intact,” said Mark Frankel, vice president of product management at Qualcomm’s CDMA Technologies division. The team began designing its ARM based core with a target clock speed of at least 1GHz. Five years on, several Snapdragon designs exist. The first, now shipping in Smartphone and smartbook products, is the 65nm 1GHz QSD8250/8650. “The QSD8250 and 8650 is the same silicon,” said Frankel. “The difference is the Firmware: the 8250 is UMTS only, while the 8650 is multimode and supports CDMA-2000.” Two follow on 45nm Snapdragon designs have been detailed: the QSD8650A, clocked at 1.3GHz, and the dual core QSD8672, clocked at up to 1.5GHz. Qualcomm owns an ARM architectural license, such that while Snapdragon is code compatible with ARM’s CortexA8, the company has freedom to design its own hardware. The result is an ARM7 compatible superscalar processor with a 128bit single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) engine, dubbed VeNum, instead of ARM’s 64bit NEON “We can dispatch instructions with a greater throughput than a typical ARM, and we control the [memory] caches and where we put them,” said Frankel. “Not only do we have control of the process and transistor mix, but also the [technology’s] creative design.” In addition to the SIMD engine, Snapdragon includes a dsp and a graphics unit. The QSD8250’s 600MHz dsp is Qualcomm’s own design and performs mainly video processing. The device can encode and decode video at a 720p rate and includes dedicated hardware blocks. The faster QSD8672 is able to process video at 1080p. Given the dedicated dsp, why is the SIMD engine – ideal for multimedia processing needed? The answer is to run multimedia codecs, such as flash, written by third parties. In contrast, the dsp, with its own microcode, was never designed to be programmed by Snapdragon based product developers, says Frankel. The 2d/3d graphics engine is the result of Qualcomm’s acquisition of the assets of an ATI supports the faster data rate HSPA+. The 3G modem is a core advantage of Qualcomm’s

Snapdragon integrated device. “As a leader in 3G cellular, if designers choose the Snapdragon, they know they are getting a solid 3G baseband used around the world,” said Gwennap To constrain the Snapdragon’s power consumption – and hence prolong a mobile device’s battery operating life – functional blocks are clocked independently. “The power can also be switched down within a clock cycle and when you need processing, it can be switched on almost instantly,” said Frankel. The 65nm 1GHz QSD8650 device consumes 0.5W and has a standby rating of 10mW. The 45nm process unit, whose graphics core Qualcomm had licensed previously. “The 3d graphics is extremely important [for Smartphones and smartbooks]; it is the first [product] impression a user gets,” said Frankel The 3d graphics performance of the QSD8650 is 22million triangle/s and 133m 3d pixel/s. It also supports displays of up to WXGA (1366 x 768). The QSD8672 extends performance to 80m triangle/s and more than 500m 3d pixel/s. Display capability is extended to WSXGA (1440 x 900). As for Snapdragon’s integrated wireless modem, the QSD8650/A supports UMTS, including the high speed packet access standard (HSPA),as well as CDMA-2000, while the QSD8762 also reduces the power consumption to 0.35W for the QSD8650A. Qualcomm claims 15 manufacturers are now developing 40 designs based on the Snapdragon. First to be announced was the Toshiba TG01 smartphone. Since then, other smartphone product launches include such firms as HTC, Acer, Sony Xperia and LG In January, Qualcomm announced that Lenovo is developing several designs, including a smartbook to be launched by US operator AT&T. This will be followed by launches in China and Europe. Qualcomm is also working with HP on a Snapdragon based Android smartbook. There is a lack of rigour when it comes to describing mobile computing devices; even experts agree that definitions are ‘slippery’ Meanwhile, the Google Nexus One handset is the fastest clocked smartphone on the market. Qualcomm’s mix of design wins spans leading smartphone and smartbook makers. But, by integrated a powerful cpu with a cellular modem, the design is confined to applications that require both functions. “It is not the device for navigation devices or media players, unless mobile functionality is also needed,” said Gwennap. This is in contrast with the likes of Texas Instruments, whose OMAP processor is targeted at several products. “The good news for Qualcomm is that cellular is popping up in a lot of places, such as e-books, while a lot of netbooks are sold with cellular functionality included,” said Gwennap. Snapdragon faces stiff competition from the likes of Marvell and Free scale (see NE, 23 Feb 2009), as well as from Intel and Nvidia. While ARM’s Cortex-A8 may not be clocked at 1GHz, ARM continues to invest heavily in its architecture and has announced the Cortex-A9 CPU, which has architectural enhancements such as instruction reordering. This will give a processing edge for the same clock speed as the Snapdragon. According to Linley Group, the Cortex-A9 cpu will ship in Nvidia’s Tegra 250 in the second quarter of 2010. Tegra 250 contains two Cortex- A9 CPUs; each running at up to 1GHz. Texas Instruments’ OMAP4 also uses ARM’s Cortex-A9 and will ship later this year.


Chapter 2 2.1 ARM Cortex A-8
The ARM Cortex-A8 processor is based on the ARMv7 architecture and has the ability to scale in speed from 600MHz to greater than 1GHz. The Cortex-A8 processor can meet the


Snapdragon requirements for power-optimized mobile devices needing operation in less than 300mW; and performance-optimized consumer applications requiring 2000 Dhrystone MIPS.

Fig. 2.1 Structure of ARM Cortex A-8

The Cortex-A8 high-performance processor is proven in end devices today. From high-end feature phones to netbooks, DTVs, printers and automotive-infotainment, the Cortex-A8 processor offers a proven high-performance solution with millions of units shipped annually.


Snapdragon 65nm LP process Optimized Frequency (MHz) Frequency conditions Area with L1 Cache (mm2) Cache Size (I/D) 600 Synthesized 500 65nm G+ process Optimized 1 GHz Synthesized 750

at ss, 1.08v, 125 C <4 32K/32K <4 32K/32K

at SS, 0.9v, 125C <4 32K/32K <4 32K/32K

Table2.1 Performance chart


Architecture Dhrystone Performance Multicore

ARMv7-A Cortex 2.0 DMIPS / MHz No - Single core only
• • • •

ISA Support

ARM Thumb-2/ Thumb NEON VFPv3 Floating Point

Memory Management

Memory Management Unit (MMU) CoreSight DK-A8 (available separately)

Debug and Trace



Feature Description Cortex-A8 Feature 128-bit SIMD engine enables high performance media processing. Using NEON for some Audio, Video, and Graphics workloads eases the burden of supporting more dedicated accelerators across the SoC and enables the system to support the standards of tomorrow The Level 1 cache is integrated tightly into the processor with a single-cycle access time. The caches combine minimal access latency with hash way determination to maximize performance and minimize power consumption. The Level 2 cache is integrated into the core for ease of integration, power efficiency, and optimal performance. Built using standard compiled RAMs, the cache is configurable from 0K – 1MB. The cache can be built using compiled memories and has programmable delay to accommodate different array characteristics Delivers the peak performance of traditional ARM code while also providing up to a 30% reduction in memory required to store instructions. To minimize branch wrong prediction penalties, the dynamic branch predictor achieves 95% accuracy across a wide range of industry benchmarks. The Predictor is enabled by branch target and global history buffers. The replay mechanism minimizes miss-predict penalty. A full MMU enables the Cortex-A8 to run rich operating systems in a variety of Applications RCT Java-acceleration technology to optimize Just In Time (JIT) and Dynamic Adaptive Compilation (DAC), and reduce memory footprint by up to three times Optimized for power-efficiency and high-performance. Hash array in the L1 cache limits activation of the memories to when they are likely to be needed. Direct interface between the integrated, configurable L2 cache and the NEON media unit for data


Optimized Level 1 cache

Integrated Level 2 cache

Thumb-2 Technology

Dynamic Branch Prediction

Memory Management Unit Jazelle-RCT Technology Memory System


streaming. Banked L2 cache design that enables only one bank at a time. Support for multiple outstanding transactions to the L3 memory to fully utilize the CPU. TrustZone Technology Allows for secure transactions and Digital Rights Management (DRM)

Chapter 3


3.1 QSD 8650 & QSD 8250
The first chipsets in the Snapdragon family were the QSD8650 and the QSD8250, available since the fourth quarter of 2008, both integrating a 1 GHz applications processor, a cellular modem and GPS The QSD 8650 & QSD 8250 were having an RISC structure with a 32-bit width they supports the instruction set ARMv7. They were having a 1GHz clock frequency with a CMOS semiconductor technology. The feature size of the machine was only 65nm.

Fig, 3.1 Block Diagram of QSD 8650 Features of QSD 8650 & QSD 8250

1GHZ Clock cycle CPU Embedded 600 MHz DSP ARMv7 Instruction set CMOS semiconductor technology RISC CPU structure Support for Linux and Windows Mobile WWAN, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity Seventh-generation gpsOne engine for Standalone-GPS and Assisted-GPS modes, as well as gpsOne XTRATM Assistance

• • • • • •

Snapdragon • • •

High definition video decode (720P) 3D graphics with up to 22M triangles/sec and 133M 3D pixels/sec High resolution XGA display support Supports upto12-megapixel camera Support for multiple video codecs Audio codecs: (AAC+, eAAC+, AMR, FR, EFR, HR, WB-AMR, G.729a, G.711, AAC stereo encode) Support for Broadcast TV (MediaFLO TM , DVB-H and ISDB-T) Fully tested, highly-integrated solution including baseband, software, RF, PMIC, Bluetooth, Broadcast & Wi-Fi

• •

3.2 QSD 8672
At New York on November 13, 2008 Qualcomm Incorporated , a leading developer and innovator of advanced wireless technologies and data solutions, announced a new dual-CPU Snapdragon single-chip solution that extends the reach of the Snapdragon platform by

Snapdragon targeting more advanced mobile computing devices. The QSD8672 chip features two computing cores capable of up to 1.5GHz for greater processing capabilities, in addition to optimized battery life and a full range of 3G mobile broadband and peripheral connectivity capabilities found on all Snapdragon chipsets. Snapdragon-powered mobile computing devices combine the best of Smartphones and laptops, delivering advanced computing while enhancing the user experience with the always-on, connected characteristics of mobile handsets. “This new dual-CPU Snapdragon chip demonstrates our long-term commitment to helping our customers develop a wide variety of innovative, data-centric, mobile computing devices”, said Luis Pineda, senior vice president of marketing and product management for Qualcomm CDMA Technologies. “With its exceptional computing power and improved energy efficiency, the QSD8672 chip allows us to enable more advanced devices that are essentially always on, always awake and always connected.” The dual-CPU QSD8672 solution, with two highly integrated computing processors running at speeds of up to 1.5GHz, is designed to enable new classes of wirelessly connected computing and pocketable computing devices and deliver significant enhancements to Netbook devices. Having two processing cores allows the chip to deliver an enhanced computing experience with more instantaneous response and greater ability to run multiple applications concurrently. The QSD8672 also will provide these devices with greater functionality, particularly 3G wireless broadband through the Company's industry-leading integrated multi-mode modems including HSPA+ for up to 28 Mbps on the downlink and up to 11 Mbps on the uplink. The chip integrates GPS, Bluetooth, 1080p high-definition video recording and playback and also supports Wi-Fi and mobile TV technologies such as MediaFLO, DVB-H and ISDB-T. The integrated 2D and 3D graphics engines deliver device manufacturers the ability to offer products with display resolutions up to WSXGA (1440 x 900). Together with radio frequency and power management chips, the QSD8672 provides a complete solution for mobile computing devices. Mobile computing devices running on the dual-CPU Snapdragon solution can offer displays from 9 to 12 inches in size with a formfactor that is smaller, thinner, lighter and quieter. These devices also take advantage of integrated 3G connectivity and comprehensive peripheral connectivity capabilities, which complement and enable these portable form-factors. Running on Snapdragon chips also allows mobile computing devices to deliver powerful processing capabilities, transparent and reliable connectivity and exceptionally long battery life.

Features of QSD 8672 The QSD 8672 includes most of the features of QSD 8x50 in addition to • Dual CPUs, up to 1.5 GHz for faster response and processing

Snapdragon • • • • • • Low-power 45nm process technology for higher integration and performance Higher-resolution WSXGA (1440 x 900) display support High-definition (1080p) video recording and playback Support for HSPA+ networks - 28 Mbps downloads and 11 Mbps uploads Supports CDMA2000 1X, 1xEV-DO Rel 0/A/B networks Improved 3D graphics - up to 80M triangles/sec and 500M+ 3D pixels/sec

3.3 Smartbooks



Fig.3.2 Smartbooks The new breed of hybrid Smartphone and netbook called the smartbook. It is made by Lenovo and it runs on Qualcomm (NSDQ: QCOM)’s Snapdragon processor and Linux software. Qualcomm’s chief executive Paul Jacobs flashed the device at an analysts meeting in New York. Qualcomm has long championed the category it calls the smartbook. It’s a cross between the netbook and the Smartphone; the idea is to combine the best of both devices in one. However, some Smartphones are already sporting the features trumpeted in smartbooks. Smartbooks are touted by manufacturers for the same features found in some advanced smartphones technology, as well as superior energy efficiency. While Qualcomm didn’t formally launch the smartbook, it has revealed improvements in its Brew Mobile Platform OS that should help independent developers bring their smartbook models to market faster. The firm said key software components are being integrated in the Brew platform including Java virtual machine browsers, multimedia, instant messaging, and calendar applications. Qualcomm said that the new features will enable device developers to distribute applications before new handsets are launched. “Qualcomm is working closely with key software technology providers,” said Jason Kenagy, VP of product management for Qualcomm Technologies, in a statement. “This effort includes optimization of target devices and pre-distribution of these products to device makers.”

3.4 Future Progress

Snapdragon As mobile applications become more demanding, and networks become faster and more capable of handling heavy data loads, smartphones will continually push the limits of what is possible on a mobile device while still ensuring a good user experience. Mobile performance, power optimisation, connectivity options, and device size remain critical to the success of smartphones. Cost-efficiency will also dictate how accessible devices are in various markets. In early January, Lenovo announced their Skylight product, which is the first Snapdragon notebook. Right now, there are 15 manufacturers developing more than 40 Snapdragon-based devices, including smartphones and smartbooks. From the inception of Snapdragon several years ago, Qualcomm believed that mobile devices would continue to evolve to become more capable and more valuable to everyday life. This included not only groundbreaking new smartphones, but devices with larger displays. We therefore began work on the custom central processor that is at the heart of Snapdragon, which enables it to deliver performance exceeding 1 GHz and with low levels of power consumption. The Lenovo Skylight is a 10 in (25 cm) mobile HD device which uses a 1 GHz Snapdragon processor. The soon to be released LG eXpo and the Sony Ericsson XPERIA X10 are also being built using a 1 GHz Snapdragon processor. Acer Liquid is the first mobile phone to use this Qualcomm Snapdragon. Soon to be released Nokia N900 is also using snapdragon 1GHz chipsets with Maemo OS.

Fig.3.3 N900

Qualcomm expects to launch two more chipsets in 2010 8X50A: 1.3 GHz; 45 nanometre technology; available in end products at the end of 2010

Snapdragon 8X72: dual-core, each core clocked at 1.5 GHz; capable of decoding 1080p

Fig.3.4 Future development of snapdragon

Chapter 4



4.1 Pocket Computing Devices Enabled by Qualcomm's Snapdragon Platform
Advancements in mobile connectivity have coalesced, bringing us to the brink of a major new mobile paradigm. What will the next generation of mobile technologies look like? Qualcomm is seizing a leadership position in bringing such new opportunities to market. On Qualcomm's groundbreaking Snapdragon platform, powerful processors and long battery life peaceably coexist, creating a more mature and always connected experience. To make the point clearer, let's tell a story about an everyday college student. Let's call him Dan.

Fig.4.1 Use of Snapdragon in Mobile computing devices Dan wakes up in the morning and gets ready to go to class. While eating breakfast, he streams the latest tunes from his favourite music blogs and compiles them into a fresh playlist for the day. As Dan carpools to class, he updates his presentation for Polisci 102 from the backseat. Meanwhile he checks real-time traffic conditions to find out which campus parking lots still have space available and passes the data to his friend in the driver's seat. After his presentation, Dan has an interview with the Dean for his college paper. Instead of fidgeting with his notes and trying to scribble down a legible shorthand, Dan simply films his conversation with the Dean. He uses the footage from his interview as a transcript for the printed edition of his paper and then posts the raw video in a web blog. Once he is done with his classes, Dan finds himself waiting for his roommate in the parking lot. He uses the downtime to check his grades, and then to research the scheduled nightlife at area clubs that evening. Stopping by the supermarket before going home, Dan and his roommate find a great deal on sundried tomatoes. They don't really know what to make with sundried tomatoes, but Dan quickly uses his mobile device to find a suitable recipe.

Snapdragon After dinner, Dan hits the city to go dancing. At the club, he hears a few songs that he likes; he takes note of their titles so he can check them out later. Dan also shows off all his photos and video clips to his friends, letting everyone see the evidence of his fantastic trip to South America last month. After the club, Dan finds out where the cheapest late night food is and gets some quick sustenance before heading home for the night. How did Dan accomplish all of this? Not with a laptop or cell phone. No, Dan has found a smarter and more modern solution. He uses a Snapdragon-based device. Qualcomm's groundbreaking Snapdragon platform doesn't sacrifice mobility for processing power or battery consumption. It creates a rich media, always-connected experience. A Snapdragon-based device is a tool to fill the gaps in your life. The options for mobile connectivity are opening up in ways we never dreamed possible five years ago. Thanks to the revolutionary Snapdragon platform, the question isn't what you want to do; the question is how far you want to take it.

4.2 First Linux support for Snapdragon
Qualcomm has announced three Scorpion-based MSM8xxx mobile chipsets that target highend devices with HD 1080p video. The devices are said to be equipped with Scorpion

Snapdragon processors clocked up to 1.2GHz (Scorpion, like ARM's own Cortex, implements ARM's ARMv7 architecture). Although the company did not initially brand them as "Snapdragon" processors, they are touted as being "pin-, software-, and functionality-compatible" with Qualcomm's earlier Snapdragon chips, the QSD8250 and QSD8650. Xandros did not mention a specific brand of Snapdragon, but is likely targeting this newer MSM8xxx platform. The Snapdragon architecture first appeared in the QSD8250 and QSD8650 chipsets, announced in 2007. Those chips were recently used in a Windows Mobile-based smartphone from Toshiba called the TG01. Qualcomm's QSD8250 offers an ARM-based "Scorpion" CPU clocked at 1GHz, plus a 600MHz DSP (digital signal processor). The platform also provides an integral GPS receiver, day-long battery life, HD video playback, and support for cameras up to 12 megapixels, according to Qualcomm. Other Snapdragon support is said to include HSDPA (high speed downlink packet access) connectivity, WiFi, and Bluetooth. The QSD8650 is similar to the QSD8250 except for the addition of dual-mode support for providing both HSPA and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev. B connectivity.

4.3 Devices using Snapdragon
The first mobile internet device to use a 1 GHz Snapdragon was Toshiba’s TG01 Smartphone. This was shortly followed by Acer's neoTouch. In 2009 HTC Corporation used the QSD8250, 1GHz chipset in the HTC HD2.

Snapdragon In June 2009 Qualcomm presented an ASUS Eee PC using the Snapdragon processor and running Google's Linux distribution Android. At the same event, ASUS also showed a Snapdragon-based device and then withdrew it abruptly. Acer's Android-based Liquid A1 Smartphone, launched in December 2009, also uses a 768 MHz Snapdragon. The Google Nexus One, released 5 January 2010, and manufactured by HTC, features Android OS 2.1 and is powered by a Snapdragon running at 1 GHz (Qualcomm QSD8250). The Lenovo Skylight is a 10 in (25 cm) mobile HD device which uses a 1 GHz Snapdragon processor The soon to be released LG eXpo and the Sony Ericsson XPERIA X10 are also being built using a 1 GHz Snapdragon processor. Acer Liquid is the first mobile phone to use this Qualcomm Snapdragon.

Fig, 4.2 Toshiba’s TG01 (1st Mobile to use Snapdragon)

Chapter 5 5.1 MediaFLO Technology
The television experience is no longer tied to the living room. The next frontier in television is mobility. Broadcasting television to mobile consumers represents an enormous opportunity for multi-channel operators and mobile network operators alike. But terrestrial television broadcasting and mobile networks have rarely crossed paths.

Snapdragon Mobile network operators face bandwidth challenges delivering a breadth of live TV to millions of subscribers over existing mobile networks. Multi-channel operators and other content providers are examining new ways to deliver their programming and interact with the mobile user. How can rich content be delivered to millions of mobile users? Can mobile network operators deliver a compelling number of TV feeds without over-burdening their networks and still build a business case? FLO™ technology was specifically designed to overcome these challenges. Purpose-built as an end-to-end mobile multimedia delivery platform, the MediaFLO system receives live broadcast feeds, transforms content into a mobile format, and securely broadcasts to an unlimited number of mobile users. Designed to deliver the most live programming, clips, data and interactive functionality at the highest quality, FLO technology can help monetize the mobile television opportunity.

Fig, 5.1 Utilizing OFDM modulation, FLO technology allows the transmission of significant volumes of content and services

Benefits of MediaFLO Technology The MediaFLO system provides a number of unique benefits to multi-channel operators and mobile network operators. Both parties benefit from a compelling and rich service offering that both emulates and transcends the traditional television experience. Multi-Channel Operator Benefits • Increases programming options to new outlets

• •

Delivers national and regional programming, within one RF channel, allowing regional content to be seen by appropriate viewers Reaches existing viewers more frequently by allowing mobile viewing of popular programming Allows interactivity functions that enable cross-channel marketing and greater opportunity for consumer interaction Provides consumer usage information that enables improved advertising revenue opportunities

• •

Mobile Network Operator Benefits •

Improves average revenue per user and reduces churn Reaches countless subscribers with no service degradation on cellular network or broadcast network as subscriber base grows Provides a competitive advantage by offering a wide range of streaming television programming Economically delivers content to the masses with a minimal number of transmitters Encourages users to increase usage of existing SMS and data plans vi interactivity applications Provides immediate access to real-time data extending the value of the mobile device to an “always on” lifestyle management tool

• •

5.2 Wi-Fi
Qualcomm's wireless LAN (WLAN ) technologies deliver the freedom to share and manage digital content, sync multimedia with home media players and enjoy content anywhere, anytime, on any device. WLAN or wireless LAN communications is defined by a set of connectivity standards (IEEE 802.11) that support networks among access points (APs) and mobile computing devices - all without cabling. As WLAN technology continues to advance with greater reliability and performance moving into media-rich consumer applications like home entertainment and

Snapdragon mobile gaming, Qualcomm will support device manufacturers with high-performance yet efficient highly integrated chipset solutions fully compliant with the latest standards. Advantages of Wireless LAN Wireless LAN networks based on the global, evolving 802.11 standards have significant benefits for manufacturers and consumers alike: • •

Ease of setting up networks without cabling Data speeds that now rival cable-based Ethernet High level of interoperability among Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ products Reliable performance at reasonable price points and increased application areas

Qualcomm's High Performance 802.11n WLAN Solution Based on the revolutionary MIMO (multiple input multiple output) technique, Qualcomm's highly integrated, high performance WLAN chipset solution for the next generation 802.11n standard features 4th generation True MIMO® technology that delivers new levels of coverage, speed and capacity for wireless networking: • • • • • First 802.11n Draft 2.0 compliant solution High speeds that hold at range Links of wired quality reliability Maximum Wi-Fi® interoperability & backwards compatibility Highly cost competitive, power efficient, integrated manufacturing-ready designs

5.3 Bluetooth
Qualcomm offers proven, world class Bluetooth® Hardware and Software solutions for mobile phones and other portable devices requiring low power consumption and a small form factor. The Bluetooth System on Chip (SoC) and integrated solutions support both Bluetooth 2.X + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) and Bluetooth 3.0 + H.S. (High Speed), which is the latest version of the Bluetooth Specification. The SoC’s are available in several package options which allow for direct PCB attachment or for use in modules that include the Band-Pass Filter and other required external components. The integrated solutions combine Bluetooth with cellular radios, FM, Codec and touch screen controller and offer the smallest form factor

Snapdragon available for handset platforms. Along with these SoC’s and integrated solutions, Qualcomm provides the complete Bluetooth Upper Layer Software Stack and Profiles. Qualcomm's Bluetooth solutions facilitate wireless transfers of audio and data between Bluetooth enabled handsets, headsets, car-kits and other electronic devices.

Complementary to other wireless technologies found on Qualcomm solutions, Bluetooth enables portable devices to connect and synchronize anywhere in the world. The possibilities for new products and services leveraging Qualcomm's Bluetooth solutions are unlimited. Qualcomm Bluetooth solutions offer: • • • • • • Cost-effective implementation of Bluetooth capabilities for handset and other portable device manufactures. Enable slimmer form factors by reducing space requirements due to a small footprint and low external component count. Minimal impact on battery life due to low active, standby and sleep power consumption requirements. Turn-key solutions that have been fully integrated, tested and verified on Qualcomm platforms. Bluetooth Special Interest Group Qualifications that manufacturer's can leverage thereby reducing their own Qualification testing requirements. Fully verified reference designs that reduce OEM development time, engineering resource requirements and time to market risk.

Key Functions
Qualcomm Bluetooth solutions provide: • • • Bluetooth 2.X + EDR and BT 3.0 + High Speed compliance High speed UART (4 Mbps) interface to host for control and data Support for all ACL, SCO and eSCO packet types

Snapdragon • • • • • •

Piconet and Scatternet support 802.11 Coexistence via Packet Traffic Arbitration (PTA) Direct conversion radio architecture reduces out of band emissions Receiver sensitivity down to -91 dBm Transmitter output up to +12dBm Integrated regulators Ball Grid Array, Bumped Die, Wafer Scale Package and integrated options

5.4 CDMA
Qualcomm developed CDMA technology which changed wireless communication forever. Through continued innovation the Company delivers increasingly advanced technologies for wireless solutions around the world. QCT's CDMA2000® solutions deliver the advanced wireless capabilities that customers demand today. An innovator in CDMA technology, QCT has propelled mobile connectivity by providing feature-rich, cost effective, mobile connectivity solutions to all market tiers.

Snapdragon QCT offers expertise in cutting edge CDMA technologies. Our engineering team has extensive design and testing experience. Couple that expertise with our integrated-solutions approach, and we enable sleek, feature-rich, power-efficient devices, while reducing development time for new handsets. Wireless operators will benefit from the time-to market advantage of deploying advanced wireless voice and data services without sacrificing performance or network capacity. Many Qualcomm CDMA chipset solutions support the mobile industry's Open Market Handsets (OMH) initiative. Led by the CDMA Development Group, the OMH™ initiative gives consumers more flexibility and variety when choosing handsets and features. Under the requirements of OMH, the network settings are shifted from the OMH handset to the OMH SIM card. Mobile users can purchase a CDMA OMH handset from their retailer of choice and use it with an OMH SIM card from any CDMA OMH operator. The OMH initiative increases device variety, improves time-to-market, expands distribution channels, and lowers handset inventory costs for operators. To tap into the growing demand for data-intense services, QCT offers cost-effective solutions for wide area wireless broadband with high data speeds. The higher spectral efficiency of EV-DO networks offer high data rates and increased capacity. As a result, wireless operators can deliver cost-effective advanced data services. EV-DO networks support high-quality streaming video and audio, global positioning services, and rich multimedia applications. Enhancements in EV-DO Revision A support symmetric applications with lower latencies. This enables a new breed of applications from instant messaging with multimedia content to VoIP and video broadcasts. By leveraging these differentiating services, network operators can offer new services to build revenue; backward compatibility ensures they can protect their existing network investments.



Fig, 5.2 CDMA Technology


High-speed data services - Qualcomm CDMA Technology (QCT) solutions provide high data rates to enable feature-rich applications, such as multimedia streaming, video recording and playback, integrated cameras with photo sharing, global positioning, customizable interfaces, and mobile online games. Such production differentiation provides the opportunity for additional revenue streams and the ability to tap into new markets. Cost-effective solutions - CDMA2000 enables cost-sensitive, developing markets to join the global community, while providing an easy path to upgraded capabilities and inherent data support for in-demand services beyond voice and SMS. Improved performance - With greater spectral efficiency, CDMA2000 technology provides clear voice quality and excellent reception with less background noise and better connectivity. Customers enjoy greater reliability and an enhanced experience overall. Powerful, integrated functionality - QCT offers a suite of integrated multimedia technologies in each of its chipsets, effectively eliminating the need for separate multimedia companion processors and memory subsystems. Manufacturers can offer smaller, power-efficient wireless devices with advanced functionality.



5.5 HSPA+
HSPA+, also referred to as High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) Evolved or enhanced HSPA (eHSPA), is the evolutionary step for HSPA/WCDMA networks. Supporting peak data rates of up to 42 Mbps on the downlink and 11 Mbps on the uplink*, HSPA+ doubles data capacity and triples voice capacity, enabling operators to offer mobile broadband more efficiently and at a lower cost. With networks offering increased speed and capacity, mobile device users can more enjoy the always on/connected experience; faster data downloads and uploads; faster Internet surfing; smoother packet-based video telephony and video sharing; and real-time multimedia gaming, push-to-talk/media, mobile computing, social networking or a variety of all these activities simultaneously (multitasking). * 42 Mbps achieved by combining 2x2 MIMO and HOM (64QAM) in 5MHz or by using HOM (64QAM) in a 10MHz multicarrier operation.

Fig, 5.3 HSPA+ technology for fast use of internet

• Fully integrated Qualcomm's HSPA+-enabled solution features fully integrated next-generation wireless capabilities and advanced applications. Integration of these features onto a range of chipsets, allows manufacturers of data cards, handsets and personal/mobile computing devices to get their devices into the marketplace faster than ever. Cost effective HSPA+ solution is backward compatible with prior generations of WCDMA and does not require wireless network operators to obtain/purchase new spectrum for deployment. Thus, operators can leverage their existing network and spectrum resources - preserving investments - to offer next-generation wireless bandwidth and performance. Greater functionality Qualcomm's HSPA+ solution enables the mobile broadband experience consumers

Snapdragon and professionals demand today and well into tomorrow, including multimedia streaming, video telephony, quick and accurate position location, real-time 3D mobile gaming, corporate network access, faster Web browsing, and multitasking.

5.6 gpsONE

Snapdragon GPS technology and location-based services have become essential to modern living. As a leading developer of advanced wireless technologies and integrated solutions, Qualcomm is well equipped to provide an advanced and widely adopted (multimode) GPS positionlocation technology: gpsOne. Used in more than 500 million handsets, gpsOne goes well beyond just defining your location. Location-based services, which utilize GPS, are available to make your life easier, more entertaining, more secure, and more informative. With the gpsOne solution, navigating from point A to point B becomes much more efficient, especially when information on weather, traffic, accidents, etc. is automatically utilized to suggest alternative routes for travel. gpsOne uses location data to provide closer contact with your friends and family, making it easier to keep in touch and to spend time together. And it increases your opportunities for fun with dynamic suggestions for dining, shopping, and other recreation as you travel.

Fig, 5.4 gpsONE technology gpsOne delivers immediate, precise geo-positioning information and is powerful enough to provide location data seamlessly, wherever you go. It can also use location data to enrich other multimedia experiences within your life. Used in combination with other leading wireless technologies from QCT, gpsOne can power multi-functional applications that use location in ways you may have not thought possible. Imagine being able to take a photo or record a video with a location stamp immediately captured with the image metadata. How about having a 3D map displayed on your phone to help you precisely pinpoint and depict your destination in a more realistic fashion? Gaming enthusiasts can leverage their playing skills in geo-caching environments or they can sniff out potential challengers within a defined radius of their own location. The power of gpsOne knows no boundaries.

Consumer Benefits


Simplifies daily life events: Navigating from Point A to Point B efficiently Locating people, places, and items more accurately Simplifying online transactions with e-commerce initiatives

Expands the possibilities for new experiences: Suggests points of interest(restaurants, entertainment venues, shopping, etc.)

Encourages "community life": Enables social networking for family and friends Finds user-generated blogs based on geographic interests

Delivers a sense of security: Locating family, friends, and pets Being located in emergency situations

Creates new opportunities for entertainment: Geo-caching for gaming

Carrier Benefits: • • • Enables ability to offer LBS-enriched applications (increasing ARPU) Offers creativity and flexibility for marketing programs that emphasize connections to family and friends Enables other wireless multimedia functionality (camera, video, 3D graphics, etc.), for a more compelling and differentiated offering of features

Application Developer Benefits: • • Equips application developers to create compelling, differentiated services through API access Enables creation of a variety of applications to be supported across multiple OS systems (Java, BREW, Windows Mobile, Android and Linux)


Snapdragon OEM/ODM Benefits: • • Provides a platform for cost-effective, integrated LBS solution without necessity for a discrete GPS chip Allows integration of LBS with other multimedia technologies on the device

Technical Specifications
• • • • • Supports multiple modes of GPS, inclusive of standalone, MS-Based, MS-Assisted, Hybrid, and gpsOneXTRA Assistance Enables enhanced standalone GPS through gpsOneXTRA Assistance Supports – 160 dBm tracking sensitivity Standalone TTFF Hot, Warm Cold (1s/29s/35s) respectively Compatible with Qualcomm's QPoint Location Based Server as well as 3GPP and GERAN compliant location servers supporting UMTS control plane and GSM control plane and OMASUPL 1.0.

QCT has emerged as a leader in WCDMA (UMTS) technology with industry-leading solutions delivering significant time-to-market advantages. Continually raising the bar in technological innovations, QCT works closely with the entire wireless ecosystem to bring the benefits of UMTS to consumers around the world.

Snapdragon QCT began its work in the UMTS market with innovative solutions for WCDMA. It then led the industry with the first HSDPA, HSUPA and HSPA+ chipsets on the market. These technologies enable new and advanced applications, allowing operators to differentiate their service offerings and empowering device manufacturers to develop compelling next generation devices. Users can experience the best that wireless has to offer. QCT is also committed to pushing these advanced wireless capabilities to all market tiers by making it easier for operators to roll out services and expand coverage areas. The QSC family of integrated single-chip solutions is an example of that, bringing cost and time-to-market advantages that have spurred growth in wireless broadband and 3G adoption in mass markets across the globe.

Fig, 5.5 Architecture of UMTS

• High-speed data services. QCT's WCDMA technology and its extensions, such as HSPA and HSPA+, provide broadband data rates to enable feature-rich applications such as multimedia streaming, photo sharing, location-based services, 3D graphics, multiplayer gaming, and social networking capabilities.

Snapdragon • Single-source, cost-effective solutions. QCT's WCDMA chipset solutions integrate high-performance technologies, such as advanced multimedia, peripheral connectivity, user interface frameworks, storage and Assisted-GPS solutions. Our integrated designs eliminate the need for separate multimedia companion processors and memory subsystems, so manufacturers can reduce costs and time to market, while developing smaller devices with increased functionality. A proven track record. QCT's WCDMA solutions are built on established CDMA experience. We deliver fully tested, completely integrated technologies supported by our expert team of engineers. QCT products are designed from the ground up to help operators minimize development costs and optimize product performance. Driving advanced wireless technology adoption. QCT is committed to ensuring more wireless users across the globe can access the most advanced mobile technologies. QCT's close relationships with all our partnersfrom OEMs and developers to carriers and operators-underscore that commitment. We work hard to create integrated, efficient solutions that reduce manufacturing time and costs while accelerating the migration of 2G users to 3G and then to more advanced technologies

Chapter 6 6.1 Advantages
• Day-long battery life


Ubiquitous, real-time connectivity: WWAN , Wi-Fi Bluetooth technology Rich Internet experience with full web browsing Access to real-time “personalised” location-aware content with built in GPS Streaming and playback of locally stored HD video content High performance 3D UIs, games, maps and more High-quality still pictures and video clips Access to social networks through instant messaging, video conferencing and chat Productivity with third-party application

• • • • • • •

6.2 Disadvantages
• •

Currently, one of the disadvantages of QCOM’s Snapdragon smartbooks is that they will not run MS Windows. MSFT has made the decision not to fully support Snapdragon / Arm devices Current phones using Qualcomm 7200 or 7600( using ARM Version 6) series processors not support Windows Mobile 7

Chapter 7 Conclusion
Snapdragon delivers the unprecedented combination of 3G, processing performance, powerful multimedia capabilities and optimized power consumption all in a single chip to enable a new generation of smart mobile devices. Snapdragon has become the solution of

Snapdragon choice for any device manufacturer designing a high-performance, next-generation mobile device. Snapdragon platform offers an unprecedented combination of processing performance and optimized power consumption for the new generation of smart mobile devices. The dual-CPU solution, with two highly integrated computing processors running at speeds of up to 1.5GHz, is designed to enable new classes of wirelessly connected computing and pocketable computing devices and deliver significant enhancements to Netbooks devices. It provides support to HSPA+ technology, Wi-Fi and high resolution video recording and playback. In future Snapdragon is going to rule the mobile world.

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