A. Social Factors We all live in a society so there are many factors that affect or direct our life style.These factors are called Social Factors. Some important social factors are : 1. Religion 2. Ethnicity 3. Family 4. Physical attributes ( Skin color, Body type etc) 5. Economic Status. 6. Education 7. Locality ( Where you live, Type of Neighbors, etc. ) 8. Life Partner and Children 9. Political System ( Democratic or Socialist, etc )

Some social factors are considered to be based or unacceptable like treating people based on their religion or color etc.

When two people speak with one another, there is always more going on than just conveying a message. The language used by the participants is always influenced by a number of social factors which define the relationship between the participants. Consider, for example, a professor making a simple request of a student to close a classroom door to shut off the noise from the corridor.

There are a number of ways this request can be made: a. Politely, in a moderate tone "Could you please close the door?" b.In a confused manner while shaking his/her head "Why aren't you shutting the door?" c. Shouting and pointing, "SHUT THE DOOR!" The most appropriate utterance for the situation would be a. The most inappropriate would be c. This statement humiliates the student, and provides no effort by the professor to respect him/her. Utterance b is awkward because it implies that the teacher automatically assumes that the student should know better than to leave the door open when there is noise in the hallway. The inappropriateness is a social decision tied to the social factors which shape the relationship between speaker ( the professor), and the listener (the student). When choosing an appropriate utterance for the situation, there are factors that you must consider in order to effectively convey the message to the other participant.

1. Participants- how well do they know each other.
Who is speaking and who are they speaking to ?

2. Social setting- formal or informal ( Where are they speaking ? ) 3. Aim or purpose of conversation ( Why are they speaking ? ) 4. Topic ( What is being talking about ?)
Do you notice that there is a difference in the way you speak to your friends and the way you speak to your relatives, teachers, or others of professional status?

Although we know that a number of social factors influence friendship, social psychologists have yet to develop a model of friendship quality that includes individual, dyadic, social network, and sociological factors. The current study adds to research on friendship by including fairness and social support from peers, social support from family members and romantic partners, and life course transitions in a preliminary model of friendship quality. Structural equation modeling with data from two points in time offers evidence that adolescents and young adults are likely to be in more satisfying friendships if they: (1) are involved in equitable friendships, (2) are strongly embedded in their social network, and (3) receive social support from their peers, parents, and romantic partners. The transition to marriage has a detrimental effect on friendship quality. These findings suggest that studying a range of social factors across the life course will contribute to a fuller understanding of friendship quality. Two fundamental facts of language are (a) that it is always changing, in all areas of structure (phonology, grammar, discourse style, semantics, and vocabulary) and (b) that it changes in different ways at diverse places and times. Some societies have made efforts to check the mutability of language; where literacy is present, special efforts have been made to stabilize written languages in particular. Such attempts typically involve prescriptive grammars, as well as codified orthographies made accessible through authoritative dictionaries; these identify

conservative usages, linked with traditional literature and established social values, and they discourage departure from the established norms. In some countries, learned institutions like the Académie Française or the Academia Real de la Lengua Española have been given official responsibility for maintaining the linguistic status quo. In such a literate milieu, the written language is typically held up by educational institutions as a model for the spoken language; and innovative linguistic usages are discouraged in speech as well as writing – such as slang vocabulary (e.g., Eng. booze instead of liquor), analogical simplification in grammar (he don't instead of he doesn't).

B. Social Dimensions In addition to these components it is useful to take account of four different dimensions for analysis which relate to the factors above and which have been only implicit in the discussion so far. These are :

1. A social distance scale concerned with participant relationships.
The solidarity – social distance scale : Intimate High solidarity Distant Low solidarity

We like to keep our distance from others and there are very specific social rules about how close we can go to others in particular situations. This social distance is also known as body space and comfort zone and the use of this space is called proxemics. Why the distance? Regulating the distances between us and other people provides us with several benefits, including:
• • • •

Safety: When people are distant, they can't surprise attack us. Communication: When people are closer, it is easier to communicate with them. Affection: When they are closer still, we can be intimate. Threat: The reverse can be used - you may deliberately threaten a person by

invading their body space.

Social distances The social distances here are approximate, of course and will vary with people. But they are still a good general rule. Hall (1966) identified four zones that are common for Americans: Public Zone : > 12 feet (3m) The public zone is generally over 12 feet. That is, when we are walking around town, we will try to keep at least 12 feet between us and other people. For example, we will leave that space between us and the people walking in front. Of course there are many times when we cannot do this. What the theory of social distance tells us is that we will start to notice other people who are within this radius. The closer they get, the more we become aware and ready ourselves for appropriate action. When we are distant from another person, we feel a degree of safety from them. A person at a distance cannot attack us suddenly. If they do seem to threaten, we will have time to dodge, run or prepare for battle. Social Zone : 4 - 12 feet (1.5m - 3m) Within the social zone, we start to feel a connection with other people. When they are closer, then we can talk with them without having to shout, but still keep them at a safe distance. This is a comfortable distance for people who are standing in a group but maybe not talking directly with one another. People sitting in chairs or gathered in a room will tend to like this distance.

Personal Zone : 1.5-4 feet (0.5m - 1.5m) In the personal zone, the conversation gets more direct, and this is a good distance for two people who are talking in earnest about something. Intimate Zone < 1.5 feet (< 0.5m) When a person is within arms reach or closer, then we can touch them in intimate ways. We can also see more detail of their body language and look them in they eyes. When they are closer, they also blot out other people so all we can see is them (and vice versa). Romance of all kinds happens in this space. Entering the intimate zone of somebody else can be very threatening. This is sometimes done as a deliberate ploy to give a non-verbal signal that they are powerful enough to invade your territory at will. Varying rules The rules about social distance vary with different groups of people. You can detect this by watching people's reactions. If you feel safe and they seem not to feel safe, back off. If they invade your space, decide whether to invade back or act otherwise. Turning sideways is an easy alternative for this, as a person to the side is less threatening than a person at the same distance in front of you. Town and country People who live in towns spend more time close to one another and so their social distances may compact somewhat. In a large and crowded city, the distances will be less than in a small town. People who normally live a long way from others will expand their social distances and may even have to lean over towards another person to shake hands and then back off to a safe distance.

Different countries Different countries also have different rules about social distances. The overcrowded nature of some Asian countries means that they are accustomed to talking to others from a very close distance. Watch a Japanese person talking at a party with a person from the Western countryside. The Japanese will step in and the Westerner will step back. Speeded up it is like a dance around the room. 2. A status scale concerned with participant relationships. Superior High Superior


Low status

Status in different societies
Status refers to the relative rank that an individual holds; this includes attendant rights, duties, and lifestyle, in a social hierarchy based upon honor or prestige. Status has two different types that come along with it: achieved, and ascribed. The word status refers to social stratification on a vertical scale. In modern societies, occupation is usually thought of as the main determinant of status, but other memberships or affiliations (such as ethnic group, religion, gender, voluntary associations, fandom, hobby) can have an influence. The importance of social status can be seen in the peer status hierarchy of geeks, athletes, cheerleaders, nerds, and weirdos in American high schools.[1][2] Achieved status is when people are placed in the stratification structure based on their individual merits or achievements.

This status can be achieved through education, occupation, and marital status. Their place within the stratification structure is determined by society's bar which often judges them on success, success being financial, academic, political and so on. People who achieve a high hierarchical social status often display the following qualities: confidence, generosity, intelligence, mental and emotional stability, and happiness.[3] America most commonly uses this form of status with jobs. The higher up your are in rank the better off you are and the more control you have over your co-workers. In pre-modern societies, status differentiation is widely varied. In some cases it can be quite rigid and class based, such as with the Indian caste system. In other cases, status exists without class and/or informally, as is true with some Hunter-Gatherer societies such as the Khoisan, and some Indigenous Australian societies. In these cases, status is limited to specific personal relationships. For example, a Khoisan man is expected to take his wife's mother quite seriously (a non-joking relationship), although the motherin-law has no special "status" over anyone except her son-in-law—and only then in specific contexts. All societies have a form of social status. Status is an important idea in social stratification. Max Weber distinguishes status from social class[citation needed], though some contemporary empirical sociologists add the two ideas to create socioeconomic status or SES, usually operationalised as a simple index of income, education and occupational prestige. 3. A formality scale relating to the setting or type of interaction. Formal High Formality


Low Formality

A formality is an established procedure or set of specific behaviors and utterances, conceptually similar to a ritual although typically secular and less involved. A formality may be as simple as a handshake upon making new acquaintainces in Western culture to the carefully defined procedure of bows, handshakes, formal greetings, and business-card exchanges that may mark two businessmen being introduced in Japan. In legal and diplomatic circles, formalities include such matters as greeting an arriving head of state with the appropriate national anthem. Cultures and groups within cultures often have varying degrees of formalities which can often prove a source of frustration or unintentional insult when people of different expectations or preferences interact. Those from relatively informal backgrounds may find formality to be empty and hypocritical. Those from relatively formal backgrounds may find informal cultures hard to deal with, as their carefully refined and nuanced behaviors go completely unnoticed.

4. Two functional scales relating to the purposes or topic of interaction.
Referential High information content Low information content

Affective Low affective ontent High affective content

Generally, functional refers to something able to fulfill its purpose or function.
• •

Functional form and functionalism (architecture) apply to architectural design. Functional group in organic chemistry (for example, "This compound has two

carbonyl functions").

Functional (mathematics) is a term applied to certain scalar-valued functions in

mathematics, computer science, and Lagrangian mechanics.

Linear functional a type of functional often simply called a functional in the context of functional analysis.

Functional model is a structured representation of the functions, activities or


Functional (ontology) refers to a property or relation in an ontology that can only

hold a single value for a given individual.
• •

Functional programming is used in computer science as well. Functional symptom is sometimes used in medicine to describe symptoms that have

no current visible organic basis, e.g. if they are a result of psychological or perceptual dysfunction. Historically, functional symptoms tend to be reclassified as organic as investigative techniques improve.

Functional classification is a term used in the United States for class of road.

C. Looking for explanations An explanation is a set of statements constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts. This description may establish rules or laws, and may clarify the existing ones in relation to any objects, or phenomena examined. The components of an explanation can be implicit, and be interwoven with one another.

An explanation is often underpinned by an understanding that is represented by different media such as music, text, and graphics. Thus, an explanation is subjected to interpretation, and discussion. In scientific research, explanation is one of the purposes of research, e.g., exploration and description. Explanation is a way to uncover new knowledge, and to report relationships among different aspects of studied phenomena. Socialinguists aim to describe socialinguistic variation and if possible, explain why it happens. The steps which need to be taken in providing an explanation are :

1. to identify clearly the linguistic variation involved (e.g. vocabulary, sounds,
grammatical constructions, dialects, languages )

2. to identify clearly the different social or non – linguistics factors which lead
speakers to use one form rather than another (e.g. features relating to participants, setting or function of the interaction )

Then we can begin to look for patterns which will help to formulate an explanation of why people use one set of forms in some contexts, but different forms in others. In other words the socialinguisgtics aim is to move towards a theory which provides a motivated account of the way language is used in a community, and of the choices people make when they use language. The relationship between linguistic choices and the social contexts in which they are made is sometimes easiest to see when different languages are involved. The first section of this book focusses on multilingual speech communities and describes some of the ways in which social considerations affect language choice. The second section of the book focuses on social features of the language user. In the third section the focus shifts to the uses of language and the influence on language of the social context in which it is used and the functions it expresses.


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