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Energy from Waste with Combined Heat and Power Facility, Oxwellmains

Appendix D

Typical EfW Plant Commissioning Plan

RPS Planning & Development Brighton Office


O:\B_Jobs\4061s\Schedule 4\Appendices.doc
February 2010
Rev1

JAS4061

Energy from Waste with Combined Heat and Power Facility, Oxwellmains

Blank

Presented by:

Typical for RDF Power Plant

TEST PLAN
1.

PROGRAMME ............................................................................................................................................... 2

2.

COLD COMMISSIONING ............................................................................................................................ 3

3.

HOT COMMISSIONING............................................................................................................................... 4

4.

RELIABILITY TEST ..................................................................................................................................... 5

5.

PERFORMANCE TEST ................................................................................................................................ 6

COMMENT: This document is for typical use only. Project specific periods, durations
and conditions of commissioning/testing, as stated in POYRI Schedules 9 and 11
and agreed upon between TPSCo and Keppel Seghers prevail.

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

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1

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Typical for RDF Power Plant

1. PROGRAMME
One month before the scheduled start of COLD COMMISSIONING, the
CONTRACTOR will provide a detailed programme for the COLD COMMISSIONING,
HOT COMMISSIONING, RELIABILITY TEST, and PERFORMANCE TEST.

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January 2008

Test Plan

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Typical for RDF Power Plant

2. COLD COMMISSIONING
COLD COMMISSIONING is defined as the period when individual items of the
INSTALLATION, electrical systems, control and instrumentation systems are checked
and tested.
During this period, activities such as boiler cleaning, refractory drying, cleaning of
pipe work and tank internals are carried out.
Test Sheets shall be developed by the CONTRACTOR to show what tests, checks
and recordings have been carried out. Such Test Sheets shall be submitted to the
EMPLOYER within two weeks after completion of any test.
During the COLD COMMISSIONING, the EMPLOYER will provide a full team of
operators to the CONTRACTOR for training on-site.

Starting Criteria

Mechanical Completion

Ending Criteria

Completion of COLD COMMISSIONING Tests

Result of Completion

Start HOT COMMISSIONING

Note
Depending on the delivery schedule of the turbine, the cold commissioning of the
turbine may take place later than the cold commissioning of the incineration line. If
this occurs, the start of the hot commissioning of the incineration line shall not be
delayed by the turbine.
The cold commissioning and hot commissioning of the incineration line can take
place with steam being sent over the by-pass, i.e. RDF is being incinerated, but
electricity production has not yet started.

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

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3

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3. HOT COMMISSIONING
HOT COMMISSIONING is started after completion of COLD COMMISSIONING.
During HOT COMMISSIONING the plant will be operated with waste within the
boundaries of the combustion diagram.
The HOT COMMISSIONING tests shall be carried out by the CONTRACTOR and
shall cover in general the following topics :
-

test of equipment under normal conditions

test of control, regulation, protection and alarm systems.

The CONTRACTOR shall present a report of the HOT COMMISSIONING.


During the HOT COMMISSIONING, the EMPLOYER will provide a full team of
operators to the CONTRACTOR, during shift work, for training on-site.

Starting Criteria

Completion of COLD COMMISSIONING Tests

Ending Criteria

Completion of HOT COMMISSIONING Tests

Result of Completion

Start RELIABILITY TEST

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January 2008

Test Plan

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4

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Typical for RDF Power Plant

4. RELIABILITY TEST
The purpose of the Reliability Test is to demonstrate that the plant is capable of safe
and reliable operation while complying with the emission limits. During this period,
operations and control functions shall be demonstrated to the EMPLOYER.
During the Reliability Test period of two weeks, the trial runs shall include the
following tests :
-

start-up and shutdown of the equipment in an economical and well-controlled


manner;

shut-down of the equipment under emergency conditions;

stable run at various loads with the design range, under automatic control;

a 72h run within the boundaries of the combustion diagram.

The CONTRACTOR shall provide all necessary supervision for these procedures.
Commissioning supervisors will be present on site on a 24h basis during the
scheduled period for the Reliability Test. It is the EMPLOYERs responsibility to
provide a full staff of skilled operators in shift operation.
Minor defects, such as instrument faults or equipment faults which require the
standby operation of auxiliary equipment, shall not constitute a failure of the
Reliability Test, provided that the INSTALLATION continues to operate satisfactorily.
Note: During the first months of operation, too much heat may be extracted from the furnace
due to insufficient fouling and incomplete drying of the refractory lining. The fact that it takes
time to reach the normal fouling degree of furnace and boiler may have consequence for every
point of the combustion diagram. Practice has shown that auxiliary fuel can be necessary
during this period within the complete combustion diagram (and thus also at 100% load) in
order to meet the flue gas residence time requirement (850C/2s).

Starting Criteria

Completion of HOT COMMISSIONING Tests

Duration

2 weeks

Ending Criteria

Successful demonstration of tests

Result of Completion

Provisional Acceptance and Start Performance Test

Result of Failure

Repetition of Reliability Test.

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

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5

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5. PERFORMANCE TEST
Starting Criteria

Not later than 3 months after Provisional Acceptance

Duration

see table

Success Criteria

The CONTRACTOR shall demonstrate that the plant is


capable of achieving the Performance Guarantees.

Result of Success

Final Acceptance

Result of Failure

Repetition of tests or
Liquidated Damages for failure to achieve guaranteed
performance

1.

Performance test shall be carried out in accordance with the hereafter


described principle. The details to be mutually agreed between the
CONTRACTOR and the EMPLOYER KS to be reflected in a detailed protocol,
established at least 14 days prior to the start of the actual tests.
The protocol shall be in keeping with the current specifications and shall
describe, among other, the type, number and duration of the tests, the
methodology (e.g. measurement technique, number of sample points, expected
accuracy, sampling duration & analysis). It shall also clearly identify the
responsibility of all involved parties with respect to the tests.

2.

The performance test shall show that all the performance guarantees as
specified are fulfilled.

3.

The CONTRACTOR shall provide all necessary supervision for these


procedures. KS supervisors and specialist engineers will be present on site on a
24h basis during the scheduled performance tests period.

4.

It is the EMPLOYERs responsibility to provide a full staff of skilled and trained


operators.

5.

Each Party shall carry its own costs for the Performance tests.

6.

The Site Representatives and technical personnel of the CONTRACTOR and


the EMPLOYER shall co-operate closely to ensure the smooth execution of the
Performance Tests

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7.

Records of the test shall be made by the people nominated by the


CONTRACTORs Site Representatives and countersigned by the
Representatives of the EMPLOYER every day.

8.

If the Performance Test fails as a whole or in part, parties shall analyse the
reason together and define the responsible party/parties as soon as possible.
The responsible party/parties shall take immediate action to remedy the
cause(s) and will announce their readiness to recommence or continue the
tests
as
soon
as
possible.
Depending on the nature and characteristics of the failure of the tests, the
Performance Tests will be redone completely and for the full duration or in part
and for a shorter duration. This matter is to be addressed in general in the
aforementioned protocol but the actual decision is to be reached by agreement
with all parties immediately after the occurrence of the failure.
All parties shall grant their full co-operation to the repetition / extension of the
Performance Tests.

9.

The plant has to be operated in accordance with the combustion diagram and in
accordance with the CONTRACTORs operation and maintenance manuals.

10.

The RDF should be according to the design specifications as specified in the


AGREEMENT. The time during which no RDF in accordance with the design
specifications is available will be counted with respect to the duration of the
tests, but no guarantees or requirements shall hold. The same holds for
unavailability of RDF (for whatever reason) or unavailability of parts of the plant
that
are
not
in
the
CONTRACTORs
scope.
Variations in the composition, heating value and mechanical properties of the
RDF shall be kept to a level that is representative for modern RDF incineration
facilities. A maximum allowable variation will be agreed upon and included in
the aforementioned protocol. The EMPLOYER will inform the CONTRACTOR
about the RDF supply logistics. The preparation of a stable RDF mixture should
be obtained. The supply of different types of RDF will be spread over the whole
day, and concentrations of specific RDF streams over a long period will be
avoided.

11.

During the performance tests, the trained operators (and maintenance


personnel), will be at the CONTRACTORs disposal to operate the plant.

12.

The CONTRACTORs representative(s) will be responsible for the instruction of


the plant operation during the performance tests

13.

Before a test is carried out, the plant operating conditions shall have been
stable for at least 2 hours (uninterrupted). The stability of the operation will be
verified by means of representative operational parameters (e.g. steam

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production, RDF throughput, oxygen contents exit boiler). The limits on the
allowable variation will be included in the aforementioned protocol. The
CONTRACTOR must have the opportunity during at least 4 days to verify the
tuning parameters of the process before the Performance tests start.
14.

All parameters shall be continuously recorded during the performance test with
a frequency of at least once a minute.

15.

If the contract or the aforementioned protocol is unclear or fails to specify


certain aspects regarding the tests, the industry standard as reflected by the
CONTRACTORs reference plants will be applicable and deemed acceptable.

16.

There should be no stoppage during a performance test: the relevant line(s)


shall be in continuous operation from the beginning to the end of the relevant
performance test.

Plant

Test Duration

Remarks

24 hours

Hourly average should be above 90% of


design capacity (or thermal equivalent to 90%
of design capacity).

Performance Test
Capacity

Average over test duration should be equal to


or higher than design capacity (or thermal
equivalent to design capacity) as long as the
calorific value of the RDF is within the
specified range
Electricity
consumption

24 hours

Average power consumption over the test


period
shall
be
compared
to
the
CONTRACTORs guarantee value

Steam production

24 hours

Steam flow is measured with orifice measuring


system.
Heat value of the steam is determined by
pressure and temperature.
The throughput is weighed with the refuse
crane weighing system.
Thermal load can be calculated from all these
values (method to be documented by the

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CONTRACTOR).
Gross
Electricity 24 hours
Production

Average power production over the test period


shall be compared to the CONTRACTORs
guarantee value

Carbon in Ash

12 samples per Detailed sampling procedure as per KS


line taken during 6 standard.
successive hours,
Detailed ignition loss procedure as per KS
every half hour
standard.

Emissions

24 hours

Combustion

Official
independent
measurement
Consumables:
Water

24 hours

Average over the test duration.


Consumption shall be compared to the
guaranteed consumption after correction in
relation to the throughput
Correction curves shall be agreed upon prior to
the start of the test

Noise

Version / Date
January 2008

Carried out by A background noise measurement will be


independent
and performed.
certified specialist
during a period
relevant for normal
operation
(not
necessarily
coinciding with the
tests)

Test Plan

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
PART N1 :
PRE- AND COLD COMMISSIONING

WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT
TYPICAL
by:

10-01-08

RPI

Preliminary

Rev.

Date

By

Description

Check

Appr.

WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
TYPICAL

1. TABLE OF CONTENT

1.

TABLE OF CONTENT .................................................................................................................................. 2

2.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 4

3.

SUB-SYSTEMS AND UNITS ........................................................................................................................ 6

4.

3.1.

DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 6

3.2.

COMMISSIONING STATUS REPORTS ............................................................................................................ 6

PRE-COMMISSIONING ............................................................................................................................. 10
4.1.

5.

PRE-REQUISITES ...................................................................................................................................... 10

4.1.1.

General .......................................................................................................................................... 10

4.1.2.

Testing of wiring ............................................................................................................................ 10

4.2.

CHECK-OUT LISTS .................................................................................................................................... 11

4.3.

UNIT INSPECTION SHEETS ........................................................................................................................ 12

COLD-COMMISSIONING ......................................................................................................................... 13
5.1.

PRE-REQUISITES ...................................................................................................................................... 13

5.2.

LOG BOOK ............................................................................................................................................... 13

5.3.

LOOP TESTS ............................................................................................................................................. 13

5.4.

MOTOR TESTS .......................................................................................................................................... 14

5.5.

FUNCTIONAL TESTS .................................................................................................................................. 14

5.6.

SPECIFIC FUNCTIONAL CONTROLS ............................................................................................................ 15

5.6.1.

Feeding and combustion grates..................................................................................................... 15

5.6.2.

Ash extractor.................................................................................................................................. 16

5.6.3.

Refractory lining ............................................................................................................................ 17

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL PART N1

Document Name:

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6.

5.6.4.

Sifting ash conveyors ..................................................................................................................... 17

5.6.5.

Boiler cleaning system ................................................................................................................... 17

5.6.6.

Hydraulic group............................................................................................................................. 18

5.6.7.

Burners .......................................................................................................................................... 18

5.6.8.

Smoke testing of the flue gas cleaning ........................................................................................... 20

ANNEXES...................................................................................................................................................... 23
6.1.

ANNEX 1 : LIST OF SUB-SYSTEMS .......................................................................................................... 23

6.2.

ANNEX 2 : COMMISSIONING STATUS REPORTS ...................................................................................... 23

Subject:

COMMISSIONING MANUAL PART N1

Document Name:

59164_601_001_0- Commissioning manual Part 1

Page:

WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
TYPICAL

2. INTRODUCTION
This document outlines the sequence of activities required to take the plant from a completed
installation to a fully operational and commissioned plant. The pre-requisites, necessary for
each stage of the commissioning, are described.
The commissioning will, in general, follow the sequence herebelow :
1. Pre-Commissioning (or Unit test): the checking and testing of equipment prior to
their cold commissioning with power and air. Such works shall consist of testing the
alignment and direction of rotating parts, the verification of the wiring and cabling, the
verification of the PLC system, verification of correct mounting of piping, verification of
correct mounting of valves and actuators, cold pressure testing of piping and vessels, etc.
Pre-commissioning checks, when completed, will release individual items of equipment to
be powered up and made available for inclusion in the cold commissioning phase.
2. Cold-Commissioning: the no-load, dynamic testing (including the starting-up of motors
and other electrical equipment, flushing and cleaning of tanks and piping if applicable,
adjustment and regulation of protective devices, functional tests, leakage and pressure
tests, inspection of bearings, etc.) and operation of equipment for a period of time. This
will be mainly as individual items, but may involve running some of the equipment in
sequence.
3. Hot Commissioning: this will include the introduction of fuel (waste), process gas and
reagent (including the boiling out of pressure parts, curing of the refractory, blowing of
steam pipe to turbine, etc). The whole plant will be tested, operating in sequence under
full load conditions.
The Commissioning Manual (part n1) includes instructions for the Pre-commissioning and
the Cold Commissioning of the equipment in the Contract.
The Commissioning Manual (part n2) includes instructions for the Hot Commissioning of the
equipment in the Contract. This second part contains specific information for the first startup, which differs from a normal plant start-up. For the general operating procedures (allowing
to start-up, operate and shut down the plant under normal conditions), please refer to the
Operation and Maintenance manuals.
Responsibility: Operating instructions specified in this manual are typical procedures. It is
impossible to cover all eventualities, which might occur during the start-up of the plant.
Keppel Seghers cannot take responsibility for damage to any part of the plant, which could
have been avoided if instructions had been followed.

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On the other hand, conditions may arise in which actions must be taken without sticking
strictly to the instructions in this manual, provided that such actions result in safe operation.

Subject:

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WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
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3. SUB-SYSTEMS AND UNITS


3.1. DEFINITIONS
In order to commission the plant in a structured and systematic manner, the plant is divided in
Sub-systems and Units.
Sub-systems correspond with a P&ID.
tbd during detailed engineering
Each Sub-system is then divided in Units, each corresponding with a major equipment part
within the Sub-system (pump, silo, screw, fan, etc.). Valves and instruments attached to this
equipment form part of the Unit. The exact scope of a Unit is to be determined by the
KEPPEL SEGHERS commissioning supervisor, prior to the start of the commissioning. For
systems using the KKS tag numbering, a most convenient way is to define Units as the
aggregate of equipment within the same KKS system code (e.g. HLB10 : primary air fan
element 1, HLB20 : primary air fan element 2, etc.).
Piping and ducting systems, including valves and instruments, also can form a Sub-system or
Unit (e.g. lime milk piping, flue gas ducting, etc.).

3.2. COMMISSIONING STATUS REPORTS


A commissioning status report is compiled for each Sub-system. These reports will be
managed, updated and filed by the KEPPEL SEGHERS commissioning supervisors, based on
the input of the commissioning company. They will enable the engineers to know the status of
each Sub-system at any moment during the commissioning period. Each report gives an
overview of the progress made on the commissioning of each Sub-system, and is composed of
the following documents :
1. Status list
2. P&ID
3. Check-out lists

Equipment checkout list

I/O and SAT tests of control panel

I/O and SAT tests of electrical panel

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Pipes & valves checkout list

4. Unit inspection sheets


5. Punch list
6. Functional description
7. Interlock list / autoconditions
8. Test reports
Status list
The Status List indicates the pre-and cold commissioning status of each Sub-system and their
Units. It also gives an overview and description of all the Units within a Sub-system. When
all Units have reached the status of pre-commissioning (= mechanical complete), the Subsystem is ready for cold commissioning (loop tests + functional tests).
The Status List is a unique document and is to be updated after each inspection round of the
Sub-system. Date, initials and signature have to be filled in by the KEPPEL SEGHERS
engineer after each inspection round.
P&ID
The latest revision of the P&ID of the Sub-system. The P&ID forms the basis of each
commissioning status report.
Units or equipments (instruments, valves, motors) which are mechanically complete will be
coloured on the P&ID. This quickly gives an idea of the progress on the pre-commissioning
activities for each Sub-system.
Any change between the P&ID and the setup in the field is also to be marked on this P&ID.
It is then important to report this on the Master P&ID, so that the as-built revisions of the
P&IDs can be prepared.
Check-out lists
For each Sub-system there are 4 types of lists : Equipment checkout list, I/O and SAT tests
of control panel, I/O and SAT tests of electrical panel , Piping & Valves checkout list.
The check-out lists are used to verify if the Sub-system is built strictly according to the
project P&IDs, the so-called P&ID check.
Unit inspection sheets
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WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
TYPICAL
A standard form (pdf-format) is available for each type of mechanical equipment (pump, silo,
fan, etc.) within the Unit. The inspection sheet is a checklist to verify if the Unit is
mechanically complete, and ready for further cold commissioning.
Punch lists
The punch lists give an overview of items in the Sub-system, which have to be remediated /
solved. The outstanding items on the lists get a qualification of 1, 2 or 3, depending on their
critical character :
Qualification 1 (= pre-acceptance) : prevents the Unit from being released for further
commissioning, to be solved before startup of the equipment. E.g. wrong rotation
direction of a motor, packing missing, lack of pressure safety valve, etc.
Qualification 2 (= post-acceptance) : item can be solved after startup of the equipment.
E.g. tag plate missing, wrong colour, tidiness of the area, etc.
Qualification 3 (= to be discussed) : can not be qualified under 1 or 2. E.g. scope unclear,
general remark or question, discussion between parties about qualification, etc.
A punch list can be made up for a whole Sub-system or for each Unit, this is left to the
convenience of the KEPPEL SEGHERS engineer.
Each punch list that is updated and filed in the Commissioning Status Report is to be dated,
initialed and signed by the KEPPEL SEGHERS engineer.
When a punch list is the result of an inspection round together with the Client and/or a
Subcontractor, it is important that their representatives counter sign the Punch List. This
punch list is then communicated to them for further action / information.
Functional descriptions
The functional description of each Sub-system enables a better understanding of the P&ID,
and it is the basis for the functional tests of the Sub-system.
Interlock list / autoconditions
The Interlock list (including autoconditions, alarm settings, start / stop sequences, loop
controllers, etc.) forms the basis for the cold commissioning of the Sub-systems (I/O tests or
loop testing, sequence testing, etc.).
Test reports
These will include, amongst other :
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WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
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Field pressure test acceptance reports for piping systems

Field tightness test acceptance report for ducting systems

Etc.

It should be stressed that the most important documents of the Commissioning Status Reports
are the Status List and the Punch Lists. The Status List for the formal registration of all tests
and inspections, the Punch Lists for the formal registration of outstanding items. The other
documents (P&ID, inspection sheets, ) are tools.

Subject:

COMMISSIONING MANUAL PART N1

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TYPICAL

4. PRE-COMMISSIONING
4.1. PRE-REQUISITES
4.1.1. General

The control panels and the panels for motors up to 3 kW will have been tested
100% by KEPPEL SEGHERS engineers during the FAT tests in the factory of the
panel manufacturer. This means that each IO signal has been checked from the bit
in the PLC up to the input or output terminal for connection of the field wires. This
testing will be reported in the FAT Inspection report.

The electrical panels (MCC) for motors from 3 kW will have been tested 100% by
the responsible during the FAT tests in the factory of the MCC panel manufacturer.
This testing will be reported in the FAT Inspection report.

The electrical site wiring to the plant has to be complete and must have been fully tested
by the electrical contractors. See next section (4.1.2) about testing of wiring and cabling.

The instruments shall be installed and properly connected. This shall be documented by
the instrument installer on the I/O and SAT tests of control panel lists with the
following items for each instrument : mechanical installation, process connection,
pneumatic connection, electrical connection, tag plate.

Power supplies (normal and emergency) to the panels must be available.

The panels shall be in a watertight building.

The DCS system for operator interface of the installation must be available and FAT
tested in the presence of an KS automation engineer. Testing reported in a FAT inspection
report.

Communication network between DCS and control units must be ready.

No gas or reagent, hot or cold, should have been through the equipment.

4.1.2. Testing of wiring

The responsible for the erection of the cabling shall execute tests in order to check all
cable and wire connections. . Only after the completion of these tests, the precommissioning and cold commissioning can start under the supervision of KEPPEL
SEGHERS.

These wiring and cabling checks will be done as follows :

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For connections between control panel at one side and instruments, valves and all
other equipment at the other side : before connection to the instrument/equipment and
before connection to the control panel, all wires will be invividually shortcircuited
at the instrument/equipment side, and the shorcircuit will be measured at the control
cabinet side. Only after this test, the instrument/equipment may be connected.

For connections between control panel and motor control and protections circuits :
before connection to the motor contol centre (MCC) and before connection to the
control panel, all wires will be invividually shortcircuited at the MCC side, and the
shorcircuit will be measured at the control cabinet side. Only after this test, a MCC
unit may be connected to the signal cable.

For power cables to motors/equipment : before connection to the motor/equipment


and after connection to the MCC, all wires will be invividually shortcircuited at the
motor/equipment side, and the shorcircuit will be measured at the MCC side. Also the
isolation resistance of the cables will be measured. Important remark : for
frequency convertors (variable speed drives), these tests will be executed without
the cable connected to the drive unit. Only after these tests, the motor/equipment
may be connected.

The result of each test will be documented by checkmarking on the I/O and SAT tests of
control panel and the I/O and SAT tests of electrical panel lists . After completion, this
lists will be signed and stamped by the responsible of the cabling (installer).

4.2. CHECK-OUT LISTS


One of the first inspection rounds after erection and installation of the equipment will consist
in verifying the completeness of the Sub-system and/or Unit, based on the P&ID and the
corresponding check-out lists, the so-called P&ID check :

Check-out list for Equipments (per P&ID)

I/O and SAT tests of control panel (one per panel) with the following items for each
instrument : mechanical installation, process connection, pneumatic connection, power
cable connection, instrument cable connection. I/O test.

I/O and SAT tests of electrical panel (one per panel) with the following items for each
electrical user : mechanical installation, power cable connection, control cable
connection, insulation test, I/O test.

Check-out list for Pipes & valves (per P&ID)

For each item (reference is made to the TAG-), the commissioning company will complete the
check-out list to give documentary proof that each item of the P&ID has been installed.
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Any missing item or equipment is to be chipped on the check-out list as NOK. It will then
be reported as an open item on the punch list and will be checked together with the KeppelSeghers commissioning supervisor.
Every inspection round will be listed on the Status List (date, initials, signature and eventual
remarks). A new check-out list can be used for every new P&ID check.

4.3. UNIT INSPECTION SHEETS


The Unit inspection sheet is used as a checklist when pre-commissioning each Unit of the
Sub-system. A standard form is available for each type of mechanical equipment (pump, silo,
fan, etc.) within the Unit. The list of inspection points on the form is not limitative, the
inspectors are free to add other inspection points which they consider important.
Every inspection round will be listed on the Status List (date, initials, signature and eventual
remarks). A new form can be used for every new inspection. When one or more checks on
the form are rejected, they have to be reported as open items on the punch list.
The Unit is mechanically complete, and ready for further cold commissioning, when all
items with qualification 1 on the punch list are solved. This is to be confirmed by the
KEPPEL SEGHERS engineer on the Status List (date, initials, signature), before one can
proceed with the further cold commissioning.

Subject:

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Document Name:

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5. COLD-COMMISSIONING
5.1. PRE-REQUISITES

The electrical supply should be available and the MCC should have been tested by the
electrical contractors and be ready for service.

The PLC control system should be available and the PLC programming be complete.

The compressed air supply system should be fully available.

No gas, hot or cold, should have been through the plant.

The pre-commissioning checks should be complete.

5.2. LOG BOOK


As the cold commissioning involves the interaction of many people from various disciplines
(mechanical, process, electricity, instrumentation, automation), it is necessary to keep a
Commissioning Log Book, somewhere at a centralized location (e.g. the plants control
room).
This book will contain the day-by-day chronological logging of actions / situations / events
during the commissioning of the plant. The main purpose of the Log Book is to improve
communication between the commissioning people, and more specifically between shift teams
(day and night). Especially with regard to safety, the exposure to unsafe situations is higher
during the commissioning phase than during normal operation. Good communication is a first
step in prevention of unsafe situations.
The Log Book is not to be confused with the Commissioning Status Reports. The Log Book
is covering the whole plant, is chronological and serves better communication. The
Commissioning Status Reports are per Sub-system and keep track of the formal, signed
registration of the commissioning status.

5.3. LOOP TESTS


Loop testings (or I/O tests) have to be realised for all instruments, automatic valves and
motors. The loop testing will be done under the responsibility of the EIA engineer (electricity,
instrumentation & automation) of the installer. The installer will dispatch sufficient technical
staff to solve immediately any wiring encounterd, so that the loop testing can be completed.
The loop testings will be executed on the basis of loop schemes. There is a loop scheme for
every instrument, automatic valve and motor. The EIA engineer keeps a separate file of all
loop schemes of the plant. This is the as built file. Working files used in the field will be
only copies.
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When a loop test is positive, the EIA engineer will date, initial and sign the loop scheme for
approval. Only the approved loop schemes will be included in the Commissioning Status
Report of the Sub-system, as a proof that the I/O test has been successfully executed. I/O
tests which are not successful remain in the file of the EIA engineer.
When all the loop tests within a Sub-system are executed, the EIA engineer will confirm this
on the Status List (date, initials, signature), before one can proceed with the functional tests.

5.4.

MOTOR TESTS

For each motor the following tests on the power part will be executed:

Isolation test of the power circuit (with the motor connected). Important remark :
for frequency convertors (variable speed drives), these tests will be executed
without the cable connected to the drive unit.

Powering of the motor and rotation check

These tests are the responsibility of the electrical contractor ; only mechanical supervision
from KEPPEL SEGHERS.
Results will be indicated on the I/O and SAT tests of electrical panel lists.

5.5.

FUNCTIONAL TESTS

When all Units within a Sub-system are pre-commissioned and loop tested, each Sub-system
can individually be submitted to functional tests : the programmed software in the PLC
system - already FAT tested - is to be site tested (SAT) by checking all functionalities and
interlocks in the field.
The functional tests will be done under the supervision of KEPPEL SEGHERS. The Client
will dispatch sufficient technical staff to perform the tests.
The tests will consist in verifying :
-

Control loops

Sequences

as described in the Functional Description and the Interlock list (including autoconditions,
alarm settings, start / stop sequences, controllers, etc.).
Most control loops or sequences can be tested under empty or dry conditions by simulating in
the PLC the presence of reagent or product in the Unit. For some of the tests, it will be
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necessary to add reagent or products to the Units or Sub-system (e.g. pumps or mixers that are
not allowed to run dry or empty).
It is imperative to thoroughly follow the instructions in the Operation & Maintenance
Manual of the specific Sub-system, before executing functional tests with reagent or
products.
For some Units, some additional specific functional tests have to be done, as further detailed
under 5.6. Specific functional controls.

5.6. SPECIFIC FUNCTIONAL CONTROLS


The specific functional controls listed hereunder are for Equipment designed by KEPPEL
SEGHERS only. Functional controls for other main equipment like turbine, water tower,
are within the scope of the subcontractor and as such not detailed in this section.

5.6.1. Feeding and combustion grates


Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.
Before starting the operation (movement) of the grate elements, it is advised to have a final
check on the clearances of the combustion grate tiles. This is necessary to be sure that the
clearances have not been changed during mounting of the grate elements. If clearances have
become smaller than advised on the drawings, there is a risk of blockage of the grate tiles at
normal operating conditions of the grate. On the other hand, two large clearances can cause
excessive sifting ash production and primary air by-pass.

The first fillings of all bearings were done by the constructor during pre-assembly of the
grates.
Because of the large period of time between grate pre-assembly and
commissioning, all grease points will be verified by adding grease before moving the
grate elements. Refer to the O&M manual regarding the grease qualities (make and type)
of the grease nipples. The greasing positions are shown on the drawing XXXX_239_003.

Once the hydraulic unit has been fully checked for correct mounting and the hydraulic oil
circuit has been completely flushed (see section 5.6.6), the movement of the feeding- and
combustion grates should be tested during at least 8 consecutive hours. During this test, one
has to pay attention to:

Check the fixed time for the tumbling movement (normally between 3 and 6 sec), the time
for withdrawing the feeding grates (typical between 5 - 20sec) and the time for
withdrawing the sliding tiles (typical between 2 to 10 sec).

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Check the stroke of the hydraulic cylinders:

ca. 260 mm for the sliding grates;

ca. 130 mm for the sliding grates of the fifth element.;

ca. 130 mm for the tumbling grates.

Caution: Special attention has to be taken not to run the grates during the furnace
warm-up. In this case, the feeding grates have to stay in their withdrawn
position and the combustion grate must be covered by insulation material.
The cold commissioning of the grate must be supervised by Keppel Seghers qualified
personnel.

5.6.2. Ash extractor


Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.
The first fillings of all bearings were done by the constructor during pre-assembly of the ash
extractor. Because of the large period of time between extractor pre-assembly and
commissioning, all grease points will be verified by adding grease before moving the ash
extractor.
The hydraulic oil to the hydraulic cylinders is delivered by the pumps of the hydraulic group
(see 5.6.6). The oil pressure can be adjusted using the pressure reducing valves at the ash
extractor stand valve :

Pressure to the hydraulic drive unit must be set up at 100 bar

When the hydraulic is connected, all moving parts must be checked to move properly:
movements of the pusher.
After a dry run of a few hours without water, the ash extractor is filled with water and its
movement can be tested during 8 consecutive hours (or more). During this test, one has to pay
attention that:

All moving parts move properly

The level control device in the water tank is properly adjusted so that the water seal is
realized at the sifting ash hoppers

The inspection work on the ash extractor must be supervised by Keppel Seghers qualified
personnel.

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5.6.3. Refractory lining
Reference is also made to the Refractory Lining Supplier Erection & Commissioning Manual.
After installation of the refractory lining, the work must be inspected and approved by
qualified personnel :

Check of lining dimension

Check of the lining surface

Hammer test to check the lining for holes, grains, accumulation, etc.

When checks are completely finished, release notes have to be handed over fully signed by contractor, supplier and clients
representatives.

5.6.4. Sifting ash conveyors


Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.
Before the first starting up of the conveyors, the following points have to be considered :

Be sure that the safety switch is switched off

Check that there are no alien parts lying in the conveyor

Check that there is oil in the gearbox

Activate the greasing device by screwing in the ring bolt in the grease container

Stretch the chain. To do that the conveyor must be started up (dont forget to check the
direction of rotation) and let it run for a while. The chain is sufficiently stretched when
the carriers are leaving the return part without a bang. A bang will occur if the chain is
too slack. On the other hand, if it is stretched too hard the carriers will be lifted before
they reach the bend.

After a couple of days, all of the carriers screw joints is to be follow up drafted, and the
stretching of the chain must be checked.

5.6.5. Boiler cleaning system


Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.

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5.6.6. Hydraulic group
Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.
Before the first start-up of the hydraulic plant, the installation (including all piping) must be
flushed and cleaned to eliminate all contaminants from the system and achieve the required
degree of purity of the oil. The supplier will be responsible for the first cleaning of the
hydraulic equipment and piping, as well as the first filling with hydraulic oil.
The minimum requirements for the hydraulic oil are :

Hydraulic oils with corrosion, oxidation and wear additives : HLP oils according to DIN
51524 part 2

Viscosity class VG46 according to ISO 3448 is obliged.

A list of potential mineral oil makes that can be used for the hydraulic group is annexed in the
O&M manual. Other makes are possible provided that they have similar characteristics.
Commissioning of the hydraulic system will be done under the supervision of the supplier.
This start up will cover (not limitative) :

Cleaning of all piping, reservoirs and ancillaries

Pressure testing

Verification of correct mounting of all equipment

First hydraulic oil filling

Test run of all the equipment, especially for verification of the proper functioning of the
pressure compensated hydraulic proportional flow control valves.

Prevention of oil leakages

5.6.7. Burners
Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.
The start up and commissioning of all burners will be done during drying and baking of the
refractory lining of the furnace, and during boiling out of the boiler and blowing out of the
steam piping (see part 2 of the Commissioning manual).

Drying of the refractory lining will be done by means of the start up burners. During
drying of the refractory lining, the start up burners will be operated at low thermal load.

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At the beginning of this period, the start up burners can be tuned rather roughly, because
operation at maximum thermal load is not allowed, or only during short periods (e.g. some
minutes). The burners will be tuned in a way they can be started and stopped in a reliable
way, and in a way the combustion is visually complete (no formation of soot). Finetuning (e.g. to attain good and complete combustion along the complete working range of
the burners) is not yet required and not yet possible. This rough fine-tuning is expected to
last one working day.

When baking of the refractory lining has started, the load of the start up burners can be
increased gradually. At the end of this period, a fine-tuning of the burner can be allowed,
because operation at maximum load is possible during long time. As drying of the
refractory lining can last some days (at low burner load), and the temperature increase
after drying is very slow, it is possible that there will be some days between the first
commissioning of the start-up burners, and the fine-tuning.

During baking of the refractory lining and boiling-out of the boilers, the auxiliary burners
will be started and operated at low thermal load. At the beginning of this period, the
auxiliary burners can be tuned rather roughly, because operation at maximum thermal
load is not allowed, or only during short periods (e.g. some minutes). The burners will be
tuned in a way they can be started and stopped in a reliable way, and in a way the
combustion is visually complete (no formation of soot). Fine-tuning (e.g. to reach the
required CO- or NOx-emission limits, or to verify the fuel/air ratio curves at different
loads) is not yet required and not yet possible. This rough fine-tuning is expected to last
one working day.

When baking of the refractory lining is finished (and the furnace is still hot), auxiliary
burner operation at maximum load can be allowed, as long as temperature changes in the
furnace can be restricted up to the values allowed by the refractory supplier (10 up to 25
C/hr). During this period, a fine-tuning of the burner can be allowed (to reach the
guaranteed emission levels, and to determine the fuel/air ratio curves at all burner loads).
If this fine tuning requires several succeeding intervention days of the burner supplier, it
is advised to combine this activities with the blowing of the steam piping, because
frequent burner modulation can be allowed in this period, and there is enough time
available (one can expect that the auxiliary burners will be operational during at least one
week).

During this period, presence of qualified personnel of the burner supplier will be required.

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5.6.8. Smoke testing of the flue gas cleaning
(a) General
The intent of smoke testing is to detect leaks in the flue gas path of the plant, means from the
outlet of the furnace up to the baghouse filter. Leaks mean that during normal operation, cold
outside air is draught into the system (in underpressure) causing corrosion at the inlet area,
loss of flue gas temperature and an increase in flue gas flow, resulting in a higher electrical
consumption of the ID-fan.
Since it is very difficult to detect these leaks during operation, a smoke bomb test should be
performed during the plant cold commissioning phase as well as after plant start-up on a
regular basis (for instance every year during the annual shutdown)
Smoke testing is performed by blowing a high volume of very low-pressure smoke into the
system at one or more manholes. Plugs, valves, temporary blind flanges are used to confine
the smoke to the section or sections of system being tested. Observation of the emergence of
smoke enables the crew to detect sources of inflow.
The plant building will usually have one or more roof vents from which smoke will emerge.
The roof vents will be used to evacuate the outcoming smoke. The residents and fire
departments must be told to ignore the smoke as well.
Because testing to large sections is less effective and gives the crew too much area to observe
during the relatively short life of the smoke bombs (3 or 5 minutes), it is advised to have
several tests along the flue gas path:

Section 1 : from the combustion chamber (furnace) up to the inlet of the baghouse filter,

Section 2 : from the baghouse filter up to the stack inlet, if there is possibility to confine
this system at the stack side (otherwise the smoke test II will be limited to the baghouse
filter outlet)

(b) Equipment
Smoke testing can be performed using:

Primary, secondary and burner air fans (for section 1)

Mobile blowers (for section 2)

Blowers suitable for smoke testing have a circular flange or plate for mounting on an open
manhole and are gasoline engine driven. Blowers recommended for smoke testing have a freeair delivery of at least 3.000 m/h.
The static pressure capability of the blowers is less than 2,5 mbar.
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(c) Smoke
Smoke used is cold and very visible (white). The smoke is not hazardous and is free of oil
and coloured particles, which could leave residue and stains. Smoke bombs recommended
for smoke testing are usually 3- or 5-minute duration.
Smoke is introduced into the system either by placing a smoke bomb at the blower inlet or
by lowering the smoke bomb into a manhole in a bucket and blowing air in from above.
The inspector should understand that the smoke bombs are not dangerous and have a limited
shelf life. Once opened, a package of smoke bombs should be used. Smoke bombs exposed to
moisture or humidity may be difficult, if not impossible, to ignite.
(d) Advance notices
Prior to performing smoke testing, plant personnel and residents are notified of the purpose
and approximate date of the work. Residents are told that they will see smoke emerging from
the roof vents.
Local fire and police departments should be advised daily of the areas being tested. Personnel
handling telephone inquiries should be acquainted with the purposes of the smoke-testing
program.
(e) Smoke test procedures
1. Advance notice is given to residents, fire and police departments.
2. The inlet and outlet of the system ducting are blocked, i.e.:

For section 1: hopper feeding chute valve - inlet valves of the baghouse filter

For section 2, inlet of the baghouse filter - inlet of the stack (by means of
temporary flanged plates)

3. The manhole sections to be tested are isolated (sifting ash hoppers, combustion chamber,
feeding grate casing, boiler, flue gas duct, reactor, baghouse filter).
4. The ash extractor and the sifting ash conveyors (in section 1) are filled with water
5. The gate valve for the residue extraction (boiler hoppers, reactor cone, filter hopper) must
be closed
6. The combustion air fans (for primary air, secondary air and for burners) are started in
section 1. In section 2, a smoke blower is set up at an open manhole in the filter and started.

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7. A smoke bomb is ignited, placed in a bucket and lowered into the manhole. The blower is
then positioned on the open manhole and set at full throttle.
8. In less than a minute, smoke will be issuing from the roof vents of buildings and any
directly connected points of inflow.
9. A smoke testing crew usually consists of three persons. One individual operates and
maintains the blower while the other two walk the test area to locate and document inflow
sources indicated by emerging smoke.
10. The crew documents significant and identifiable points of inflow. Sketches, field notes,
portable tape recordings, digital pictures and movies could be used to record test results.
11. Those firms bidding on this type of work should have a documented history of five years
of successful smoke testing. References and dates are to be submitted with bids.
12. All bidders will be licensed contractors and perform a minimum of 60 percent of the
contract.

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6. ANNEXES
6.1. ANNEX 1 : LIST OF SUB-SYSTEMS
See also Error! Reference source not found. on page Error! Bookmark not defined..
- tbd during detailed engineering

6.2. ANNEX 2 : COMMISSIONING STATUS REPORTS


1. Status List
2. P&ID
3. Check-out lists
4. Unit inspection sheets
5. Punch list
6. Functional description
7. Interlock list / autoconditions
8. Test reports

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
PART N2 :
HOT COMMISSIONING

WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT
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by:

10-01-08

RPI

Preliminary

Rev.

Date

By

Description

Check

Appr.

WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
TYPICAL

1. TABLE OF CONTENT

1.

TABLE OF CONTENT .................................................................................................................................. 2

2.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 4

3.

GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.

PREPARATION TO DRYING-OUT, BOILING-OUT, BAKING AND BLOWING-OUT .................... 7


4.1.

FURNACE ................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1.1.

Combustion chamber ........................................................................................................................... 7

4.1.2.

Grate .................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1.3.

Feeding hopper and chute.................................................................................................................... 8

4.1.4.

Start-up burner..................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1.5.

Ash extractor and sifting ash conveyors............................................................................................... 9

4.1.6.

Primary, secondary and wall cooling air............................................................................................. 9

4.2.

BOILER AND STEAM CIRCUIT...................................................................................................................... 9

4.3.

FLUE GAS CLEANING PLANT ..................................................................................................................... 10

4.4.

COMMON PARTS ...................................................................................................................................... 10

5.

HEATING-UP PROCEDURE ..................................................................................................................... 11

6.

BOILING-OUT PROCEDURE ................................................................................................................... 14

7.

DRYING-OUT AND BAKING .................................................................................................................... 16

8.

BLOWING-OUT (= BLASTING) OF THE BOILER ............................................................................... 20


8.1.

GENERAL CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................................. 20

8.2.

STEAM BLASTING CRITERIA CALCULATION PROCEDURE ........................................................................ 21

8.2.1.

Distribution factors K-factors. ........................................................................................................ 21

8.2.2.

Calculation method ............................................................................................................................ 21

8.2.3.

Continuous steam blasting ................................................................................................................. 23

8.3.

IMPACT BLOWING OF BOILER - PIPING ...................................................................................................... 24

8.4.

BLOWING-OUT PROCEDURE ..................................................................................................................... 24

8.5.

PRACTICAL MATTERS .............................................................................................................................. 25

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8.6.
9.

TESTING OF STEAM CLEANLINESS ............................................................................................................ 26

FIRST START-UP WITH REFUSE ........................................................................................................... 27


9.1.

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE RISE ........................................................................................................ 27

9.2.

SAFETY.................................................................................................................................................... 28

9.3.

PREPARATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 29

9.4.

START-UP SEQUENCE .............................................................................................................................. 29

9.4.1.

Prior Remarks .................................................................................................................................... 29

9.4.2.

Start-up common parts....................................................................................................................... 30

9.4.3.

Steam circuit (common) ..................................................................................................................... 31

9.4.4.

Air preheater ...................................................................................................................................... 31

9.4.5.

Start-up furnace (line 1 or 2) ............................................................................................................. 34

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2. INTRODUCTION
This document outlines the sequence of activities required to take the plant from a completed
installation to a fully operational and commissioned plant. The pre-requisites before each
stage of the operation can be commenced are described.
The commissioning will normally follow the sequence below:
1. Pre-Commissioning (or Unit test): the checking and testing of equipment prior to
their cold commissioning with power and air. Such works shall consist of testing the
alignment and direction of rotating parts, the verification of the wiring and cabling, the
verification of the PLC system, verification of correct mounting of piping, verification of
correct mounting of valves and actuators, cold pressure testing of piping and vessels, etc.
Pre-commissioning checks, when completed, will release individual items of equipment to
be powered up and made available for inclusion in the cold commissioning phase.
2. Cold-Commissioning: the no-load, dynamic testing (including the starting-up of motors
and other electrical equipment, flushing and cleaning of tanks and piping if applicable,
adjustment and regulation of protective devices, functional tests, leakage and pressure
tests, inspection of bearings, etc.) and operation of equipment for a period of time. This
will be mainly as individual items, but may involve running some of the equipment in
sequence.
3. Hot Commissioning: this will include the introduction of process gas and reagent
(including the boiling out of pressure parts, curing of the refractory, blowing of steam
pipe to turbine, etc). The whole plant will be proved, operating in sequence under full
load conditions.
The Commissioning Manual (part n1) includes instructions for the Pre-commissioning and
the Cold Commissioning of the equipment in the contract.
The Commissioning Manual (part n2) includes instructions for the Hot Commissioning of the
equipment in the contract. These second part contains specific information for the first startup, which differ from a normal plant start-up. For the general operating procedures (allowing
to start-up, operate and shut down the plant), please refer to the Operation and Maintenance
manuals.
Responsibility: Operating instructions specified in this manual are typical procedures. It is
impossible to cover all eventualities, which might occur during the start-up of the plant.
Keppel Seghers cannot take responsibility for damage to any part of the plant which could
have been avoided, had instructions been followed.
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On the other hand, conditions may arise in which actions must be taken without sticking
completely to the instructions in this manual, provided that such actions result in safe
operation.

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3. GENERAL
The first start up procedure of the furnace-boiler is strongly different from a general start up
procedure. The reason is that the refractory lining has to be dried and baked in order to reach
its desired strength, and physical and chemical properties.
For this purpose, the temperature in the furnace and the post combustion zone has to be
increased according to a strictly defined procedure. A general sequence for the first start-up is
shown in the figure below with indication of duration of each individual action.

DRYING - BAKING - BOILING - BLASTING PROCEDURE


1000

900

800
Drying

Flue gas temperature (C)

700

Baking

Blasting f(#cycles)

Start-up

Boiling

600

500

O P R

400

300
E

200
C
100

A-B

0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Time (day)

Figure 1: Typical drying, baking, boiling and blasting curve


In attachment, the details for this typical drying, baking, boiling and blasting curve can be
found.

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4. PREPARATION TO DRYING-OUT, BOILING-OUT, BAKING AND


BLOWING-OUT
4.1. FURNACE
4.1.1. Combustion chamber

Before starting the drying-out and the baking procedure, a test has to be done to check the
amount of leakage air entering the furnace. During this test, the primary air fan will be
started without using the ID-fan. An overpressure will be created in the furnace. Air leaks
can be checked now by applying liquid soap at welding and other connection elements.
Air leaks have to be repaired before starting the drying-out and baking procedure.

All measurement systems in the furnace zone has to be operational (temperature, pressure,
). All temperature trendings in furnace and post combustion zone have to be printed
and saved.

All sight glasses, measurement systems, cameras, or other elements with a protection
against high temperatures by means of sweeping air, have to be cooled during drying-out
and baking procedure.

4.1.2. Grate

In normal operation, the tiles are cooled by primary air and thermally protected by a waste
layer, which acts as an insulating layer. Since drying-out of the refractory is not possible
and not allowed by waste, the burners have to be used. The grate tiles are not designed to
be exposed to the full heat of the burners; therefore the tiles need to be protected. This
protection remains in the furnace during the entire warm-start up, being the refractory
drying, the boiler boiling-out and the blowing-out of the boiler and steam piping.
The entire feeding and the combustion grates element 1 to 3 must be covered by means of
insulating material (rockwool), thickness at least 100 mm. Above the insulating material a
layer of about 5 cm of sand is put (can be sprayed with a pump). The sand is used to avoid
that the insulating material would fly away due to the draft of the ID-fan. It should be
carefully checked that the complete surface is evenly filled. Also the side wall tiles of the
combustion grate and the inlet guide tiles of the feeding grate have to be completely
covered.
The grate element which are most intensively exposed to heat are grate element number 4
and 5 (at furnace outlet), since the start-up burner is positioned in the back wall. These
elements must be covered with ceramic fiber, with thickness at least 100 mm.

Note:

Instead of sand, bricks could be used to maintain the insulation in place.

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Caution: The temperature of the feeding and combustion grate may not arise above its
design value (feeding grate = surrounding temperature, combustion grate =
primary air preheating temperature), otherwise severe damage can be caused
to the mechanical structure and the hydraulic drive system (caused by limited
thermal expansion). The procedure to protect the grate, like described below,
has strictly to be followed.

Before starting the drying-out and baking procedure, it is advised to have a final check on
the clearances of the combustion grate tiles. This is necessary to be sure that the
clearances have not been changed during mounting of the grate elements. If clearances
have become smaller than advised on the drawings, there is a risk of blockage of the grate
tiles at normal operating conditions of the grate.

It is advised to test the operation (movement) of the grate elements before drying-out and
baking, to check whether everything works properly. All combustion and feeding grate
elements have to be withdrawn to their rest position.

The feeding grate has to be cooled by opening the inspection door at the back side of the
feeding grate housing. In this way, heat release to the feeding grate can be evacuated to
the environment.

4.1.3. Feeding hopper and chute

To protect the feeding hopper and the feeding chute cover plate system against too high
temperatures, they have to be protected by means of a temporary cover. A frame inside
the chute is made with iron bars. On this framework, hard insulating plates (thickness 4050 mm) are put with some bricks to avoid that the plates will fly away. All gaps have to
be closed by means of insulation material (in order to prevent the escape of hot flue
gases). The cover is placed just above the feeding grate where the steel part of the chute
starts to allow drying and baking of the refractory lining in the feeding chute.

The closing gate of the feeding hopper has to be opened, to be able to evacuate the
released heat to the environment.

The chute (closed loop) water circuit must be enabled to allow cooling of the steel plate
through the water jacket.

4.1.4. Start-up burner

The start-up burner should be checked that its flame will never (at each working point of
the burner) touch the grate or the insulation put above it.

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4.1.5. Ash extractor and sifting ash conveyors

To prevent heat loss through the ash extractor, the water seal on the ash extractor has to
be operational. Also the water supply system to the ash extractor has to be operational,
because it has to compensate the water loss due to evaporation. The water also protects
the ash extractor against too high temperatures.

The same applies for the wet sifting ash conveyors under the grate.

Caution: The availability of water to the ash extractor and sifting ash conveyors must
be checked regularly (two times per eight hours) as well as their casing
temperature.
4.1.6. Primary, secondary

The butterfly valves of the primary and secondary air are opened partially. This allows
air coming in by suction of the ID-fan. This air can help to evacuate for instance the
water that is evaporated in the air gap of the side wall cooling system of the furnace. It
also protects the air ducts against too high temperatures (sweeping air).

Caution: No primary air can be used during the drying-out and blowing-out
procedure, because the sand and the insulating material might be blown
away and thus exposing the grate directly to the radiant heat of the burners.

The side wall cooling fan has to be operational. It is possible that during the drying-out
and baking procedure, the side wall cooling has to be started.

4.2. BOILER AND STEAM CIRCUIT

Before hot commissioning several measures need to be taken to to protect the critical
items of the boiler. The main steam check valve internals should be removed and steam
flow measurement orifice should be replaced by a temporary simple design plate. Note
that the steam flow needs to be determined during steam blasting in order to evaluate the
blast impuls. The demister of the steam drum should be removed (during boiling-out) and
the insulation bricks of the manholes need to be removed.

All control and safety equipment and plant interlocks required for the activities of hot
commissioining should be operational.

A release note for hot commissioning of the boiler from the local inspection authority
should be available

The boiler pressure parts and control valves must be released.

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All measurement systems in the boiler (water-steam side) and post combustion zone (flue
gas side) have to be operational (temperature, pressure, ). All temperature trending
have to be printed and saved.

The support burners must be operational / released. For more detail, refer to O&M
Manual from supplier.

Fuel oil circulation pumps must be operational / released to allow feeding to the support
and start-up burners.

Boiler feeding water pumps must be operational / released. For more detail, refer to
O&M Manual from supplier. Temporary start-up filters can be installed instead of the
(fine) normal filters.

The demin water preparation system must be operational / released to allow feeding of the
pressure parts through the boiler feeding water pumps

The boiler water conditioning system (dosing of sodium phosphate) must be operational /
released.

4.3. FLUE GAS CLEANING PLANT

The flue gas cleaning system has to evacuate the hot flue gases. To protect the flue gas
cleaning against too high temperatures, one can open manholes in the flue gas ducts or at
the reactor, in order to insert air, sucked by the underpressure created by the ID-fan.

The ID-fan has to be operational. The automatic control loop to regulate the furnace
pressure and interlocks should be operational .

Some measurements need to be available for data-logging: CO and water measurement of


flue gases, flue gas flow (if possible).

4.4. COMMON PARTS

Process water and instrument/plant air must be available.

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5. HEATING-UP PROCEDURE
This procedure is the heating up procedure, as given by the refractory supplier .
Temperature in the furnace room and boiler first empty pass will be monitored during heatingup of the furnace. Measurements will be recorded and the actual heating curve will be set up
(only for control and approval by the refractory supplier).
Sufficient supply of consumables should be available: demin water (boiler feed water), fuel,
chemicals for boiler cleaning
Heating up procedure is represented on the curve hereafter :

TEMPERATURE(

600

550

550

500
360

400
300

250

360

250

200

150
110

100

110

25

25

0
0

33

47

71

78

114

127

151

167

215

TI ME SCHEDULE( Hr )

Figure 2: Typical heating up curve


1. Heating up at 10C/hr until a temperature is reached of about 110 - 120C.
2. Staying at a constant temperature of 110 - 120C during at least 24 hours. This period is
needed to dry the refractory, to evaporate all the water in the refractory lining.
3. Heating up at 10C/hr until a temperature is reached of about 260C.
4. Staying at a constant temperature of 260C during at least 24 hours. This period is needed
to partially bake the refractory, this means to have a reaction that gives the refractory
lining its desired strength and physical and chemical properties.
5. Heating up at 15C/hr until a temperature of 360C
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6. Staying at a constant temperature of 360C during 36 hours. This is the second baking step
of the refractory material.
7. Heating up at 25C/hr until a temperature is reached of about 550C.
8. Staying at a constant temperature of 550C during at least 24 hours.
9. After baking and drying-out, the refractory can be cooled down at a rate of about 2530C/hrAll above parameters are valid for the refractory in the furnace. Concerning the
boiler refractory lining, the exact value of these parameters depends on the refractory
materials applied in the boiler. Only the refractory supplier can give a guaranteed dryingout and baking procedure.
Caution: A drying-out and baking procedure is a continuous procedure, 24 hours / 24
hours, 7 days / 7 days. It can not be stopped halfway, and a sudden stop (a
sudden decrease in temperature) can cause damage to the refractory lining.

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900

850

850

800

TEMPERATURE(

700
600
500
400
300
200
100

25

25

0
0

16

16

TI ME SCHEDULE( Hr )

Figure 3: Typical heating up and cooling down curve (maximum rate)

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6. BOILING-OUT PROCEDURE
Before boiling-out it is advisable to flush the entire boiler one time with demin water to
remove all loose particles still present in the boiler from erection works. The draining of the
boiler after the final pressure test can be considered as the flushing, provided the quality of
the drain water was good (no big particles in the water), the boiler was conserved in a good
way (see related procedures) and no more welding or repair works on pressure parts were
carried out (is not allowed after pressure test).
Boiling-out of the boiler aims at the removal of mechanical impurities, grease and possible
other contamination, if any, from the internal surfaces of the boiler tubes. The superheater is
not boiled-out (is cleaned with flushing and afterwards during steam blasting).
Both processes (boiling-out vs. drying-out/baking) may be carried-out simultaneously
providing that the resulting prolongation of the process, as well as the increase of temperature
and pressure, will not have negative influence upon the results of the boiling-out process.
Caution: The procedure hereafter described is given as an example. The operation of
the boiler during boiling-out should strictly follow the operating instruction
of the boiler supplier.
To ensure uniform concentration of chemical agents in all boiler elements that are included in
the process of boiling-out, an auxiliary installation can be provided consisting in one
circulating pump connected at the suction port with the drains of boiler evaporator bottom
headers, while pump discharge will be connected to the drains of economiser inlet header (see
typical sketch in annex). This pump will also be used for introducing chemical solution into
the boiler from a small tank. The circulation pump will run about 4 times a day during 1 hour.
The pH of the solution in the boiler will be measured each time after the circulation pumps
have been operating.
Note that the superheaters are not boiled out..
Typical composition of boiling-out solution and amount of chemicals:

Chemical agent
Concentration
Amount

:
:
:

NaOH and Na-phosphate


0,4 kg NaOH/m of water and 0,4kg/m Na3PO4,12H2O
20 kg of NaOH (100%) and 20 kg of Na-phosphate

Course of boiling-out process (to be confirmed by boilers supplier):

Fill up the boiler to the lowest operational level in the steam drum. Note that the
superheaters are not allowed to be filled up with the alkaline boiling-out solution.

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Prepare the concentrated solution of NaOH and Na-phosphate in the tank (pH of about
11-12).

Start the temporary circulating pump and establish circulation within the system
(circulating pump- economiser- boiler drum- evaporator- circulating pump).

Pump-up the concentrated solution of chemicals to the system.

Continue the circulation for about 2 hours.

Fire the boiler and proceed to refractory drying procedure (see 5).

During the initial stage of drying-out procedure (until the drum pressure does not exceed
4 bar), the boiler evaporator should be blown-down every 6 hours (bottom headers drain
valves to be fully opened one by one for few seconds and than closed again).

The circulating pump should be operated for 30 min. every 6 hours during this stage. At
the drum pressure above 4 bar, the circulating pump suction and discharge isolating
valves should be kept closed. Each time after circulation, the pH of the boiler water
should be checked and the dosing of the chemicals to be adapted accordingly.

The frequency of blowing-down during the further course of refractory drying-out


procedure will be reduced to 1 per 24 hours. At the completion of refractory drying
procedure, the boiler will be drained and flushed with tap water by consequent filling and
draining until the pH value of effluent water is brought down to about 9 (last rising cycle
to be done with demin water).

The drain (boiling-out) water is contaminated with chemicals and should therefore be
disposed taking into account the applicable environmental legislation/regulations.

After cooling-down, the steam drum is made empty and is opened and cleaned /inspected
for the presence of impurities. Loose impurities, if any, should be removed manually.
Inner surfaces of the drum to the operational water level should be free from contaminants
(oil, sand, grease, etc.).

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7. DRYING-OUT AND BAKING


1. First of all the boiler must be filled with demin water up to LL-level at the drum. Flow
control valve to be by-passed during filling.
2. Meanwhile, before the burners are started to dry the refractory lining, the complete gas
path (from furnace to ID-fan) has to be flushed by means of fresh air. This is to evacuate
possible explosive gases out of the plant. The flushing air flow must be three times the
plant volume (vol. furnace + vol. boiler + vol. reactor + vol. filter + vol. flue gas ducting).
The plant is flushed by using the secondary air fan (primary air fan cannot be used sine
grate is covered with insulating material). The flushing flow is measured at the suction
side of the secondary air. Because the (post-) combustion chamber is in overpressure, all
burners will be flushed in the same time.
3. Now the boiler is heating up until a flue gas temperature is reached of about 110 - 120 C.
This can be done by means of the start-up burners (at the backside of the furnace) or bymeans of steam from other combustion line (if applicable). The temperature that is
checked, is the temperature inside the furnace (above the grate).
Caution: During all drying-out and baking procedure (so from the first start of the
burners), temperature controls must be done to avoid possible mechanical
damage (casing, grate, ducting). The following table gives an overview of the
items to be checked and the necessary interventions:
Item to check

What to do if temperature is too high

Combustion grate tiles (above Tmax =


300C)

Open inspection doors at the sifting ash


hoppers

Primary air coming out the opened


inspection doors of the sifting ash hoppers or
casing of the sifting ash hoppers

Increase primary air cooling flow

Check if the primary air preheater is


really shut-down

Feeding grate housing (feel as close as


possible to the furnace)

Check inspection doors at back side are


open

Remove the cover plate of the feeding


grate housing

Open the valve for the side wall cooling


air more & open the cover plate of the
primary air headers before fans (air can

Casing at the sidewalls along the furnace


(above Tmax = 60C)

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Item to check

What to do if temperature is too high


be blown in furnace room), caution to be
taken trespassing is not allowed during
this period.

Start forced side wall cooling by the


side wall cooling air fan (or increase its
flow if already started)

check if the primary air preheaters are


shut-down

If the temperature of the supporting


structure is a real problem, check
whether the side wall tiles have been
covered properly

Side wall cooling air ducts (feel as close as


possible to the furnace)

Open the butterfly valves more

Start forced cooling by the side wall


cooling fan or increase the flow

Feeding chute

Check level cooling water

Open the start up feeding chute valve to


allow the evacuation of heat

Ash extractor or sifting ash conveyors casing

Check availability of water

Boiler

Check the elongations of the boiler at


different pressures (1, 5, 10 ,20, 40 bar)
and compare with the theoretical values

If not OK, immediately stop heating and


solve problem

Flue gas cleaning

Open a manhole (duct, reactor, ) to


suck surrounding air

If a temperature problem can not be solved

Baking at a lower temperature level (to


be agreed with the refractory supplier)

Table 1: Temperature control round during drying-out and baking


4. When boiler water temperature reaches 60C, the sodium phosphate injection into the
economizer bundle can be started. Furthermore, boiler must be filled up to normal level.
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5. Flue gases must be kept at a constant temperature of 110 - 120C during at least 24 hours.
This is drying-out period.
6. Boiler is heated up to a water temperature between 110 - 120C, with max. 15C/hr. This
is boiling-out period.
7. Flue gases are heating up at 15C/hr until a temperature is reached of about 260C. To
reach that temperature, auxiliary burners (in the post combustion zone) will be started up
when the flue gas temperature is about 200C, because the start-up burner is not powerful
enough (1 x 4,5 MW). As soon as the support burners are started, the flue gas temperature
that is checked, is the one in the post combustion zone, about 4 to 6 m above the support
burners.
8. Flue gases are kept at a constant temperature of about 360C during at least 36 hours. This
is the baking period (1st step).
10. Flue gases are heating up at 25C/hr until a temperature is reached of about 550C.
11. Flue gases are again kept at a constant temperature of 550C during at least 24 hours. This
is baking period (2d step).
Caution: During the baking period the flue gas temperature before the superheater
must be kept below 450 - 480C
12. Now the drying-out and baking period is done, the flue gas temperature is lowered at
25C/hr up to ambient temperature.
13. The boiler can now be emptied in order to drain dirty water. First check that one boiler
cannot be filled with water the other boiler being drained (through blow-down system).
14. Open all vents:

At boiler feed water pipe to desuperheater

At boiler feed water preheater

Between economiser and drum

At the steam header on the drum

Between superheaters

At superheated steam pipe

15. When the boiler temperature dropped under 60C, the boiler can be fully drained by
opening the intermittent blow-down system, which can be by-passed. When water stops
flowing, all drains from the lower boiler parts must be opened. Note that the boiling-out
water is contaminated with chemicals and need to be disposed/drained according to the
applicable environmental regulations.
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16. Check the quality of the drain water (with filter at drain pipe). If the quality is
unsatisfactory, boiler shall be filled up again and drained.
Caution: Not all drains are flowing to the blow-down vessel and they therefore need to
be led to drain gutter using flexible hoses
17. Open the drains from the economiser, the superheaters and the evaporator to the blowdown vessel. Then open the continuous blow-down system to evacuate boiler water to the
blow-down vessel
18. These operations can be repeated twice or three times after the boiler is refilled with demin
water (until pH of about 9). It is advised to have water circulating between two cleaning
sequences. After the last cleaning, inspection must be made to the pressure parts of the
boiler (drum, header, ).

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8. BLOWING-OUT (= BLASTING) OF THE BOILER


8.1. GENERAL CONDITIONS
In order to clean the boiler and steam piping up to the required steam cleanliness for the
turbine, steam blasting is performed. Two different methods or a combination of both can be
applied being the continuous and impact blowing. The effectiveness of both methods is
validated in view of the heat capacity of the auxiliary burners.
The steam blasting of the piping up to the connection of the turbine and the turbine bypass
valve must also be performed. At the connections of the turbine and the turbine bypass valve,
two temporary pipes are installed, which are joined downstream and are going outside to the
temporary silencer. In both piping a temporary steam blasting valve needs to be installed.
Steam blasting with the fix-mounted shut-off valves of the boiler is not advisable, since the
valves will be exposed to extensive wear.
The temporary silencer is positioned outside on ground level (fixed on concrete bloc) in order
to avoid movements of the silencer due to the reaction forces.
Before the steam blasting takes place, the steam flow orifice, the inside of the check valve and
the demister in the steam drum should be removed (already before start of boiler boiling-out)
in order not to damage these items.

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8.2. STEAM BLASTING CRITERIA CALCULATION PROCEDURE


8.2.1. Distribution factors K-factors.
Blowing parameters of a boiler are dependent on many factors. On the one hand, they should
ensure the best possible cleaning of superheater and pipeline surfaces, and on the other hand
they should take into account boilers constructional characteristics, its nominal parameters
and possibilities of supplying adequate amounts of heat to the furnace during the process of
blowing as well as the possibility of emitting steam into the atmosphere through a silencer.
For high efficiency of blowing, high flow coefficients are recommended:

K1 =

(Gd x vd)
(Gn x vn)i

K2 =

(Gd x vd)
(Gn x vn)

where:

Gd

steam flow at blowing-out

Gn

nominal steam flow (at maximum load)

vd

specific volume of steam at blowing-out

vn

specific volume at normal operation

The parameters (pressure + temperature) for the calculation of the steam specific volume shall
be measured just before the turbine / turbine bypass valve.
8.2.2. Calculation method
In order to determine the steam flow during blowing in absence of the flow measuring orifice,
the following calculation method is applied.
The flow is calculated, based on the measured pressure drop during blasting versus the
pressure drop in the boiler + piping during normal operation at maximum load.
A. Pressure drop formula:

1P = 0

w x .
2g

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with . =

1P = 0

1
v

w
w
=k
v 2g
v

with w =

Dv
F

Dv
)
F
= ko D v
1P = k
v
(

with:

R P : pressure drop (bar)

S : boiler (from drum to piping outlet) resistance coefficient

w : steam velocity (m/s)

T : steam density (kg/m)

v : steam specific volume (m/kg)

F : internal pipe cross-section (m)

D : boiler capacity/ steam flow (kg/h)

B. Steam pressure drop at blowing capacity

1Pb = ko Db vb
with:

Db : steam flow at blowing (to be calculated)

vb : steam specific volume (to be evaluated from steam tables, based on measured steam
temperature and pressure at piping outlet during blowing)

R Pb : pressure drop between drum and piping outlet at steam blowing

C. Steam pressure drop at normal boiler load

1Pn = ko Dn vn
D. Steam flow during blowing
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The steam flow during blowing is calculated from the ratio of the pressure drop at normal
operation versus the pressure drop during blowing:

1Pn ko Dn vn
=
1Pb ko Db vb

Db = Dn

vn 1Pb
x
vb 1Pn

8.2.3. Continuous steam blasting


In high pressure boilers, it is easy to obtain high flow disturbance factors K1 and K2 at low
steam output and consequently small heat demand. The ratio of drum pressure at blowing to
the nominal drum pressure is low: 0,150,25.
In the case of low pressure boilers, the situation is different. To obtain high values of K1 and
K2 factors, one should aim at obtaining high steam flow rate at low drum pressure during
blowing-out.
The first limitation is the steam output during blowing-out or the possibility to supply an
adequate amount of heat to the furnace. In a waste to power boiler, the burners are used as
support burners. The primary fuel is waste and thus burners are not designed for 100%
thermal load. The burner thermal capacity is designed in order to heat-up the boiler up till
850C (requirement by law) at start-up and to keep the temperature of the flue gases above
850C during operation when necessary.
During blowing the auxiliary and start-up burners are used, thus their effective thermal power
determines the maximum steam capacity of the boiler.

Start-up burner

1 x 4,5 MWth

Auxiliary burners :

1 x 7,5 MWth

Another limitation of the blowing parameters is the pressure drop in the temporary piping and
silencer. Therefore, a silencer should be selected with a low pressure drop (maximum 4 bar),
so that high steam velocities can be obtained.
The lower pressure limitation by the silencer resistance and the upper limitation resulting
from the thermal power of the auxiliary burners, determine the K1 and K2 factors.

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8.3. IMPACT BLOWING OF BOILER - PIPING
Next to the method of the continuous blowing, impact blowing could be applied for the
cleaning of the superheaters.

8.4. BLOWING-OUT PROCEDURE


The blowing-out of the boiler/piping can be performed in 3 ways: continuous blowing, impact
blowing or a combination of both methods. Only continuous blowing is not sufficient to
achieve the required K2-factors in the boiler.
Different steps in blowing-out procedure:

The boiler should be fired-up (with burners) in accordance with the prescriptions of the
boiler manual.

The gradient of saturation temperature increase in the drum (drum pressure increase)
should be not higher than indicated in the boiler manual/instruction. The heating-up of the
boiler should not exceed the requirements of the refractory (heating-up curve).

The firing-up will be performed with the start-up valve or the temporary valve partially
opened

In case of the combination of the continuous and impact blowing the following procedure is
followed:

By gradual increasing the power of the burners, the pressure and temperature in the boiler
is raised. The temporary valve in the blow-out piping is partially opened. One has to make
sure that the opening of the valve is done in harmony with the burner thermal power so
that the pressure and temperature keep increasing.

Once the parameters for continuous blowing are reached, the blowing-out should be
continued for about 10 min. Afterwards, the temporary gate valves will be partially closed
in order to reach the required drum pressure for impact blowing (24-30 bar).

When the drum pressure is 24-30 bar the temporary valve will be opened at once until a
drum pressure of about 10 bar = impact blowing

Temporary valve will be closed and burner capacity is gradually decreased according to
the cooling down curve of the refractory.

Boiler and piping is cooled down before next blowing is started.

The next blowing procedure should not start earlier than the skin temperature of the
piping has dropped to about 150-200C.

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8.5. PRACTICAL MATTERS
-

Just before start of impact blowing the level in the steam drum shall be adjusted to low
level. During impact blowing the water level will raise instantly due to the quick
reduction of pressure.

Sufficient supply of demin water and fuel should be assured

In normal practice, 2 to 3 steam blastings per day can be carried out. More steam blastings
is not efficient since the cooling down of the superheater, steam piping is very important
(cracking effect). Overnight a thorough cooling down should be carried out.

Steam blasting will be performed at a flue gas temperature (measured in 1st pass) of about
500-550C.

If the flue gas temperature at the exit of the 1st pass (above the refractory lining) exceed a
temperature of 450C a small amount of steam should be blown off (via PCV ) to ensure a
safe and trouble-free natural circulation of the boiler. If the temperature of the flue gases
before the final superheater reaches 400C, it is required to blow off a small amount of
steam to ensure a good cooling of the superheater tubes. More steam needs to be blown
off when the flue gas temperature further increases

Before steam blasting, the steam parameters (pressure and temperature) are gradually
increased by increasing the capacity of the burners and by secondary air injection (typical
steam conditions for steam blasting : T = 360-375C, P = 24-30 bar). Meanwhile the
steam piping is preheated up till the silencer. When steam parameters are reached, the
temporary steam blasting valve is fully opened (as quick as possible)

Cooling down of the boiler after steam blasting should be at approximately 50C/hr

Before firing up the boiler for start of steam blasting, the following heating-up curve
should be followed (only first part is relevant from 25 to 550C in 32 hrs.).

Temporary installation for steam blasting consists of temporary steam pipe (should be
very clean), a silencer (low pressure drop), 2 temporary manual open/close valves (1 for
piping to turbine and 1 for piping turbine bypass valve), 2 sample holders for target
plates, sufficient number of target plates, drain valve for temporary piping and connection
for water injection (to reduce noise)

The cleaning processes and subsequent starting with waste should preferably be executed
in a consecutive way. In case it is not executed in a consecutive, continuous way a proper
conservation of the boiler should be carried out.

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600
550

500

TEMPERATURE(

550

550
500

500

400
300
200
150

150

100
25

0
0

12

32

38

44

50

56

TI ME SCHEDULE( Hr )

8.6. TESTING OF STEAM CLEANLINESS


The quality of the steam blasted shall be tested in accrodance to the prescriptions of the
turbine supplier.
The Cu-test plates will be screened in view of the allowable number and size of impacts.
In case the test plate is considered as successful, a protocol will be made between all parties
(KEPPEL SEGHERS/ Boiler manufacturer / Turbine manufacturer).

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9. FIRST START-UP WITH REFUSE


Caution: If the intention is not to run the boiler immediately after it has been blownout, then boiler has to be dried-out in order to prevent pressure parts to rust.
The boiler must be kept dry up to its start-up. This can be done by
continuously blowing dry air or by putting Nitrogen pillows into the boiler
pressure parts. For more details see also the prescriptions in the manual
pressure test procedure boiler

9.1. TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE RISE


When starting the installation, the limiting factor usually is the permitted rise in temperature
at the flue gas side of the furnace and the first empty pass of the boiler (to avoid damage of
the refractory lining by thermal shocks). However, the speed of the pressure rise on the steam
boiler should also be checked. The procedures that have to be followed are summarised in this
paragraph.
(a) Permitted rise in temperature at the flue gas side
Since the furnace is operated at relatively low temperature during start-up of the installation
(albeit with auxiliary fuel), the risk of formation of incombustibles in the flue gases (CO,
unburned hydrocarbons, ) is considerably higher than during normal operation. Therefore,
the residence time at these low temperatures should be minimised.
All mentioned temperatures should be read off the thermocouples in the furnace room and in
the first empty pass of the boiler. These temperatures are measured at the flue gas side.
Start-up with cold boiler (at ambient temperature, ca. 15 C):

Speed of start-up : 20 150 C in 4 hours (maximum)

150 600 C in 10 hours

600 C up to 850C at 50 C/h

Caution: Temperature rising rates are indicated as economical.


guarantee, a maximum rate of 50C/h is to be maintained.

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(b) Permitted rise in pressure at the water side (to be confirmed by boilers supplier)
The mentioned pressures and temperatures are always measured on the steam drum.
Start-up with cold boiler (ambient temperature - c. 20 C and on atmospheric pressure).

Speed of restart : 20 100 C in 55 minutes

1 5 bara in 45 minutes

5 45 bara (operating pressure) in 80 minutes

9.2. SAFETY

Check the alignment very carefully before starting any equipment. E.g. shut-off valves of
measuring instruments and switches have to be opened, discharge and air-relieve valves
have to be closed, in-line valves have to be opened, bypass valves on
measurements/accessories closed.

The field operator is present when starting motors.

Check the sense of rotation of motors when works on the power supply or connections
have been carried out.

Before closing equipment, always check whether there are no strange objects left inside
the equipment (keys, rags, ...).

Check whether all covers have been thoroughly fixed.

Remove all unnecessary tags and plates.

After start-up always check on site if the process parameters are within normal values
(e.g. pressure side of pumps, cooling water flow at feeding chute, etc.). See the nominal
values mentioned on the PFDs.

Before beginning start-up by means of the general start-up procedure, the operator has to
read the detailed operating instructions per P&ID and locate the equipment, accessories,
measuring instruments, etc. in the installation, so that he can act quickly and is aware of
the situation. The general start-up procedure is written on the assumption that the operator
knows the individual operating instructions per P&ID.

The operator in charge of start-up has to have the tables and procedures below with him at
start-up. He preferably coordinates start-up from the control room (in order to have an
overview of the complete situation) or keeps in touch with qualified staff in the control
room when he is in the installation.

Safety equipment
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Before starting the installation it has to be checked if all safety measures are operational:

Fire protection: ensure the supply of fire extinguishing water to all reels, hydrants, fire
extinguishers in the bunker, spray nozzles in feeding hoppers. Functioning of emergency
centre.

Safety showers

UPS-stand-by

Emergency diesel generator stand-by

Ventilation waste bunker, furnace room, ash bunker,

9.3. PREPARATIONS
All equipment and auxiliary installations have to be on stand-by.
The order of the various preparations obviously depends on the start-up order when putting
the installation into operation. However, the basic rule is that the preparations and start-up of
the various auxiliary installations are carried out as quickly as possible after finishing the
various cleaning, inspections and/or repairs, to be able to deal with any start-up problems on
time.
Remove sand/insulatnig material from furnace + all temporary equipment used for the
refractory drying - boiling out steam blasting and restore to normal operational conditions.

9.4. START-UP SEQUENCE


9.4.1. Prior Remarks
Starting up the steam circuit and the waste incineration both require much attention; therefore
they can NOT be started up at the same time, i.e. the most important items of the steam circuit
have to be started up in a stable way while the furnaces are running on fuel; only then the
feeding of waste can be started.
Certain installation parts HAVE TO be in operation before the furnaces can be heated up by
means of the support and/or start-up burners; these are indicated with A in the following
tables. Other installation parts have to be put into operation before waste can be fed to the
furnace; these are indicated with B in the tables and can be started up when the furnaces are
being heated with fuel up to 850 C. Installation parts that can only be put into operation
when the furnaces and flue gas cleaning are running stably are indicated with C.

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9.4.2. Start-up common parts
1.

Compressed air generation, plant- and instrument air network in operation

2.

Water supply and distribution in operation

3.

Process water supply and distribution in operation

4.

Cooling water circuit and distribution in operation. Rem.: check the cooling
water flow to the various installation parts to be cooled: pumps, temperature
control device,

5.

Main ring fuel in operation + fuel stock sufficient

6.

Feeding chute filled up with water It is important to fill up the chute before
firing the furnace on fuel because the chute is not protected by a layer of
waste as in normal operation.

7.

Check level in storage vessels chemicals for boiler water conditioning

8.

Make at least one crane of the waste bunker operational

9.

Make at least one crane of the ash bunker operational

11. Put active carbon installation in operation (common part)

12. Start up lime milk installation

10.

Start dust filter on lime silo

Fill slaking tank with water until the agitator is flooded

Start agitator

Start level regulation tank in automatic. Check flow to slaking tank,


flow to dilution tank and speed of dosing screw in order to get the correct
lime concentration

Check the supply of cleaning water on lime milk circulation pump before
start-up

13. Start lime milk pump and pressurise main ring pipe. Start one of both lime
milk circulation pumps and put the pressure control on the lime milk main
ring into operation.

14. Make silo for residue storage available and start up

15. Pump leakage water from ash bunker. Start-up after the ash extractor has
been fed with hot ashes (otherwise this wastewater does not evaporate, and

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the water just runs over to the ash bunker).


9.4.3. Steam circuit (common)
Before waste is incinerated the steam and condensate circuit has to be put into operation and
has to be stable. This implies the following:
1. The de-aerator is completely in operation and on operating temperature and pressure.
Level and pressure controls are in operation.
2. Condensate tank is completely in operation, level control is operational. Condensate
pumps are running.
3. Underpressure in aerocondenser and condensate tank is stable, and its control is
operational.
4. There is circulation across the entire steam circuit, i.e. the boiler produces steam with the
heat developed by the support burners. This steam goes through the turbine bypass to the
aerocondenser. Steam is taken off for the steam circuits on lower pressures (a.o. heating
of de-aerator). Pressure and temperature controls turbine bypass and steam circuits on
lower pressures are operational.
5. The pressure of the steam boiler has reached the nominal value (40 bara). The steam flow
produced amounts to 30 or 40% of the nominal steam flow.
This state of the steam and condensate circuit can be reached during the period that the
incineration furnace is heated up to 850 C using the support burners. The limiting factor on
the warming-up speed is the temperature rise curve as imposed by the supplier of the
refractory lining. This rise amounts to 40 C/hr for a furnace of which the brickwork has
already been dried up.
9.4.4. Air preheater
A. Caution :
Every effort should be made to avoid subjecting the unit to thermal shock, overpressure,
and/or hydraulic hammer, since these conditions may impose stresses that exceed the
mechanical strength of the unit or the system in which it is installed which may result in leaks
and/or other damage to the unit and/or system.
B. Important remark :
During the first start-up, no low pressure steam from the turbine is available. Hence, the air
will be preheated using the high pressure steam from the boiler drum. In that case, only the
valves with TAG-number #LBG20# and #LCN20# will be used during the start-up.
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When low pressure steam is available, first the low pressure heat exchanger will be started
(valves with TAG-number #LBG10# and #LCN10#). When the low pressure heat exchanger
is in operation, the high pressure heat exchanger (valves with TAG-number #LBG20# and
#LCN20#) can be started.
C. Start-up : no low pressure steam available
1. The globe valves in the upstream steam lines (*LBG10AA201, *LBG20AA201 and
*LBG20AA202) are closed.
2. The temperature control valve *LBG20AA001 will come into operation, but as long as the
steam supply line remains closed, the primary air will not be preheated, and the control valve
will go to fully opened position.
3. The sequence primary air must be in normal operation. The temperature control valve
*LBG20AA001 is released for control and normally fully opened due to the low primary air
temperature. Check that the control valve is open !
4. Close the by-pass valves (*LBG20AA205 and *LBG20AA206) over the temperature
control valve *LBG20AA001.
5. Open (slightly) the drain valves *LCN20AA901 and *LCN20AA902 to evacuate the
condensate collected in the heat exchanger. Do not open the valves completely, because steam
will come in the next steps. It is also possible that steam flows back from the condensate
return vessel.
6. As soon as it is clear that most of the water in the high pressure side of the heat exchanger
is drained, the globe valve *LBG20AA201 and *LBG20AA202 on the steam supply side can
be opened smoothly (to avoid water/steam hammer). Steam will slightly come into the heat
exchanger, condense and start to preheat the primary air. As soon as the primary air
temperature rises, the temperature control valve *LBG20AA001 will start to control.
7. The drain valve *LCN20AA901 and *LCN20AA902 must be closed as soon as steam is
coming out.
8. The globe valve LBG20AA201 and *LBG20AA202 on the steam supply side can be
completely opened when the primary air temperature control is in stable operation. This
stable operation will be reached more quickly, when one starts with a low setpoint for the
primary air preheating temperature (e.g. 80 C). As soon as the gate valve on the steam
supply side is fully opened, one can start further increasing the primary air temperature
setpoint.
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D. Start-up : low pressure steam available


1 The globe valves in the upstream steam lines (*LBG10AA201, *LBG10AA201 and
*LBG10AA202) are closed.
2 The temperature control valve *LBG10AA001 will come into operation, but as long as the
steam supply line remains closed, the primary air will not be preheated, and the control valve
will go to fully opened position.
3 The sequence primary air must be in normal operation. The temperature control valve
*LBG10AA001 is released for control and normally fully opened due to the low primary air
temperature. Check that the control valve is open !
4 Check if the by-pass valve (*LBG10AA205) over the temperature control valve
*LBG10AA001 is closed.
5 Open (slightly) the drain valve *LCN10AA901 to evacuate the condensate collected in the
heat exchanger. Do not open the valves completely, because steam will come in the next
steps. It is also possible that steam flows back from the condensate return vessel.
6 As soon as it is clear that most of the water in the low pressure side of the heat exchanger is
drained, the globe valve *LBG10AA201 on the steam supply side can be opened smoothly (to
avoid water/steam hammer). Steam will slightly come into the heat exchanger, condense and
start to preheat the primary air. As soon as the primary air temperature rises, the temperature
control valve *LBG10AA001 will start to control.
7 The drain valve *LCN10AA901 must be closed as soon as steam is coming out.
8 The globe valve *LBG10AA201 on the steam supply side can be completely opened when
the primary air temperature control is in stable operation. This stable operation will be
reached more quickly, when one starts with a low setpoint for the primary air preheating
temperature (e.g. 80 C). As soon as the gate valve on the steam supply side is fully opened,
one can start further increasing the primary air temperature setpoint.
E. Shut down
When only the steam/air heat exchanger has to be taken out of service, the following
procedure has to be followed.

1. Gradually decrease the temperature setpoint until the setpoint has reached the ambient
temperature. The control valves will gradually close.
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2. Check if control valves are completely closed.


3. Close the globe valve *LBG10AA201, *LBG20AA201 and *LBG20AA202 on the steam
supply side.
4. Open (slightly) the drain valve *LCN10AA901, *LCN20AA901 and *LCN20AA902 to
evacuate the condensate collected in the heat exchanger.
5. Open the vents on the tube side of the air preheater.

9.4.5. Start-up furnace (line 1 or 2)


1.

Bag filter :

The filter bags should be precoated (see further instructions)


Bag filter in by-pass as long as only fuel is used for firing
While the filter is in the by-passed condition, the pre-heating system is
enabled. The filter hoppers are pre-heated by an electrical trace heating
system, which consists of several circuits with their own thermostats. The
compartments are pre-heated using the recirculation system with heating
battery
The recirculation heating has to be operational for at least 8 hours before
the flue gases can be transported through the baghouse. The switch to
filtration application (open filter chambers, closing bypass) may only take
place when the temperature of the filter chambers is above the minimum
temperature and when the above mentioned warm up time was respected
during the start-up phase (see further description)
2.

Close all openings and entries to furnace, boiler, flue gas cleaning and flue
gas ducts. Check whether no strange objects, scaffolding, etc. are still
present in the installation. Check whether any staff is still present in the
installation.

3.

Close the feeding chute valve.

4.

Put automatic control spraying nozzles feeding hopper.

5.

Fill ash extractor with water through manual bypass valve and then put the
automatic level regulation into operation. Check water seal on site (through
overflow tank).

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6.

Fill grate siftings conveyers with water through manual bypass valve and
then put the automatic level regulation into operation. Check water seal on
site (through inspection cover on top).

7.

Start plant air supply to back wall furnace for:

cooling sight-glasses
cooling camera
cooling burn-out controls
8.

Atomiser: start cooling air supply (fan) for protection of atomiser when the
installation is fired by support and start-up burners. The atomiser may
NEVER come into contact with hot flue gases when the fan is not working.

9.

Start the boiler feed water pumps to fill the boiler :

All boiler feed water pumps have to be aligned (automatic take-over in case
of failure of one pump).
Supply all pumps with cooling water and verify the cooling water flow.
Check whether the suction filters are clean (especially at first start-up or
after important repairs in de-aerator or suction pipes).
Close all drains. Open the suction valves. Open the valves in the minimum
flow pipe.
If there is no boiler feed water in the pressure pipe, this has to be de-aerated
first. Start the boiler feed water pumps through the minimum flow pipe
with closed delivery valves. Open the vent valves on top of the boiler and
close the water supply to the economiser. Open the delivery valve very
gradually to pressurise the boiler feed water pipe. Close the vent holes on
top of the boiler immediately when there is water coming out (pressurised
water !!).
When de-aerating the boiler feed water pipe, water is sent through the
bypass over the level control valve. Open the valves in bypass only a little
to reduce the pressure of the pumps sufficiently when de-aerating.
After filling the boiler (see below) stop the pumps again. The pumps may
only run continuously after start-up of the level control on the steam drum.
Before that they are only started if necessary to fill up the boiler.
10. Fill up steam boiler according to procedure of boiler manufacturer; below you
can find the most important items for start-up from atmospheric pressure and
temperature when there is boiler water in economiser and evaporator (for startup with completely empty boiler : see above):
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Check inspection openings, position hand valves, etc.


Check especially whether the level measurements and controls on the steam
drum are operational as well as the level gauges.
Level control valve steam drum to be blocked in; fill boiler through bypass
level control valve as long as boiler pressure < 10 barg
Steam temperature control valves blocked in as long as sequence
temperature control superheated steam has not been started.
Automatic control valve feed water pre-heater to steam drum blocked in,
bypass valve open (all feed water directly to economiser).
Close drains economisers and evaporators.
Open vent valves steam pipes; open the start-up valve on the boiler roof.
Open drains superheaters.
Main steam valves (and pressure-equalising pipes) closed.
When filling the economisers, de-aerate the pipes at the boiler feed water
preheating system, at the outlet of the economisers and at the boiler feed
water injection nozzle. Close the vent valves immediately when there is
water coming out. Attention : pressurised water !! Reduce the pressure of
the boiler feed water as much as possible beforehand by throttling on the
various feed valves (a.o. bypass valve level control valve) in the boiler feed
water pipe.
When filling the boiler (and as soon as the boiler feed water pipe and the
economisers are de-aerated), the quality of the boiler water has to be
respected as much as possible. This means that when the boiler feed water
pumps are pumping water to the boiler the dosing of ammonia and of
polyphosphate/sulphite has to be running as well. When the boiler feed
water pumps are stopped again, the dosing of chemicals has to be stopped
as well.
If the boiler is filled with cold water, the sulphite dosing has to be increased
(further details can be obtained from the control organisation monitoring
the boiler water quality), by way of compensation for not de-aerating the
feed water.
The boiler has to be filled with water having approximately the same
temperature as the boiler itself. I.e. a boiler at ambient temperature has to
be filled with water at ambient temperature.
Fill the boiler above LL-trip level ; if the drum level is too high (> 50%),
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blow down the superfluous water through the discontinuous blow-down


valve. When heating the boiler to 100 C the level in the steam drum will
still rise considerably because of the thermal expansion of the water in the
boiler.
After filling the boiler it has to be blown down on all the lowest points of
the steam boiler in order to remove the salts and sedimentation piled up in
these spots. This has to happen before firing the boiler. The blow down at
the lowest points of the steam boiler (short opening: 10-20sec) shall be
carried out 2 times a day during the first week of operation.
11. Start ID fan; check local underpressure in furnace (-5 to -10 mmWC). This
corresponds to the setpoint underpressure between -1 and 0 mbar measured
on top of the first empty pass of the steam boiler (protection feeding chute
and primary/secondary air ducts and side wall cooling against back-flow of
hot flue gases).

12. Purge the boiler at the flue gas side with air by means of the ID fan, the
primary air fans and/or secondary air fans and/or the fans of the support
burners.

13. When flushing of the boiler is finished, both support burners have to remain
in cool operation (i.e. their fans have to keep running at minimum speed).

14. Close all manual and/or automatic valves primary air, secondary air and side
wall cooling to limit leakage air (and the corresponding CO production by
the burners).

15. Start start-up burners (locally); temperature rise at the side of the flue gases
according to instructions supplier refractory lining; pressure rise boiler at the
water side according to instructions boiler manufacturer (to control with
start-up valve boiler as long as main steam valves are closed, afterwards with
turbine bypass).

16. From 200 to 300 C flue gas temperature, start the auxiliary burner manually
at minimum load. Then, the operator has two alternatives :

Either stop the start-up burner and withdraw the start-up burner immediately
from the furnace.

Either track the start-up burner to its minimum capacity.

Important notice : when the start-up burner is stopped, the burner should be
withdrawn from the furnace immediately.
17. Further actions at start-up boiler :
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Between 0 and 1 barg steam pressure on the steam drum the local level
gauges on the drum have to be blown out. Open both drain valves
beneath the level gauge and then close them. Normally the water level in
the level gauge has to fluctuate, if not then there probably is a blockage
somewhere.
Close vent valves of steam pipes as soon as steam is flowing out (at 1 to 3
barg); start at the vent holes on top of the drum and go to the vent on the
superheaters.
Close drains superheaters from 5 barg; start at superheater 1 (closest to the
steam drum) and go on until superheater 2.1 (closest to HP steam pipe).
From 10 barg on steam drum: put one-point level control drum into
operation; boiler feed pumps keep on running continuously from now on.
Start ammonia dosing (immediately after boiler feed pumps start running
continuously).
Start sulphite/polyphosphate dosing (same as above).
Start-up steam condensate circuit on the basis of rising boiler pressure.
Check pressure rise boiler; if necessary open start-up valve (controlled
steam blow-off); as soon as turbine bypass is in operation: control pressure
rise through turbine bypass and set start-up valve automatically with
setpoint 0.5 barg above nominal pressure on steam network.
Be careful with excessive steam blow-off through the start-up valve (max.
supply demin water !!); if necessary increase less fast with support burners.
Start up three-point control level steam drum at sufficient steam flow (min.
30 %).
18. Put discontinuous blow-down into operation; in the beginning the
discontinuous blow-down valve has to be opened during a short period. This
purching of the boiler feed water will continue until the boiler water quality
meets the normal criteria.

19. Start control steam temperature before waste incineration and before the
steam temperature rises above 350 C. Also when the temperature between
the superheaters exceeds 350 C the steam temperature control has to be put
into operation.

20. Start hydraulic group (locally). Check oil level, oil temperature, and
pressure after the pumps as well as pressure on the circuit to the grates/ash
extractor.

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21. Start ash extractor (check sealing water supply)

22. Start conveyors grate siftings discharge (left and right)

23. Start boiler ash extraction (empty passes and superheater/eco section)

24. Start residue discharge at reactor and bag filter :

chain conveyors reactor and bag filter

Rotary valves reactor and compartments bag filter

Shredder reactor

Bucket elevator to storage silo

Check whether tracing screw/chain conveyors is operational

25. Start equipment to prevent bridge formation in reactor and bag filter
(pneumatic hammers)

26. Start the secondary air injection. As a result of the high oxygen content at
the exit of the boiler in this stage of start-up the sequence will be put on
hold and nothing will happen (fan remains out of service). The secondary
air will then automatically start operating when the waste incineration
develops sufficient thermal capacity.

27. Start the temperature control of the flue gas at boiler exhaust. Therefore, the
burners have to be running at full load. Check the correct alignment of the
three-way valve (a.o. bypass valve has to be closed now).

28. Put the start-up burners at a higher load approximately 1 hour before the
waste incineration is started (i.e. at c. 810 C post-combustion temperature).
They have to preheat the furnace to help ignite the waste.

29. From a flue gas temperature of 120 to 130C (measured at inlet of bag filter)
the bag filter is taken out of bypass in the following way:

If any inspection openings are still open, they have to be closed before
start-up.

Open the flue gas supply valves (locally).

Check whether the shut-off valve of the sealing air is open.

The bypass valve is closed and the flue gas valve in the main flue gas duct
is opened. The sealing air fan is started.

The recirculation system is taken out of service: the recirculation fan and
electrical heater stop and the main shut-off valve closes.

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The recirculation valves per compartment are also closed.

Check whether the heated ambient air on the heating circuit is operational
(and whether the temperature is high enough).

Check whether the bypass valve shuts off correctly (local dP measurement).
If not, this valve has to be adjusted by means of the spindle. Check also if
there is sealing air present.

Start cleaning sequence bags at the latest when the waste incineration is
started.

Check if any pre-coating has to be carried out on the bag filter (see further
instructions concerning pre-coating).

30. Start-up reactor:

Do not start the reactor before the support burners run at full load and the
exit temperature of the boiler is sufficiently high. The exit temperature of
the boiler can be increased by partly preheating boiler feed water.

Start atomiser with water injection (for a first start-up, this has to take place
locally in close contact with the control room. If there are no
abnormalities, the automatic operation can be switched on. By injecting
water, the temperature of the bag filter can be brought within the normal
operation level (around 180 C as long as only water is injected).

Start lime injection and control exit temperature reactor only when the
incineration plant is operating stably at full load. With injection of lime
milk the exit temperature of the reactor can be reduced to ca. 150 C. If any
inspection openings are still opened, they have to be closed before start-up.

All peripheral equipment (lubrication, cooling, ) atomiser has to be


operational and checked. Remove the stop coupling of the oil lubrication
and connect following couplings:

Oil lubrication coupling

Power plug

Control plug

Cooling water in

Cooling water out

Lime milk in

Cooling air

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WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
TYPICAL

Lift the atomiser over the shaft by means of the hoist. Remove the closing
cover of the shaft and lower the atomiser into the shaft until it reaches its
seatings.

IMPORTANT remark: when the atomiser fails for whatever reason, it has
to be removed immediately from the hot flue gas flow.

31. If temperature post-combustion > 850 C, differential pressure over the bag
filter larger > 0 (bag filter coated) and no dust detection after the bag filter :
start waste incineration; here following actions have to be carried out shortly
after each other to avoid and/or limit emission exceeding :

Place one full grab of waste on the start-up valve in the feeding chute. Keep a
grab of waste stand-by above the feeding hopper.

Temperature incinerator 850C and complete flue gas cleaning in service : open
the feeding chute flap. When the start-up valve is completely open, drop the
waste into the feeding hopper.

Start filling the feeding chute (Note: Close the flap during crane grapple
movements in the refuse bunker to avoid cooling down the furnace too much as
long as no seal has been created).

Open the primary air valves and (manually) operate the feeding and combustion
grate to introduce the waste on to the combustion grate.

Put bag filter into operation and start lime milk injection in reactor with
automatic emission control HCl and SO2

As soon as waste starts to incinerate, the cleaning sequences of the flue gas
cleaning plant have to be started up, this implies a.o. that the dosing of
chemicals is started, that the cleaning of the bag filter is started, etc.

Feed waste into the furnace by local operation of feeding grate and the sliding
grates; do NOT supply any primary air yet

At increasing intensity of the flames the primary air may be put into operation
MANUALLY (including air preheating); put the valves on the pressure side of
the fan in the correct (throttle) position (first/last element: 50%, element 2-3-4
c. 60-70% open); gradually increase the primary air flow without blowing out
the fire or cooling down the furnace too much (oxygen boiler < 9 vol.%, max.
10 vol.%, if not CO !); put the fan of the last grate into operation last and only
when the fire reaches it. Remark : when opening valves primary air, air is
already drawn in by underpressure in furnace.

Start side wall cooling before the furnace temperature exceeds 500 C; put
valves side wall cooling in correct position: grates 1, 2, 3 : 100% open; grates

Subject:

COMMISSIONING MANUAL PART N2

Document Name:

59164_601_002_0- Commissioning manual Part 2

Page

41

WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
TYPICAL

4, 5 : 75% open.

In case of good distribution of the flame front: operate grates MANUALLY


from the central control system; temporarily limit feeding speed (option setting
low calorific) otherwise there will most certainly be pile-up and overloading of
the furnace: a cold furnace incinerates far less efficiently than a furnace in
normal operation. The support burners are still operating.

Secondary air fan was already started up (sequence was on hold because
oxygen content was too high, see above). They will automatically be put into
operation as soon as the thermal load of the furnace is high enough.

Gradually push up feeding speed, grate speed and primary air; support burners
(100% !) and start-up burners keep on running up to nominal steam flow.

Put support burners in automatic. They will switch off as soon as the furnace
has been heated up sufficiently. Pay attention to start-up with a clean or cleaned
boiler : one of the typical behavioural patterns of a clean/cleaned installation is
that the control of the support burners and the control of the secondary air start
overlapping each other (i.e. the secondary air has not yet halted before the
support burners are started to guard 850 C). In that case it is better to operate
the burners manually.

Reduce the auxiliary burner load to minimum load and stop the auxiliary fuel
burner.

Put primary air and grate control in SIGMA as soon as the support burners
(automatic) are stopped, the furnace is running stably, the flame front is all
right, and the furnace temperatures are high enough.

32. Start active carbon injection after start-up lime milk injection.

33. Start/Release the cleaning system of the steam boiler. Pay attention to startup of a clean or cleaned installation: the cleaning system on the superheaters
may be started immediately, the other is best left out of service for a while
because otherwise the steam temperature and the flue gas temperature exit
boiler will remain too low for a longer period of time. The cleaning system
on the protective evaporator is only started when the steam temperature is
high enough (i.e. 400 C nominal steam temperature can be reached at full
load) or sooner when the steam temperature between the superheaters
becomes too high; the cleaning system on the economisers is started as soon
as the flue gas temperature exit boiler is high enough (at least 210 C). For
specific information, see O&M manual soot blowing system.

Subject:

COMMISSIONING MANUAL PART N2

Document Name:

59164_601_002_0- Commissioning manual Part 2

Page

42

WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
TYPICAL
Note:

Pre-coating of the bagfilter


Pre-coating means putting a layer of limestone powder onto the bags. A layer of limestone
powder protects the bags against potentially damaging elements, which occur often in the flue
gases from the incineration process. It is proven that pre-coating influences the life of the
filter bags.
Pre-coating is used at the initial start-up and after longer shut-downs. It has to be done before
the restart from a cold setting. To prevent moisture absorption the hopper heating has to be in
operation for longer than 8 hours before active carbon can be supplied.
This sequence is carried out manually during the filter start-up sequence using a short section
of flexible hose and sack(s) of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2).
This operation must be supervised, ie. the sack(s) of lime must not be left unattended during
the operation:
1. Connect the flexible hose to the lime pre-coating connection positioned within the inlet
duct to the filter. Ensure that the flexible hose is securely fastened to the pre-coating
flange.
2. Attach the other end of the flexible hose to the sack of lime.
3. During the filter start-up the ID fan will be started and the filter will be brought on line.
Using the suction within the filter inlet duct generated by the fan, lime will be fed into the
gas stream and onto the filter bags.
4. After a period of time the lime feed is stopped by disconnecting the flexible hose from the
lime pre-coating connection and from the sack of lime.
5. The filter start-up can proceed following its normal sequence.
A first estimate of the quantity to be injected was made:

Total dust filtration area of the bagfilter

1.425 per line

Cake thichness on filter to be achieved

mm

Ca(OH)2 volume to be injected

1,45 per line or

tons 0,73 per line

Subject:

COMMISSIONING MANUAL PART N2

Document Name:

59164_601_002_0- Commissioning manual Part 2

Page

43

Energy from Waste with Combined Heat and Power Facility, Oxwellmains

Appendix D Sampling & Testing Procedure to Determine


Loss on Ignition of Bottom Ash

RPS Planning & Development Brighton Office


O:\B_Jobs\4061s\Schedule 4\Appendices.doc
February 2010
Rev1

JAS4061

ST003_KSBEIS
Keppel Seghers technical standard for Waste-to-Energy
Testing and sampling procedure to determine the Loss on Ignition of
bottom ashes

0
REV

First issue
DESCRIPTION OF MODIFICATION

DOC REFERENCE

21.08.2007
DATE

RDP
AUTHOR

ST003_021_01_005_0 LOI test, sampl. procedure.doc

BA
CHECK

BR
APPROVED

1.

Testing procedure on a bottom ash sample

The determination of the ignition loss of bottom ashes is to be performed in the


following steps:
1.1.
Drying at 40C
The complete sample of bottom ashes typically 10-20 kg, see also remark 2 at
the end of this text is placed inside a hot air drying oven at a temperature of 3540C for a period of at least 48 hours and until constant mass is achieved. The
oven is equipped with an automated air refreshing system with a frequency of
three to five times per hour.
The moisture content of the sample is calculated based on the mass loss,
established by weighing the sample before and immediately after the drying.
Note
Thorough drying is ensured by spreading out the sample on metal trays
such that the layer thickness does not exceed 30 mm. Occasionally
stirring the spread out sample during this process will also lead to a better
drying.
1.2.
Sorting
The dried sample from step 1 is separated in the following fractions, from each of
which the mass is determined:

inerts
metals
unburned
ashes

(glass, ceramics, stones, ...)


(cans, cutlery, bolts, nuts, nails, tins, )
(paper, plastic, wood, textile, vegetables, fruit, ...)
(eveything not belonging to the above fractions)

All identifiable objects should be separated in one of the first three fractions,
irrespective of their size or weight. Next, the remaining fraction should be sieved
(mesh size 20x20 mm) and all objects larger than the mesh size should be
inspected (if necessary after breaking open) and added to one of the first three
fractions.
The fraction after sieving will be referred to as sorted bottom ashes.

Q6 Attachment_ LOI test, sampl. procedure

Page 2/5

1.3.
Grinding and homogenisation
Through a series of consecutive grinding/mixing/dividing-steps a representative
sample of the sorted bottom ashes is obtained.
1.4.
Drying at 105C
A representative sample of at least 5 g of the sorted, ground and homogenised
bottom ashes from step 3 is heated for at least 24 hours to 105C in a drying
oven until constant mass1 is achieved. The mass loss determines the residual
moisture content. Based upon this moisture content and that of step 1, the total
moisture fraction of the complete sample is determined.
1.5.
Determination of the ignition loss
The ignition loss of the dried, sorted, ground and homogenised ashes is
determined by inserting a precisely weighed sample of 4 g in a furnace at a
temperature of 550C for two hours (in agreement with EAWAG V-4002).
Afterwards, the sample is transferred to an exsicator to cool down to ambient
temperature. The ignition loss is determined as the ratio of the mass loss after
heating to 550C to the initial mass of the sorted, dried, ground and homogenised
ashes, expressed as a percentage with respect to the dry matter.
Note
Experience has indicated that it is crucial to operate with identical cool down
periods. This holds for the weighing of the empty crucible (without sample) and
the weighing after heating to 550C.
The report accompanying the analysis should cover all of the above steps
separately. This implies that at least the following results should be included:

moisture content of the complete sample, determined by heating to


40C (step 1)

mass fraction of the four fractions after sorting: inerts, metals,


unburned and ashes (step 2)

moisture content of the sorted, ground and homogenised ashes by


heating to 105C (step 4)

total moisture content

the ignition loss of the dried, sorted, ground and homogenised ashes
(step 5)

In agreement with DIN 38414 S2, the mass of the sample is considered as constant if additional
drying at 105C during half an hour does not result in a mass loss exceeding 2 mg.

Q6 Attachment_ LOI test, sampl. procedure

Page 3/5

Remarks
1.
In the standard case, the total ignition loss of the bottom ashes will be
determined by means of a weighted average (according to their mass
fraction) in which the ignition loss of the unburned fraction is assumed to be
100% and that of the inert and the metal fraction 0%. If necessary, the
ignition loss of this fraction can be determined separately and used to
replace the above assumptions.
2.
If no other procedure is prescribed, the sample of the bottom ashes is
obtained by taking a sample of approximately 1 kg at a fixed location and
during a total period of 6 hours with a frequency of once every half hour. In
order to avoid stratification effects, it is preferred to take the sample at a
location where the ashes are falling from one transport system to another.

Q6 Attachment_ LOI test, sampl. procedure

Page 4/5

2.

Sampling procedure for bottom ash

1.

During 6 successive hours, every half-hour a sample is taken (a total of 12


samples). Each individual sample should contain about 1 to 2 kg, such that
the total sample contains about 15 to 20 kg of bottom ashes.

2.

The sampling is preferably performed at a location where the bottom ashes


fall down (e.g. outlet of a vibrating or belt conveyor). In this manner, the
possible influence of stratification effects during the sampling is avoided.

3.

Ash fragments in excess of 100 x 100 mm should not be sampled, since


they are not considered when determining the ignition loss or the burnout
quality of the bottom ashes. This holds not only for large metal fragments
and concrete blocks, but also for large unburned fragments (e.g. plastic rolls
or large pieces of wood).

4.

The total sample of approximately 15 to 20 kg should be transferred to an


external laboratory for analysis in an airtight container. The procedure for
the analysis is described elsewhere.

Q6 Attachment_ LOI test, sampl. procedure

Page 5/5

Energy from Waste with Combined Heat and Power Facility, Oxwellmains

Appendix D Demonstration of the 850C / 2 Second


Requirement

RPS Planning & Development Brighton Office


O:\B_Jobs\4061s\Schedule 4\Appendices.doc
February 2010
Rev1

JAS4061

EXTRACT FROM
ST003_KSBEIS
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
BOILER FLUE GAS SIDE
DEMONSTRATION OF THE 850C/2S REQUIREMENT

Q6 Attachment_Boiler flue gas side_850C-2sec

Page 1/5

1.1
1.1.1

START/STOP AND LOAD CONTROL OF THE POST-COMBUSTION


BURNERS
STARTING AND STOPPING IN AUTO MODE OF OPERATION

The flue gas temperature at the top of the first empty pass of the boiler is measured : four
thermocouples are installed, from which three thermocouples are used (the operator deselects
one of the four measurements on the supervision screens). The median value of the three
remaining measurements xxxx is used for auxiliary burner control (allowing that at least one
measurement can drift away without disturbing the control loop).
This median temperature will be used both for start/stop control and load control of the
auxiliary burners.
1.1.2

CALCULATION OF THE 2 SECONDS TEMPERATURE

The 2 seconds temperature xxxx is calculated based on the temperature measurements in the
top of the first empty pass of the boiler.

Information

The calculated 2 seconds temperature xxxx is different from the

temperature value xxxx which is used to control the burners. The latter is the median value of
the three measurements in the top of the first empty pass, see 1.1.1 above.
In order to calculate the flue gas temperature after 2 seconds residence time, the following
reference levels are defined (see Figure 1) :
1. H2 : Top of the first empty pass of the boiler : +xx,x m
2. H0 : Secondary air injection level : +xx,x m
3. H1 : End of post-combustion zone1 : +xx,x m (used as a reference level in the
calculation formulas)

End of conical part at the outlet of the furnace towards the first empty
pass of the boiler.

Q6 Attachment_Boiler flue gas side_850C-2sec

Page 2/5

H2, m

Cross section S, m
Volume V, m (between
H0 and H1)

H1, m

Prism (only if plant


size > 40 MWth)

H0, m, for 2-stage injection (no prism)


H0, m with prism

Figure 1 : first empty pass of the boiler and levels for 2 seconds calculation
First of all, the temperature difference T between level H1 and level H2 is calculated (see
Equation 1). This temperature difference is strongly dependent from the boiler load, and also
slightly dependent from the fouling of the first empty pass of the boiler. Therefore, the
parameters used in Equation 1 have to be checked when initial fouling of the first empty pass
of the boiler has been built up.
Equation 1 : T = A + B/TL4minTOTAL
With :

T : temperature difference between level H1 and level H2 (C)

Q6 Attachment_Boiler flue gas side_850C-2sec

Page 3/5

TL4minTOTAL : continuous running average value of the thermal load of the furnace,
averaged over 4 minutes. See functional description SIGMA combustion control
system process calculations for the calculation of the thermal load of the plant. The
thermal load considers both heat released by the combustion of refuse, and heat
released by the auxiliary burners. The thermal load, used in Equation 1, will never
pass the limits xx MWth and yy MWth. When the calculated thermal load is lower than
xx MWth, the value xx is used in Equation 1, and when the calculated thermal load is
more than yy MWth, the value yy is used in Equation 1.
A and B : those parameters must be determined during commissioning, after reaching
initial fouling. Based on the boiler calculations at minimum and maximum load, the
following start values can be given : A = xx C, B = xxxx MWth C.
Example : the plant runs at xx MWth, and the temperature at the top of the first empty pass of
the boiler (T2) is xx C. The calculated temperature difference T is xx C, and the
temperature T1 at reference level H1 is xx C.
On both temperatures (measured T2 and calculated T1), a positive correction is applied for
the so-called shield-effect, before they are further used in the formulas below. The shieldeffect considers the fact that the temperature, measured by means of the thermocouples in
the top of the first empty pass, is not the real flue gas temperature, but an equilibrium
temperature which is somewhat lower than the real flue gas temperature. This equilibrium
temperature originates from the heat balance of the thermocouple : heat input occurs by flue
gas radiation; heat output occurs by thermocouple radiation and thermocouple conduction
towards the relatively colder side membrane walls of the boiler. Based upon experience from
reference plants, the required correction for this shield-effect is estimated to be between +50
and +100 C. In principle, this shield-effect can be determined for each specific installation
once it is sufficiently long in operation : either by recalculating the boiler (making the heat
balance over the convective part allows for determining the temperature profile in the radiation
part), either by on-site measurements by means of a temporarily installed extraction
pyrometer.
The volume of the post-combustion zone (i.e. the zone between level H0 and level H1) is
equal to xx m (total conical volume) xx m (volume of the upper part of the prism if present,
the part which is situated in the conical volume) = xx m (V, see also Figure 1).
The cross sectional area of the first empty pass (starting from level H1) is aa m x bb m = AA
m (S, see also Figure 1).
The flue gas flow Q (Nm/h), obtained when leaving the auxiliary zone, is calculated based on
the total combustion air flow and the auxiliary burner load (see functional description SIGMA
combustion control system process calculations).
The flue gas flow Q has to be recalculated towards Qreal (m/sec), taking into account the
average flue gas temperature. For the same example as above, a flue gas flow of xxxx Nm/h
will become

xxxx 273 + 0.5 * (TH 1 + TH 2 )


= xxx m/sec.
3600
273

Based on this information, the level H2sec where the flue gases reach a residence time of 2
seconds, can be calculated by using Equation 2.

Q6 Attachment_Boiler flue gas side_850C-2sec

Page 4/5

Equation 2 : H 2 sec = H 1 + 2

V
Qreal

Qreal
S

With :
H2sec : level where the flue gases reach a residence time of 2 seconds (m)
H1 : reference level at the end of the post-combustion zone, as defined above (+xx,x
m).
V : volume of the post-combustion zone (xx m)
Qreal : real flue gas flow (m/sec)
S : cross sectional area of the first empty pass of the boiler, starting at level H1 (xx,x
m).
For the same example, the following result is obtained for H2sec = xx,xx m.
Note : in case the calculation result from Equation 2 would be lower than H1 (this might be
possible in case of very low flue gas flows in startup phase or in trip conditions), H2sec is set
equal to H1 as a minimum value.
The flue gas temperature after 2 seconds of residence time T2sec can be calculated by linear
interpolation between H1/T1 and H2/T2, see Equation 3 (T1 and T2 first to be corrected for
the shield-effect as mentioned above).
Equation 3 : T 2 sec = T 1 + shieldeffect +

T 2 T1
(H 2 sec H1)
H 2 H1

Giving the following result for the example above : T2sec = xx,xx C.
Other example : thermal load xx MWth, temperature in top of first pass xxx C, calculated flue
gas flow xxxx Nm/h.
Temperature T1 at level H1 = xx C
Real flue gas flow = xx m/sec
2 seconds level H2sec = xx m
2 seconds temperature T2sec = xx C.
The calculated 2 seconds temperature (xxxx) is shown on the overview screen of the furnace
and the boiler in central control room.
The shield-effect offset parameter is a fixed value in the process control system (start value
+50 C, until verification during first startup of the plant).

Q6 Attachment_Boiler flue gas side_850C-2sec

Page 5/5

Presented by:

Typical for RDF Power Plant

TEST PLAN
1.

PROGRAMME ............................................................................................................................................... 2

2.

COLD COMMISSIONING ............................................................................................................................ 3

3.

HOT COMMISSIONING............................................................................................................................... 4

4.

RELIABILITY TEST ..................................................................................................................................... 5

5.

PERFORMANCE TEST ................................................................................................................................ 6

COMMENT: This document is for typical use only. Project specific periods, durations
and conditions of commissioning/testing, as stated in POYRI Schedules 9 and 11
and agreed upon between TPSCo and Keppel Seghers prevail.

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

Page
1

Presented by:

Typical for RDF Power Plant

1. PROGRAMME
One month before the scheduled start of COLD COMMISSIONING, the
CONTRACTOR will provide a detailed programme for the COLD COMMISSIONING,
HOT COMMISSIONING, RELIABILITY TEST, and PERFORMANCE TEST.

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

Page
2

Presented by:

Typical for RDF Power Plant

2. COLD COMMISSIONING
COLD COMMISSIONING is defined as the period when individual items of the
INSTALLATION, electrical systems, control and instrumentation systems are checked
and tested.
During this period, activities such as boiler cleaning, refractory drying, cleaning of
pipe work and tank internals are carried out.
Test Sheets shall be developed by the CONTRACTOR to show what tests, checks
and recordings have been carried out. Such Test Sheets shall be submitted to the
EMPLOYER within two weeks after completion of any test.
During the COLD COMMISSIONING, the EMPLOYER will provide a full team of
operators to the CONTRACTOR for training on-site.

Starting Criteria

Mechanical Completion

Ending Criteria

Completion of COLD COMMISSIONING Tests

Result of Completion

Start HOT COMMISSIONING

Note
Depending on the delivery schedule of the turbine, the cold commissioning of the
turbine may take place later than the cold commissioning of the incineration line. If
this occurs, the start of the hot commissioning of the incineration line shall not be
delayed by the turbine.
The cold commissioning and hot commissioning of the incineration line can take
place with steam being sent over the by-pass, i.e. RDF is being incinerated, but
electricity production has not yet started.

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

Page
3

Presented by:

Typical for RDF Power Plant

3. HOT COMMISSIONING
HOT COMMISSIONING is started after completion of COLD COMMISSIONING.
During HOT COMMISSIONING the plant will be operated with waste within the
boundaries of the combustion diagram.
The HOT COMMISSIONING tests shall be carried out by the CONTRACTOR and
shall cover in general the following topics :
-

test of equipment under normal conditions

test of control, regulation, protection and alarm systems.

The CONTRACTOR shall present a report of the HOT COMMISSIONING.


During the HOT COMMISSIONING, the EMPLOYER will provide a full team of
operators to the CONTRACTOR, during shift work, for training on-site.

Starting Criteria

Completion of COLD COMMISSIONING Tests

Ending Criteria

Completion of HOT COMMISSIONING Tests

Result of Completion

Start RELIABILITY TEST

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

Page
4

Presented by:

Typical for RDF Power Plant

4. RELIABILITY TEST
The purpose of the Reliability Test is to demonstrate that the plant is capable of safe
and reliable operation while complying with the emission limits. During this period,
operations and control functions shall be demonstrated to the EMPLOYER.
During the Reliability Test period of two weeks, the trial runs shall include the
following tests :
-

start-up and shutdown of the equipment in an economical and well-controlled


manner;

shut-down of the equipment under emergency conditions;

stable run at various loads with the design range, under automatic control;

a 72h run within the boundaries of the combustion diagram.

The CONTRACTOR shall provide all necessary supervision for these procedures.
Commissioning supervisors will be present on site on a 24h basis during the
scheduled period for the Reliability Test. It is the EMPLOYERs responsibility to
provide a full staff of skilled operators in shift operation.
Minor defects, such as instrument faults or equipment faults which require the
standby operation of auxiliary equipment, shall not constitute a failure of the
Reliability Test, provided that the INSTALLATION continues to operate satisfactorily.
Note: During the first months of operation, too much heat may be extracted from the furnace
due to insufficient fouling and incomplete drying of the refractory lining. The fact that it takes
time to reach the normal fouling degree of furnace and boiler may have consequence for every
point of the combustion diagram. Practice has shown that auxiliary fuel can be necessary
during this period within the complete combustion diagram (and thus also at 100% load) in
order to meet the flue gas residence time requirement (850C/2s).

Starting Criteria

Completion of HOT COMMISSIONING Tests

Duration

2 weeks

Ending Criteria

Successful demonstration of tests

Result of Completion

Provisional Acceptance and Start Performance Test

Result of Failure

Repetition of Reliability Test.

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

Page
5

Presented by:

Typical for RDF Power Plant

5. PERFORMANCE TEST
Starting Criteria

Not later than 3 months after Provisional Acceptance

Duration

see table

Success Criteria

The CONTRACTOR shall demonstrate that the plant is


capable of achieving the Performance Guarantees.

Result of Success

Final Acceptance

Result of Failure

Repetition of tests or
Liquidated Damages for failure to achieve guaranteed
performance

1.

Performance test shall be carried out in accordance with the hereafter


described principle. The details to be mutually agreed between the
CONTRACTOR and the EMPLOYER KS to be reflected in a detailed protocol,
established at least 14 days prior to the start of the actual tests.
The protocol shall be in keeping with the current specifications and shall
describe, among other, the type, number and duration of the tests, the
methodology (e.g. measurement technique, number of sample points, expected
accuracy, sampling duration & analysis). It shall also clearly identify the
responsibility of all involved parties with respect to the tests.

2.

The performance test shall show that all the performance guarantees as
specified are fulfilled.

3.

The CONTRACTOR shall provide all necessary supervision for these


procedures. KS supervisors and specialist engineers will be present on site on a
24h basis during the scheduled performance tests period.

4.

It is the EMPLOYERs responsibility to provide a full staff of skilled and trained


operators.

5.

Each Party shall carry its own costs for the Performance tests.

6.

The Site Representatives and technical personnel of the CONTRACTOR and


the EMPLOYER shall co-operate closely to ensure the smooth execution of the
Performance Tests

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

Page
6

Presented by:

Typical for RDF Power Plant

7.

Records of the test shall be made by the people nominated by the


CONTRACTORs Site Representatives and countersigned by the
Representatives of the EMPLOYER every day.

8.

If the Performance Test fails as a whole or in part, parties shall analyse the
reason together and define the responsible party/parties as soon as possible.
The responsible party/parties shall take immediate action to remedy the
cause(s) and will announce their readiness to recommence or continue the
tests
as
soon
as
possible.
Depending on the nature and characteristics of the failure of the tests, the
Performance Tests will be redone completely and for the full duration or in part
and for a shorter duration. This matter is to be addressed in general in the
aforementioned protocol but the actual decision is to be reached by agreement
with all parties immediately after the occurrence of the failure.
All parties shall grant their full co-operation to the repetition / extension of the
Performance Tests.

9.

The plant has to be operated in accordance with the combustion diagram and in
accordance with the CONTRACTORs operation and maintenance manuals.

10.

The RDF should be according to the design specifications as specified in the


AGREEMENT. The time during which no RDF in accordance with the design
specifications is available will be counted with respect to the duration of the
tests, but no guarantees or requirements shall hold. The same holds for
unavailability of RDF (for whatever reason) or unavailability of parts of the plant
that
are
not
in
the
CONTRACTORs
scope.
Variations in the composition, heating value and mechanical properties of the
RDF shall be kept to a level that is representative for modern RDF incineration
facilities. A maximum allowable variation will be agreed upon and included in
the aforementioned protocol. The EMPLOYER will inform the CONTRACTOR
about the RDF supply logistics. The preparation of a stable RDF mixture should
be obtained. The supply of different types of RDF will be spread over the whole
day, and concentrations of specific RDF streams over a long period will be
avoided.

11.

During the performance tests, the trained operators (and maintenance


personnel), will be at the CONTRACTORs disposal to operate the plant.

12.

The CONTRACTORs representative(s) will be responsible for the instruction of


the plant operation during the performance tests

13.

Before a test is carried out, the plant operating conditions shall have been
stable for at least 2 hours (uninterrupted). The stability of the operation will be
verified by means of representative operational parameters (e.g. steam

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

Page
7

Presented by:

Typical for RDF Power Plant

production, RDF throughput, oxygen contents exit boiler). The limits on the
allowable variation will be included in the aforementioned protocol. The
CONTRACTOR must have the opportunity during at least 4 days to verify the
tuning parameters of the process before the Performance tests start.
14.

All parameters shall be continuously recorded during the performance test with
a frequency of at least once a minute.

15.

If the contract or the aforementioned protocol is unclear or fails to specify


certain aspects regarding the tests, the industry standard as reflected by the
CONTRACTORs reference plants will be applicable and deemed acceptable.

16.

There should be no stoppage during a performance test: the relevant line(s)


shall be in continuous operation from the beginning to the end of the relevant
performance test.

Plant

Test Duration

Remarks

24 hours

Hourly average should be above 90% of


design capacity (or thermal equivalent to 90%
of design capacity).

Performance Test
Capacity

Average over test duration should be equal to


or higher than design capacity (or thermal
equivalent to design capacity) as long as the
calorific value of the RDF is within the
specified range
Electricity
consumption

24 hours

Average power consumption over the test


period
shall
be
compared
to
the
CONTRACTORs guarantee value

Steam production

24 hours

Steam flow is measured with orifice measuring


system.
Heat value of the steam is determined by
pressure and temperature.
The throughput is weighed with the refuse
crane weighing system.
Thermal load can be calculated from all these
values (method to be documented by the

Version / Date
January 2008

Test Plan

Page
8

Presented by:

Typical for RDF Power Plant

CONTRACTOR).
Gross
Electricity 24 hours
Production

Average power production over the test period


shall be compared to the CONTRACTORs
guarantee value

Carbon in Ash

12 samples per Detailed sampling procedure as per KS


line taken during 6 standard.
successive hours,
Detailed ignition loss procedure as per KS
every half hour
standard.

Emissions

24 hours

Combustion

Official
independent
measurement
Consumables:
Water

24 hours

Average over the test duration.


Consumption shall be compared to the
guaranteed consumption after correction in
relation to the throughput
Correction curves shall be agreed upon prior to
the start of the test

Noise

Version / Date
January 2008

Carried out by A background noise measurement will be


independent
and performed.
certified specialist
during a period
relevant for normal
operation
(not
necessarily
coinciding with the
tests)

Test Plan

Page
9

COMMISSIONING MANUAL
PART N1 :
PRE- AND COLD COMMISSIONING

WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT
TYPICAL
by:

10-01-08

RPI

Preliminary

Rev.

Date

By

Description

Check

Appr.

WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
TYPICAL

1. TABLE OF CONTENT

1.

TABLE OF CONTENT .................................................................................................................................. 2

2.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 4

3.

SUB-SYSTEMS AND UNITS ........................................................................................................................ 6

4.

3.1.

DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 6

3.2.

COMMISSIONING STATUS REPORTS ............................................................................................................ 6

PRE-COMMISSIONING ............................................................................................................................. 10
4.1.

5.

PRE-REQUISITES ...................................................................................................................................... 10

4.1.1.

General .......................................................................................................................................... 10

4.1.2.

Testing of wiring ............................................................................................................................ 10

4.2.

CHECK-OUT LISTS .................................................................................................................................... 11

4.3.

UNIT INSPECTION SHEETS ........................................................................................................................ 12

COLD-COMMISSIONING ......................................................................................................................... 13
5.1.

PRE-REQUISITES ...................................................................................................................................... 13

5.2.

LOG BOOK ............................................................................................................................................... 13

5.3.

LOOP TESTS ............................................................................................................................................. 13

5.4.

MOTOR TESTS .......................................................................................................................................... 14

5.5.

FUNCTIONAL TESTS .................................................................................................................................. 14

5.6.

SPECIFIC FUNCTIONAL CONTROLS ............................................................................................................ 15

5.6.1.

Feeding and combustion grates..................................................................................................... 15

5.6.2.

Ash extractor.................................................................................................................................. 16

5.6.3.

Refractory lining ............................................................................................................................ 17

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6.

5.6.4.

Sifting ash conveyors ..................................................................................................................... 17

5.6.5.

Boiler cleaning system ................................................................................................................... 17

5.6.6.

Hydraulic group............................................................................................................................. 18

5.6.7.

Burners .......................................................................................................................................... 18

5.6.8.

Smoke testing of the flue gas cleaning ........................................................................................... 20

ANNEXES...................................................................................................................................................... 23
6.1.

ANNEX 1 : LIST OF SUB-SYSTEMS .......................................................................................................... 23

6.2.

ANNEX 2 : COMMISSIONING STATUS REPORTS ...................................................................................... 23

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2. INTRODUCTION
This document outlines the sequence of activities required to take the plant from a completed
installation to a fully operational and commissioned plant. The pre-requisites, necessary for
each stage of the commissioning, are described.
The commissioning will, in general, follow the sequence herebelow :
1. Pre-Commissioning (or Unit test): the checking and testing of equipment prior to
their cold commissioning with power and air. Such works shall consist of testing the
alignment and direction of rotating parts, the verification of the wiring and cabling, the
verification of the PLC system, verification of correct mounting of piping, verification of
correct mounting of valves and actuators, cold pressure testing of piping and vessels, etc.
Pre-commissioning checks, when completed, will release individual items of equipment to
be powered up and made available for inclusion in the cold commissioning phase.
2. Cold-Commissioning: the no-load, dynamic testing (including the starting-up of motors
and other electrical equipment, flushing and cleaning of tanks and piping if applicable,
adjustment and regulation of protective devices, functional tests, leakage and pressure
tests, inspection of bearings, etc.) and operation of equipment for a period of time. This
will be mainly as individual items, but may involve running some of the equipment in
sequence.
3. Hot Commissioning: this will include the introduction of fuel (waste), process gas and
reagent (including the boiling out of pressure parts, curing of the refractory, blowing of
steam pipe to turbine, etc). The whole plant will be tested, operating in sequence under
full load conditions.
The Commissioning Manual (part n1) includes instructions for the Pre-commissioning and
the Cold Commissioning of the equipment in the Contract.
The Commissioning Manual (part n2) includes instructions for the Hot Commissioning of the
equipment in the Contract. This second part contains specific information for the first startup, which differs from a normal plant start-up. For the general operating procedures (allowing
to start-up, operate and shut down the plant under normal conditions), please refer to the
Operation and Maintenance manuals.
Responsibility: Operating instructions specified in this manual are typical procedures. It is
impossible to cover all eventualities, which might occur during the start-up of the plant.
Keppel Seghers cannot take responsibility for damage to any part of the plant, which could
have been avoided if instructions had been followed.

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On the other hand, conditions may arise in which actions must be taken without sticking
strictly to the instructions in this manual, provided that such actions result in safe operation.

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3. SUB-SYSTEMS AND UNITS


3.1. DEFINITIONS
In order to commission the plant in a structured and systematic manner, the plant is divided in
Sub-systems and Units.
Sub-systems correspond with a P&ID.
tbd during detailed engineering
Each Sub-system is then divided in Units, each corresponding with a major equipment part
within the Sub-system (pump, silo, screw, fan, etc.). Valves and instruments attached to this
equipment form part of the Unit. The exact scope of a Unit is to be determined by the
KEPPEL SEGHERS commissioning supervisor, prior to the start of the commissioning. For
systems using the KKS tag numbering, a most convenient way is to define Units as the
aggregate of equipment within the same KKS system code (e.g. HLB10 : primary air fan
element 1, HLB20 : primary air fan element 2, etc.).
Piping and ducting systems, including valves and instruments, also can form a Sub-system or
Unit (e.g. lime milk piping, flue gas ducting, etc.).

3.2. COMMISSIONING STATUS REPORTS


A commissioning status report is compiled for each Sub-system. These reports will be
managed, updated and filed by the KEPPEL SEGHERS commissioning supervisors, based on
the input of the commissioning company. They will enable the engineers to know the status of
each Sub-system at any moment during the commissioning period. Each report gives an
overview of the progress made on the commissioning of each Sub-system, and is composed of
the following documents :
1. Status list
2. P&ID
3. Check-out lists

Equipment checkout list

I/O and SAT tests of control panel

I/O and SAT tests of electrical panel

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Pipes & valves checkout list

4. Unit inspection sheets


5. Punch list
6. Functional description
7. Interlock list / autoconditions
8. Test reports
Status list
The Status List indicates the pre-and cold commissioning status of each Sub-system and their
Units. It also gives an overview and description of all the Units within a Sub-system. When
all Units have reached the status of pre-commissioning (= mechanical complete), the Subsystem is ready for cold commissioning (loop tests + functional tests).
The Status List is a unique document and is to be updated after each inspection round of the
Sub-system. Date, initials and signature have to be filled in by the KEPPEL SEGHERS
engineer after each inspection round.
P&ID
The latest revision of the P&ID of the Sub-system. The P&ID forms the basis of each
commissioning status report.
Units or equipments (instruments, valves, motors) which are mechanically complete will be
coloured on the P&ID. This quickly gives an idea of the progress on the pre-commissioning
activities for each Sub-system.
Any change between the P&ID and the setup in the field is also to be marked on this P&ID.
It is then important to report this on the Master P&ID, so that the as-built revisions of the
P&IDs can be prepared.
Check-out lists
For each Sub-system there are 4 types of lists : Equipment checkout list, I/O and SAT tests
of control panel, I/O and SAT tests of electrical panel , Piping & Valves checkout list.
The check-out lists are used to verify if the Sub-system is built strictly according to the
project P&IDs, the so-called P&ID check.
Unit inspection sheets
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A standard form (pdf-format) is available for each type of mechanical equipment (pump, silo,
fan, etc.) within the Unit. The inspection sheet is a checklist to verify if the Unit is
mechanically complete, and ready for further cold commissioning.
Punch lists
The punch lists give an overview of items in the Sub-system, which have to be remediated /
solved. The outstanding items on the lists get a qualification of 1, 2 or 3, depending on their
critical character :
Qualification 1 (= pre-acceptance) : prevents the Unit from being released for further
commissioning, to be solved before startup of the equipment. E.g. wrong rotation
direction of a motor, packing missing, lack of pressure safety valve, etc.
Qualification 2 (= post-acceptance) : item can be solved after startup of the equipment.
E.g. tag plate missing, wrong colour, tidiness of the area, etc.
Qualification 3 (= to be discussed) : can not be qualified under 1 or 2. E.g. scope unclear,
general remark or question, discussion between parties about qualification, etc.
A punch list can be made up for a whole Sub-system or for each Unit, this is left to the
convenience of the KEPPEL SEGHERS engineer.
Each punch list that is updated and filed in the Commissioning Status Report is to be dated,
initialed and signed by the KEPPEL SEGHERS engineer.
When a punch list is the result of an inspection round together with the Client and/or a
Subcontractor, it is important that their representatives counter sign the Punch List. This
punch list is then communicated to them for further action / information.
Functional descriptions
The functional description of each Sub-system enables a better understanding of the P&ID,
and it is the basis for the functional tests of the Sub-system.
Interlock list / autoconditions
The Interlock list (including autoconditions, alarm settings, start / stop sequences, loop
controllers, etc.) forms the basis for the cold commissioning of the Sub-systems (I/O tests or
loop testing, sequence testing, etc.).
Test reports
These will include, amongst other :
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-

Field pressure test acceptance reports for piping systems

Field tightness test acceptance report for ducting systems

Etc.

It should be stressed that the most important documents of the Commissioning Status Reports
are the Status List and the Punch Lists. The Status List for the formal registration of all tests
and inspections, the Punch Lists for the formal registration of outstanding items. The other
documents (P&ID, inspection sheets, ) are tools.

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4. PRE-COMMISSIONING
4.1. PRE-REQUISITES
4.1.1. General

The control panels and the panels for motors up to 3 kW will have been tested
100% by KEPPEL SEGHERS engineers during the FAT tests in the factory of the
panel manufacturer. This means that each IO signal has been checked from the bit
in the PLC up to the input or output terminal for connection of the field wires. This
testing will be reported in the FAT Inspection report.

The electrical panels (MCC) for motors from 3 kW will have been tested 100% by
the responsible during the FAT tests in the factory of the MCC panel manufacturer.
This testing will be reported in the FAT Inspection report.

The electrical site wiring to the plant has to be complete and must have been fully tested
by the electrical contractors. See next section (4.1.2) about testing of wiring and cabling.

The instruments shall be installed and properly connected. This shall be documented by
the instrument installer on the I/O and SAT tests of control panel lists with the
following items for each instrument : mechanical installation, process connection,
pneumatic connection, electrical connection, tag plate.

Power supplies (normal and emergency) to the panels must be available.

The panels shall be in a watertight building.

The DCS system for operator interface of the installation must be available and FAT
tested in the presence of an KS automation engineer. Testing reported in a FAT inspection
report.

Communication network between DCS and control units must be ready.

No gas or reagent, hot or cold, should have been through the equipment.

4.1.2. Testing of wiring

The responsible for the erection of the cabling shall execute tests in order to check all
cable and wire connections. . Only after the completion of these tests, the precommissioning and cold commissioning can start under the supervision of KEPPEL
SEGHERS.

These wiring and cabling checks will be done as follows :

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For connections between control panel at one side and instruments, valves and all
other equipment at the other side : before connection to the instrument/equipment and
before connection to the control panel, all wires will be invividually shortcircuited
at the instrument/equipment side, and the shorcircuit will be measured at the control
cabinet side. Only after this test, the instrument/equipment may be connected.

For connections between control panel and motor control and protections circuits :
before connection to the motor contol centre (MCC) and before connection to the
control panel, all wires will be invividually shortcircuited at the MCC side, and the
shorcircuit will be measured at the control cabinet side. Only after this test, a MCC
unit may be connected to the signal cable.

For power cables to motors/equipment : before connection to the motor/equipment


and after connection to the MCC, all wires will be invividually shortcircuited at the
motor/equipment side, and the shorcircuit will be measured at the MCC side. Also the
isolation resistance of the cables will be measured. Important remark : for
frequency convertors (variable speed drives), these tests will be executed without
the cable connected to the drive unit. Only after these tests, the motor/equipment
may be connected.

The result of each test will be documented by checkmarking on the I/O and SAT tests of
control panel and the I/O and SAT tests of electrical panel lists . After completion, this
lists will be signed and stamped by the responsible of the cabling (installer).

4.2. CHECK-OUT LISTS


One of the first inspection rounds after erection and installation of the equipment will consist
in verifying the completeness of the Sub-system and/or Unit, based on the P&ID and the
corresponding check-out lists, the so-called P&ID check :

Check-out list for Equipments (per P&ID)

I/O and SAT tests of control panel (one per panel) with the following items for each
instrument : mechanical installation, process connection, pneumatic connection, power
cable connection, instrument cable connection. I/O test.

I/O and SAT tests of electrical panel (one per panel) with the following items for each
electrical user : mechanical installation, power cable connection, control cable
connection, insulation test, I/O test.

Check-out list for Pipes & valves (per P&ID)

For each item (reference is made to the TAG-), the commissioning company will complete the
check-out list to give documentary proof that each item of the P&ID has been installed.
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Any missing item or equipment is to be chipped on the check-out list as NOK. It will then
be reported as an open item on the punch list and will be checked together with the KeppelSeghers commissioning supervisor.
Every inspection round will be listed on the Status List (date, initials, signature and eventual
remarks). A new check-out list can be used for every new P&ID check.

4.3. UNIT INSPECTION SHEETS


The Unit inspection sheet is used as a checklist when pre-commissioning each Unit of the
Sub-system. A standard form is available for each type of mechanical equipment (pump, silo,
fan, etc.) within the Unit. The list of inspection points on the form is not limitative, the
inspectors are free to add other inspection points which they consider important.
Every inspection round will be listed on the Status List (date, initials, signature and eventual
remarks). A new form can be used for every new inspection. When one or more checks on
the form are rejected, they have to be reported as open items on the punch list.
The Unit is mechanically complete, and ready for further cold commissioning, when all
items with qualification 1 on the punch list are solved. This is to be confirmed by the
KEPPEL SEGHERS engineer on the Status List (date, initials, signature), before one can
proceed with the further cold commissioning.

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5. COLD-COMMISSIONING
5.1. PRE-REQUISITES

The electrical supply should be available and the MCC should have been tested by the
electrical contractors and be ready for service.

The PLC control system should be available and the PLC programming be complete.

The compressed air supply system should be fully available.

No gas, hot or cold, should have been through the plant.

The pre-commissioning checks should be complete.

5.2. LOG BOOK


As the cold commissioning involves the interaction of many people from various disciplines
(mechanical, process, electricity, instrumentation, automation), it is necessary to keep a
Commissioning Log Book, somewhere at a centralized location (e.g. the plants control
room).
This book will contain the day-by-day chronological logging of actions / situations / events
during the commissioning of the plant. The main purpose of the Log Book is to improve
communication between the commissioning people, and more specifically between shift teams
(day and night). Especially with regard to safety, the exposure to unsafe situations is higher
during the commissioning phase than during normal operation. Good communication is a first
step in prevention of unsafe situations.
The Log Book is not to be confused with the Commissioning Status Reports. The Log Book
is covering the whole plant, is chronological and serves better communication. The
Commissioning Status Reports are per Sub-system and keep track of the formal, signed
registration of the commissioning status.

5.3. LOOP TESTS


Loop testings (or I/O tests) have to be realised for all instruments, automatic valves and
motors. The loop testing will be done under the responsibility of the EIA engineer (electricity,
instrumentation & automation) of the installer. The installer will dispatch sufficient technical
staff to solve immediately any wiring encounterd, so that the loop testing can be completed.
The loop testings will be executed on the basis of loop schemes. There is a loop scheme for
every instrument, automatic valve and motor. The EIA engineer keeps a separate file of all
loop schemes of the plant. This is the as built file. Working files used in the field will be
only copies.
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When a loop test is positive, the EIA engineer will date, initial and sign the loop scheme for
approval. Only the approved loop schemes will be included in the Commissioning Status
Report of the Sub-system, as a proof that the I/O test has been successfully executed. I/O
tests which are not successful remain in the file of the EIA engineer.
When all the loop tests within a Sub-system are executed, the EIA engineer will confirm this
on the Status List (date, initials, signature), before one can proceed with the functional tests.

5.4.

MOTOR TESTS

For each motor the following tests on the power part will be executed:

Isolation test of the power circuit (with the motor connected). Important remark :
for frequency convertors (variable speed drives), these tests will be executed
without the cable connected to the drive unit.

Powering of the motor and rotation check

These tests are the responsibility of the electrical contractor ; only mechanical supervision
from KEPPEL SEGHERS.
Results will be indicated on the I/O and SAT tests of electrical panel lists.

5.5.

FUNCTIONAL TESTS

When all Units within a Sub-system are pre-commissioned and loop tested, each Sub-system
can individually be submitted to functional tests : the programmed software in the PLC
system - already FAT tested - is to be site tested (SAT) by checking all functionalities and
interlocks in the field.
The functional tests will be done under the supervision of KEPPEL SEGHERS. The Client
will dispatch sufficient technical staff to perform the tests.
The tests will consist in verifying :
-

Control loops

Sequences

as described in the Functional Description and the Interlock list (including autoconditions,
alarm settings, start / stop sequences, controllers, etc.).
Most control loops or sequences can be tested under empty or dry conditions by simulating in
the PLC the presence of reagent or product in the Unit. For some of the tests, it will be
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necessary to add reagent or products to the Units or Sub-system (e.g. pumps or mixers that are
not allowed to run dry or empty).
It is imperative to thoroughly follow the instructions in the Operation & Maintenance
Manual of the specific Sub-system, before executing functional tests with reagent or
products.
For some Units, some additional specific functional tests have to be done, as further detailed
under 5.6. Specific functional controls.

5.6. SPECIFIC FUNCTIONAL CONTROLS


The specific functional controls listed hereunder are for Equipment designed by KEPPEL
SEGHERS only. Functional controls for other main equipment like turbine, water tower,
are within the scope of the subcontractor and as such not detailed in this section.

5.6.1. Feeding and combustion grates


Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.
Before starting the operation (movement) of the grate elements, it is advised to have a final
check on the clearances of the combustion grate tiles. This is necessary to be sure that the
clearances have not been changed during mounting of the grate elements. If clearances have
become smaller than advised on the drawings, there is a risk of blockage of the grate tiles at
normal operating conditions of the grate. On the other hand, two large clearances can cause
excessive sifting ash production and primary air by-pass.

The first fillings of all bearings were done by the constructor during pre-assembly of the
grates.
Because of the large period of time between grate pre-assembly and
commissioning, all grease points will be verified by adding grease before moving the
grate elements. Refer to the O&M manual regarding the grease qualities (make and type)
of the grease nipples. The greasing positions are shown on the drawing XXXX_239_003.

Once the hydraulic unit has been fully checked for correct mounting and the hydraulic oil
circuit has been completely flushed (see section 5.6.6), the movement of the feeding- and
combustion grates should be tested during at least 8 consecutive hours. During this test, one
has to pay attention to:

Check the fixed time for the tumbling movement (normally between 3 and 6 sec), the time
for withdrawing the feeding grates (typical between 5 - 20sec) and the time for
withdrawing the sliding tiles (typical between 2 to 10 sec).

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Check the stroke of the hydraulic cylinders:

ca. 260 mm for the sliding grates;

ca. 130 mm for the sliding grates of the fifth element.;

ca. 130 mm for the tumbling grates.

Caution: Special attention has to be taken not to run the grates during the furnace
warm-up. In this case, the feeding grates have to stay in their withdrawn
position and the combustion grate must be covered by insulation material.
The cold commissioning of the grate must be supervised by Keppel Seghers qualified
personnel.

5.6.2. Ash extractor


Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.
The first fillings of all bearings were done by the constructor during pre-assembly of the ash
extractor. Because of the large period of time between extractor pre-assembly and
commissioning, all grease points will be verified by adding grease before moving the ash
extractor.
The hydraulic oil to the hydraulic cylinders is delivered by the pumps of the hydraulic group
(see 5.6.6). The oil pressure can be adjusted using the pressure reducing valves at the ash
extractor stand valve :

Pressure to the hydraulic drive unit must be set up at 100 bar

When the hydraulic is connected, all moving parts must be checked to move properly:
movements of the pusher.
After a dry run of a few hours without water, the ash extractor is filled with water and its
movement can be tested during 8 consecutive hours (or more). During this test, one has to pay
attention that:

All moving parts move properly

The level control device in the water tank is properly adjusted so that the water seal is
realized at the sifting ash hoppers

The inspection work on the ash extractor must be supervised by Keppel Seghers qualified
personnel.

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5.6.3. Refractory lining
Reference is also made to the Refractory Lining Supplier Erection & Commissioning Manual.
After installation of the refractory lining, the work must be inspected and approved by
qualified personnel :

Check of lining dimension

Check of the lining surface

Hammer test to check the lining for holes, grains, accumulation, etc.

When checks are completely finished, release notes have to be handed over fully signed by contractor, supplier and clients
representatives.

5.6.4. Sifting ash conveyors


Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.
Before the first starting up of the conveyors, the following points have to be considered :

Be sure that the safety switch is switched off

Check that there are no alien parts lying in the conveyor

Check that there is oil in the gearbox

Activate the greasing device by screwing in the ring bolt in the grease container

Stretch the chain. To do that the conveyor must be started up (dont forget to check the
direction of rotation) and let it run for a while. The chain is sufficiently stretched when
the carriers are leaving the return part without a bang. A bang will occur if the chain is
too slack. On the other hand, if it is stretched too hard the carriers will be lifted before
they reach the bend.

After a couple of days, all of the carriers screw joints is to be follow up drafted, and the
stretching of the chain must be checked.

5.6.5. Boiler cleaning system


Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.

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5.6.6. Hydraulic group
Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.
Before the first start-up of the hydraulic plant, the installation (including all piping) must be
flushed and cleaned to eliminate all contaminants from the system and achieve the required
degree of purity of the oil. The supplier will be responsible for the first cleaning of the
hydraulic equipment and piping, as well as the first filling with hydraulic oil.
The minimum requirements for the hydraulic oil are :

Hydraulic oils with corrosion, oxidation and wear additives : HLP oils according to DIN
51524 part 2

Viscosity class VG46 according to ISO 3448 is obliged.

A list of potential mineral oil makes that can be used for the hydraulic group is annexed in the
O&M manual. Other makes are possible provided that they have similar characteristics.
Commissioning of the hydraulic system will be done under the supervision of the supplier.
This start up will cover (not limitative) :

Cleaning of all piping, reservoirs and ancillaries

Pressure testing

Verification of correct mounting of all equipment

First hydraulic oil filling

Test run of all the equipment, especially for verification of the proper functioning of the
pressure compensated hydraulic proportional flow control valves.

Prevention of oil leakages

5.6.7. Burners
Reference is also made to the Operation & Maintenance Manual.
The start up and commissioning of all burners will be done during drying and baking of the
refractory lining of the furnace, and during boiling out of the boiler and blowing out of the
steam piping (see part 2 of the Commissioning manual).

Drying of the refractory lining will be done by means of the start up burners. During
drying of the refractory lining, the start up burners will be operated at low thermal load.

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At the beginning of this period, the start up burners can be tuned rather roughly, because
operation at maximum thermal load is not allowed, or only during short periods (e.g. some
minutes). The burners will be tuned in a way they can be started and stopped in a reliable
way, and in a way the combustion is visually complete (no formation of soot). Finetuning (e.g. to attain good and complete combustion along the complete working range of
the burners) is not yet required and not yet possible. This rough fine-tuning is expected to
last one working day.

When baking of the refractory lining has started, the load of the start up burners can be
increased gradually. At the end of this period, a fine-tuning of the burner can be allowed,
because operation at maximum load is possible during long time. As drying of the
refractory lining can last some days (at low burner load), and the temperature increase
after drying is very slow, it is possible that there will be some days between the first
commissioning of the start-up burners, and the fine-tuning.

During baking of the refractory lining and boiling-out of the boilers, the auxiliary burners
will be started and operated at low thermal load. At the beginning of this period, the
auxiliary burners can be tuned rather roughly, because operation at maximum thermal
load is not allowed, or only during short periods (e.g. some minutes). The burners will be
tuned in a way they can be started and stopped in a reliable way, and in a way the
combustion is visually complete (no formation of soot). Fine-tuning (e.g. to reach the
required CO- or NOx-emission limits, or to verify the fuel/air ratio curves at different
loads) is not yet required and not yet possible. This rough fine-tuning is expected to last
one working day.

When baking of the refractory lining is finished (and the furnace is still hot), auxiliary
burner operation at maximum load can be allowed, as long as temperature changes in the
furnace can be restricted up to the values allowed by the refractory supplier (10 up to 25
C/hr). During this period, a fine-tuning of the burner can be allowed (to reach the
guaranteed emission levels, and to determine the fuel/air ratio curves at all burner loads).
If this fine tuning requires several succeeding intervention days of the burner supplier, it
is advised to combine this activities with the blowing of the steam piping, because
frequent burner modulation can be allowed in this period, and there is enough time
available (one can expect that the auxiliary burners will be operational during at least one
week).

During this period, presence of qualified personnel of the burner supplier will be required.

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5.6.8. Smoke testing of the flue gas cleaning
(a) General
The intent of smoke testing is to detect leaks in the flue gas path of the plant, means from the
outlet of the furnace up to the baghouse filter. Leaks mean that during normal operation, cold
outside air is draught into the system (in underpressure) causing corrosion at the inlet area,
loss of flue gas temperature and an increase in flue gas flow, resulting in a higher electrical
consumption of the ID-fan.
Since it is very difficult to detect these leaks during operation, a smoke bomb test should be
performed during the plant cold commissioning phase as well as after plant start-up on a
regular basis (for instance every year during the annual shutdown)
Smoke testing is performed by blowing a high volume of very low-pressure smoke into the
system at one or more manholes. Plugs, valves, temporary blind flanges are used to confine
the smoke to the section or sections of system being tested. Observation of the emergence of
smoke enables the crew to detect sources of inflow.
The plant building will usually have one or more roof vents from which smoke will emerge.
The roof vents will be used to evacuate the outcoming smoke. The residents and fire
departments must be told to ignore the smoke as well.
Because testing to large sections is less effective and gives the crew too much area to observe
during the relatively short life of the smoke bombs (3 or 5 minutes), it is advised to have
several tests along the flue gas path:

Section 1 : from the combustion chamber (furnace) up to the inlet of the baghouse filter,

Section 2 : from the baghouse filter up to the stack inlet, if there is possibility to confine
this system at the stack side (otherwise the smoke test II will be limited to the baghouse
filter outlet)

(b) Equipment
Smoke testing can be performed using:

Primary, secondary and burner air fans (for section 1)

Mobile blowers (for section 2)

Blowers suitable for smoke testing have a circular flange or plate for mounting on an open
manhole and are gasoline engine driven. Blowers recommended for smoke testing have a freeair delivery of at least 3.000 m/h.
The static pressure capability of the blowers is less than 2,5 mbar.
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(c) Smoke
Smoke used is cold and very visible (white). The smoke is not hazardous and is free of oil
and coloured particles, which could leave residue and stains. Smoke bombs recommended
for smoke testing are usually 3- or 5-minute duration.
Smoke is introduced into the system either by placing a smoke bomb at the blower inlet or
by lowering the smoke bomb into a manhole in a bucket and blowing air in from above.
The inspector should understand that the smoke bombs are not dangerous and have a limited
shelf life. Once opened, a package of smoke bombs should be used. Smoke bombs exposed to
moisture or humidity may be difficult, if not impossible, to ignite.
(d) Advance notices
Prior to performing smoke testing, plant personnel and residents are notified of the purpose
and approximate date of the work. Residents are told that they will see smoke emerging from
the roof vents.
Local fire and police departments should be advised daily of the areas being tested. Personnel
handling telephone inquiries should be acquainted with the purposes of the smoke-testing
program.
(e) Smoke test procedures
1. Advance notice is given to residents, fire and police departments.
2. The inlet and outlet of the system ducting are blocked, i.e.:

For section 1: hopper feeding chute valve - inlet valves of the baghouse filter

For section 2, inlet of the baghouse filter - inlet of the stack (by means of
temporary flanged plates)

3. The manhole sections to be tested are isolated (sifting ash hoppers, combustion chamber,
feeding grate casing, boiler, flue gas duct, reactor, baghouse filter).
4. The ash extractor and the sifting ash conveyors (in section 1) are filled with water
5. The gate valve for the residue extraction (boiler hoppers, reactor cone, filter hopper) must
be closed
6. The combustion air fans (for primary air, secondary air and for burners) are started in
section 1. In section 2, a smoke blower is set up at an open manhole in the filter and started.

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7. A smoke bomb is ignited, placed in a bucket and lowered into the manhole. The blower is
then positioned on the open manhole and set at full throttle.
8. In less than a minute, smoke will be issuing from the roof vents of buildings and any
directly connected points of inflow.
9. A smoke testing crew usually consists of three persons. One individual operates and
maintains the blower while the other two walk the test area to locate and document inflow
sources indicated by emerging smoke.
10. The crew documents significant and identifiable points of inflow. Sketches, field notes,
portable tape recordings, digital pictures and movies could be used to record test results.
11. Those firms bidding on this type of work should have a documented history of five years
of successful smoke testing. References and dates are to be submitted with bids.
12. All bidders will be licensed contractors and perform a minimum of 60 percent of the
contract.

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6. ANNEXES
6.1. ANNEX 1 : LIST OF SUB-SYSTEMS
See also Error! Reference source not found. on page Error! Bookmark not defined..
- tbd during detailed engineering

6.2. ANNEX 2 : COMMISSIONING STATUS REPORTS


1. Status List
2. P&ID
3. Check-out lists
4. Unit inspection sheets
5. Punch list
6. Functional description
7. Interlock list / autoconditions
8. Test reports

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
PART N2 :
HOT COMMISSIONING

WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT
TYPICAL
by:

10-01-08

RPI

Preliminary

Rev.

Date

By

Description

Check

Appr.

WASTE-TO-POWER PLANT
TYPICAL

1. TABLE OF CONTENT

1.

TABLE OF CONTENT .................................................................................................................................. 2

2.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 4

3.

GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.

PREPARATION TO DRYING-OUT, BOILING-OUT, BAKING AND BLOWING-OUT .................... 7


4.1.

FURNACE ................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1.1.

Combustion chamber ........................................................................................................................... 7

4.1.2.

Grate .................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1.3.

Feeding hopper and chute.................................................................................................................... 8

4.1.4.

Start-up burner..................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1.5.

Ash extractor and sifting ash conveyors............................................................................................... 9

4.1.6.

Primary, secondary and wall cooling air............................................................................................. 9

4.2.

BOILER AND STEAM CIRCUIT...................................................................................................................... 9

4.3.

FLUE GAS CLEANING PLANT ..................................................................................................................... 10

4.4.

COMMON PARTS ...................................................................................................................................... 10

5.

HEATING-UP PROCEDURE ..................................................................................................................... 11

6.

BOILING-OUT PROCEDURE ................................................................................................................... 14

7.

DRYING-OUT AND BAKING .................................................................................................................... 16

8.

BLOWING-OUT (= BLASTING) OF THE BOILER ............................................................................... 20


8.1.

GENERAL CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................................. 20

8.2.

STEAM BLASTING CRITERIA CALCULATION PROCEDURE ........................................................................ 21

8.2.1.

Distribution factors K-factors. ........................................................................................................ 21

8.2.2.

Calculation method ............................................................................................................................ 21

8.2.3.

Continuous steam blasting ................................................................................................................. 23

8.3.

IMPACT BLOWING OF BOILER - PIPING ...................................................................................................... 24

8.4.

BLOWING-OUT PROCEDURE ..................................................................................................................... 24

8.5.

PRACTICAL MATTERS .............................................................................................................................. 25

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8.6.
9.

TESTING OF STEAM CLEANLINESS ............................................................................................................ 26

FIRST START-UP WITH REFUSE ........................................................................................................... 27


9.1.

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE RISE ........................................................................................................ 27

9.2.

SAFETY.................................................................................................................................................... 28

9.3.

PREPARATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 29

9.4.

START-UP SEQUENCE .............................................................................................................................. 29

9.4.1.

Prior Remarks .................................................................................................................................... 29

9.4.2.

Start-up common parts....................................................................................................................... 30

9.4.3.

Steam circuit (common) ..................................................................................................................... 31

9.4.4.

Air preheater ...................................................................................................................................... 31

9.4.5.

Start-up furnace (line 1 or 2) ............................................................................................................. 34

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2. INTRODUCTION
This document outlines the sequence of activities required to take the plant from a completed
installation to a fully operational and commissioned plant. The pre-requisites before each
stage of the operation can be commenced are described.
The commissioning will normally follow the sequence below:
1. Pre-Commissioning (or Unit test): the checking and testing of equipment prior to
their cold commissioning with power and air. Such works shall consist of testing the
alignment and direction of rotating parts, the verification of the wiring and cabling, the
verification of the PLC system, verification of correct mounting of piping, verification of
correct mounting of valves and actuators, cold pressure testing of piping and vessels, etc.
Pre-commissioning checks, when completed, will release individual items of equipment to
be powered up and made available for inclusion in the cold commissioning phase.
2. Cold-Commissioning: the no-load, dynamic testing (including the starting-up of motors
and other electrical equipment, flushing and cleaning of tanks and piping if applicable,
adjustment and regulation of protective devices, functional tests, leakage and pressure
tests, inspection of bearings, etc.) and operation of equipment for a period of time. This
will be mainly as individual items, but may involve running some of the equipment in
sequence.
3. Hot Commissioning: this will include the introduction of process gas and reagent
(including the boiling out of pressure parts, curing of the refractory, blowing of steam
pipe to turbine, etc). The whole plant will be proved, operating in sequence under full
load conditions.
The Commissioning Manual (part n1) includes instructions for the Pre-commissioning and
the Cold Commissioning of the equipment in the contract.
The Commissioning Manual (part n2) includes instructions for the Hot Commissioning of the
equipment in the contract. These second part contains specific information for the first startup, which differ from a normal plant start-up. For the general operating procedures (allowing
to start-up, operate and shut down the plant), please refer to the Operation and Maintenance
manuals.
Responsibility: Operating instructions specified in this manual are typical procedures. It is
impossible to cover all eventualities, which might occur during the start-up of the plant.
Keppel Seghers cannot take responsibility for damage to any part of the plant which could
have been avoided, had instructions been followed.
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On the other hand, conditions may arise in which actions must be taken without sticking
completely to the instructions in this manual, provided that such actions result in safe
operation.

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3. GENERAL
The first start up procedure of the furnace-boiler is strongly different from a general start up
procedure. The reason is that the refractory lining has to be dried and baked in order to reach
its desired strength, and physical and chemical properties.
For this purpose, the temperature in the furnace and the post combustion zone has to be
increased according to a strictly defined procedure. A general sequence for the first start-up is
shown in the figure below with indication of duration of each individual action.

DRYING - BAKING - BOILING - BLASTING PROCEDURE


1000

900

800
Drying

Flue gas temperature (C)

700

Baking

Blasting f(#cycles)

Start-up

Boiling

600

500

O P R

400

300
E

200
C
100

A-B

0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Time (day)

Figure 1: Typical drying, baking, boiling and blasting curve


In attachment, the details for this typical drying, baking, boiling and blasting curve can be
found.

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4. PREPARATION TO DRYING-OUT, BOILING-OUT, BAKING AND


BLOWING-OUT
4.1. FURNACE
4.1.1. Combustion chamber

Before starting the drying-out and the baking procedure, a test has to be done to check the
amount of leakage air entering the furnace. During this test, the primary air fan will be
started without using the ID-fan. An overpressure will be created in the furnace. Air leaks
can be checked now by applying liquid soap at welding and other connection elements.
Air leaks have to be repaired before starting the drying-out and baking procedure.

All measurement systems in the furnace zone has to be operational (temperature, pressure,
). All temperature trendings in furnace and post combustion zone have to be printed
and saved.

All sight glasses, measurement systems, cameras, or other elements with a protection
against high temperatures by means of sweeping air, have to be cooled during drying-out
and baking procedure.

4.1.2. Grate

In normal operation, the tiles are cooled by primary air and thermally protected by a waste
layer, which acts as an insulating layer. Since drying-out of the refractory is not possible
and not allowed by waste, the burners have to be used. The grate tiles are not designed to
be exposed to the full heat of the burners; therefore the tiles need to be protected. This
protection remains in the furnace during the entire warm-start up, being the refractory
drying, the boiler boiling-out and the blowing-out of the boiler and steam piping.
The entire feeding and the combustion grates element 1 to 3 must be covered by means of
insulating material (rockwool), thickness at least 100 mm. Above the insulating material a
layer of about 5 cm of sand is put (can be sprayed with a pump). The sand is used to avoid
that the insulating material would fly away due to the draft of the ID-fan. It should be
carefully checked that the complete surface is evenly filled. Also the side wall tiles of the
combustion grate and the inlet guide tiles of the feeding grate have to be completely
covered.
The grate element which are most intensively exposed to heat are grate element number 4
and 5 (at furnace outlet), since the start-up burner is positioned in the back wall. These
elements must be covered with ceramic fiber, with thickness at least 100 mm.

Note:

Instead of sand, bricks could be used to maintain the insulation in place.

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Caution: The temperature of the feeding and combustion grate may not arise above its
design value (feeding grate = surrounding temperature, combustion grate =
primary air preheating temperature), otherwise severe damage can be caused
to the mechanical structure and the hydraulic drive system (caused by limited
thermal expansion). The procedure to protect the grate, like described below,
has strictly to be followed.

Before starting the drying-out and baking procedure, it is advised to have a final check on
the clearances of the combustion grate tiles. This is necessary to be sure that the
clearances have not been changed during mounting of the grate elements. If clearances
have become smaller than advised on the drawings, there is a risk of blockage of the grate
tiles at normal operating conditions of the grate.

It is advised to test the operation (movement) of the grate elements before drying-out and
baking, to check whether everything works properly. All combustion and feeding grate
elements have to be withdrawn to their rest position.

The feeding grate has to be cooled by opening the inspection door at the back side of the
feeding grate housing. In this way, heat release to the feeding grate can be evacuated to
the environment.

4.1.3. Feeding hopper and chute

To protect the feeding hopper and the feeding chute cover plate system against too high
temperatures, they have to be protected by means of a temporary cover. A frame inside
the chute is made with iron bars. On this framework, hard insulating plates (thickness 4050 mm) are put with some bricks to avoid that the plates will fly away. All gaps have to
be closed by means of insulation material (in order to prevent the escape of hot flue
gases). The cover is placed just above the feeding grate where the steel part of the chute
starts to allow drying and baking of the refractory lining in the feeding chute.

The closing gate of the feeding hopper has to be opened, to be able to evacuate the
released heat to the environment.

The chute (closed loop) water circuit must be enabled to allow cooling of the steel plate
through the water jacket.

4.1.4. Start-up burner

The start-up burner should be checked that its flame will never (at each working point of
the burner) touch the grate or the insulation put above it.

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4.1.5. Ash extractor and sifting ash conveyors

To prevent heat loss through the ash extractor, the water seal on the ash extractor has to
be operational. Also the water supply system to the ash extractor has to be operational,
because it has to compensate the water loss due to evaporation. The water also protects
the ash extractor against too high temperatures.

The same applies for the wet sifting ash conveyors under the grate.

Caution: The availability of water to the ash extractor and sifting ash conveyors must
be checked regularly (two times per eight hours) as well as their casing
temperature.
4.1.6. Primary, secondary

The butterfly valves of the primary and secondary air are opened partially. This allows
air coming in by suction of the ID-fan. This air can help to evacuate for instance the
water that is evaporated in the air gap of the side wall cooling system of the furnace. It
also protects the air ducts against too high temperatures (sweeping air).

Caution: No primary air can be used during the drying-out and blowing-out
procedure, because the sand and the insulating material might be blown
away and thus exposing the grate directly to the radiant heat of the burners.

The side wall cooling fan has to be operational. It is possible that during the drying-out
and baking procedure, the side wall cooling has to be started.

4.2. BOILER AND STEAM CIRCUIT

Before hot commissioning several measures need to be taken to to protect the critical
items of the boiler. The main steam check valve internals should be removed and steam
flow measurement orifice should be replaced by a temporary simple design plate. Note
that the steam flow needs to be determined during steam blasting in order to evaluate the
blast impuls. The demister of the steam drum should be removed (during boiling-out) and
the insulation bricks of the manholes need to be removed.

All control and safety equipment and plant interlocks required for the activities of hot
commissioining should be operational.

A release note for hot commissioning of the boiler from the local inspection authority
should be available

The boiler pressure parts and control valves must be released.

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All measurement systems in the boiler (water-steam side) and post combustion zone (flue
gas side) have to be operational (temperature, pressure, ). All temperature trending
have to be printed and saved.

The support burners must be operational / released. For more detail, refer to O&M
Manual from supplier.

Fuel oil circulation pumps must be operational / released to allow feeding to the support
and start-up burners.

Boiler feeding water pumps must be operational / released. For more detail, refer to
O&M Manual from supplier. Temporary start-up filters can be installed instead of the
(fine) normal filters.

The demin water preparation system must be operational / released to allow feeding of the
pressure parts through the boiler feeding water pumps

The boiler water conditioning system (dosing of sodium phosphate) must be operational /
released.

4.3. FLUE GAS CLEANING PLANT

The flue gas cleaning system has to evacuate the hot flue gases. To protect the flue gas
cleaning against too high temperatures, one can open manholes in the flue gas ducts or at
the reactor, in order to insert air, sucked by the underpressure created by the ID-fan.

The ID-fan has to be operational. The automatic control loop to regulate the furnace
pressure and interlocks should be operational .

Some measurements need to be available for data-logging: CO and water measurement of


flue gases, flue gas flow (if possible).

4.4. COMMON PARTS

Process water and instrument/plant air must be available.

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5. HEATING-UP PROCEDURE
This procedure is the heating up procedure, as given by the refractory supplier .
Temperature in the furnace room and boiler first empty pass will be monitored during heatingup of the furnace. Measurements will be recorded and the actual heating curve will be set up
(only for control and approval by the refractory supplier).
Sufficient supply of consumables should be available: demin water (boiler feed water), fuel,
chemicals for boiler cleaning
Heating up procedure is represented on the curve hereafter :

TEMPERATURE(

600

550

550

500
360

400
300

250

360

250

200

150
110

100

110

25

25

0
0

33

47

71

78

114

127

151

167

215

TI ME SCHEDULE( Hr )

Figure 2: Typical heating up curve


1. Heating up at 10C/hr until a temperature is reached of about 110 - 120C.
2. Staying at a constant temperature of 110 - 120C during at least 24 hours. This period is
needed to dry the refractory, to evaporate all the water in the refractory lining.
3. Heating up at 10C/hr until a temperature is reached of about 260C.
4. Staying at a constant temperature of 260C during at least 24 hours. This period is needed
to partially bake the refractory, this means to have a reaction that gives the refractory
lining its desired strength and physical and chemical properties.
5. Heating up at 15C/hr until a temperature of 360C
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6. Staying at a constant temperature of 360C during 36 hours. This is the second baking step
of the refractory material.
7. Heating up at 25C/hr until a temperature is reached of about 550C.
8. Staying at a constant temperature of 550C during at least 24 hours.
9. After baking and drying-out, the refractory can be cooled down at a rate of about 2530C/hrAll above parameters are valid for the refractory in the furnace. Concerning the
boiler refractory lining, the exact value of these parameters depends on the refractory
materials applied in the boiler. Only the refractory supplier can give a guaranteed dryingout and baking procedure.
Caution: A drying-out and baking procedure is a continuous procedure, 24 hours / 24
hours, 7 days / 7 days. It can not be stopped halfway, and a sudden stop (a
sudden decrease in temperature) can cause damage to the refractory lining.

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900

850

850

800

TEMPERATURE(

700
600
500
400
300
200
100

25

25

0
0

16

16

TI ME SCHEDULE( Hr )

Figure 3: Typical heating up and cooling down curve (maximum rate)

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6. BOILING-OUT PROCEDURE
Before boiling-out it is advisable to flush the entire boiler one time with demin water to
remove all loose particles still present in the boiler from erection works. The draining of the
boiler after the final pressure test can be considered as the flushing, provided the quality of
the drain water was good (no big particles in the water), the boiler was conserved in a good
way (see related procedures) and no more welding or repair works on pressure parts were
carried out (is not allowed after pressure test).
Boiling-out of the boiler aims at the removal of mechanical impurities, grease and possible
other contamination, if any, from the internal surfaces of the boiler tubes. The superheater is
not boiled-out (is cleaned with flushing and afterwards during steam blasting).
Both processes (boiling-out vs. drying-out/baking) may be carried-out simultaneously
providing that the resulting prolongation of the process, as well as the increase of temperature
and pressure, will not have negative influence upon the results of the boiling-out process.
Caution: The procedure hereafter described is given as an example. The operation of
the boiler during boiling-out should strictly follow the operating instruction
of the boiler supplier.
To ensure uniform concentration of chemical agents in all boiler elements that are included in
the process of boiling-out, an auxiliary installation can be provided consisting in one
circulating pump connected at the suction port with the drains of boiler evaporator bottom
headers, while pump discharge will be connected to the drains of economiser inlet header (see
typical sketch in annex). This pump will also be used for introducing chemical solution into
the boiler from a small tank. The circulation pump will run about 4 times a day during 1 hour.
The pH of the solution in the boiler will be measured each time after the circulation pumps
have been operating.
Note that the superheaters are not boiled out..
Typical composition of boiling-out solution and amount of chemicals:

Chemical agent
Concentration
Amount

:
:
:

NaOH and Na-phosphate


0,4 kg NaOH/m of water and 0,4kg/m Na3PO4,12H2O
20 kg of NaOH (100%) and 20 kg of Na-phosphate

Course of boiling-out process (to be confirmed by boilers supplier):

Fill up the boiler to the lowest operational level in the steam drum. Note that the
superheaters are not allowed to be filled up with the alkaline boiling-out solution.

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Prepare the concentrated solution of NaOH and Na-phosphate in the tank (pH of about
11-12).

Start the temporary circulating pump and establish circulation within the system
(circulating pump- economiser- boiler drum- evaporator- circulating pump).

Pump-up the concentrated solution of chemicals to the system.

Continue the circulation for about 2 hours.

Fire the boiler and proceed to refractory drying procedure (see 5).

During the initial stage of drying-out procedure (until the drum pressure does not exceed
4 bar), the boiler evaporator should be blown-down every 6 hours (bottom headers drain
valves to be fully opened one by one for few seconds and than closed again).

The circulating pump should be operated for 30 min. every 6 hours during this stage. At
the drum pressure above 4 bar, the circulating pump suction and discharge isolating
valves should be kept closed. Each time after circulation, the pH of the boiler water
should be checked and the dosing of the chemicals to be adapted accordingly.

The frequency of blowing-down during the further course of refractory drying-out


procedure will be reduced to 1 per 24 hours. At the completion of refractory drying
procedure, the boiler will be drained and flushed with tap water by consequent filling and
draining until the pH value of effluent water is brought down to about 9 (last rising cycle
to be done with demin water).

The drain (boiling-out) water is contaminated with chemicals and should therefore be
disposed taking into account the applicable environmental legislation/regulations.

After cooling-down, the steam drum is made empty and is opened and cleaned /inspected
for the presence of impurities. Loose impurities, if any, should be removed manually.
Inner surfaces of the drum to the operational water level should be free from contaminants
(oil, sand, grease, etc.).

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7. DRYING-OUT AND BAKING


1. First of all the boiler must be filled with demin water up to LL-level at the drum. Flow
control valve to be by-passed during filling.
2. Meanwhile, before the burners are started to dry the refractory lining, the complete gas
path (from furnace to ID-fan) has to be flushed by means of fresh air. This is to evacuate
possible explosive gases out of the plant. The flushing air flow must be three times the
plant volume (vol. furnace + vol. boiler + vol. reactor + vol. filter + vol. flue gas ducting).
The plant is flushed by using the secondary air fan (primary air fan cannot be used sine
grate is covered with insulating material). The flushing flow is measured at the suction
side of the secondary air. Because the (post-) combustion chamber is in overpressure, all
burners will be flushed in the same time.
3. Now the boiler is heating up until a flue gas temperature is reached of about 110 - 120 C.
This can be done by means of the start-up burners (at the backside of the furnace) or bymeans of steam from other combustion line (if applicable). The temperature that is
checked, is the temperature inside the furnace (above the grate).
Caution: During all drying-out and baking procedure (so from the first start of the
burners), temperature controls must be done to avoid possible mechanical
damage (casing, grate, ducting). The following table gives an overview of the
items to be checked and the necessary interventions:
Item to check

What to do if temperature is too high

Combustion grate tiles (above Tmax =


300C)

Open inspection doors at the sifting ash


hoppers

Primary air coming out the opened


inspection doors of the sifting ash hoppers or
casing of the sifting ash hoppers

Increase primary air cooling flow

Check if the primary air preheater is


really shut-down

Feeding grate housing (feel as close as


possible to the furnace)

Check inspection doors at back side are


open

Remove the cover plate of the feeding


grate housing

Open the valve for the side wall cooling


air more & open the cover plate of the
primary air headers before fans (air can

Casing at the sidewalls along the furnace


(above Tmax = 60C)

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Item to check

What to do if temperature is too high


be blown in furnace room), caution to be
taken trespassing is not allowed during
this period.

Start forced side wall cooling by the


side wall cooling air fan (or increase its
flow if already started)

check if the primary air preheaters are


shut-down

If the temperature of the supporting


structure is a real problem, check
whether the side wall tiles have been
covered properly

Side wall cooling air ducts (feel as close as


possible to the furnace)

Open the butterfly valves more

Start forced cooling by the side wall


cooling fan or increase the flow

Feeding chute

Check level cooling water

Open the start up feeding chute valve to


allow the evacuation of heat

Ash extractor or sifting ash conveyors casing

Check availability of water

Boiler

Check the elongations of the boiler at


different pressures (1, 5, 10 ,20, 40 bar)
and compare with the theoretical values

If not OK, immediately stop heating and


solve problem

Flue gas cleaning

Open a manhole (duct, reactor, ) to


suck surrounding air

If a temperature problem can not be solved

Baking at a lower temperature level (to


be agreed with the refractory supplier)

Table 1: Temperature control round during drying-out and baking


4. When boiler water temperature reaches 60C, the sodium phosphate injection into the
economizer bundle can be started. Furthermore, boiler must be filled up to normal level.
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5. Flue gases must be kept at a constant temperature of 110 - 120C during at least 24 hours.
This is drying-out period.
6. Boiler is heated up to a water temperature between 110 - 120C, with max. 15C/hr. This
is boiling-out period.
7. Flue gases are heating up at 15C/hr until a temperature is reached of about 260C. To
reach that temperature, auxiliary burners (in the post combustion zone) will be started up
when the flue gas temperature is about 200C, because the start-up burner is not powerful
enough (1 x 4,5 MW). As soon as the support burners are started, the flue gas temperature
that is checked, is the one in the post combustion zone, about 4 to 6 m above the support
burners.
8. Flue gases are kept at a constant temperature of about 360C during at least 36 hours. This
is the baking period (1st step).
10. Flue gases are heating up at 25C/hr until a temperature is reached of about 550C.
11. Flue gases are again kept at a constant temperature of 550C during at least 24 hours. This
is baking period (2d step).
Caution: During the baking period the flue gas temperature before the superheater
must be kept below 450 - 480C
12. Now the drying-out and baking period is done, the flue gas temperature is lowered at
25C/hr up to ambient temperature.
13. The boiler can now be emptied in order to drain dirty water. First check that one boiler
cannot be filled with water the other boiler being drained (through blow-down system).
14. Open all vents:

At boiler feed water pipe to desuperheater

At boiler feed water preheater

Between economiser and drum

At the steam header on the drum

Between superheaters

At superheated steam pipe

15. When the boiler temperature dropped under 60C, the boiler can be fully drained by
opening the intermittent blow-down system, which can be by-passed. When water stops
flowing, all drains from the lower boiler parts must be opened. Note that the boiling-out
water is contaminated with chemicals and need to be disposed/drained according to the
applicable environmental regulations.
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16. Check the quality of the drain water (with filter at drain pipe). If the quality is
unsatisfactory, boiler shall be filled up again and drained.
Caution: Not all drains are flowing to the blow-down vessel and they therefore need to
be led to drain gutter using flexible hoses
17. Open the drains from the economiser, the superheaters and the evaporator to the blowdown vessel. Then open the continuous blow-down system to evacuate boiler water to the
blow-down vessel
18. These operations can be repeated twice or three times after the boiler is refilled with demin
water (until pH of about 9). It is advised to have water circulating between two cleaning
sequences. After the last cleaning, inspection must be made to the pressure parts of the
boiler (drum, header, ).

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8. BLOWING-OUT (= BLASTING) OF THE BOILER


8.1. GENERAL CONDITIONS
In order to clean the boiler and steam piping up to the required steam cleanliness for the
turbine, steam blasting is performed. Two different methods or a combination of both can be
applied being the continuous and impact blowing. The effectiveness of both methods is
validated in view of the heat capacity of the auxiliary burners.
The steam blasting of the piping up to the connection of the turbine and the turbine bypass
valve must also be performed. At the connections of the turbine and the turbine bypass valve,
two temporary pipes are installed, which are joined downstream and are going outside to the
temporary silencer. In both piping a temporary steam blasting valve needs to be installed.
Steam blasting with the fix-mounted shut-off valves of the boiler is not advisable, since the
valves will be exposed to extensive wear.
The temporary silencer is positioned outside on ground level (fixed on concrete bloc) in order
to avoid movements of the silencer due to the reaction forces.
Before the steam blasting takes place, the steam flow orifice, the inside of the check valve and
the demister in the steam drum should be removed (already before start of boiler boiling-out)
in order not to damage these items.

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8.2. STEAM BLASTING CRITERIA CALCULATION PROCEDURE


8.2.1. Distribution factors K-factors.
Blowing parameters of a boiler are dependent on many factors. On the one hand, they should
ensure the best possible cleaning of superheater and pipeline surfaces, and on the other hand
they should take into account boilers constructional characteristics, its nominal parameters
and possibilities of supplying adequate amounts of heat to the furnace during the process of
blowing as well as the possibility of emitting steam into the atmosphere through a silencer.
For high efficiency of blowing, high flow coefficients are recommended:

K1 =

(Gd x vd)
(Gn x vn)i

K2 =

(Gd x vd)
(Gn x vn)

where:

Gd

steam flow at blowing-out

Gn

nominal steam flow (at maximum load)

vd

specific volume of steam at blowing-out

vn

specific volume at normal operation

The parameters (pressure + temperature) for the calculation of the steam specific volume shall
be measured just before the turbine / turbine bypass valve.
8.2.2. Calculation method
In order to determine the steam flow during blowing in absence of the flow measuring orifice,
the following calculation method is applied.
The flow is calculated, based on the measured pressure drop during blasting versus the
pressure drop in the boiler + piping during normal operation at maximum load.
A. Pressure drop formula:

1P = 0

w x .
2g

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with . =

1P = 0

1
v

w
w
=k
v 2g
v

with w =

Dv
F

Dv
)
F
= ko D v
1P = k
v
(

with:

R P : pressure drop (bar)

S : boiler (from drum to piping outlet) resistance coefficient

w : steam velocity (m/s)

T : steam density (kg/m)

v : steam specific volume (m/kg)

F : internal pipe cross-section (m)

D : boiler capacity/ steam flow (kg/h)

B. Steam pressure drop at blowing capacity

1Pb = ko Db vb
with:

Db : steam flow at blowing (to be calculated)

vb : steam specific volume (to be evaluated from steam tables, based on measured steam
temperature and pressure at piping outlet during blowing)

R Pb : pressure drop between drum and piping outlet at steam blowing

C. Steam pressure drop at normal boiler load

1Pn = ko Dn vn
D. Steam flow during blowing
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The steam flow during blowing is calculated from the ratio of the pressure drop at normal
operation versus the pressure drop during blowing:

1Pn ko Dn vn
=
1Pb ko Db vb

Db = Dn

vn 1Pb
x
vb 1Pn

8.2.3. Continuous steam blasting


In high pressure boilers, it is easy to obtain high flow disturbance factors K1 and K2 at low
steam output and consequently small heat demand. The ratio of drum pressure at blowing to
the nominal drum pressure is low: 0,150,25.
In the case of low pressure boilers, the situation is different. To obtain high values of K1 and
K2 factors, one should aim at obtaining high steam flow rate at low drum pressure during
blowing-out.
The first limitation is the steam output during blowing-out or the possibility to supply an
adequate amount of heat to the furnace. In a waste to power boiler, the burners are used as
support burners. The primary fuel is waste and thus burners are not designed for 100%
thermal load. The burner thermal capacity is designed in order to heat-up the boiler up till
850C (requirement by law) at start-up and to keep the temperature of the flue gases above
850C during operation when necessary.
During blowing the auxiliary and start-up burners are used, thus their effective thermal power
determines the maximum steam capacity of the boiler.

Start-up burner

1 x 4,5 MWth

Auxiliary burners :

1 x 7,5 MWth

Another limitation of the blowing parameters is the pressure drop in the temporary piping and
silencer. Therefore, a silencer should be selected with a low pressure drop (maximum 4 bar),
so that high steam velocities can be obtained.
The lower pressure limitation by the silencer resistance and the upper limitation resulting
from the thermal power of the auxiliary burners, determine the K1 and K2 factors.

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8.3. IMPACT BLOWING OF BOILER - PIPING
Next to the method of the continuous blowing, impact blowing could be applied for the
cleaning of the superheaters.

8.4. BLOWING-OUT PROCEDURE


The blowing-out of the boiler/piping can be performed in 3 ways: continuous blowing, impact
blowing or a combination of both methods. Only continuous blowing is not sufficient to
achieve the required K2-factors in the boiler.
Different steps in blowing-out procedure:

The boiler should be fired-up (with burners) in accordance with the prescriptions of the
boiler manual.

The gradient of saturation temperature increase in the drum (drum pressure increase)
should be not higher than indicated in the boiler manual/instruction. The heating-up of the
boiler should not exceed the requirements of the refractory (heating-up curve).

The firing-up will be performed with the start-up valve or the temporary valve partially
opened

In case of the combination of the continuous and impact blowing the following procedure is
followed:

By gradual increasing the power of the burners, the pressure and temperature in the boiler
is raised. The temporary valve in the blow-out piping is partially opened. One has to make
sure that the opening of the valve is done in harmony with the burner thermal power so
that the pressure and temperature keep increasing.

Once the parameters for continuous blowing are reached, the blowing-out should be
continued for about 10 min. Afterwards, the temporary gate valves will be partially closed
in order to reach the required drum pressure for impact blowing (24-30 bar).

When the drum pressure is 24-30 bar the temporary valve will be opened at once until a
drum pressure of about 10 bar = impact blowing

Temporary valve will be closed and burner capacity is gradually decreased according to
the cooling down curve of the refractory.

Boiler and piping is cooled down before next blowing is started.

The next blowing procedure should not start earlier than the skin temperature of the
piping has dropped to about 150-200C.

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8.5. PRACTICAL MATTERS
-

Just before start of impact blowing the level in the steam drum shall be adjusted to low
level. During impact blowing the water level will raise instantly due to the quick
reduction of pressure.

Sufficient supply of demin water and fuel should be assured

In normal practice, 2 to 3 steam blastings per day can be carried out. More steam blastings
is not efficient since the cooling down of the superheater, steam piping is very important
(cracking effect). Overnight a thorough cooling down should be carried out.

Steam blasting will be performed at a flue gas temperature (measured in 1st pass) of about
500-550C.

If the flue gas temperature at the exit of the 1st pass (above the refractory lining) exceed a
temperature of 450C a small amount of steam should be blown off (via PCV ) to ensure a
safe and trouble-free natural circulation of the boiler. If the temperature of the flue gases
before the final superheater reaches 400C, it is required to blow off a small amount of
steam to ensure a good cooling of the superheater tubes. More steam needs to be blown
off when the flue gas temperature further increases

Before steam blasting, the steam parameters (pressure and temperature) are gradually
increased by increasing the capacity of the burners and by secondary air injection (typical
steam conditions for steam blasting : T = 360-375C, P = 24-30 bar). Meanwhile the
steam piping is preheated up till the silencer. When steam parameters are reached, the
temporary steam blasting valve is fully opened (as quick as possible)

Cooling down of the boiler after steam blasting should be at approximately 50C/hr

Before firing up the boiler for start of steam blasting, the following heating-up curve
should be followed (only first part is relevant from 25 to 550C in 32 hrs.).

Temporary installation for steam blasting consists of temporary steam pipe (should be
very clean), a silencer (low pressure drop), 2 temporary manual open/close valves (1 for
piping to turbine and 1 for piping turbine bypass valve), 2 sample holders for target
plates, sufficient number of target plates, drain valve for temporary piping and connection
for water injection (to reduce noise)

The cleaning processes and subsequent starting with waste should preferably be executed
in a consecutive way. In case it is not executed in a consecutive, continuous way a proper
conservation of the boiler should be carried out.

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600
550

500

TEMPERATURE(

550

550
500

500

400
300
200
150

150

100
25

0
0

12

32

38

44

50

56

TI ME SCHEDULE( Hr )

8.6. TESTING OF STEAM CLEANLINESS


The quality of the steam blasted shall be tested in accrodance to the prescriptions of the
turbine supplier.
The Cu-test plates will be screened in view of the allowable number and size of impacts.
In case the test plate is considered as successful, a protocol will be made between all parties
(KEPPEL SEGHERS/ Boiler manufacturer / Turbine manufacturer).

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9. FIRST START-UP WITH REFUSE


Caution: If the intention is not to run the boiler immediately after it has been blownout, then boiler has to be dried-out in order to prevent pressure parts to rust.
The boiler must be kept dry up to its start-up. This can be done by
continuously blowing dry air or by putting Nitrogen pillows into the boiler
pressure parts. For more details see also the prescriptions in the manual
pressure test procedure boiler

9.1. TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE RISE


When starting the installation, the limiting factor usually is the permitted rise in temperature
at the flue gas side of the furnace and the first empty pass of the boiler (to avoid damage of
the refractory lining by thermal shocks). However, the speed of the pressure rise on the steam
boiler should also be checked. The procedures that have to be followed are summarised in this
paragraph.
(a) Permitted rise in temperature at the flue gas side
Since the furnace is operated at relatively low temperature during start-up of the installation
(albeit with auxiliary fuel), the risk of formation of incombustibles in the flue gases (CO,
unburned hydrocarbons, ) is considerably higher than during normal operation. Therefore,
the residence time at these low temperatures should be minimised.
All mentioned temperatures should be read off the thermocouples in the furnace room and in
the first empty pass of the boiler. These temperatures are measured at the flue gas side.
Start-up with cold boiler (at ambient temperature, ca. 15 C):

Speed of start-up : 20 150 C in 4 hours (maximum)

150 600 C in 10 hours

600 C up to 850C at 50 C/h

Caution: Temperature rising rates are indicated as economical.


guarantee, a maximum rate of 50C/h is to be maintained.

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(b) Permitted rise in pressure at the water side (to be confirmed by boilers supplier)
The mentioned pressures and temperatures are always measured on the steam drum.
Start-up with cold boiler (ambient temperature - c. 20 C and on atmospheric pressure).

Speed of restart : 20 100 C in 55 minutes

1 5 bara in 45 minutes

5 45 bara (operating pressure) in 80 minutes

9.2. SAFETY

Check the alignment very carefully before starting any equipment. E.g. shut-off valves of
measuring instruments and switches have to be opened, discharge and air-relieve valves
have to be closed, in-line valves have to be opened, bypass valves on
measurements/accessories closed.

The field operator is present when starting motors.

Check the sense of rotation of motors when works on the power supply or connections
have been carried out.

Before closing equipment, always check whether there are no strange objects left inside
the equipment (keys, rags, ...).

Check whether all covers have been thoroughly fixed.

Remove all unnecessary tags and plates.

After start-up always check on site if the process parameters are within normal values
(e.g. pressure side of pumps, cooling water flow at feeding chute, etc.). See the nominal
values mentioned on the PFDs.

Before beginning start-up by means of the general start-up procedure, the operator has to
read the detailed operating instructions per P&ID and locate the equipment, accessories,
measuring instruments, etc. in the installation, so that he can act quickly and is aware of
the situation. The general start-up procedure is written on the assumption that the operator
knows the individual operating instructions per P&ID.

The operator in charge of start-up has to have the tables and procedures below with him at
start-up. He preferably coordinates start-up from the control room (in order to have an
overview of the complete situation) or keeps in touch with qualified staff in the control
room when he is in the installation.

Safety equipment
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Before starting the installation it has to be checked if all safety measures are operational:

Fire protection: ensure the supply of fire extinguishing water to all reels, hydrants, fire
extinguishers in the bunker, spray nozzles in feeding hoppers. Functioning of emergency
centre.

Safety showers

UPS-stand-by

Emergency diesel generator stand-by

Ventilation waste bunker, furnace room, ash bunker,

9.3. PREPARATIONS
All equipment and auxiliary installations have to be on stand-by.
The order of the various preparations obviously depends on the start-up order when putting
the installation into operation. However, the basic rule is that the preparations and start-up of
the various auxiliary installations are carried out as quickly as possible after finishing the
various cleaning, inspections and/or repairs, to be able to deal with any start-up problems on
time.
Remove sand/insulatnig material from furnace + all temporary equipment used for the
refractory drying - boiling out steam blasting and restore to normal operational conditions.

9.4. START-UP SEQUENCE


9.4.1. Prior Remarks
Starting up the steam circuit and the waste incineration both require much attention; therefore
they can NOT be started up at the same time, i.e. the most important items of the steam circuit
have to be started up in a stable way while the furnaces are running on fuel; only then the
feeding of waste can be started.
Certain installation parts HAVE TO be in operation before the furnaces can be heated up by
means of the support and/or start-up burners; these are indicated with A in the following
tables. Other installation parts have to be put into operation before waste can be fed to the
furnace; these are indicated with B in the tables and can be started up when the furnaces are
being heated with fuel up to 850 C. Installation parts that can only be put into operation
when the furnaces and flue gas cleaning are running stably are indicated with C.

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9.4.2. Start-up common parts
1.

Compressed air generation, plant- and instrument air network in operation

2.

Water supply and distribution in operation

3.

Process water supply and distribution in operation

4.

Cooling water circuit and distribution in operation. Rem.: check the cooling
water flow to the various installation parts to be cooled: pumps, temperature
control device,

5.

Main ring fuel in operation + fuel stock sufficient

6.

Feeding chute filled up with water It is important to fill up the chute before
firing the furnace on fuel because the chute is not protected by a layer of
waste as in normal operation.

7.

Check level in storage vessels chemicals for boiler water conditioning

8.

Make at least one crane of the waste bunker operational

9.

Make at least one crane of the ash bunker operational

11. Put active carbon installation in operation (common part)

12. Start up lime milk installation

10.

Start dust filter on lime silo

Fill slaking tank with water until the agitator is flooded

Start agitator

Start level regulation tank in automatic. Check flow to slaking tank,


flow to dilution tank and speed of dosing screw in order to get the correct
lime concentration

Check the supply of cleaning water on lime milk circulation pump before
start-up

13. Start lime milk pump and pressurise main ring pipe. Start one of both lime
milk circulation pumps and put the pressure control on the lime milk main
ring into operation.

14. Make silo for residue storage available and start up

15. Pump leakage water from ash bunker. Start-up after the ash extractor has
been fed with hot ashes (otherwise this wastewater does not evaporate, and

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the water just runs over to the ash bunker).


9.4.3. Steam circuit (common)
Before waste is incinerated the steam and condensate circuit has to be put into operation and
has to be stable. This implies the following:
1. The de-aerator is completely in operation and on operating temperature and pressure.
Level and pressure controls are in operation.
2. Condensate tank is completely in operation, level control is operational. Condensate
pumps are running.
3. Underpressure in aerocondenser and condensate tank is stable, and its control is
operational.
4. There is circulation across the entire steam circuit, i.e. the boiler produces steam with the
heat developed by the support burners. This steam goes through the turbine bypass to the
aerocondenser. Steam is taken off for the steam circuits on lower pressures (a.o. heating
of de-aerator). Pressure and temperature controls turbine bypass and steam circuits on
lower pressures are operational.
5. The pressure of the steam boiler has reached the nominal value (40 bara). The steam flow
produced amounts to 30 or 40% of the nominal steam flow.
This state of the steam and condensate circuit can be reached during the period that the
incineration furnace is heated up to 850 C using the support burners. The limiting factor on
the warming-up speed is the temperature rise curve as imposed by the supplier of the
refractory lining. This rise amounts to 40 C/hr for a furnace of which the brickwork has
already been dried up.
9.4.4. Air preheater
A. Caution :
Every effort should be made to avoid subjecting the unit to thermal shock, overpressure,
and/or hydraulic hammer, since these conditions may impose stresses that exceed the
mechanical strength of the unit or the system in which it is installed which may result in leaks
and/or other damage to the unit and/or system.
B. Important remark :
During the first start-up, no low pressure steam from the turbine is available. Hence, the air
will be preheated using the high pressure steam from the boiler drum. In that case, only the
valves with TAG-number #LBG20# and #LCN20# will be used during the start-up.
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When low pressure steam is available, first the low pressure heat exchanger will be started
(valves with TAG-number #LBG10# and #LCN10#). When the low pressure heat exchanger
is in operation, the high pressure heat exchanger (valves with TAG-number #LBG20# and
#LCN20#) can be started.
C. Start-up : no low pressure steam available
1. The globe valves in the upstream steam lines (*LBG10AA201, *LBG20AA201 and
*LBG20AA202) are closed.
2. The temperature control valve *LBG20AA001 will come into operation, but as long as the
steam supply line remains closed, the primary air will not be preheated, and the control valve
will go to fully opened position.
3. The sequence primary air must be in normal operation. The temperature control valve
*LBG20AA001 is released for control and normally fully opened due to the low primary air
temperature. Check that the control valve is open !
4. Close the by-pass valves (*LBG20AA205 and *LBG20AA206) over the temperature
control valve *LBG20AA001.
5. Open (slightly) the drain valves *LCN20AA901 and *LCN20AA902 to evacuate the
condensate collected in the heat exchanger. Do not open the valves completely, because steam
will come in the next steps. It is also possible that steam flows back from the condensate
return vessel.
6. As soon as it is clear that most of the water in the high pressure side of the heat exchanger
is drained, the globe valve *LBG20AA201 and *LBG20AA202 on the steam supply side can
be opened smoothly (to avoid water/steam hammer). Steam will slightly come into the heat
exchanger, condense and start to preheat the primary air. As soon as the primary air
temperature rises, the temperature control valve *LBG20AA001 will start to control.
7. The drain valve *LCN20AA901 and *LCN20AA902 must be closed as soon as steam is
coming out.
8. The globe valve LBG20AA201 and *LBG20AA202 on the steam supply side can be
completely opened when the primary air temperature control is in stable operation. This
stable operation will be reached more quickly, when one starts with a low setpoint for the
primary air preheating temperature (e.g. 80 C). As soon as the gate valve on the steam
supply side is fully opened, one can start further increasing the primary air temperature
setpoint.
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D. Start-up : low pressure steam available


1 The globe valves in the upstream steam lines (*LBG10AA201, *LBG10AA201 and
*LBG10AA202) are closed.
2 The temperature control valve *LBG10AA001 will come into operation, but as long as the
steam supply line remains closed, the primary air will not be preheated, and the control valve
will go to fully opened position.
3 The sequence primary air must be in normal operation. The temperature control valve
*LBG10AA001 is released for control and normally fully opened due to the low primary air
temperature. Check that the control valve is open !
4 Check if the by-pass valve (*LBG10AA205) over the temperature control valve
*LBG10AA001 is closed.
5 Open (slightly) the drain valve *LCN10AA901 to evacuate the condensate collected in the
heat exchanger. Do not open the valves completely, because steam will come in the next
steps. It is also possible that steam flows back from the condensate return vessel.
6 As soon as it is clear that most of the water in the low pressure side of the heat exchanger is
drained, the globe valve *LBG10AA201 on the steam supply side can be opened smoothly (to
avoid water/steam hammer). Steam will slightly come into the heat exchanger, condense and
start to preheat the primary air. As soon as the primary air temperature rises, the temperature
control valve *LBG10AA001 will start to control.
7 The drain valve *LCN10AA901 must be closed as soon as steam is coming out.
8 The globe valve *LBG10AA201 on the steam supply side can be completely opened when
the primary air temperature control is in stable operation. This stable operation will be
reached more quickly, when one starts with a low setpoint for the primary air preheating
temperature (e.g. 80 C). As soon as the gate valve on the steam supply side is fully opened,
one can start further increasing the primary air temperature setpoint.
E. Shut down
When only the steam/air heat exchanger has to be taken out of service, the following
procedure has to be followed.

1. Gradually decrease the temperature setpoint until the setpoint has reached the ambient
temperature. The control valves will gradually close.
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2. Check if control valves are completely closed.


3. Close the globe valve *LBG10AA201, *LBG20AA201 and *LBG20AA202 on the steam
supply side.
4. Open (slightly) the drain valve *LCN10AA901, *LCN20AA901 and *LCN20AA902 to
evacuate the condensate collected in the heat exchanger.
5. Open the vents on the tube side of the air preheater.

9.4.5. Start-up furnace (line 1 or 2)


1.

Bag filter :

The filter bags should be precoated (see further instructions)


Bag filter in by-pass as long as only fuel is used for firing
While the filter is in the by-passed condition, the pre-heating system is
enabled. The filter hoppers are pre-heated by an electrical trace heating
system, which consists of several circuits with their own thermostats. The
compartments are pre-heated using the recirculation system with heating
battery
The recirculation heating has to be operational for at least 8 hours before
the flue gases can be transported through the baghouse. The switch to
filtration application (open filter chambers, closing bypass) may only take
place when the temperature of the filter chambers is above the minimum
temperature and when the above mentioned warm up time was respected
during the start-up phase (see further description)
2.

Close all openings and entries to furnace, boiler, flue gas cleaning and flue
gas ducts. Check whether no strange objects, scaffolding, etc. are still
present in the installation. Check whether any staff is still present in the
installation.

3.

Close the feeding chute valve.

4.

Put automatic control spraying nozzles feeding hopper.

5.

Fill ash extractor with water through manual bypass valve and then put the
automatic level regulation into operation. Check water seal on site (through
overflow tank).

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6.

Fill grate siftings conveyers with water through manual bypass valve and
then put the automatic level regulation into operation. Check water seal on
site (through inspection cover on top).

7.

Start plant air supply to back wall furnace for:

cooling sight-glasses
cooling camera
cooling burn-out controls
8.

Atomiser: start cooling air supply (fan) for protection of atomiser when the
installation is fired by support and start-up burners. The atomiser may
NEVER come into contact with hot flue gases when the fan is not working.

9.

Start the boiler feed water pumps to fill the boiler :

All boiler feed water pumps have to be aligned (automatic take-over in case
of failure of one pump).
Supply all pumps with cooling water and verify the cooling water flow.
Check whether the suction filters are clean (especially at first start-up or
after important repairs in de-aerator or suction pipes).
Close all drains. Open the suction valves. Open the valves in the minimum
flow pipe.
If there is no boiler feed water in the pressure pipe, this has to be de-aerated
first. Start the boiler feed water pumps through the minimum flow pipe
with closed delivery valves. Open the vent valves on top of the boiler and
close the water supply to the economiser. Open the delivery valve very
gradually to pressurise the boiler feed water pipe. Close the vent holes on
top of the boiler immediately when there is water coming out (pressurised
water !!).
When de-aerating the boiler feed water pipe, water is sent through the
bypass over the level control valve. Open the valves in bypass only a little
to reduce the pressure of the pumps sufficiently when de-aerating.
After filling the boiler (see below) stop the pumps again. The pumps may
only run continuously after start-up of the level control on the steam drum.
Before that they are only started if necessary to fill up the boiler.
10. Fill up steam boiler according to procedure of boiler manufacturer; below you
can find the most important items for start-up from atmospheric pressure and
temperature when there is boiler water in economiser and evaporator (for startup with completely empty boiler : see above):
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Check inspection openings, position hand valves, etc.


Check especially whether the level measurements and controls on the steam
drum are operational as well as the level gauges.
Level control valve steam drum to be blocked in; fill boiler through bypass
level control valve as long as boiler pressure < 10 barg
Steam temperature control valves blocked in as long as sequence
temperature control superheated steam has not been started.
Automatic control valve feed water pre-heater to steam drum blocked in,
bypass valve open (all feed water directly to economiser).
Close drains economisers and evaporators.
Open vent valves steam pipes; open the start-up valve on the boiler roof.
Open drains superheaters.
Main steam valves (and pressure-equalising pipes) closed.
When filling the economisers, de-aerate the pipes at the boiler feed water
preheating system, at the outlet of the economisers and at the boiler feed
water injection nozzle. Close the vent valves immediately when there is
water coming out. Attention : pressurised water !! Reduce the pressure of
the boiler feed water as much as possible beforehand by throttling on the
various feed valves (a.o. bypass valve level control valve) in the boiler feed
water pipe.
When filling the boiler (and as soon as the boiler feed water pipe and the
economisers are de-aerated), the quality of the boiler water has to be
respected as much as possible. This means that when the boiler feed water
pumps are pumping water to the boiler the dosing of ammonia and of
polyphosphate/sulphite has to be running as well. When the boiler feed
water pumps are stopped again, the dosing of chemicals has to be stopped
as well.
If the boiler is filled with cold water, the sulphite dosing has to be increased
(further details can be obtained from the control organisation monitoring
the boiler water quality), by way of compensation for not de-aerating the
feed water.
The boiler has to be filled with water having approximately the same
temperature as the boiler itself. I.e. a boiler at ambient temperature has to
be filled with water at ambient temperature.
Fill the boiler above LL-trip level ; if the drum level is too high (> 50%),
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blow down the superfluous water through the discontinuous blow-down


valve. When heating the boiler to 100 C the level in the steam drum will
still rise considerably because of the thermal expansion of the water in the
boiler.
After filling the boiler it has to be blown down on all the lowest points of
the steam boiler in order to remove the salts and sedimentation piled up in
these spots. This has to happen before firing the boiler. The blow down at
the lowest points of the steam boiler (short opening: 10-20sec) shall be
carried out 2 times a day during the first week of operation.
11. Start ID fan; check local underpressure in furnace (-5 to -10 mmWC). This
corresponds to the setpoint underpressure between -1 and 0 mbar measured
on top of the first empty pass of the steam boiler (protection feeding chute
and primary/secondary air ducts and side wall cooling against back-flow of
hot flue gases).

12. Purge the boiler at the flue gas side with air by means of the ID fan, the
primary air fans and/or secondary air fans and/or the fans of the support
burners.

13. When flushing of the boiler is finished, both support burners have to remain
in cool operation (i.e. their fans have to keep running at minimum speed).

14. Close all manual and/or automatic valves primary air, secondary air and side
wall cooling to limit leakage air (and the corresponding CO production by
the burners).

15. Start start-up burners (locally); temperature rise at the side of the flue gases
according to instructions supplier refractory lining; pressure rise boiler at the
water side according to instructions boiler manufacturer (to control with
start-up valve boiler as long as main steam valves are closed, afterwards with
turbine bypass).

16. From 200 to 300 C flue gas temperature, start the auxiliary burner manually
at minimum load. Then, the operator has two alternatives :

Either stop the start-up burner and withdraw the start-up burner immediately
from the furnace.

Either track the start-up burner to its minimum capacity.

Important notice : when the start-up burner is stopped, the burner should be
withdrawn from the furnace immediately.
17. Further actions at start-up boiler :
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Between 0 and 1 barg steam pressure on the steam drum the local level
gauges on the drum have to be blown out. Open both drain valves
beneath the level gauge and then close them. Normally the water level in
the level gauge has to fluctuate, if not then there probably is a blockage
somewhere.
Close vent valves of steam pipes as soon as steam is flowing out (at 1 to 3
barg); start at the vent holes on top of the drum and go to the vent on the
superheaters.
Close drains superheaters from 5 barg; start at superheater 1 (closest to the
steam drum) and go on until superheater 2.1 (closest to HP steam pipe).
From 10 barg on steam drum: put one-point level control drum into
operation; boiler feed pumps keep on running continuously from now on.
Start ammonia dosing (immediately after boiler feed pumps start running
continuously).
Start sulphite/polyphosphate dosing (same as above).
Start-up steam condensate circuit on the basis of rising boiler pressure.
Check pressure rise boiler; if necessary open start-up valve (controlled
steam blow-off); as soon as turbine bypass is in operation: control pressure
rise through turbine bypass and set start-up valve automatically with
setpoint 0.5 barg above nominal pressure on steam network.
Be careful with excessive steam blow-off through the start-up valve (max.
supply demin water !!); if necessary increase less fast with support burners.
Start up three-point control level steam drum at sufficient steam flow (min.
30 %).
18. Put discontinuous blow-down into operation; in the beginning the
discontinuous blow-down valve has to be opened during a short period. This
purching of the boiler feed water will continue until the boiler water quality
meets the normal criteria.

19. Start control steam temperature before waste incineration and before the
steam temperature rises above 350 C. Also when the temperature between
the superheaters exceeds 350 C the steam temperature control has to be put
into operation.

20. Start hydraulic group (locally). Check oil level, oil temperature, and
pressure after the pumps as well as pressure on the circuit to the grates/ash
extractor.

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21. Start ash extractor (check sealing water supply)

22. Start conveyors grate siftings discharge (left and right)

23. Start boiler ash extraction (empty passes and superheater/eco section)

24. Start residue discharge at reactor and bag filter :

chain conveyors reactor and bag filter

Rotary valves reactor and compartments bag filter

Shredder reactor

Bucket elevator to storage silo

Check whether tracing screw/chain conveyors is operational

25. Start equipment to prevent bridge formation in reactor and bag filter
(pneumatic hammers)

26. Start the secondary air injection. As a result of the high oxygen content at
the exit of the boiler in this stage of start-up the sequence will be put on
hold and nothing will happen (fan remains out of service). The secondary
air will then automatically start operating when the waste incineration
develops sufficient thermal capacity.

27. Start the temperature control of the flue gas at boiler exhaust. Therefore, the
burners have to be running at full load. Check the correct alignment of the
three-way valve (a.o. bypass valve has to be closed now).

28. Put the start-up burners at a higher load approximately 1 hour before the
waste incineration is started (i.e. at c. 810 C post-combustion temperature).
They have to preheat the furnace to help ignite the waste.

29. From a flue gas temperature of 120 to 130C (measured at inlet of bag filter)
the bag filter is taken out of bypass in the following way:

If any inspection openings are still open, they have to be closed before
start-up.

Open the flue gas supply valves (locally).

Check whether the shut-off valve of the sealing air is open.

The bypass valve is closed and the flue gas valve in the main flue gas duct
is opened. The sealing air fan is started.

The recirculation system is taken out of service: the recirculation fan and
electrical heater stop and the main shut-off valve closes.

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The recirculation valves per compartment are also closed.

Check whether the heated ambient air on the heating circuit is operational
(and whether the temperature is high enough).

Check whether the bypass valve shuts off correctly (local dP measurement).
If not, this valve has to be adjusted by means of the spindle. Check also if
there is sealing air present.

Start cleaning sequence bags at the latest when the waste incineration is
started.

Check if any pre-coating has to be carried out on the bag filter (see further
instructions concerning pre-coating).

30. Start-up reactor:

Do not start the reactor before the support burners run at full load and the
exit temperature of the boiler is sufficiently high. The exit temperature of
the boiler can be increased by partly preheating boiler feed water.

Start atomiser with water injection (for a first start-up, this has to take place
locally in close contact with the control room. If there are no
abnormalities, the automatic operation can be switched on. By injecting
water, the temperature of the bag filter can be brought within the normal
operation level (around 180 C as long as only water is injected).

Start lime injection and control exit temperature reactor only when the
incineration plant is operating stably at full load. With injection of lime
milk the exit temperature of the reactor can be reduced to ca. 150 C. If any
inspection openings are still opened, they have to be closed before start-up.

All peripheral equipment (lubrication, cooling, ) atomiser has to be


operational and checked. Remove the stop coupling of the oil lubrication
and connect following couplings:

Oil lubrication coupling

Power plug

Control plug

Cooling water in

Cooling water out

Lime milk in

Cooling air

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Lift the atomiser over the shaft by means of the hoist. Remove the closing
cover of the shaft and lower the atomiser into the shaft until it reaches its
seatings.

IMPORTANT remark: when the atomiser fails for whatever reason, it has
to be removed immediately from the hot flue gas flow.

31. If temperature post-combustion > 850 C, differential pressure over the bag
filter larger > 0 (bag filter coated) and no dust detection after the bag filter :
start waste incineration; here following actions have to be carried out shortly
after each other to avoid and/or limit emission exceeding :

Place one full grab of waste on the start-up valve in the feeding chute. Keep a
grab of waste stand-by above the feeding hopper.

Temperature incinerator 850C and complete flue gas cleaning in service : open
the feeding chute flap. When the start-up valve is completely open, drop the
waste into the feeding hopper.

Start filling the feeding chute (Note: Close the flap during crane grapple
movements in the refuse bunker to avoid cooling down the furnace too much as
long as no seal has been created).

Open the primary air valves and (manually) operate the feeding and combustion
grate to introduce the waste on to the combustion grate.

Put bag filter into operation and start lime milk injection in reactor with
automatic emission control HCl and SO2

As soon as waste starts to incinerate, the cleaning sequences of the flue gas
cleaning plant have to be started up, this implies a.o. that the dosing of
chemicals is started, that the cleaning of the bag filter is started, etc.

Feed waste into the furnace by local operation of feeding grate and the sliding
grates; do NOT supply any primary air yet

At increasing intensity of the flames the primary air may be put into operation
MANUALLY (including air preheating); put the valves on the pressure side of
the fan in the correct (throttle) position (first/last element: 50%, element 2-3-4
c. 60-70% open); gradually increase the primary air flow without blowing out
the fire or cooling down the furnace too much (oxygen boiler < 9 vol.%, max.
10 vol.%, if not CO !); put the fan of the last grate into operation last and only
when the fire reaches it. Remark : when opening valves primary air, air is
already drawn in by underpressure in furnace.

Start side wall cooling before the furnace temperature exceeds 500 C; put
valves side wall cooling in correct position: grates 1, 2, 3 : 100% open; grates

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4, 5 : 75% open.

In case of good distribution of the flame front: operate grates MANUALLY


from the central control system; temporarily limit feeding speed (option setting
low calorific) otherwise there will most certainly be pile-up and overloading of
the furnace: a cold furnace incinerates far less efficiently than a furnace in
normal operation. The support burners are still operating.

Secondary air fan was already started up (sequence was on hold because
oxygen content was too high, see above). They will automatically be put into
operation as soon as the thermal load of the furnace is high enough.

Gradually push up feeding speed, grate speed and primary air; support burners
(100% !) and start-up burners keep on running up to nominal steam flow.

Put support burners in automatic. They will switch off as soon as the furnace
has been heated up sufficiently. Pay attention to start-up with a clean or cleaned
boiler : one of the typical behavioural patterns of a clean/cleaned installation is
that the control of the support burners and the control of the secondary air start
overlapping each other (i.e. the secondary air has not yet halted before the
support burners are started to guard 850 C). In that case it is better to operate
the burners manually.

Reduce the auxiliary burner load to minimum load and stop the auxiliary fuel
burner.

Put primary air and grate control in SIGMA as soon as the support burners
(automatic) are stopped, the furnace is running stably, the flame front is all
right, and the furnace temperatures are high enough.

32. Start active carbon injection after start-up lime milk injection.

33. Start/Release the cleaning system of the steam boiler. Pay attention to startup of a clean or cleaned installation: the cleaning system on the superheaters
may be started immediately, the other is best left out of service for a while
because otherwise the steam temperature and the flue gas temperature exit
boiler will remain too low for a longer period of time. The cleaning system
on the protective evaporator is only started when the steam temperature is
high enough (i.e. 400 C nominal steam temperature can be reached at full
load) or sooner when the steam temperature between the superheaters
becomes too high; the cleaning system on the economisers is started as soon
as the flue gas temperature exit boiler is high enough (at least 210 C). For
specific information, see O&M manual soot blowing system.

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Note:

Pre-coating of the bagfilter


Pre-coating means putting a layer of limestone powder onto the bags. A layer of limestone
powder protects the bags against potentially damaging elements, which occur often in the flue
gases from the incineration process. It is proven that pre-coating influences the life of the
filter bags.
Pre-coating is used at the initial start-up and after longer shut-downs. It has to be done before
the restart from a cold setting. To prevent moisture absorption the hopper heating has to be in
operation for longer than 8 hours before active carbon can be supplied.
This sequence is carried out manually during the filter start-up sequence using a short section
of flexible hose and sack(s) of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2).
This operation must be supervised, ie. the sack(s) of lime must not be left unattended during
the operation:
1. Connect the flexible hose to the lime pre-coating connection positioned within the inlet
duct to the filter. Ensure that the flexible hose is securely fastened to the pre-coating
flange.
2. Attach the other end of the flexible hose to the sack of lime.
3. During the filter start-up the ID fan will be started and the filter will be brought on line.
Using the suction within the filter inlet duct generated by the fan, lime will be fed into the
gas stream and onto the filter bags.
4. After a period of time the lime feed is stopped by disconnecting the flexible hose from the
lime pre-coating connection and from the sack of lime.
5. The filter start-up can proceed following its normal sequence.
A first estimate of the quantity to be injected was made:

Total dust filtration area of the bagfilter

1.425 per line

Cake thichness on filter to be achieved

mm

Ca(OH)2 volume to be injected

1,45 per line or

tons 0,73 per line

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Energy from Waste with Combined Heat and Power Facility, Oxwellmains

Appendix D Typical EfW Plant Commissioning Plan

Sampling & Testing Procedure to Determine Loss on Ignition of Bottom


Ash

RPS Planning & Development Brighton Office


O:\B_Jobs\Schedule 4\Appendix.doc
February 2010
Rev1

JAS4061

ST003_KSBEIS
Keppel Seghers technical standard for Waste-to-Energy
Testing and sampling procedure to determine the Loss on Ignition of
bottom ashes

0
REV

First issue
DESCRIPTION OF MODIFICATION

DOC REFERENCE

21.08.2007
DATE

RDP
AUTHOR

ST003_021_01_005_0 LOI test, sampl. procedure.doc

BA
CHECK

BR
APPROVED

1.

Testing procedure on a bottom ash sample

The determination of the ignition loss of bottom ashes is to be performed in the


following steps:
1.1.
Drying at 40C
The complete sample of bottom ashes typically 10-20 kg, see also remark 2 at
the end of this text is placed inside a hot air drying oven at a temperature of 3540C for a period of at least 48 hours and until constant mass is achieved. The
oven is equipped with an automated air refreshing system with a frequency of
three to five times per hour.
The moisture content of the sample is calculated based on the mass loss,
established by weighing the sample before and immediately after the drying.
Note
Thorough drying is ensured by spreading out the sample on metal trays
such that the layer thickness does not exceed 30 mm. Occasionally
stirring the spread out sample during this process will also lead to a better
drying.
1.2.
Sorting
The dried sample from step 1 is separated in the following fractions, from each of
which the mass is determined:

inerts
metals
unburned
ashes

(glass, ceramics, stones, ...)


(cans, cutlery, bolts, nuts, nails, tins, )
(paper, plastic, wood, textile, vegetables, fruit, ...)
(eveything not belonging to the above fractions)

All identifiable objects should be separated in one of the first three fractions,
irrespective of their size or weight. Next, the remaining fraction should be sieved
(mesh size 20x20 mm) and all objects larger than the mesh size should be
inspected (if necessary after breaking open) and added to one of the first three
fractions.
The fraction after sieving will be referred to as sorted bottom ashes.

Q6 Attachment_ LOI test, sampl. procedure

Page 2/5

1.3.
Grinding and homogenisation
Through a series of consecutive grinding/mixing/dividing-steps a representative
sample of the sorted bottom ashes is obtained.
1.4.
Drying at 105C
A representative sample of at least 5 g of the sorted, ground and homogenised
bottom ashes from step 3 is heated for at least 24 hours to 105C in a drying
oven until constant mass1 is achieved. The mass loss determines the residual
moisture content. Based upon this moisture content and that of step 1, the total
moisture fraction of the complete sample is determined.
1.5.
Determination of the ignition loss
The ignition loss of the dried, sorted, ground and homogenised ashes is
determined by inserting a precisely weighed sample of 4 g in a furnace at a
temperature of 550C for two hours (in agreement with EAWAG V-4002).
Afterwards, the sample is transferred to an exsicator to cool down to ambient
temperature. The ignition loss is determined as the ratio of the mass loss after
heating to 550C to the initial mass of the sorted, dried, ground and homogenised
ashes, expressed as a percentage with respect to the dry matter.
Note
Experience has indicated that it is crucial to operate with identical cool down
periods. This holds for the weighing of the empty crucible (without sample) and
the weighing after heating to 550C.
The report accompanying the analysis should cover all of the above steps
separately. This implies that at least the following results should be included:

moisture content of the complete sample, determined by heating to


40C (step 1)

mass fraction of the four fractions after sorting: inerts, metals,


unburned and ashes (step 2)

moisture content of the sorted, ground and homogenised ashes by


heating to 105C (step 4)

total moisture content

the ignition loss of the dried, sorted, ground and homogenised ashes
(step 5)

In agreement with DIN 38414 S2, the mass of the sample is considered as constant if additional
drying at 105C during half an hour does not result in a mass loss exceeding 2 mg.

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Remarks
1.
In the standard case, the total ignition loss of the bottom ashes will be
determined by means of a weighted average (according to their mass
fraction) in which the ignition loss of the unburned fraction is assumed to be
100% and that of the inert and the metal fraction 0%. If necessary, the
ignition loss of this fraction can be determined separately and used to
replace the above assumptions.
2.
If no other procedure is prescribed, the sample of the bottom ashes is
obtained by taking a sample of approximately 1 kg at a fixed location and
during a total period of 6 hours with a frequency of once every half hour. In
order to avoid stratification effects, it is preferred to take the sample at a
location where the ashes are falling from one transport system to another.

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2.

Sampling procedure for bottom ash

1.

During 6 successive hours, every half-hour a sample is taken (a total of 12


samples). Each individual sample should contain about 1 to 2 kg, such that
the total sample contains about 15 to 20 kg of bottom ashes.

2.

The sampling is preferably performed at a location where the bottom ashes


fall down (e.g. outlet of a vibrating or belt conveyor). In this manner, the
possible influence of stratification effects during the sampling is avoided.

3.

Ash fragments in excess of 100 x 100 mm should not be sampled, since


they are not considered when determining the ignition loss or the burnout
quality of the bottom ashes. This holds not only for large metal fragments
and concrete blocks, but also for large unburned fragments (e.g. plastic rolls
or large pieces of wood).

4.

The total sample of approximately 15 to 20 kg should be transferred to an


external laboratory for analysis in an airtight container. The procedure for
the analysis is described elsewhere.

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Energy from Waste with Combined Heat and Power Facility, Oxwellmains

Appendix D Typical EfW Plant Commissioning Plan

Demonstration of the 850C / 2 Second Requirement

RPS Planning & Development Brighton Office


O:\B_Jobs\Schedule 4\Appendix.doc
February 2010
Rev1

JAS4061

EXTRACT FROM
ST003_KSBEIS
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
BOILER FLUE GAS SIDE
DEMONSTRATION OF THE 850C/2S REQUIREMENT

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1.1
1.1.1

START/STOP AND LOAD CONTROL OF THE POST-COMBUSTION


BURNERS
STARTING AND STOPPING IN AUTO MODE OF OPERATION

The flue gas temperature at the top of the first empty pass of the boiler is measured : four
thermocouples are installed, from which three thermocouples are used (the operator deselects
one of the four measurements on the supervision screens). The median value of the three
remaining measurements xxxx is used for auxiliary burner control (allowing that at least one
measurement can drift away without disturbing the control loop).
This median temperature will be used both for start/stop control and load control of the
auxiliary burners.
1.1.2

CALCULATION OF THE 2 SECONDS TEMPERATURE

The 2 seconds temperature xxxx is calculated based on the temperature measurements in the
top of the first empty pass of the boiler.

Information

The calculated 2 seconds temperature xxxx is different from the

temperature value xxxx which is used to control the burners. The latter is the median value of
the three measurements in the top of the first empty pass, see 1.1.1 above.
In order to calculate the flue gas temperature after 2 seconds residence time, the following
reference levels are defined (see Figure 1) :
1. H2 : Top of the first empty pass of the boiler : +xx,x m
2. H0 : Secondary air injection level : +xx,x m
3. H1 : End of post-combustion zone1 : +xx,x m (used as a reference level in the
calculation formulas)

End of conical part at the outlet of the furnace towards the first empty
pass of the boiler.

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H2, m

Cross section S, m
Volume V, m (between
H0 and H1)

H1, m

Prism (only if plant


size > 40 MWth)

H0, m, for 2-stage injection (no prism)


H0, m with prism

Figure 1 : first empty pass of the boiler and levels for 2 seconds calculation
First of all, the temperature difference T between level H1 and level H2 is calculated (see
Equation 1). This temperature difference is strongly dependent from the boiler load, and also
slightly dependent from the fouling of the first empty pass of the boiler. Therefore, the
parameters used in Equation 1 have to be checked when initial fouling of the first empty pass
of the boiler has been built up.
Equation 1 : T = A + B/TL4minTOTAL
With :

T : temperature difference between level H1 and level H2 (C)

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TL4minTOTAL : continuous running average value of the thermal load of the furnace,
averaged over 4 minutes. See functional description SIGMA combustion control
system process calculations for the calculation of the thermal load of the plant. The
thermal load considers both heat released by the combustion of refuse, and heat
released by the auxiliary burners. The thermal load, used in Equation 1, will never
pass the limits xx MWth and yy MWth. When the calculated thermal load is lower than
xx MWth, the value xx is used in Equation 1, and when the calculated thermal load is
more than yy MWth, the value yy is used in Equation 1.
A and B : those parameters must be determined during commissioning, after reaching
initial fouling. Based on the boiler calculations at minimum and maximum load, the
following start values can be given : A = xx C, B = xxxx MWth C.
Example : the plant runs at xx MWth, and the temperature at the top of the first empty pass of
the boiler (T2) is xx C. The calculated temperature difference T is xx C, and the
temperature T1 at reference level H1 is xx C.
On both temperatures (measured T2 and calculated T1), a positive correction is applied for
the so-called shield-effect, before they are further used in the formulas below. The shieldeffect considers the fact that the temperature, measured by means of the thermocouples in
the top of the first empty pass, is not the real flue gas temperature, but an equilibrium
temperature which is somewhat lower than the real flue gas temperature. This equilibrium
temperature originates from the heat balance of the thermocouple : heat input occurs by flue
gas radiation; heat output occurs by thermocouple radiation and thermocouple conduction
towards the relatively colder side membrane walls of the boiler. Based upon experience from
reference plants, the required correction for this shield-effect is estimated to be between +50
and +100 C. In principle, this shield-effect can be determined for each specific installation
once it is sufficiently long in operation : either by recalculating the boiler (making the heat
balance over the convective part allows for determining the temperature profile in the radiation
part), either by on-site measurements by means of a temporarily installed extraction
pyrometer.
The volume of the post-combustion zone (i.e. the zone between level H0 and level H1) is
equal to xx m (total conical volume) xx m (volume of the upper part of the prism if present,
the part which is situated in the conical volume) = xx m (V, see also Figure 1).
The cross sectional area of the first empty pass (starting from level H1) is aa m x bb m = AA
m (S, see also Figure 1).
The flue gas flow Q (Nm/h), obtained when leaving the auxiliary zone, is calculated based on
the total combustion air flow and the auxiliary burner load (see functional description SIGMA
combustion control system process calculations).
The flue gas flow Q has to be recalculated towards Qreal (m/sec), taking into account the
average flue gas temperature. For the same example as above, a flue gas flow of xxxx Nm/h
will become

xxxx 273 + 0.5 * (TH 1 + TH 2 )


= xxx m/sec.
3600
273

Based on this information, the level H2sec where the flue gases reach a residence time of 2
seconds, can be calculated by using Equation 2.

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Equation 2 : H 2 sec = H 1 + 2

V
Qreal

Qreal
S

With :
H2sec : level where the flue gases reach a residence time of 2 seconds (m)
H1 : reference level at the end of the post-combustion zone, as defined above (+xx,x
m).
V : volume of the post-combustion zone (xx m)
Qreal : real flue gas flow (m/sec)
S : cross sectional area of the first empty pass of the boiler, starting at level H1 (xx,x
m).
For the same example, the following result is obtained for H2sec = xx,xx m.
Note : in case the calculation result from Equation 2 would be lower than H1 (this might be
possible in case of very low flue gas flows in startup phase or in trip conditions), H2sec is set
equal to H1 as a minimum value.
The flue gas temperature after 2 seconds of residence time T2sec can be calculated by linear
interpolation between H1/T1 and H2/T2, see Equation 3 (T1 and T2 first to be corrected for
the shield-effect as mentioned above).
Equation 3 : T 2 sec = T 1 + shieldeffect +

T 2 T1
(H 2 sec H1)
H 2 H1

Giving the following result for the example above : T2sec = xx,xx C.
Other example : thermal load xx MWth, temperature in top of first pass xxx C, calculated flue
gas flow xxxx Nm/h.
Temperature T1 at level H1 = xx C
Real flue gas flow = xx m/sec
2 seconds level H2sec = xx m
2 seconds temperature T2sec = xx C.
The calculated 2 seconds temperature (xxxx) is shown on the overview screen of the furnace
and the boiler in central control room.
The shield-effect offset parameter is a fixed value in the process control system (start value
+50 C, until verification during first startup of the plant).

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