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Honors Biology

Chapter 8 Exam Highlights JF


100 points, 50 multiple choice
Know:
1) structure of chromatin vs. Chromosomes
a) chromatin is the less tightly coiled DNA-protein complex
b) chromosomes are rod-shaped structures made of DNA and proteins
2) haploid vs. diploid, and know human numbers
a) diploid cells have 2 sets of chromosomes (humans have 23 pairs, autosomes)
b) haploid cells have 1 set of chromosomes (humans have 1 pair, sex chromosomes)
3) G1, S, G2, and GO phaseswhat occurs during each.
a) G1 Cell growth
b) S DNA is copied
c) G2 Cell growth and preparation for cell division
d) G0 Cell exits out of the cell cycle
4) Purpose of mitosis, cytokinesis
a) Mitosis division of the nucleus
b) Cytokinesis division of the cytokinesis
5) PMAT- know what occurs in each phase. Know diagram 8-6
a) Prophase Copied DNA coils into chromosomes
b) Metaphase Chromosomes line up at the equator of dividing cell
c) Anaphase Chromatids begin moving towards opposite poles of cell
d) Telophase Chromosomes reach opposite poles, return to chromatin, nucleolus
forms in each cell and nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes
6) Prokaryote vs. eukaryote DNA
a) Prokaryote: Binary fission, makes two identical haploid cells
b) Eukaryotes: Mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis
7) Purpose of meiosis, know what occurs in each phase, know diagrams 8-11 and
8-12.
a) Purpose: half # of chromosomes in new cells counteracts joining of cells later
b) Prophase I: DNA coils tightly into chromosomes, synapsis occurs, tetrad
c) Metaphase I: Tetrads line up randomly along equator. Spindle fibers attach to
centromere from each pole
d) Anaphase I: Each homologous chromosome moves to an opposite pole
(independent Assortment)
e) Telophase I: Chromosomes reach the opposite ends, cytokinesis begins
f) Meiosis II: Essentially the same, but creates four haploid cells w/ half of
chromosomes started w/ compared to meiosis I, which created 2 haploid cells w/ 2
copies each
8) how and when genetic recombination occurs
a) crossing-over chromosomes switch adjacent portions
b) independent assortment chromosomes go to cells at random
9) karyotype-how and why it is made
a) photomicrograph of the chromosomes in a normal dividing cell in human

b) 1. WBCs are treated chemically to stimulate mitosis and to arrest mitosis in


metaphase
c) 2. Chromosomes are then photographed, cut out, and arranged by size and shape
into pairs
d) Why? To see if all chromosomes are correct
10) spindle fibers- structure and function
a) made of microtubules radiated from the centrosomes
b) in preparation for metaphase, they serve to equally divide the chromatids between
the 2 offspring cells during cell division
11) Sex chromosomes vs. Autosomes
a) Sex chromosomes haploid cells, 1 pair,
b) Autosomes diploid cells, 23 pairs
12) Mitosis in animal cells vs. plant cells
a) Animal cleavage furrow occurs, cell splits
b) Plant cell plate forms along equator, cell wall
13) Mitosis vs. meiosis
a) Mitosis creates two diploid cells
b) Meiosis creates four haploid cells, does it twice
14) Spermatogenesis vs. oogenesis
a) Sperm vs egg
b) Splits into four haploid cells vs 1 egg and 3 polar bodies/1 haploid cell
c) Testes vs ovaries
15) Crossing overwhen, how and why!
a) When: Prophase I
b) How: Portions of chromosome break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on
homologous chromosomes
c) Ensures genetic recombination and child cell will be different
16) All vocabulary of page 165.
a) Chromosomes rod-shaped structures made of DNA and proteins
b) Histone protein that DNA wraps around
c) Chromatid the half of a chromosome
d) Centromere the middle of the chromosome
e) Chromatin the less coiled DNA-protein complex
f) Sex chromosome pair of haploid cell/gametes in humans
g) Autosome 23 pairs of diploid cells in humans
h) Homologous chromosomes the same
i) Karyotype given
j) Diploid cell w/ 2 copies that split into 2 cells w/ 1 copy each
k) Haploid cell w/ 2 copes that split into 4 cells w/ copy each
l) Asexual reproduction offspring from 1 parent
m) Gametes haploid reproductive cells
n) Spindle fiber made of microtubules, given, types include kinetochore fibers,
polar fibers dont attach to chromosomes but extend from centrosome to
centrosome
o) Synapsis pairing of homologous chromosomes, doesnt occur in mitosis
p) Tetrad each pair of homologous chromosomes

q) Genetic recombination new mix of genetic material


r) Oogenesis production of mature egg cells, or ova