You are on page 1of 7


Joint Convention Balikpapan 2015

HAGI-IAGI-IAFMI-IATMI 5–8 October 2015

Oligo-Miocene Tectonic of Java and The Implication for Flexural Basin of Southern Mountain in Affecting Depositional System in Kerek Formation

Imam Farchan Bagus Romario 1 , Dewi Mindasari 1 , Rachdian Eko Suprapto 1 , Muhammad Azka Yusuf 22

  • 1 Geological Engineering of Diponegoro University 2 Andalas Petroleum Services


Kerek formation is one of middle-late miocene formation in Kendeng Basin, Java Island. Kerek formation is interpretated as back arc basin system with turbidity sediment product of deep marine depositional environment. Our main purpose in this research is to identify a new sedimentation model which has compatibility with sediment characters in the field and oligo-miocene tectonisme of Java island. Methods of our research are cross-sectional measured stratigraphy and petrographic analysis from Oleum exposure samples in Kemusu Area, Boyolali district, Central Java. The main lithologies in this area are feldspathic wacke, mudstone (Dott, 1964 ) and grainstone (Embry& Klovan, 1971) with sedimentary structures are wavy lamination, hummocky cross stratification, cross lamination with mud drapes, slump structure, flute cast and convolute. By this information, it could be concluded the sediment facies are sand ridge, shoreface, offshore transition, offshore, slope apron, shale interval, channel lobe and basin plain. Then the provenance is lithology from dissected arc as a product of magmatic arc (Dickison, 1986). The history of this depositional process was begun by active tectonic process in oligo-miocene caused volcanic arc in the southern java. Volcanism created burial and subsidence process then asimetry fault or well- known as flexural basin was formed (Smyth, 2008). Variety of sediment facies from tidal influence to density grain flow prove the product of flexural basin which has characteristics small basin dimension with high slope. Vulcanic sediment materials are deposited around the shallow area of eruption zone. By the time, this accumulations get increasing and involve avalanche with slope direction. This process creates turbidity and debris product till the base of the basin. Continously invertion in flexural basin affects the evolution of sediment facies and depositional system in Kerek Formation besides unstable eustasy process during tertiary. Keywords : Cenozoic Vulcanism, Kendeng Basin, Kerek Formation, Flexural Basin, Depositional System

Preliminary Stratigraphic Sequence

Stratigraphic sequence of Kendeng Zone is composed by deep marine sediment materials at the bottom, turn into shallow sediments upward, and non-marine sediments at the top. Deposition of Kendeng Zone is dominated with turbidite, carbonate and vulcaniclastic materials. Kendeng Zone stratigraphy consists of 7 formations, from old into young sequence as follows:

Pelang formation has range thickness about 85 meters to 125 meters (de Genevraye & Samuel, 1972). The main lithologicals constituent are marl, silty marl with kalkarenit bioclastic lens which contains a large number of foraminifera fossils. Kerek formation has a specific form with interlayered of clay, marl, tuff calcareous sandstone and tuffaceous sandstones in graded bedding structure. Pelang formation is divided into three members (de Genevraye & Samuel, 1972), they are : Banyuurip member is composed with interbedding of marl, clay with tuff calcareous sandstone and tuffaceous sandstones. In the middle of the bedding is found calcareous sandstones and tuffaceous with thickness about 5 meters, while the upper part is characterized by the presence of sandy kalkarenit bedding with thickness about 5 meters with layering of tuff. Banyuurip member is known as upper part of Middle Miocene product. The second is Sentul member consists with interlayer materials that has a similarity with Banyuurip member, but the layer of the tuff material is thicker. Kerek limestone is the youngest member of Kerek Formation that consist interlayer of tuffaceous limestone with clay and tuff bedding. The age of Kerek limestone is N17 (middle part of late Miocene). The bottom of Kalibeng Formation is composed by marl rich with planktonic. Pucangan formation developed as volcanic facies and black shale facies. The volcanic facies evolved as lava sludge in top of Kalibeng formation. Kabuh formation is composed of sandstone with non volcanic material such as quartz, cross bed with conglomerates material, freshwater mollusks and vertebrate fossils. Notopuro Formation consists tuff interlayering with tuffaceous sandstones, breccia lava and volcanic conglomerates. Tuffaceous sandstone get icreasing upward. Inserts or lenses of volcanic breccias with andesite and pumice as the fragments is characteristics of Notopuro Formation .

Structural Geology

Stratigraphic and tectonic data showed Meratus Trend was the eldest trend of Java Island. Faults as product of Meratus tectonism had Cretaceous into Paleocene age and spread in Karimun Jawa Highland into Cimandiri Highland in West Java through Karang Sambung. Later, fault was reactivated by younger tectonic activity in Late Eocene into Late Oligocene. Java trend showed the youngest trend would reactivate the previous trend (Pulunggono, 1994). Seismic data indicate that the trend of reverse fault with the east- west direction is still active until now. The western part of Java Trend was represented by reverse faults such as Baribis fault and fault in Bogor Basin. In the central part could be seen the main trend in North Serayu and South


Joint Convention Balikpapan 2015

HAGI-IAGI-IAFMI-IATMI 5–8 October 2015

Serayu Zone. In the eastern part of the direction was indicated by the Kendeng Mountains reverse fault. Java trend with direction (E-W) was formed since 32 million years ago.

Data and Methods

This research was carried out on the part of Kendeng Zone, especially Kerek Formation. Extensive research was done by subsurface analysis with gravity methods (Waltham, et. Al 2008) that found an anomaly magnitude of gravity on the central region of the island of Java which was interpreted as Kendeng Basin. Biostratigraphic analysis based of occurences of microfossils in the rocks by using a binocular microscope. Biozonation analysis was also done to obtain te relative age of a litology. Analysis facies / depositional environment was based on aspects of sedimentology rocks which was known by shape of grain gradation, sedimentary structures, patterns of deposition / stacking pattern, and the thickness of the rock. Ten, based on aspects of sedimentology were matched with the model facies in the literature about depositional facies and environment. Petrographic analysis was carried out by the mineral composition of rocks microscopically observed through polarization microscope. The aim in analyzing petrographic rock in diagensis phase was to determine the provenances.

Result and Discussion

History of Southern Mountain Development

According to Van Bemmelen (1949), based on the physiographic condition, Central Java region was divided into six physiographic area, they are: Quaternary Volcanic materials, Alluvium Material of North Java, Bogor Anticlinorium and North Serayu and Kendeng Zone Mountains, Center of Central Java Depression Zone, Dome and Mountains Depression Center and South Serayu Mountains, as well as the most southern physiographic area of the Southern Mountains of West Java and East Java. The development history of Southern Mountains was closely related to the tectonic history of Java Island and had an important role in the sedimentation mechanism and the basin system around the area. Convergence between the Indo-Australian plate with the Eurasian plate produced subduction that occurred in the Cretaceous into Paleocene. The main tension created volcanic arc around subduction zone. On the Late Eocene, Java were on the marine conditions with some volcanic body emerging as a result of subduction in the suthern volcanic arc. Vulcanics arc still submerged but presumably still supplying material into deep water (Clement & Hall, 2007). In Early Oligocene Volcanic arc begins to shallow as volcanism continues (Clement & Hall, 2007). Java volcanic arc growth rapidly and produced high volcanic material that was transported

aroun the area. Volcanic material increased the load on the lithosphere and produced regional isostacy with high slope physiographic and narrow dimensional area, around volcanic arc. To the norther part of Java, shelf deposited interlaying material of marl and limestone. In Late Oligocene, flexural basin system was formed by the burial control of high materials from volcanic arc. This volcanism was a product of the early initiation of active volcanism activities until now. East – West tectonism trend resulted volcanics arc that were known as Southern Mountain. In the Early Miocene Volcanic arc was emergent at times and carbonates developed locally (Clement & Hall, 2007). In the Middle Miocene, Southern Mountains became as the main control of sedimentation materials in the north part of Southern Mountain.

Kendeng Basin Developments in Oligo-Miocene

Kendeng basin was one of the basin of Central Java with position between South part of Geantiklin and North part of Java Plateau. Located on the continental crust that was any part of Sundaland system exposure. Basin and tectonism trend in Java were affected by the whole subduction system in the south of Java. Kendeng basin was on the back arc basin of the subduction zone, a type of active margin subduction involving two plates with different densities.Pursuant physiographic associations and history of its formation, the mechanism on Kendeng basin was isostasic that had crustal thickness changing with crustal densification type. Crustal densification adalah Density increase due to changing pressure/temperature conditions and/or emplacement of higher density melts into lower density crust. Loading concept of Kendeng Basin came from the growth of volcanic material in Southern Mountain that created local isostatic compensation of crust and regional lithosperic flexure in Kendeng zone (figure 1). Kendeng Basin was a product of volcanic loading and known as Flexural Basin (Allen, 2005).

Figure 1: Morphologycal model of Kendeng Basin (Romario, 2015)
Figure 1: Morphologycal model of Kendeng Basin (Romario, 2015)

Flexural basins are elongated along the tectonic strike, with an asymetrical cross-section deepening towards the orogenic belt or magmatic arc. Flexural basins on continental lithosphere are close to strongly eroding source areas, and are typically filled with large thickness of synorogenic sediment. (Allen,2005). Flexural Basin controlled sedimentation pattern with steepy angle of slope


Joint Convention Balikpapan 2015

HAGI-IAGI-IAFMI-IATMI 5–8 October 2015









was controlled by the slope of the volcanic materials.Kerek

depositional system


Formation and Its Sedimentation

Kendeng formation was showed with blue color, spreading from south into north Figure 2: Anomaly Bouguer
Kendeng formation was showed with blue color, spreading from south into north
Figure 2: Anomaly Bouguer of Pulau Jawa (Waltham, 2008)

The Kendeng basin was long (at least 400 km) and narrow (100–120 km) (figure 2) and trends east-west, parallel to the Southern Mountains Arc. The basin wa characterized by a strong negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (figure 3), which exceeds −580 μms–2, and extended from west to east. In East Java there was mainly northward-thrusting of the Kendeng Basin at its northern edge some time after volcanic arc activity ceased. All these observations suggest that volcanic activity contributed in some way to basin formation, possibly through loading by the volcanic arc itself or possibly by weakening of the plate, or by a combination of both (Waltham, 2008). Kendeng basin was formed during the Middle Eocene (Profit and Sato, 1978 in Waltham, 2008). The basin kept developed during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene due to increasing of volcanic activity in the south which resulted burial and isostacy process with geantiklin in the north was lower than geantiklin in the south. This codition formed a basin which

The results of petrographic analysis was known that the lithologics were feldsphatic wacke, mudstone (Dott, 1964) and Grainstone (Embry & Klovan, 1971). The abundance of mineral of each rocks were plotted on a Dickison’s diagram (1986) to determine the provenance of Kerek Formation (figure 4).

Plotting of mineral composition showed 5 samples from petrographyc analysis in magmatic arc (Yusuf, 2014) Figure
Plotting of mineral composition showed 5 samples from
petrographyc analysis in magmatic arc (Yusuf, 2014)
Figure 4: Dickisson Diagram
Figure 3: Plotting of Bouguer anomaly from North-South of Java showed the morphology of the basin with dimension 100 km –
120 km (Waltham, 2008)


Joint Convention Balikpapan 2015 HAGI-IAGI-IAFMI-IATMI 5–8 October 2015

During Oligocene to Miocene occured uplift process of

volcanic arc in the southern part of Java, as a result of the

convergent plate interaction, Indo Australian oceanic plate

and Eurasian continental plates (Satyana, 2007). At that

time, volcanism in the southern part of Java, known as the

southern mountains were very active so that volcanism

materialsbecame the main source of basin filler in Kendeng

with turbidite mechanism (Smyth, 2008). The lithologies of

the Kerek Formatiom were dominated with claystone that

was created by pelagic materials in marine environment

Based on “Oleum” outcrop of Kerek Formation was

obtained some stratigraphic sequence with sedimentation

patterns and the influence of sea level condition.Sea level

changes in the Kendeng Basin was influenced by changes

of global sea level (figure 7).

Changing of sea level was basically controlled by changing

of global eustasi and basin morphology, as a decline in the

basin was higher than the drop in sea level there would be a

phase of transgression, and so does the regression (Nichols,

before the high reworked of volcanic materials. Then, 2009). sandstones unit were deposited while increasing the
before the high reworked of volcanic materials. Then,
sandstones unit were deposited while increasing the supply
of sediment from the southern mountains south such as
reworked of volcanic materials (Smyth, 2008) and
transition environment, terrestrial and shallow marine
materials such as coal fragments and autogenic carbonate
materials (Waltham, 2008). Reworked of marsh materials
were also indicated from the results of TOC analysis in the
claystone from Kerek Formation that showed the type of
kerogens are Type II and III as a characteristics of swamp
environments (Hidayat, 2007). Limestones unit was
deposited when the environment started into regresion on
Miocene (figure 5) or synthem III condition (Smyth, 2008)
due to reworked of Reef materials (Waltham, 2008; Joseph,
Kerek Formation was deposited in transgression at Early
Middle Miocene
Figure 6: Global sea level in Geological Times Scale
(Vail, 1977)
Affects of volcanism in forming sedimentary rocks in Cenozoic. Kerek Formation was in Synterm as a result of reworked
volcanic materials.
of A Figure changing loading 5: Synthem of materials basin Volcanism morphology affecting in sea Cenozoic of Kendeng level (Smyth, that was had caused 2008) an
analogue with Nichols model (2009)
Figure 6: sea level changes medelling of a basin (Nichols,


Joint Convention Balikpapan 2015

HAGI-IAGI-IAFMI-IATMI 5–8 October 2015

Kendeng rocks formation were deposited when the sea

level began to rise in late Oligocene due to the increased of

volcanic loading, initially Pelang was deposited in shallow

marine environment then subsidence of basin and global

sea level rise created transgression and resulted rocks in

Kerek Formation (figure 6). Transgression occured when

the declining of basin was larger than the declining of sea

level (Nichols, 2009). LST sequence stratigraphic units

(lowstand system track), the LST-1 and LST-2, where the

LST-1 unit at the top was limited by SB-1 and unit-2 LST

bordering the SB-2 and TST-1. Turbidity and debrite

materials in the deep marine when LST (lowstand system

track) formed grooves / channels on the slope area due to

excessive loading of sediment materials, hence became the

input point (entrenched channel) of sediment material from

shallow into deep marine, and would form a natural levee

deposits (channel leeve), lobe, mouth bar of the agradation

process in the deep marine in which the topographic was

flater. LST-1 and LST-2 system track was identified by

fining upward depositional pattern and existing of

mouthbar channel facies, channel leeve, lobefringe, and

channel lobe. Then transgression caused changes in the

character of sediment. On the transgression or TST

(Transgressive system track), sedimentation processes in

the area were affected by the storm waves (storm surges)

and tidal currents (tidal currents). Shallow sand deposits

were generally associated with transgressive system tracks

(TST), which was the best condition to accumulate shelf

macroform deposits during changing of coastline

(Posamentier, 2002). Macroform shelf deposits were

recorded as a sand ridge. In addition, there was also a result

of the sea wave erosion (wave ravinement surface)

indicated by the presence of the wave scoure as a reaching

area of ocean waves to erode the seabed. The recording of

wave ravinement surface in outcrop was shown by

explicitly facies changing (sharp), as found in GP 03, where

there was a sharp facies changing from offshore into

offshore facies transition. Then, avalanche deposits in the

sea which were characterized by the presence of

sedimentary structures slump which was an association of

slope facies apron, and the mud flow was characterized by

basin plain facies and dominated by carbonaceous

claystone which characterized by the deposition pattern of

deepening upwards (deepening upward), of storm-tide

dominated sediment shelf on the bottom and deep marine

sediment on top. Then, the transgression would reach the

highest point of sea level rise or flooding surface. Flooding

surface occured during the transgression process, and the

differences between FS sequence stratigraphic unit and

TST sequence stratigraphic were FS sequence stratigraphic

unit generally occured as a cycle in the first transgression,

which characterized the stage of sea level rise, and the

sequence stratigraphic unit restricted FS at the top with a

sequence stratigraphic unit MFS (maximum flooding

surface) which was the boundary of sea level rise, there

was a sequence stratigraphic unit FS (flooding surface), as

in the example FS-13 in 07 GP occured deepening of the

sand ridge deposits into the offshore sediment with

sedimentary structure Hummocky Cross Stratiffication as

an identifier. After the transgression and flooding surface,

sea level had decreased drastically that was called FSST

phase (Falling Stage System Tract) and happened during

Middle Miocene - Late Miocene (figure 8) when global sea

level dropped and loaded of volcanic material at this time

was not so high because the material had reworked into

main materials of Kendeng sedimentary in the basin so that

the basin subsidence in Kendeng didn’t happen as fast as

before when volcanic loading was the main control of

sedimentary, this caused a regression on Kendeng basin.

FSST events (forced regressive system track) indicated the

presence of clastic limestone (grainstone) was deposited in

shallow marine environments. FSST (forced regressive

system track) was one of the events that effected

transportation of reef dedritus materials / other carbonate

materials into the deep marine environment, precisely on

the slope area which closed with carbonate platform. In the

shelf, reef complex grew becoming the provenance of

clastic limestone such as grainstone on previous events,

then regression was happening during the event. FSST

(forced regressive system track) exposed the reef complex.


Joint Convention Balikpapan 2015

HAGI-IAGI-IAFMI-IATMI 5–8 October 2015

Because the exposure of reef complex in the surface,

erosional process worked on the reef complex that

transported he detritus of carbonate towards the marine

environment, especially on the slope area which was close

with carbonate platform (Yusuf, 2014). This was caused the

presence of the wave equilibrium profile of ocean waves

area to erode the seabed due to sea level drop. Recording of

ocean waves erosion when the sea level relatively dropped

in the outcrop was shown by sharp facies changes, where

there was a sharp facies changes of submarine channel

leeve facies toward slope aprone limestone facies, the

boundary of the two facies was relatively firm. The

stratigraphic sequence of Kerek Formation deposition was

made a modeling with fluctuations of sea level (Figure 8).


Oligo-Miocene tectonism explained active volcanic activity

in the Southern Mountains with high volcanic materials

product. The southern mountains effected the basin

morphology of Kendeng and loaded process in the basin

that had been formed in Eocene with flexural basin type.

In Oligocene was with depositional of Pelang Formation.

Transgression was occurred at the beginning deposition of

Kerek due to high intensity of subsidence because of

volcanic loading. Kerek Formation was deposited on the

marine environment with domination of volcanic materials

as the provenance from Southern Mountain. Sea level

changes occured belong deposition of Kerek Fomation

resulting several stratigraphic sequence that started from

LST, TST, MFS, and the last forming FSST regression.


Allen, Phillip. 2005. Basin Analysis. Blackwell Publishing. Singapore.

Catuneanu, O. 2006. Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy.

Elsevier. Canada.

Clements, Benjamin. Petroleum Geoscience, Vol. 15 2009,

pp. 159–174. London

de Genevraye, P., and Samuel, L., 1972, The geology of Kendeng Zone (East Java): Proceedings of Indonesian Petroleum Association 1 st Annual Convention, Jakarta, p. 17–30.

Hidayat, Rahmad. 2007. Inventarisasi Kandungan Minyak

Dalam Batuan Daerah Kedungjati, Kabupaten

Semarang, Provinsi Jawa Tengah. PSDG. Bandung

Smyth, Hall, R. Nichols, Gary. 2008. Cenozoic volcanic

history of East Java, Indonesia : The Stratigraphic

Record of eruption on an Active Margin. The

Geological Society of America.

Ramadhan, Bondan. 2015. Unravel Kendeng Petroleum

System Enigma : Recent Update From Transect Surface

Observation of Kedungdjati-Djuwangi-Ngawi Area.


Satyana. 2006. Deepwater Plays of Java, Indonesia:

Regional Evaluation on Opportunities and Risks. IPA

Figure 8: Sequence Stratigraphic Model of Kerek Formation (Yusuf, 2014)
Figure 8: Sequence Stratigraphic Model of Kerek
Formation (Yusuf, 2014)

Van Bemmelen, R.W., 1949, The Geology of Indonesia:

The Hague, Nijhoff, Government Printing Office, 732


Vail, P.R., Mitchun.1977. Seismic Stratigraphy And Global

Changes of Sea Level, Part Four: Global Cycles of

Relative Changes of Sea Level. AAPG Memoir 26, pp.


Waltham, Dave. 2008. Basin Formation by volcanic arc

loading. The Geological Society of America

Yusuf, Muhammad Azka. 2014. Kajian Fasies

Sedimentologi dan Sikuen Stratigrafi Formasi Kerek,


Joint Convention Balikpapan 2015 HAGI-IAGI-IAFMI-IATMI 5–8 October 2015

Lintasan Sungai Klampok, Cekungan Kendeng Bagian

Barat, Kecamatan Kemusu, Kabupaten Boyolali,

Provinsi Jawa Tengah. UNDIP. Semarang