Spur Gears

Introduction..... Standards..... Terminology..... Spur Gear Design..... Materials..... Basic Equations..... Module..... Pressure Angle..... Contact Ratio..... Forces- Torques etc..... Strength Durability calcs..... Design Process..... Internal Gears..... Table of Lewis Form Factors..... Introduction Gears are machine elements used to transmit rotary motion between two shafts, normally with a constant ratio. The pinion is the smallest gear and the larger gear is called the gear wheel.. A rack is a rectangular prism with gear teeth machined along one side- it is in effect a gear wheel with an infinite pitch circle diameter. In practice the action of gears in transmitting motion is a cam action each pair of mating teeth acting as cams. Gear design has evolved to such a level that throughout the motion of each contacting pair of teeth the velocity ratio of the gears is maintained fixed and the velocity ratio is still fixed as each subsequent pair of teeth come into contact. When the teeth action is such that the driving tooth moving at constant angular velocity produces a proportional constant velocity of the driven tooth the action is termed a conjugate action. The teeth shape universally selected for the gear teeth is the involute profile. Consider one end of a piece of string is fastened to the OD of one cylinder and the other end of the string is fastened to the OD of another cylinder parallel to the first and both cylinders are rotated in the opposite directions to tension the string(see figure below). The point on the string midway between the cylinder P is marked. As the left hand cylinder rotates CCW the point moves towards this cylinder as it wraps on . The point moves away from the right hand cylinder as the string unwraps. The point traces the involute form of the gear teeth.

The lines normal to the point of contact of the gears always intersects the centre line joining the gear centres at one point called the pitch point. For each gear the circle passing through the pitch point is called the pitch circle. The gear ratio is proportional to the diameters of the two pitch circles. For metric gears (as adopted by most of the worlds nations) the gear proportions are based on the module. m = (Pitch Circle Diameter(mm)) / (Number of teeth on gear). In the USA the module is not used and instead the Diametric Pitch d pis used d p = (Number of Teeth) / Diametrical Pitch (inches)

Profile of a standard 1mm module gear teeth for a gear with Infinite radius (Rack ). Other module teeth profiles are directly proportion . e.g. 2mm module teeth are 2 x this profile

Many gears trains are very low power applications with an object of transmitting motion with minium torque e.g. watch and clock mechanisms, instruments, toys, music boxes etc. These applications do not require detailed strength calculations.

Standards

• • • • • • •

AGMA 2001-C95 or AGMA-2101-C95 Fundamental Rating factors and Calculation Methods for involute Spur Gear and Helical Gear Teeth BS 436-4:1996, ISO 1328-1:1995..Spur and helical gears. Definitions and allowable values of deviations relevant to corresponding flanks of gear teeth BS 436-5:1997, ISO 1328-2:1997..Spur and helical gears. Definitions and allowable values of deviations relevant to radial composite deviations and runout information BS ISO 6336-1:1996 ..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. Basic principles, introduction and general influence factors BS ISO 6336-2:1996..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. Calculation of surface durability (pitting) BS ISO 6336-3:1996..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. Calculation of tooth bending strength BS ISO 6336-5:2003..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. Strength and quality of materials

If it is necessary to design a gearbox from scratch the design process in selecting the gear size is not complicated - the various design formulea have all been developed over time and are available in the relevant standards. However significant effort, judgement and expertise is required in designing the whole system including the gears, shafts , bearings, gearbox, lubrication. For the same duty many different gear options are available for the type of gear , the materials and the quality. It is always preferable to procure gearboxes from specialised gearbox manufacturers

Terminology - spur gears

• • •

Diametral pitch (d p )...... The number of teeth per one inch of pitch circle diameter. Module. (m) ...... The length, in mm, of the pitch circle diameter per tooth. Circular pitch (p)...... The distance between adjacent teeth measured along the are at the pitch circle diameter

• • • • • • • • • • •

Addendum ( h a )...... The height of the tooth above the pitch circle diameter. Centre distance (a)...... The distance between the axes of two gears in mesh. Circular tooth thickness (ctt)...... The width of a tooth measured along the are at the pitch circle diameter. Dedendum ( h f )...... The depth of the tooth below the pitch circle diameter. Outside diameter ( D o )...... The outside diameter of the gear. Base Circle diameter ( D b ) ...... The diameter on which the involute teeth profile is based. Pitch circle dia ( p ) ...... The diameter of the pitch circle. Pitch point...... The point at which the pitch circle diameters of two gears in mesh coincide. Pitch to back...... The distance on a rack between the pitch circle diameter line and the rear face of the rack. Pressure angle ...... The angle between the tooth profile at the pitch circle diameter and a radial line passing through the same point. Whole depth...... The total depth of the space between adjacent teeth.

Spur Gear Design The spur gear is is simplest type of gear manufactured and is generally used for transmission of rotary motion between parallel shafts. The spur gear is the first choice option for gears except when high speeds, loads, and ratios direct towards other options. Other gear types may also be preferred to provide more silent low-vibration operation. A single spur gear is generally selected to have a ratio range of between 1:1 and 1:6 with a pitch line velocity up to 25 m/s. The spur gear has an operating efficiency of 98-99%. The pinion is made from a harder material than the wheel. A gear pair should be selected to have the highest number of teeth consistent with a suitable safety margin in strength and wear. The minimum number of teeth on a gear with a normal pressure angle of 20 desgrees is 18. The preferred number of teeth are as follows 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 34 38 40 45 50 54 60 64 70 72 75 80 84 90 96 100 120 140 150 180 200 220 250

Materials used for gears Mild steel is a poor material for gears as as it has poor resistance to surface loading. The carbon content for unhardened gears is generally 0.4%(min) with 0.55%(min) carbon for the pinions. Dissimilar materials should be used for the meshing gears - this particularly applies to alloy steels. Alloy steels have superior fatigue properties compared to carbon steels for comparable strengths. For extremely high gear loading case hardened steels are used the surface hardening method employed should be such to provide sufficient case depth for the final grinding process used.

Material

Notes Ferrous metals

applications Large moderate power, commercial gears Power gears with medium rating to commercial quality Power gears with medium rating to commercial/medium quality Highest power requirement. For precision and high precisiont Corrosion resistance with low power ratings. Up to precision quality

Cast Iron

Low Cost easy to machine with high damping Low cost, reasonable strength

Cast Steels

Plain-Carbon Steels

Good machining, can be heat treated

Alloy Steels

Heat Treatable to provide highest strength and durability

Stainless Steels (Aust)

Good corrosion resistance. Nonmagnetic

Stainless Steels (Mart)

Low to medium Hardenable, Reasonable corrosion power ratings Up to resistance, magnetic high precision levels of quality Non-Ferrous metals Light duty instrument gears up to high precision quality

Aluminium alloys

Light weight, non-corrosive and good machinability

Brass alloys

Low cost, non-corrosive, excellent machinability

low cost commercial quality gears. Quality up to medium precision

Bronze alloys

For use with steel Excellent machinability, low friction power gears. and good compatability with steel Quality up to high precision Light weight with poor corrosion resistance Ligh weight low load gears. Quality up to medium precision Special gears for thermal applications to commercial quality

Magnesium alloys

Nickel alloys

Low coefficient of thermal expansion. Poor machinability

Titanium alloys

Special light weight High strength, for low weight, good high strength gears corrosion resistance to medium precision Low cost with low precision and strength Low cost, low quality, moderate strength Non metals High production, low quality gears to commercial quality High production, low quality to moderate commercial quality Long life , low load bearings to commercial quality High production, low quality to moderate commercial quality Long life at low loads to commercial quality Special low friction gears to commercial quality

Di-cast alloys

Sintered powder alloys

Acetal (Delrin

Wear resistant, low water absorbtion Low cost, low quality, moderate strength No lubrication, no lubricant, absorbs water Low friction and no lubrication

Phenolic laminates

Nylons

PTFE

Equations for basic gear relationships It is acceptable to marginally modify these relationships e.g to modify the addendum /dedendum to allow Centre Distance adjustments. Any changes modifications will affect the gear performance in good and bad ways...

Addendum Base Circle diameter Centre distance Circular pitch Circular tooth thickness Dedendum Module Number of teeth Outside diameter Pitch circle diameter

h a = m = 0.3183 p Db = d.cos α a = ( d g + d p) / 2 p = m.π ctt = p/2 h f = h - a = 1,25m = 0,3979 p m = d /n z=d/m D o = (z + 2) x m d = n . m ... (d g = gear & d p = pinion )

Whole depth(min) Top land width(min)

h = 2.25 . m t o = 0,25 . m

Module (m) The module is the ratio of the pitch diameter to the number of teeth. The unit of the module is millimetres.Below is a diagram showing the relative size of teeth machined in a rack with module ranging from module values of 0,5 mm to 6 mm

The preferred module values are 0,5 0,8 1 1,25 1,5 2,5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50

Normal Pressure angle α An important variable affecting the geometry of the gear teeth is the normal pressure angle. This is o generally standardised at 20 . Other pressure angles should be used only for special reasons and using considered judgment. The following changes result from increasing the pressure angle

• • • • •

Reduction in the danger of undercutting and interference Reduction of slipping speeds Increased loading capacity in contact, seizure and wear Increased rigidity of the toothing Increased noise and radial forces
o o

Gears required to have low noise levels have pressure angles 15 to17.5

Contact Ratio The gear design is such that when in mesh the rotating gears have more than one gear in contact and transferring the torque for some of the time. This property is called the contact ratio. This is a ratio of the length of the line-of-action to the base pitch. The higher the contact ratio the more the load is shared between teeth. It is good practice to maintain a contact ratio of 1.2 or greater. Under no circumstances should the ratio drop below 1.1. A contact ratio between 1 and 2 means that part of the time two pairs of teeth are in contact and during the remaining time one pair is in contact. A ratio between 2 and 3 means 2 or 3 pairs of teeth are always in contact. Such as high contact ratio generally is not obtained with external spur gears, but can be developed in the meshing of an internal and external spur gear pair or specially designed non-standard external spur gears.

contact ratio m = [Rgo2 - Rgb2 )1/2 + (Rpo2 - Rpb2 )1/2

-

a sin α] / p cos α

R go = D go / 2..Radius of Outside Dia of Gear R gb = D gb / 2..Radius of Base Dia of Gear R po = D po / 2..Radius of Outside Dia of Pinion R pb = D pb / 2..Radius of Base Dia of Pinion p = circular pitch. a = ( d g+ d p )/2 = center distance.

Spur gear Forces, torques, velocities & Powers

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

F = tooth force between contacting teeth (at angle pressure angle α to pitch line tangent. (N) F t = tangential component of tooth force (N) F s = Separating component of tooth force α= Pressure angle d 1 = Pitch Circle Dia -driving gear (m) d 2 = Pitch Circle Dia -driven gear (m) ω 1 = Angular velocity of driver gear (Rads/s) ω 2 = Angular velocity of driven gear (Rads/s) z 1 = Number of teeth on driver gear z 2 = Number of teeth on driven gear P = power transmitted (Watts) M = torque (Nm) η = efficiency

Tangential force on gears F t = F cos α Separating force on gears F s = F t tan α Torque on driver gear T 1 = F t d 1 / 2 Torque on driver gear T 2 = F t d 2 / 2 Speed Ratio =ω 1 / ω 2 = d 2 / d 1 = z 2 /z 1 Input Power P 1 = T1 .ω 1 Output Power P 2 =η.T 1 .ω 2

Spur gear Strength and durability calculations Designing spur gears is normally done in accordance with standards the two most popular series are listed under standards above: The notes below relate to approximate methods for estimating gear strengths. The methods are really only useful for first approximations and/or selection of stock gears (ref links below). — Detailed design

necessary guidance. Software is also available making the process very easy. A very reasonably priced and easy to use package is included in the links below (Mitcalc.com) The determination of the capacity of gears to transfer the required torque for the desired operating life is completed by determining the strength of the gear teeth in bending and also the durability i.e of the teeth ( resistance to wearing/bearing/scuffing loads ) .. The equations below are based on methods used by Buckingham..

Bending

The basic bending stress for gear teeth is obtained by using the Lewis formula

σ = Ft / ( ba. m. Y )

• • • • •

F t = Tangential force on tooth σ = Tooth Bending stress (MPa) b a = Face width (mm) Y = Lewis Form Factor m = Module (mm) Note: The Lewis formula is often expressed as

σ = Ft / ( ba. p. y )

Where y = Y/π and p = circular pitch When a gear wheel is rotating the gear teeth come into contact with some degree of impact. To allow for this a velocity factor is introduced into the equation. This is given by the Barth equation for milled profile gears.

K v = 6,1 / (6,1 +V )
V = the pitch line velocity = d.ω/2 Note: This factor is different for different gear conditions i.e K v = ( 3.05 + V )/3.05 for cast iron, cast profile gears. The Lewis formula is thus modified as follows

σ = K v.Ft / ( ba. m. Y )

Surface Durability This calculation involves determining the contact stress between the gear teeth and uses the Herz Formula

σ w = 2.F / ( π .b .l ) σ w = largest surface pressure

F = force pressing the two cylinders (gears) together l = length of the cylinders (gear) b = halfwidth =

d 1 ,d 2 Are the diameters for the two contacting cylinders. ν 1, ν 2 Poisson ratio for the two gear materials E 1 ,E 2 Are the Young's Modulus Values for the two gears To arrive at the formula used for gear calculations the following changes are made F is replaced by F t/ cos α d is replaced by 2.r l is replaced by W The velocity factor K v as described above is introduced. Also an elastic constant Z E is created

When the value of E used is in MPa then the units of Cp are √ MPa = KPa The resulting formula for the compressive stress developed is as shown below

The dynamic contact stress χc developed by the transmitted torque must be less than the allowable contact stress Se... Note: Values for Allowable stress values Se and ZE for some materials are provided at Gear Table r1 = d1 sin α /2 r2 = d2 sin α /2 Important Note: The above equations do not take into account the various factors which are integral to calculations completed using the relevant standards. These equations therefore yield results suitable for first estimate design purposes only... Design Process To select gears from a stock gear catalogue or do a first approximation for a gear design select the gear material and obtain a safe working stress e.g Yield stress / Factor of Safety. /Safe fatigue stress

• • • • • • •

Determine the input speed, output speed, ratio, torque to be transmitted Select materials for the gears (pinion is more highly loaded than gear) Determine safe working stresses (uts /factor of safety or yield stress/factor of safety or Fatigue strength / Factor of safety ) Determine Allowable endurance Stress Se Select a module value and determine the resulting geometry of the gear Use the lewis formula and the endurance formula to establish the resulting face width If the gear proportions are reasonable then - proceed to more detailed evaluations

If the resulting face width is excessive - change the module or material or both and start again

The gear face width should be selected in the range 9-15 x module or for straight spur gears-up to 60% of the pinion diameter.

Internal Gears Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4. Geometry ideal for epicyclic gear design Allows compact design since the center distance is less than for external gears. A high contact ratio is possible. Good surface endurance due to a convex profile surface working against a concave surface.

Disadvantages: 1. 2. 3. Housing and bearing supports are more complicated, because the external gear nests within the internal gear. Low ratios are unsuitable and in many cases impossible because of interferences. Fabrication is limited to the shaper generating process, and usually special tooling is required.

factor. Lewis form factor

Table of lewis form factors for different tooth forms and pressure angles
No Load Near Tip of Teeth Load at Near Middle of Teeth

Teeth

14 1/2 deg Y y 0,056 0,061 0,067 0,071 0,075 0,078 0,081 0,084 0,086 0,088 0,09 0,092 0,093 0,094 0,096 0,097 0,098 0,099 0,1 0,101 0,101 0,101 0,101 0,103 0,104 0,104 0,105 0,105 0,106 0,107 0,107 0,108 0,108 0,11 0,112 0,113 0,114 0,115 0,115 0,116

20 deg FD Y 0,201 0,226 0,245 0,264 0,276 0,289 0,295 0,302 0,308 0,314 0,32 0,326 0,33 0,333 0,337 0,34 0,344 0,348 0,352 0,355 0,358 0,361 0,364 0,367 0,371 0,373 0,377 0,38 0,384 0,386 0,389 0,397 0,399 0,408 0,415 0,421 0,425 0,429 0,433 0,436 y 0,064 0,072 0,078 0,084 0,088 0,092 0,094 0,096 0,098 0,1 0,102 0,104 0,105 0,106 0,107 0,108 0,109 0,111 0,112 0,113 0,114 0,115 0,116 0,117 0,118 0,119 0,12 0,121 0,122 0,123 0,124 0,126 0,127 0,13 0,132 0,134 0,135 0,137 0,138 0,139

20 deg Stub Y 0,261 0,289 0,311 0,324 0,339 0,349 0,36 0,368 0,377 0,386 0,393 0,399 0,404 0,408 0,411 0,416 0,421 0,426 0,43 0,434 0,437 0,44 0,443 0,445 0,447 0,449 0,451 0,454 0,455 0,457 0,459 0,467 0,468 0,474 0,48 0,484 0,488 0,493 0,496 0,499 y 0,083 0,092 0,099 0,103 0,108 0,111 0,115 0,117 0,12 0,123 0,125 0,127 0,129 0,13 0,131 0,132 0,134 0,136 0,137 0,138 0,139 0,14 0,141 0,142 0,142 0,143 0,144 0,145 0,145 0,145 0,146 0,149 0,149 0,151 0,153 0,154 0,155 0,157 0,158 0,159

25 deg Y 0,238 0,259 0,277 0,293 0,307 0,32 0,332 0,342 0,352 0,361 0,369 0,377 0,384 0,390 0,396 0,402 0,407 0,412 0,417 0,421 0,425 0,429 0,433 0,436 0,44 0,443 0,446 0,449 0,452 0,454 0,457 0,464 0,468 0,477 0,484 0,491 0,496 0,501 0,506 0,509 y 0,076 0,082 0,088 0,093 0,098 0,102 0,106 0,109 0,112 0,115 0,117 0,12 0,122 0,124 0,126 0,128 0,13 0,131 0,133 0,134 0,135 0,137 0,138 0,139 0,14 0,141 0,142 0,143 0,144 0,145 0,145 0,148 0,149 0,152 0,154 0,156 0,158 0,159 0,161 0,162

14 1/2 deg Y y

20 deg FD Y y

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 43 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80

0,176 0,192 0,21 0,223 0,236 0,245 0,255 0,264 0,27 0,277 0,283 0,289 0,292 0,296 0,302 0,305 0,308 0,311 0,314 0,316 0,318 0,32 0,322 0,324 0,326 0,327 0,329 0,33 0,333 0,335 0,336 0,339 0,34 0,346 0,352 0,355 0,358 0,36 0,361 0,363

0,355 0,377 0,399 0,415 0,43 0,446 0,459 0,471 0,481 0,49 0,496 0,502 0,509 0,515 0,522 0,528 0,534 0,537 0,54 0,554 0,547 0,55 0,553 0,556 0,559 0,563 0,565 0,568 0,57 0,574 0,579 0,588 0,596 0,603 0,607 0,61 0,613 0,615

0,113 0,12 0,127 0,132 0,137 0,142 0,146 0,15 0,153 0,156 0,158 0,16 0,162 0,164 0,166 0,168 0,17 0,171 0,172 0,176 0,174 0,175 0,176 0,177 0,178 0,179 0,18 0,181 0,181 0,183 0,184 0,187 0,19 0,192 0,193 0,194 0,195 0,196

0,415 0,443 0,468 0,49 0,503 0,512 0,522 0,534 0,544 0,553 0,559 0,565 0,572 0,58 0,584 0,588 0,592 0,599 0,606 0,611 0,617 0,623 0,628 0,633 0,639 0,645 0,65 0,655 0,659 0,668 0,678 0,694 0,704 0,713 0,721 0,728 0,735 0,739

0,132 0,141 0,149 0,156 0,16 0,163 0,166 0,17 0,173 0,176 0,178 0,18 0,182 0,185 0,186 0,187 0,188 0,191 0,193 0,194 0,196 0,198 0,2 0,201 0,203 0,205 0,207 0,208 0,21 0,213 0,216 0,221 0,224 0,227 0,23 0,232 0,234 0,235

90 100 150 200 300 Rack

0,366 0,368 0,375 0,378 0,38 0,39

0,117 0,117 0,119 0,12 0,122 0,124

0,442 0,446 0,458 0,463 0,471 0,484

0,141 0,142 0,146 0,147 0,15 0,154

0,503 0,506 0,518 0,524 0,534 0,55

0,16 0,161 0,165 0,167 0,17 0,175

0,516 0,521 0,537 0,545 0,554 0,566

0,164 0,166 0,171 0,173 0,176 0,18

0,619 0,622 0,635 0,64 0,65 0,66

0,197 0,198 0,202 0,204 0,207 0,21

0,747 0,755 0,778 0,787 0,801 0,823

0,238 0,24 0,248 0,251 0,255 0,262

http://www.ecs.umass.edu/mie/labs/mda/dlib/machine/gear/gear2.html

Helical Gears Introduction Helical gears are similar to spur gears except that the gears teeth are at an angle with the axis of the gears. A helical gear is termed right handed or left handed as determined by the direction the teeth slope away from the viewer looking at the top gear surface along the axis of the gear. ( Alternatively if a gear rests on its face the hand is in the direction of the slope of the teeth) . Meshing helical gears o must be of opposite hand. Meshed helical gears can be at an angle to each other (up to 90 ). The helical gear provides a smoother mesh and can be operated at greater speeds than a straight spur gear. In operatation helical gears generate axial shaft forces in addition to the radial shaft force generated by normal spur gears. In operation the initial tooth contact of a helical gear is a point which develops into a full line contact as the gear rotates. This is a smoother cycle than a spur which has an initial line contact. Spur gears are generally not run at peripheral speed of more than 10m/s. Helical gears can be run at speed exceeding 50m/s when accurately machined and balanced. Standards ... The same standards apply to helical gears as for spur gears

• • • • • • •

AGMA 2001-C95 or AGMA-2101-C95 Fundamental Rating factors and Calculation Methods for involute Spur Gear and Helical Gear Teeth BS 436-4:1996, ISO 1328-1:1995..Spur and helical gears. Definitions and allowable values of deviations relevant to corresponding flanks of gear teeth BS 436-5:1997, ISO 1328-2:1997..Spur and helical gears. Definitions and allowable values of deviations relevant to radial composite deviations and runout information BS ISO 6336-1:1996 ..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. Basic principles, introduction and general influence factors BS ISO 6336-2:1996..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. Calculation of surface durability (pitting) BS ISO 6336-3:1996..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. Calculation of tooth bending strength BS ISO 6336-5:2003..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. Strength and quality of materials

Helical gear parameters A helical gear train with parallel axes is very similar to a spur gear with the same tooth profile and proportions. The primary difference is that the teeth are machined at an angle to the gear axis.

Helix Angle .. The helix angle of helical gears β is generally selected from the range 6,8,10,12,15,20 degrees. The larger the angle the smoother the motion and the higher speed possible however the thrust loadings on the supporting bearings also increases. In case of a double or herringbone gear β values

the two sets of teeth cancel each other allowing larger angles with no penalty Pitch /module .. For helical gears the circular pitch is measured in two ways The traverse circular pitch (p) is the same as for spur gears and is measured along the pitch circle The normal circular pitch p n is measured normal to the helix of the gear. The diametric pitch is the same as for spur gears ... P = z g /dg = z p /d p ....d= pitch circle dia (inches). The module is the same as for spur gears ... m = dg/z g = d p/z p.... d = pitch circle dia (mm). Helical Gear geometrical proportions

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

p = Circular pitch = d g. π / z g = d p . π / z p p n = Normal circular pitch = p .cosβ P n =Normal diametrical pitch = P /cosβ p x = Axial pitch = p c /tanβ m n =Normal module = m / cosβ -1 α n = Normal pressure angle = tan ( tanα.cos β ) β =Helix angle d g = Pitch diameter gear = z g. m d p = Pitch diameter pinion = z p. m a =Center distance = ( z p + z g )* m n /2 cos β a a = Addendum = m a f =Dedendum = 1.25*m b = Face width of narrowest gear

Herringbone / double crossed helical gears

Crossed Helical Gears When two helical gears are used to transmit power between non parallel, non-intersecting shafts, they are generally called crossed helical gears. These are simply normal helical gears with nonparallel shafts. For crossed helical gears to operate successfully they must have the same pressure angle and the same normal pitch. They need not have the same helix angle and they do not need to be opposite hand. The contact is not a good line contact as for parallel helical gears and is often little more than a point contact. Running in crossed helical gears tend to marginally improve the area of contact. The relationship between the shaft angles Ε and the helix angles β 1 & β2 is as follows

Ε = (Same Helix Angle) β 1 + β 2 ......(Opposite Helix Angle) β 1 - β 2

For gears with a 90 crossed axis it is obvious that the gears must be the same hand. The centres distance (a) between crossed helical gears is calculated as follows

o

a = m * [(z 1 / cos β 1) + ( z 1 / cos β 1 )] / 2
The sliding velocity Vsof crossed helical gears is given by

Vs = (V1 / cos β 1 ) = (V 2 / cos β 2 )

Strength and Durability calculations for Helical Gear Teeth Designing helical gears is normally done in accordance with standards the two most popular series are listed under standards above: The notes below relate to approximate methods for estimating gear strengths. The methods are really only useful for first approximations and/or selection of stock gears (ref links below). — Detailed design of spur and helical gears should best be completed using : a) Standards. b) Books are available providing the necessary guidance. c) Software is also available making the process very easy. use package is included in the links below (Mitcalc.com)

A very reasonably priced and easy to

The determination of the capacity of gears to transfer the required torque for the desired operating life is completed by determining the strength of the gear teeth in bending and also the durability i.e of the teeth ( resistance to wearing/bearing/scuffing loads ) .. The equations below are based on methods used by Buckingham..

Bending The Lewis formula for spur gears can be applied to helical gears with minor adjustments to provide an initial conservative estimate of gear strength in bending. This equation should only be used for first estimates.

σ = Fb / ( ba. m. Y ) • •
Fb = Normal force on tooth = Tangential Force Ft / cos β σ = Tooth Bending stress (MPa)

• • •

ba = Face width (mm) Y = Lewis Form Factor m = Module (mm)

When a gear wheel is rotating the gear teeth come into contact with some degree of impact. To allow for this a velocity factor is introduced into the equation. This is given by the Barth equation for milled profile gears.

K v = 6,1 / (6,1 + V )

V = the pitch line velocity = PCD.ω/2 The Lewis formula is thus modified as follows

σ = Fb / (K v. ba. m. Y )
The Lewis form factor Y must be determined for the virtual number of teeth z' = z /cos β The bending stress resulting should be less than the allowable bending stress Sb for the gear material under consideration. Some sample values are provide on this page ef Gear Strength Values
3

Surface Strength The allowable gear force from surface durability considerations is determined approximately using the simple equation as follows
2 Fw = K v d p b a Q K / cos β 2

Q = 2. dg /( dp + dp ) = 2.zg /( zp +zp )
Fw = The allowable gear load. (MPa) K = Gear Wear Load Factor (MPa) obtained by look up ref Gear Strength Values

Lewis Form factor for Teeth profile α = 20 , addendum = m, dedendum = 1.25m Number of teeth 12 13 14 15 16 Y Number of teeth Y Number of teeth Y Number of teeth Y Number of teeth Y 0.435 0.447 0.460 0.472 0.485

o

0.245 17 0.261 18 0.277 19 0.290 20 0.296 21

0.303 22 0.309 24 0.314 26 0.322 28 0.328 30

0.331 34 0.337 38 0.346 45 0.353 50 0.359 60

0.371 75 0.384 100 0.401 150 0.409 300 0.422 Rack

Material Properties Tables for Spur, Helical and Bevel Gears

Detailed gear designs should be based on more accurate information available using the relevant standards..

Suffix 1 relate to the driving gear (generally the pinion) Suffix 2 relate to the driven gear (generally the gear) Cp = Imperial elastic coefficient ZE = ISO elastic coefficient

Design factors for gear pairs Allowable Surface Endurance Stress ( S e) psi MPa K for α = 20 deg psi

Material Pinion Gear

Poissons Ratio (ν) Pinion Pinion 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 Pinion psi

Young's Modulus ( E ) Gear psi Pinion MPa Gear MPa

Cp

Ze

MPa √psi

√MPa

Steel.BHN Av=150 Steel.BHN Av=175 Steel.BHN Av=200 Steel.BHN Av=225 Steel.BHN Av=250 Steel.BHN Av=275 Steel.BHN Av=300 Steel.BHN Av=325 Steel.BHN Av=350 Steel.BHN Av=375 Steel.BHN Av=400

3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 50000 345 41 3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 60000 414 59 3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 70000 483 80 3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 80000 552 104 3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 90000 621 132 3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 100000 689 163 3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 110000 758 197 3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 120000 827 235 3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 130000 896 275 3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 140000 965 319 3.00E+07 3.00E+07 2.07E+05 2.07E+05 150000 1034 366

0.281 2291 190 0.404 2291 190 0.550 2291 190 0.719 2291 190 0.910 2291 190 1.123 2291 190 1.359 2291 190 1.617 2291 190 1.898 2291 190 2.201 2291 190 2.527 2291 190 0.332 2077 172 0.650 2077 172 1.075 2077 172 0.600 1888 157 0.728 1888 157 1.245 1888 157 1.240 1914 159 1.328 1763 146

Stl BHN=150 Cast Iron 0.3 Stl BHN=250 Cast Iron 0.3 Stl BHN=350 Cast Iron 0.3 Stl BHN=150 Phos Bros 0.3 Stl BHN=250 Phos Bros 0.3 Stl BHN=350 Phos Bros 0.3 Cast Iron Cast Iron

0.211 3.00E+07 2.20E+07 2.07E+05 1.52E+05 50000 345 48 0.211 3.00E+07 2.20E+07 2.07E+05 1.52E+05 70000 483 94 0.211 3.00E+07 2.20E+07 2.07E+05 1.52E+05 90000 621 156 0.38 0.38 0.38 3.00E+07 1.45E+07 2.07E+05 1.00E+05 59000 407 62 3.00E+07 1.45E+07 2.07E+05 1.00E+05 65000 448 100 3.00E+07 1.45E+07 2.07E+05 1.00E+05 85000 586 184 2.20E+07 1.45E+07 1.52E+05 1.00E+05 83000 572 234

Cast Iron 0.211 0.211 2.20E+07 2.20E+07 1.52E+05 1.52E+05 90000 621 264 Phos Bros 0.211 0.38

Gear Materials Properties

Material................

Ultimate Yield Tooth Tooth Allowable Allowable Young's Poison's Specification.............. Tensile Tensile Hardness Hardness Endurance Bending Modulus Ratio Strength Strength - Core - Side Stress Stress Rm MPa BS EN 1561:1997 EN-GJL-200 BS EN 1561:1997 EN-GJL-250 BS EN 1561:1997 EN-GJL-300 BS EN 1563:1997 EN-GJS 600-2 BS EN 1563:1997 EN-GJS 700-2 BS EN 1563:1997 ENGJS 800-2 BS 3100:1991 A3, A5 ** BS 3100:1991 A3, A5 ** 36Mn5 (1,1167) 36Mn5 (1,1167) Rp(0.2) MPa 100 125 150 370 420 480 260 300 340 400 380 550 295 335 335 360 325 390 380 440 637 850 785 300 340 390 539 850 VPN HV 200 220 240 190 230 250 150 180 210 220 200 245 150 155 175 205 155 200 200 235 285 300 290 180 210 200 250 315 VPN HV 200 220 240 190 230 250 150 180 210 220 200 245 150 155 175 205 155 200 200 235 285 300 290 600 600 600 600 600 Se MPa 340 350 360 430 510 550 420 480 540 560 520 610 370 380 420 480 430 520 520 590 690 720 700 1140 1140 1140 1140 1160 95 105 120 315 325 345 300 336 372 384 360 414 330 336 360 396 356 410 410 452 512 530 518 316 352 390 450 528 Sb MPa E GPa 91 105 113 169 169 169 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

1 Grey Cast Iron 2 Grey Cast Iron 3 Grey Cast Iron 4 Ductile Cast Iron 5 Ductile Cast Iron 6 Ductile Cast Iron 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Carbon Cast Steel Normalised Carbon Cast Steel Normalised Alloy Cast Steel Normalised Alloy Cast Steel Heat Treated Alloy Cast Steel Normalised Alloy Cast Steel Heat Treated Structural Steel Untreated Structural Steel Untreated Structural Steel Untreated Structural Steel Untreated

200 250 300 600 700 800 500 590 700 750

BS EN 10213-2:1996 650 G17CrMo511 BS EN 10213-2:1996 800 G17CrMo511 BS EN 10025-1:2004 490 E295 BS EN 10025-2:2004 510 S335J2G3 BS EN 10025-2:2004 588 E335 BS EN 10025-2:2004 686 E360 540

Carbon Structural Steel BS EN 10083-2 normalised C45

Carbon Structural Steel BS EN 10083-2:1991 640 heat treated C45 Carbon Structural Steel BS EN 10083-1:1991 660 normalised C60/ER Carbon Structural Steel BS EN 10083-1:1991 740 heat treated C60E/R Alloy Structural Steel Heat Treated Alloy Structural Steel Heat Treated Alloy Structural Steel Heat Treated Carbon Cast Steel tooth face hardened Carbon Cast Steel tooth face hardened BS EN 10083-1:1991 883 37Cr4 42CrV6 (1,7561) 31NiCr14 (1,5755) BS 3100:1991 A3,A5,AW2 36Mn5 (1,1167) 980 932 590 700

Carbon Structural Steel BS EN 10083-2:1991 640 tooth face hardened C50 Alloy Structural Steel tooth face hardened BS EN 10083-1:1991 785 37Cr4 42CrV6 (1,7561) 980

28 Alloy Structural Steel

tooth face hardened 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Alloy Structural Steel tooth face hardened Alloy Structural Steel Nitrided Alloy Structural Steel Nitrided Alloy Structural Steel Nitrided Alloy Structural Steel Nitrided Alloy Structural Steel Nitro Case hardened BS EN 10083-1:1991 965 34CrNiMo6 42MnV7 (1,5223) 30CrV9 30CrMoV9 (1,7707) 800 800 800 750 620 600 600 750 1350 275 295 588 685 635 735 440 390 700 300 250 250 250 300 485 135 150 250 285 285 300 235 200 250 600 550 800 800 750 615 650 650 650 650 650 650 235 600 600 1160 930 1180 1180 1180 1288 1210 1210 1270 1270 1270 1270 800 1140 1140 207 448 705 580 705 705 730 740 500 500 700 700 700 700 650 605 605 39 163 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 206 100 100 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.38 0.38

BS EN 10083-1:1991 965 34CrNiMo6 BS EN 10083-1:1991 1570 37Cr4

Carbon Structural Steel BS EN 10277-2:1999 440 case hardened C10 Carbon Structural Steel >C15E (1,1149 ) case hardened Alloy Structural Steel case hardened Alloy Structural Steel case hardened Alloy Structural Steel case hardened Alloy Structural Steel case hardened Carbon Steel Nitro caburised Carbon Steel tooth face hardened Alloy Steel tooth face hardened 16MnCr5 (1,7131) 35CrMo4 15NiCr6 14NiCr14(1.5732) 495 785 880 880 932

BS EN 10083-1:1991 740 C60E/R BS EN 10083-2 C50 BS EN 10083-1 37Cr4 640 900 276 621

44 Bronze Sand Cast 45 Bronze Heat Treated

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