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Title: Magnetic Particle Examination Technique Procedure for wet horizontal

stationary unit MAG-50




This procedure establishes the requirements for detection of

discontinuities in ferromagnetic components by using wet
Fluorescent magnetic particle examination method and MAG50
horizontal wet magnetic particle stationary machine, as available in
NDT shop/ /Lab.

2.1 The scope of this procedure
nondestructive testing personnel.







The following documents form a part of this procedure to the extent
specified herein:


Boeing Specification Support Standard,


ASTM E 1444-05

Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Inspection



American Society for Nondestructive Testing

Recommended Practice for Personnel Qualification
and Certification in Nondestructive Testing





ISO 17025


International Organization for Standardization,

General requirement for the Competence of
Testing and Calibration Shop/Shop/Laboratories
Vehicle, Magnetic Particle Inspection, Petroleum


AMS 3044

Magnetic Particle fluorescent wet method, oil

vehicle, and Dry powder


ASTM D 445

Test Method for Viscosity of Transparent and

Opaque Liquids


Component: the part(s) or elements(s) of a system described,

assembled, or processed to the extent specified by the drawing.


Final Examination: the final examination performed for the

acceptance of the item. Any change tithe item's surface such as
machining, grinding, welding, heat treatment, or etching by
subsequent manufacturing operation, may render the previous
examination invalid, requiring re-examination of all affected
surfaces, unless otherwise approved in the contract.


Linear Indication: Indications with at least a three to one length to

width ratio.


Rounded Indication: Indication whose length to width ratio is less

than three to one


Supplier: The organization contracted to supply the materials, parts

or assembly.


This procedure meets the requirements of ASME and BSS 7040 and
must be accepted by the Responsible Level III.


Unless approved by the Responsible Level III, all parts will require
100% inspection. If partial inspection is performed, an illustration,
either a drawing or photo of the tested area, shall accompany the
NDT results.


Record Retention
5.3.1 Unless otherwise specified, all inspection documents, process
control log books, equipment performance, calibration records
and other documents required to produce or record inspection

conditions and results shall be retained in accordance with

MSP-08 Maintaining of Quality Records.

Personnel Qualification
5.4.1 Personnel conducting Magnetic particle inspection shall be
qualified and certified in accordance with Qualification and
Certification Procedure for Motabaqah NDT Nondestructive
Testing Personnel, which is established from the American
Society of Nondestructive Testing Recommended Practice SNTTC-1A and NAS-410, latest revisions. Personnel holding Level
III certification in Magnetic particle inspection shall be
responsible for qualifying and certifying MOTABAQAH NDT
personnel as Level I and Level II in Magnetic Particle Testing. It
is the responsibility of Level I, and II Magnetic Particle
personnel to perform the examinations evaluate and record
the results according to this procedure.


5.5.1 When customer purchase orders, manufacturers drawings or
manuals, or technical orders detail the requirements for
performance of the magnetic particle inspection, such as type
and rate of current, they shall be followed in lieu of the
requirements to this procedure. A copy of NDT requirements
from governing documentation shall accompany each work
order or each part when the governing documentation has
specific requirements for each part. Deviation from this
procedure requires approval from responsible Level III. For
components processed in-house, an initial review of the part
must be accomplished and Magnetic Particle Inspection
Technique Sheet be completed and approved by the
Responsible Level III. Signed techniques are located in the MT
Shop/Shop/Lab and are filed in ring binders folder by
order of department in which the part is typically
worked; top assembly number and specific part
number. The index of technique sheet folder by
listing each part number filed and may be used by
the technician as a guide to locate the specific
technique in the binders.


Examination Sequence
5.6.1 Perform magnetic particle examination after all operations,
which might cause or reveal discontinuities. Such operations
include, but are not limited to, forging, heat treatment,

electroplating, forming, welding grinding, straightening and

machining. Perform magnetic particle examination prior to
shot peening (to provide a beneficial compressive layer) and
prior to applying protective finishes such as priming, painting,
plating or other coatings. For in-service examination, plating
or coating do not required removal prior to examination
unless they are damaged or they interfere with the
examination process

Preparation of Parts
5.7.1 The surface of the part to be examined shall be essentially
smooth, clean, dry, and free from oil, scale, machining marks,
or other contaminants or conditions that might interfere with
the efficiency of the examination. If prior operations have
produced a residual magnetic field that may interfere with the
examination, the part shall be demagnetized.


5.8.1 Components submitted to MT Shop/Shop/Lab shall be
identified by Identification Tag, which must list part number,
serial number (if applicable), part description, work order
number and technician. Tag must be affixed to the part or,
when not practical, placed inside a plastic bag with the part to
prevent mixing of components. Prior to returning the
components to the Shop, identification tags must be
reattached. When parts are submitted to the MT Shop/Shop/Lab
are for inspection, the NDT Work Order Sign In Sheet,
must be reviewed and parts processed on a first
in/first out system unless specifically annotated as


Record of Examination

5.10 The results of all Magnetic Particle Testing shall be recorded on

Result Sheet / Examination Report and returned with the components
to the appropriate technician. Records shall provide for traceability to
the specific part or lot examined, serial number (if serialized) and shall
identify the NDT contractor or facility and the procedures used in the
examination, the lot size, the number of parts accepted and include
the technician's name, signature, quality inspector stamp and date of
examination. Result Sheet / Examination Report are designed to certify
multiple components within the same work order number. All recorded
result be identified, filed and made available for review by the
contracting agency upon request. In addition, a running log of daily

jobs and parts processed shall be completed.

demagnetizing requirements adequately without damage to
the part under examination, and it shall include the necessary
features for safe operation. Demagnetizing equipment shall
be capable of demagnetizing all magnetized components so
that a magnetic field probe or strength meter shall not detect
field with an absolute value above three gauss anywhere on
the part. The equipment and material used in magnetic
particle inspection shall be checked or calibrated as applicable
at intervals specified in Table-I.

Table- I Test and Test Frequency



Maximum Interval
FL1, FL2, FL3

Wet Particle Concentration


Daily or Before use

Wet Particle Contamination


Daily or Before use

System Performance Verification


Daily or Before use



When bath is adjusted

Gauss Meters Accuracy


Ammeter Accuracy

5.17.1 &

Timer Control Check

6 Months FL 4
6 Months FL 4
6 Months FL 4


6 Months FL 4


6 Months




6 Months


Daily or Before use

Magnetic Field Quick Break Check

Internal Short
Field Indicators
Black Light and White Light Meters
Black Light Intensity
White Light Intensity

Daily or Before use


Ambient Light Intensity

5.17.1 &

FL1 Test equipment and materials whenever modification or adjustments

are made.
FL2 Changing local conditions, results of tests or high volume usage,
may indicate more frequent tests.
FL3 All equipment and materials are to pass required performance tests
prior to acceptance of parts.

The maximum time between verification may be extended when

substantiated by actual technical/reliability data.
Monitor continuously no records required.

5.11 Inspection Area

The inspection area shall be free from residual visible
light background.
5.12 New Material Conformance
Prior to being placed in-use, the conformance of
materials shall be verified, normally by a certified report from
the supplier. Wet particles shall meet the requirements of AMS
3044. The suspension vehicle shall be a light petroleum
distillate conforming to AMS 2641(Type-I). Operator shall be
alert to any change in performance, color, odor, consistency,
or appearance of all materials in use and shall conduct the
appropriate checks and tests if they have reason to believe
the quality may have deteriorated.
5.13 Record of System Verification
The results of all system in-process verification checks
shall be recorded on Register, Magnetic Particle - In-Process
Verification record and be maintained in accordance with Para.
5.14 Concentration and Contamination Checks
Particle concentration shall be determined at intervals
specified in Table-I and when the bath is changed or adjusted.
The contamination check may be combined and performed
with concentration checks. An ASTM pear shaped centrifuge
tube with a 1 ml stem; 0.05 ml increments shall be used for
this check. The particle suspension shall be agitated a
minimum of 30 minutes to ensure uniform distribution of
particles throughout the bath. Place a 100 ml sample of the
agitated suspension in the centrifuge tube, demagnetize and
allow the tube to stand undisturbed for a settling time of at
least 60 minutes petroleum distillate. The volume of
fluorescent magnetic particle shall be 0.1 to 0.4 ml. If the
concentration is out of tolerance add particle or suspension
vehicle as required and re-determine the particle
concentration. If the settled particles appear to be loose
agglomerates rather than a solid layer, take a second sample.
If the second sample also appears agglomerated, replace the
entire suspension. Examine the graduated portion under both
black light and visible light for striations or bands and
difference in color or appearance. If the suspension has
contaminants, including bands or striations that exceed 30%
of the volume of magnetic particle, the bath must be adjusted
or replaced. The metal chips or other foreign matter to extent
that the testing sensitivity or the function of the unit is

5.15 System Performance Test

System Performance test shall be performed at interval
specified in Table-I by using an AS 5282 Tool Steel Ring. Place
a non-ferromagnetic conductor with a diameter between 1.00
to 1.25 inches and at least 16 inches long through the center
of the ring and clamp between the heads. Center the ring on
the conductor and place the ring so that the number one hole
is at the 12 oclock position and the other holes are facing the
inspector. Attach an artificial flaw shim, Type CX, to the ring
specimen approximately 0.5 inch from the number one hole,
away from the inspector. Magnetize the ring circularly by
passing required current through the conductor. Use the
current levels specified in Table-II as applicable. Apply the
suspension to the ring using continuous method and examine
the ring within 1 minute after current application. Fluorescent
bath shall be examined under black light conditions that meet
the requirements of Para 5.23. The number of hole indications
visible shall meet or exceed those specified in Table-II.
Current levels used and number of holes observed may be
limited by equipment current capacity and type of parts being
inspected. The ring shall be demagnetized and thoroughly
cleaned following the examination and checked under a black
light to ensure that residual indications do not remain.
Amperage and Hole Indication Requirements for
AS5258 Ring
Type of suspension
Wet Fluorescent Oxide

5.16 Viscosity


Minimum Number
of Holes Indicated






Liquid vehicle purchased with certification of conformity to AMS 2641
does not require verification of viscosity for makeup of new
suspension bath. Verification of viscosity is required whenever
additional liquid is added to an existing bath. The suspension
viscosity shall not exceed 5 centistokes, as measured in
accordance with ASTM D 445.
5.17 Equipment Calibration
Magnetic particle equipment shall be checked for
performance and accuracy at the time of purchase and at 6month intervals thereafter, when malfunction is suspected, or
when electrical maintenance that may affect equipment
accuracy is performed. Equipment checks shall be made at
frequencies specified in Table-I and record maintained in
accordance with Para 5.3.1. The calibration of equipment shall
be traceable to the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) or other recognized standards, where
applicable. Calibration of all current and voltage measuring
devices, ammeter shunts, and gauss meter used in verification
shall be calibrated in accordance with ISO17025. Equipment
calibration is monitored through calibration schedule and is
documented on Calibration Record Folder and Calibration Result
Sheet, when applicable.
5.18 Ammeter Calibration
To check the equipment ammeter, a calibrated ammeter
shall be connected in series with the output circuit.
Comparative readings shall be taken at least three output
levels encompassing the usable range of the equipment. The
equipment meter shall not deviate by more than 10% or 50
amperes; whichever is greater from the current values shown
by the calibrated ammeter. This check shall be accomplished
at interval specified in Table-I and in accordance with ISO
5.19 Timer control check
On equipment using a timer to control the current
duration, the timer should be calibrated to within 0.1
Second using a suitable electronic timer at interval specified
in Table-I
5.20 Magnetic Field Quick Break Check
On equipment that using a, Quick Break feature, Proper
functioning of this circuit shall be verified at interval specified
in Table-I. The test may be performed using a suitable

oscilloscope, commercially available tester,

applicable method as specified by the

or other

5.21 Internal Short Test

Stationary equipment shall be tested for internal shorts
at the intervals specified in Table I. With the current control
set above 1,000 amperes, the switch set on contact, and
nothing clamped in the heads, activate the power to the
heads. An ammeter reading above 1 or 2 (10 to 20 amps)
indicates an internal short and the equipment shall be
repaired prior to running production parts. Using the same
settings and conduct the test again with a piece of non
conductive (wood) material clamped in the heads. An
ammeter reading above 1 or 2 (10 to 20 amps) indicates an
internal short and the equipment shall be repaired prior to
running production parts.
5.22 Field Indicators
Meters used to test for residual magnetic fields shall be
either: Calibrated/certified yearly, or Compared to a
calibrated/certified source weekly.
5.23 Lighting
Black light reflectors and filters shall be checked daily
for cleanliness and integrity. Dirty reflectors shall be repaired
as appropriate. Replace cracked or broken ultraviolet filters
immediately. Broken filters can continue to radiate ultraviolet
energy and must be replaced immediately. Spectacles
designed to absorb ultraviolet wavelength radiation are
suggested for close, high black light intensity, examination.
Fluorescent magnetic particle examinations shall be
performed in a darkened area with a maximum ambient
visible light level of 2-foot candles measured at the part
surface. The inspection area shall be equipped with a black
light, which provides a minimum intensity of 1200 microwatts
per square centimeter at the surface of the part being
inspected. For hand-held black lights, the intensity shall be
measured 15 inches from the front of the filter to the face of
the sensor. For interpretation of indications found with
fluorescent magnetic particles, a white light capable of
providing a minimum intensity of 100-foot candles (1000 Lux
of illumination at the part surface shall be provided. Black
lights, ambient and visible light shall be checked at intervals
specified in Table-I or when changes occur that may cause the
light intensity to change, When bulbs are replaced, both
checks shall be performed prior to inspection of components.
A minimum of 15 minutes shall be allowed for the black light

to obtain full brilliance before measuring the intensity. A

Magnaflux Model No. MK VI Radiometer/ Photometer light
meter or equivalent shall be used to measure light intensity.
The light intensity meters shall be re-certified at intervals
specified in Table-I and in accordance with ISO 17025.
5.24 Wet Magnetic Particle Application, Continuous Method
Gently spraying or flowing the suspension over the area
to be examined or by immersion of the part in the suspension
shall apply fluorescent particles suspended in a liquid vehicle
at the required concentration. Proper sequencing and timing
of part magnetization and application of particle suspension
are required to obtain the proper formation and retention of
indications. This requires that the stream of suspension be
diverted from the part simultaneously with, or slightly before,
energizing the magnetic circuit. The magnetizing current shall
be applied for duration of at least half second for each
application, with a minimum of two shots being used. The
second shot should follow the first in rapid succession. It
should come after the flow of suspension has been interrupted
and before the part is examined for indications. Care shall be
exercised to prevent any damage to the part due to
overheating or other causes. Weakly held indications on
highly finished parts are readily washed away, and hence,
care must be exercised to prevent high-velocity flow over
critical surfaces.
5.25 Magnetic Field Strength
The applied magnetic field shall have sufficient strength
to produce satisfactory indications, but it must not be so
strong that it causes the masking of relevant indications by
non-relevant accumulations of magnetic particles. Adequate
field strength may be determined by one or a combination of
the following methods: By examining
specified in the
notched shims

parts having known or artificial

of the type, size, and location
acceptance requirements or by using
as shown in BSS7040 page No. 14, By using a Hall Effect probe gauss meter capable of

measuring the peak values of the tangential field.
Tangential-filed strengths shall have a minimum
value of 30 Gauss (30 X 10-4 Tesla [T]) when

measured at the part surface. Ensure that adequate

field strengths are present in areas of the part to be
examined. Readings in the range of 30 to 60 Gauss
(30 to 60 X 10-4 Tesla [T]) are considered adequate
field strength. By using the current levels specified in Para. 5.27.1.
These current levels and formulas provide only a
rough guide and shall only be used in conjunction
with either Para., or Para., or LevelIII approval, or a combination thereof.
5.26 Magnetic Field Direction
5.27 Discontinuities are difficult to detect by the magnetic particle
method when they make an angle less than 45 O to the direction of
magnetization. To ensure the detection of discontinuities in any
direction, each part must be magnetized in a minimum of two
directions at approximately right angles to each other. Depending on
part geometry, this may consist of circular magnetization in two or
more directions, multiple circular and longitudinal magnetization, or of
longitudinal magnetization in two or more directions. The flexible
laminated strips as described in BSS7040 page 14 Fig. 1 or the pie field
indicator as illustrated in BSS7040 page 14 Fig. 2 (Magnaflux Part
Number 169799) may only be used as a tool to demonstrate the
direction of the external magnetic field.
5.28 Direct Circular Magnetization
When magnetizing by passing current directly through
the part, (that is, using head shots) the diameter of the part
shall be taken as the greatest distance between any two
points on the outside circumference of the part. A rule of
thumb suggests current from 300-800 Amperes per inch of
part diameter (12 to 32 A/mm) when the part is reasonably
uniform and cylindrical in shape be used, but these
amperages are only average current values. The lower limit of
such rule of thumb shall be used as an initial magnetization
current level. From this point, either a gauss meter and/or
shim indicators shall be used to find the correct current level.
Parts with multiple cross sections may have different
amperages specified. Inspection sequence shall be from the
lowest to the highest value given. The use of braided pads
shall be used to prevent electrical arcing and burning.

5.29 Central Conductor Circular Magnetization

Passing current through a conductor that is positioned
inside the part may provide circular magnetization. In this
case, alternating current is to be used only when the sole
purpose of the test is to examine for surface discontinuities on
the inside surface of the part. If only the inside of the part is
to be examined, the diameter shall be the greatest distance
between two points, 180 degrees apart on the inside
circumference. Otherwise, the diameter is determined as in
5.30 Centrally Located Conductor
When the axis of the central conductor is located near
the central axis of the part, the same current levels as given
in paragraph 5.27.1 shall apply. Keep in mind the magnetizing
field strength around a central conductor decreases with
distance away from the conductor. The strongest flux field is
present at the inner surface of the hole through which the
central conductor passes. The central conductor should have
an outside diameter as close as practical to the inside
diameter of the hole of the part being inspected and still
permit access to apply solution.
5.31 Offset Central Conductor
When the conductor that is positioned inside the part is
placed against an inside wall of the part, the current levels
given in paragraph 5.27.1 shall apply, except that the total
diameter shall be the sum of the diameter of the central
conductor twice the wall thickness of the part. The distance
along the part circumference (interior) that may be effectively
examined shall be taken as approximately four times the
diameter o the central conductor up to 360 degrees provided
the presence of suitable fields are verified. The entire
circumference shall be examined by rotating the part on the
conductor, allowing for approximately 10% magnetic field
overlap. See Fig. 3 in ASTM E1444-05 for illustration.
5.32 Longitudinal Magnetization

Longitudinal magnetization is often accomplished by

passing current through a coil encircling the part, or section of

the part, to be examined (that is, by using a coil shot). This
produces a magnetic field parallel to the axis of the coil. The
effective field extends a distance on either side of the coil
center approximately equal to the radius of the coil. The
actual effective distance must be demonstrated based on the
particular part to be examined. For parts longer than these
effective distances, the entire length shall be examined by
repositioning the part within the coil, allowing for
approximately 10% effective filed overlap. See Para of
BSS 7040 for formulas that can be used in coil magnetization.
Note: These formulas may be used as a guide to establish
preliminary magnetizing current values and shall be verified
by one of the magnetic field strength monitoring methods
referenced in Para 5.25.1.
5.33 Induced current magnetization (Toroidal or Circumferential)
Induced current magnetization is accomplished by
inductively coupling a part to an electrical coil to create a
suitable current flow in the part as shown in ASTM E 1444-05
figure-2. This method is often advantageous on ring shaped
parts with a central aperture and with an L/D ratio less than
three especially where the elimination of arcing or burning is
vital importance.
5.34 Inspection
Following magnetization and particle application, the
parts shall be examined for indications. All indications will be
identified as relevant or Non-relevant. Relevant indications will
be compared to accept/reject criteria and the parts accepted
or rejected according. Inspection for magnetic particle
indications shall be done under the lighting conditions
specified in Para. 5.23.1. Personnel must wait at least 1
minute after entering a darkened area for the eyes to adjust
to the low-level lighting before performing fluorescent
magnetic particle examination. Longer times for more
complete adaptation should be used if necessary. When using
fluorescent materials, examination personnel shall not wear
eyeglasses that are photo chromic or that have permanently
darkened lenses. This is not intended to prohibit the use of
eyeglasses with lenses treated to absorb ultraviolet light.
5.35 Non-Relevant or False Indications

Non-relevant indications are those that result from
surface conditions, machining marks, incomplete bond
between base metal and cladding etc. Also particles will
adhere to certain areas created by such design factors as
keyways, drilled holes or abrupt changes of section.
Indications thought to be non-relevant shall be considered to
be relevant until further evaluation is made. This may include
surface conditioning and re-examination. Non-relevant
indications that could mask relevant indications are not
acceptable. Such area shall be thoroughly cleaned and reexamined. NDT technicians shall be acquainted with these
and other irrelevant indications and shall be able to recognize
5.36 Relevant Indication
Relevant indications are those that result from mechanical
discontinuities. All relevant indications shall be evaluated in
accordance with the applicable acceptance criteria. Linear
indications are indications in which the length is more than 3
times the width. Rounded indications are indications that are
circular or elliptical; with the length less than 3 time the width.
5.37 Acceptance Criteria
Acceptance criteria shall be as specified by the
customer purchase order, manufacturers drawings or
manuals, or technical orders. Parts that contain surface
discontinuities in excess of acceptance limits are
unacceptable. If acceptance criteria are not specified, it shall
be the absence of any relevant indications during component
examination, as observed and interpreted by the operator
following the procedures in this document.
5.38 Demagnetization
When using DC demagnetization, the initial field shall be
higher than in nearly the same direction as the field reached
during examination. The field shall then be reversed,
decreased in magnitude, and the process repeated until an
acceptable low value of residual field is reached. Whenever
possible parts that have been magnetized circularly shall be
magnetized in the longitudinal direction before being
demagnetization. After demagnetization, a magnetic field
probe or magnetic field indicator shall not detect fields with
an absolute value above 3 gauss anywhere on the part.
5.39 Post Examination Cleaning

All parts shall be cleaned after examination. Cleaning
shall be done with a suitable solvent or by other means. Parts
shall be inspected to ensure that the cleaning procedure has
removed magnetic particle residues from holes, crevices,
passageways, etc. such residue could have an adverse effect
on the intended use of the part. Parts shall be protected from
corrosion or damage when required.
5.40 Serviceable Components
Components that have met the Magnetic Particle
examination requirements and are found to be acceptable
shall be marked and the marking shall be affixed to the record
accompanying the component.
5.41 Unserviceable Components
Components that have been found to be defective
during the Magnetic Particle examination shall be segregated,
so as to prevent their inadvertent use or mixing with
acceptable parts. They shall be identified with a red
Reject/Unserviceable Tag.
5.42 Other Markings
Other means of identification, such as tagging, may be
used for parts that have a configuration or function precluding
the use of stamping, or etching.
5.43 Magnetic Particle System Preventative Maintenance
On an annual basis or if contamination occurs, magnetic
particle materials should be discarded and replaced with new
materials. This should be done by draining the magnetic
particle fluid tank and discarding the materials in accordance
with Environmental, Health and Safety Standards. When
changing batch numbers for the carrier or particle, new carrier
should be added when tank appears to be completely empty
to flush out remainder of carrier and particle that may be held
in the pump. New carrier should continually be added until it
runs clear out of the hose, ensuring no, in use carrier is
trapped anywhere in the system. In no case should batch
numbers be mixed. Turn machine off. The tank and rack
should be wiped as clean as possible. Ensure and verify that
the valve of the tank have been closed prior to adding new
carrier. Add new carrier and turn machine back ON. Slowly
add particles to the carrier according to manufacturer
instructions and allow them to agitate prior to taking an initial
sample in accordance with para 5.14.1. Add carrier or
particles as necessary to obtain the optimum results.

Replenish the system throughout the year or as needed. In

addition, a small portion of unused materials is required to be
set aside for system performance checks. Prior to processing
any components through the system, all applicable system
and material checks should be performed.