You are on page 1of 4

* Insulation type. 1 in = 25.4 mm, 1 ft = 0.

3048 m

TABLE B4.12 Maximum Support Spacing for Seismic Stress for a Frequency of 20 Hz (Feet -Inches), Steel Pipe

STRESS ANALYSIS OF PIPING SYSTEMS

B.197
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

* Insulation type. 1 in = 25.4 mm, 1 ft = 0.3048 m

TABLE B4.13 Maximum Support Spacing for Seismic Stress for a Frequency of 20 Hz (Feet -Inches), Steel Pipe

STRESS ANALYSIS OF PIPING SYSTEMS

B.198
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

* Insulation type. 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ft = 0.0348 m

TABLE B4.14 Maximum Support Spacing for Seismic Stress for a Frequency of 20 Hz (Feet -Inches), Steel Pipe

STRESS ANALYSIS OF PIPING SYSTEMS

B.199
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

STRESS ANALYSIS OF PIPING SYSTEMS


B.200

GENERIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Method of Analysis. The piping system is modeled as a series of masses connected by


massless springs having the properties of the piping. The mathematical model should
include the effects of piping geometry changes, elbow flexibilities, concentrated weights,
changes in piping cross sections, and any other parameters affecting the stiffness matrix
of the model. Mass point spacing should follow the guidelines specified above. Valves
should be modeled as lumped masses at valve body and operator, with appropriate
section properties for valve body and valve topworks. Rigid supports, snubbers, springs,
and equipment nozzles should be modeled with appropriate spring rates in particular
degree of freedom. Stress intensification factors should be input at the appropriate
locations (elbows, tees, branch connections, welds, etc.). Piping distributed weight should
include pipe weight, insulation weight, and entrained fluid weight.
Once an accurate model is developed, the loading conditions are applied
mathematically:
1. Statically applied loads (deadweight, wind loads, pressure thrust, etc.)
2. Thermal expansion
3. Statically applied boundary condition displacements (seismic anchor
movement, LOCA containment displacement, etc.)
4. Response spectrum analysis (seismic, etc.)
5. Dynamically applied boundary condition displacements (LOCA motion, etc.)
6. Dynamically applied forcing functions (steam hammer, etc.)
The results of the analyses should be examined in order to determine if all allowables
are met (i.e., piping stress, valve acceleration, nozzle loads, etc.). The loads must be
combined using the appropriate load combinations and submitted to structural
designers for their analysis.

PROCEDURES FOR THE DESIGN OF RESTRAINED


UNDERGROUND PIPING
This section is reproduced by the courtesy of ASME B31.1.
Foreword
The B31.1 Code contains rules governing the design, fabrication, materials, erection,
and examination of power piping systems. Experience over the years has demonstrated
that these rules may be conservatively applied to the design and analysis of buried
piping systems. However, the ASME B31.1 rules were written for piping suspended
in open space, with the supports located at local points on the pipe. Buried piping, on
the other hand, is supported, confined, and restrained continuously by the passive
effects of the backfill and the trench bedding. The effects of continuous restraint
cannot be easily evaluated by the usual methods applied to exposed piping, since
these methods cannot easily accommodate the effects of bearing and friction at the
pipe/soil interface. Accordingly, this section has been prepared to illustrate and clarify
the application of B31.1 Code rules to restrained buried piping.
All components in the buried piping system must be given consideration, including
the building penetrations, branches, bends, elbows, flanges, valves, grade penetrations,

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)


Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.