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Fat content and fatty acid composition of seed oils

Explanation of chemical symbols:


18:3w3 = 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds at the 3, 6, and 9 carbon
positions, and w3 means that first double bond is at 3. carbon position
w = [read "omega"]

Fat content and fatty acid composition of seed oils (%)


fatty acid percentage in oil
Polyunsaturated
Monounsaturated
Saturated
LNA
LA LNA+LA
18:1w9
18:0 16:0 Total

Seeds
Name
Fat
Content
in seed 18:3w3 18:2w6 w3+w6

hemp
chia
kukui
flax
pumpkin
soybean
walnut
wheat germ
evening
primrose
safflower
sunflower
grape
corn
sesame
rice bran

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)
35
30
30
35
46.7
17.7
60
10.9
17

(%)
20
30
29
58
0-15
7
5
5
-

(%)
60*
40
40
14
42-57
50
51
50
81**

(%)
80
70
69
72
57
57
56
55
81

12
19
34
26
28
25
11

2
4
0
6
5
18
2

6
5
9
9
11
0
6

8
9
9
15
16
18
8

59.5
47.3
20
4
49.1
10

75
65
71
59
45
35

75
65
71
59
45
36

13
23
17
24
42
48

12
12
12
17
13
17

12
12
12
17
13
17

cottonseed
rape(canola)
peanut
almond
olive
avocado
coconut
palm kernel
beech
brazil
pecan
pistachio
hickory
filbert
macadamia
cashew
neem

40
30
47.5
54.2
20
12
35.3
35.3
50
66.9
71.2
53.7
68.7
62.4
71.6
41.7
40

7
1

50
30
29
17
8
10
3
2
32
24
20
19
17
16
10
6
20

50
37
29
17
8
10
3
2
32
24
20
19
17
16
10
6
21

21
54***
47
78
75
70
6
13
54
48
63
65
68
54
71
70
41

25
7
18
5
16
20
0
0
8
24
7
9
9
5
12
18
20

91
85
-

25
7
18
5
16
20
91
85
8
24
7
9
9
5
12
18
20

Includes up to 2% GLA - Gamma Linolenic Acid

** Includes 9% GLA
*** Includes up to 5%erucic acid

Linoleic Acid (LA)

Alpha Linolenic Acid (LNA)

Deficiency Symptoms:

Deficiency Symptoms:

eczema-like skin eruptions;


growth retardation;
loss of hair;
weakness;
liver degeneration;
impairment of vision and learning
behavioral disturbances;
ability;
motor incoordination;
kidney degenerations;
tingling sensations in arms and
excessive water loss through the
legs;
skin accompanied by thirst;
behavioral changes;
drying up of glands;
susceptibility to infections;
These symptoms can be reversed by
failure of wound healing;

sterility in males;
miscarriage in females;
arthritis-like conditions;
heart and circulatory problems ;
and
growth retardation;

Prolonged absence of LA from diet is


fatal. All of the deficiency symptoms
(except death) can be reversed by
adding LA back to the diet from which it
was missing.
LA is found in safflower, sunflower,
hemp, soybean,walnut, pumpkin,
sesame, and flax.
Safflower and sunflower are the richest
source of LA.

adding LNA back to the diet from which it


was missing. Other symptoms that can
result from LNA (or w3) deficiency
include :

high triglycerides;
high blood pressure;
sticky platelets;
tissue inflammation;
edema;
dry skin;
mental deterioration;
low metabolic rate;
some kinds of immune
dysfunction;

These are not considered 'classic'


symptoms of w3 deficiency, but often
respond remarkably well to
w3supplementation.
LNA is five times more unstable than LA
and modern people consume 10 times
less LNA then LA.
LNA is found in flax, hemp seed,
canola(rape seed), soybean, walnut and
dark-green leaves. Flax seed is the
richest source, containing over 50% of
its fatty acids as LNA. Chia and kukui
(candlenut) oils contains about 30%
LNA. Hemp seed oil contains about 20%
LNA. Pumpkin seed oil contains between
1% and 15% LNA. Canola oil contains
up to 10% LNA and Walnut oil contains
between 3% and 11% LNA.

FATS - What are the real issues?


A lot has been said about fats, much of it confusing, some of it misleading. You should
have a clear, sensible approach to fat consumption in a healthy diet by following these
simple guidelines:

Good balance in diet between LA(w6) and


1:2 LA (w6)

Modern diet imbalance:

Ratio:

(w3) LNA 1:10 LA (w6)

Omega3 : Omega 6
LNA : LA

Modern diet: from

1
up to

: 10

1 : 50

Our needs:

1:2

Flaxseed oil

4:1

Udo's Choice

2:1

hemp oil
sunflower
safflower
corn
Olive oil
Canola (Rape seed)
soybeen

1:3
0 : 65
0 : 75
0 : 59
0:8
1:4
1:7

LNA(w3) fatty acids is (w3) LNA

Use only cold pressed (expeller pressed) nonrefined oils, ( keep refrigerated )and
non heated not exposed to the light or air
No margarine (margarine is made from hydrogenated fats, and refined oils, that
why it is hard )
No Hydrogenated Fat ( HF ) (HF is made from trans fatty acids)
No Oils from Supermarket , they are heated and refined (EFA are removed)
(transparent bottle means that oil will not be harmed by light, and that mean that
oil does not have EFA ); If oil is kept in the usual shelves (out of refrigerator) that
mean that oil does not have EFA
The most dangerous fats are typically found in margarine, shortenings, and
heated oils.

Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) Chemical Formulas

This EFA is called Linoleic Acid (LA)


and is poly-unsaturated. LA is an 18 carbon chain fatty acid with two double bonds in
the middle and is missing four hydrogen atoms, all on one side. The first double bond
occurs after the 6th carbon atom. Because of this, LA is sometimes referred to as the
W6 EFA. Because of the four missing hydrogen atoms, LA is even more bent than
Oleic Acid, giving it a melting temperature of 23 degrees F (-5C).
LA is fairly unstable,
reacting with light and oxygen.

This is Alpha Linolenic Acid (LNA). It is


an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds at the 3, 6, and 9 carbon positions. LNA
is missing 6 hydrogen atoms, again all from one side. Because of the first double bond
occurring at the 3rd carbon atom, LNA is sometimes referred to as the W3 EFA. It is
sometimes referred to as a super unsaturated fatty acid (SUFA), even though it is also
poly-unsaturated. Because LNA is bent more than the others, it has the lowest melting
point of the three, 10 degrees F (-12 C). (I have a bottle of it in my freezer and it is still
liquid!). LNA is 5 times more unstable than LA and quickly goes rancid if exposed to light
or oxygen. It is so unstable, in fact, that when it is pressed from the seeds that possess
it, the pressing must be done in the total absence of light and oxygen. It must be handled
in this way right through to the packaging stage, then quickly refrigerated or frozen.