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A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction, or 'learning

trajectory' for a lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class learning.
Details will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the
needs of the students.

What strategies can be used for teaching Social Studies to

students with learning disabilities?
Teachers in inclusive classrooms regularly face the difficult task of having to modify the
curriculum to reach all of their students, many of whom have special needs. Students with
disabilities, whether physical, emotional, or cognitive in nature, respond to the curriculum
differently from other students. For example, depending on the disability itself and other factors
affecting their ability to succeed academically. Teachers must adjust the materials or their
presentation to break down the barriers and assist these students in learning. To meet the goal of
equal access to the curriculum for everyone, to enable each student to engage with his or her
lessons in a meaningful way, teachers must be prepared to provide useful alternatives in terms of
both curricular materials and instructional delivery. Well-adapted materials without an effective
method of teaching are practically useless, but with the proper tools and instructional methods, a
good teacher encourages each member of the class to participate directly in the learning

Advantages of Lesson Planning:

Some of the advantages of lesson planning are as under:
(i) Lesson planning makes the work regular, organized and more systematic.
(ii) It induces confidence in the teacher.
(iii) It saves a lot of time.
(iv)It develops self confidence in the teacher.
(v)It stimulates the teacher to think in an organised manner.
(vi)It helps the teacher to understand to objectives properly.
(vii)It helps the teacher in evaluating his teaching.
(viii)It inspires the teacher to improve the further lessons.

Features of a Lesson Plan:

Some important features of a lesson-plan are as under:
1. Objectives:
The entire cognitive objective that is intended to be fulfilled should be listed in the lesson-plan.
Objectives should be formulated in terms of changes desired in behaviour of students.
Objectives, as we know, have two specifications; the content specification and the competence
specification. We have to mention clearly what type of changes we are going to bring in different
domains cognitive, affective and psychomoter of students behaviour within a particular type of
The objective should be written in specific behavioural terms stating exactly what the learner
will be doing, or saying when he demonstrates that he has achieved the aims of an instructional
sequence. Walbesser constructing behavioural objectives listed four requirements for the
construction of objectives:
1. Words denoting the stimulus situation which initiates the performance should appear in the
description of the objective.
2. An action verb which denotes observable behavior must be contained in the description.
3. A word denoting the object acted upon must be contained in the description.
4. A phrase which indicates the characteristics of the performance that determines its correctness
or acceptability must be included in the description of the objectives.
An example of a well stated behavioural objective in history is:

The students will be able to recall and recognize the facts and events relating to the period of
In selecting the objectives for a particular lesson in history, the teacher, first of all, should see
that they are worthwhile learning out-comes, pertinent to the course. Secondly, the teacher
should be clear and definite in his mind about the desired learning outcomes. Lastly, the
objective should be feasible. In other words, it should be attained by the procedure followed and
within the time allotted for it.

2. Content:
The subject-matter that is intended to be covered should be limited to the prescribed time. The
matter must be interesting and it should be related to pupils previous knowledge. It should be
related to daily life situations.

3. Methods:
The most appropriate method is chosen by the teacher. The method chosen should be suitable to
the subject-matter to be taught. Suitable teaching aids must also be identified by the teacher.
Teacher may also use supplementary aids to make his lesson more effective.

4. Evaluation:
Teacher must evaluate his lesson to find the extent to which he has achieved the aim of his lesson
evaluation can be done even by recapitulation of subject-matter through suitable questions.
In writing a lesson plan the following points are written down:
(i) Date,(ii) Period,(iii) Class,(iv) Duration(v) Subject,(vi) Topic,(vii) General objectives,(viii)
Specific objectives,(ix) Previous knowledge of the students,(x) Teaching aids and materials to be
used,(xi) Introduction,(xii) Statement of object,(xiii) Presentation,(xiv) Generalisations,(xv)
Recapitulations,(xvi) Black-board summary,(xvii) Hand-work.

These 6 Stages in Your Successful

Lesson Planning
Lead-in (3 minutes)
This is where you will introduce your topic to the class. Audio-visual aids
such as a music video are an excellent lead-in tool. The lead-in should be 5
minutes or less as it is just a warm-up. For example: the famous nursery rhyme
Old McDonald had a farm, could be a fun lead-in for a lesson on animals. Your
objective here is to lay the foundation for your lesson. You dont want it to be too
long as it should not overshadow your lesson.
After listening to the song/watching the video you can ask the students to
make a prediction on what topic the lesson would be based on for the
day, it gives them a little thrill when they make the correct predication.

Elicitation (5 minutes)
Elicitation is basically extracting information. At this step, you want to test the
students current knowledge on the topic. A good way to elicit information from the
students is to show them a prop, flashcards or a PowerPoint presentation. Each image or
prop will get the students talking and more engaged in your lesson. For example, in a
lesson on animals you will show the class images of different animals and get the
students to identify the animals. You can take it a step further with higher level students
and try to get them to name the offspring. Another fun idea is to play sounds of different
animals and have the class identify the creature from just the sound; this would be an
excellent way to practicing listening. Your aim here is just to test the students knowledge
on the topic.

NB: Using funny looking images creates a lighter atmosphere in the classroom as it draws the
student in and builds greater engagement.

Presentation (7 minutes)
In this step you will be presenting the main topic. So, if you chose the
theme of animals you should have a focus area such as animal homes. During
your presentation you will talk about this topic. PowerPoint presentations;
Flashcards or Charts are great for this stage of your lesson. Using your students
current knowledge on the theme will be useful at this stage of the lesson. At this
point of the lesson it would be appropriate tointroduce the class to new
vocabulary and key phrases. The objective of this step should be for the students
to learn the appropriate use of key terms and phrases and how to use them in the
proper context. It will also broaden their current knowledge on the topic.

Controlled Practice (10 minutes)

After presenting your lesson and teaching new vocabulary, you
would want the students to put into practice everything they have
studied. The best way to test their knowledge on the day's lesson is through a
worksheet. Another great tool is doing a role-play in which the students can act
out different social situations while using the key phrases and vocabulary taught
for the day. Most often your topic will dictate the type of activity most suited for
the lesson. The activities done at this stage should be able to help sharpen the
four basic language learning skills. Try to get all the students involved and assist
them where necessary.

Freer Practice (15 minutes)

Once again you will be testing the students knowledge on the
lesson just taught; however, with this step you can be more
flexible. Games are great for this as it creates a "freer" learning environment.
It's both entertaining and educational. With this step you can do more than one
activity depending on your time. Encourage peer teaching, that is, get the
students to help each other.

Review and Follow up (5 minutes)

Towards the end of the lesson it's good to do a quick review to tie
up the lesson and at the same time check of the students was able
to grasp all the concepts taught. Its a good idea to go over the new
vocabulary and key phrases taught. Reviewcould also be done in the
form of a short worksheet like a word-search which they can complete in
class or something longer if you wish to give the students homework for
the day.
Note: The times indicated here are just for reference purposes.

Schorling gives three types of plans:

1. The curriculum area or subject of the year

2. The unit plan

3. The daily lesson plan

Daily lesson plans may be classified as (1) detailed, (2) semi detailed, and (3) brief. Students teacher are
usually given training in all three types. The detailed lesson plan is anticipatory teaching. It puts down in
writing the classroom activities that may occur. The teacher writes down all the questions he is going to
ask under the column Teacher Activity, and the expected answers from the pupils under the column Pupil
Activity. In planning the detailed lesson plan, the teacher tries to visualize how the children will react, what
difficulties they are likely to encounter, and how they may be guided to achieve the desired results.
The Semi detailedlesson plan omits pupil activity. It contains only the lesson procedure or the steps of the
lesson. A few of the pivotal question may be included. The brief lesson plan is even shorter than the semi
detailed. Teacher who have taught the same subject for usually make brief plans. Although the part of the
lesson is present, they do not write them out every day.

Design of writing a lesson Plan::

Specimen of Lesson Plan: