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Theodolite

Faculty of Engineering and Technology

Structural Department - Year 1
(Planimetric Surveying 1)

SCM 221

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

Theodolite

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Basic Definition

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Theodolite

Types of Theodolite

Vernier

Optical

Digital

Very old and

obsolete

Hz are VL circles
glass and the
eyepiece

are displayed
digitally on screen

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Theodolite

Theodolite Components

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Theodolite

Theodolite Components
Telescope

Reticule

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

Theodolite

Spatial Directions are projected on the horizontal circle of

the theodolite, and so Horizontal Circle Readings (HCR) are obtained
A

C
HCRA

0
B

<ABC

HCRC

Hz circle fixed and pointer

o

Horizontal Circle

Hz angle: It is the angle between the projection of two lines on the

horizontal plane passing by the theodolite clockwise direction

Horizontal angle <ABC = = HCRC HCRA

What is important is the difference between readings not the reading itself

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

Theodolite

Concept of measuring Vertical Angle

Face Left (FL): VL circle left of observer
Face Right (FR): VL circle right of observer

VL

Hz Plane

hi

V = 90 Z

+ve Elevation Angle

-ve Depression Angle

It is the angle measured in the vertical plane between the line joining the
theodolite-target (line of sight) and the horizontal plane passing by the theodolite

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

Theodolite

180

FL

FR

Index
90

270

90

270

180

VCRL

VL = 90 VCRL

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

VCRR

Pointer or
index fixed
and VL circle
moves with
telescope
VR = VCRR 270

Lecture 5

Index Error

Theodolite
180

FL

FR

270

90

270

90

180

VCRL

VCRR

VR = VCRR 270 +

VL = 90 VCRL

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

Theodolite

Since VL = VR (for the same point)

90 VCRL = VCRR 270 +
2 = 270 + 90 VCRL VCRR
Index error ()= (360 [VCRL+VCRR])
2
If = ve, then index inclined in opposite
direction, substitute normally with
If (VCRL+VCRR)360, then index error exists
Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5