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Theodolite

Faculty of Engineering and Technology


Structural Department - Year 1
(Planimetric Surveying 1)

SCM 221

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Theodolite

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Basic Definition

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Theodolite

Types of Theodolite
According to reading method

Vernier

Optical

Digital

Very old and


obsolete

Hz are VL circles
are made from
glass and the
reading are taken
by circle reading
eyepiece

Angular readings
are displayed
digitally on screen

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Theodolite

Theodolite Components

ALIDADE

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Theodolite

Theodolite Components
Telescope

Reticule

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Concept of measuring Horizontal Angle

Theodolite

Spatial Directions are projected on the horizontal circle of


the theodolite, and so Horizontal Circle Readings (HCR) are obtained
A

C
HCRA

0
B

<ABC

HCRC

Hz circle fixed and pointer


moves with alidade
o
If ve, then add 360

Horizontal Circle

Hz angle: It is the angle between the projection of two lines on the


horizontal plane passing by the theodolite clockwise direction

Horizontal angle <ABC = = HCRC HCRA


What is important is the difference between readings not the reading itself

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Theodolite

Concept of measuring Vertical Angle


Face Left (FL): VL circle left of observer
Face Right (FR): VL circle right of observer

VL

Vertical angle (V)

Hz Plane

hi

V = 90 Z

+ve Elevation Angle


-ve Depression Angle

It is the angle measured in the vertical plane between the line joining the
theodolite-target (line of sight) and the horizontal plane passing by the theodolite

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Concept of measuring Vertical Angle

Theodolite

180

FL

Turn alidade 180 and telescope 180

FR

Index
90

270

90

270

180

VCRL

VL = 90 VCRL

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

VCRR

Pointer or
index fixed
and VL circle
moves with
telescope
VR = VCRR 270

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Index Error

Theodolite
180

FL

FR

270

90

270

90

180

VCRL

VCRR

VR = VCRR 270 +

VL = 90 VCRL

Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1

Theodolite

How to determine Index Error?

Since VL = VR (for the same point)


90 VCRL = VCRR 270 +
2 = 270 + 90 VCRL VCRR
Index error ()= (360 [VCRL+VCRR])
2
If = ve, then index inclined in opposite
direction, substitute normally with
If (VCRL+VCRR)360, then index error exists
Dr Ahmed Ragheb

Lecture 5

SCM 221 Planimetric Surveying 1