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GBE/CW6: PART 1

GBE/CW6: PART 1

CONTENTS
Page
FOREWORD

v

AMENDMENT RECORD AND BRIEF HISTORY

vi

SECTION ONE - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.

SCOPE

1

2.

REFERENCES

1

3.

DEFINITIONS

2

4.

COATING MATERIALS

2

4.1

-Acceptable materials

2

4.2

Identification of materials

3

4.3

Production data sheets

4

4.4

Toxicity and handling

4

5.

VARIANTS

4

SECTION TWO - BASIC PROPERTIES AND TESTS FOR
POWDER AND CURED COATING

6.

BASIC PROPERTIES OF THE POWDER

5

6.1

General

5

6.2

Infra-red scan

5

6.3

Gel time

5

6.4

Particle size analysis

5

6.5

Density

5

6.6

Moisture content

5

6.7

Thermal analysis

5

6.8

Stability

5

7.

BASIC PROPERTIES OF THE DETACHED COATING FILM

6

7.1

General requirements

6

7.2

Micro-sectioning

6

GBE/CW6: PART 1

Page

7.3

Tensile strength

6

7.4

Elongation

6

7.5

Dielectric strength

6

7.6

Water permeability

6

7.7

Water absorption

6

8.

BASIC PROPERTIES OF THE CURED APPLIED COATING

6

8.1

Physical performance test requirements

6

8.2

Environmental test requirements

8

8.3

Thermal stability test

8

9.

QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

9

10.

COMPLIANCE

9

SECTION THREE - BASIC PROPERTIES AND TESTS OF
MULTI-COMPONENT LIQUID COATING
MATERIALS AND CURED COATING
11.

BASIC PROPERTIES OF UNMIXED COATING MATERIALS

11

11.1

General

11

11.2

Total non-volatile content

11

11.3

Viscosity

11

11.4

Relative density

11

11.5

Mixing ratio

11

11.6

Pot life

11

11.7

Flash point

11

11.8

Stability

11

12.

BASIC PROPERTIES OF DETACHED COATING FILM

12

12.1

General requirements

12

12.2

Micro-sectioning

12

12.3

Tensile strength

12
- ii -

GBE/CW6: PART 1

Page

12.4

Elongation

12

12.5

Dielectric strength

12

12.6

Water permeability

12

Water absorption

12

13.

BASIC PROPERTIES OF CURED APPLIED COATING

12

13.1

Physical performance test requirements

12

13.2

Environmental test requirements

13

13.3

Thermal stability test

14

14.

QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

14

15.

COMPLIANCE

15

APPENDICES

A

METHODS FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF POWDER AND CURED COATING

17

B

FLEXIBILITY TEST

28

c

HOLIDAY DETECTION OF COATINGS

32

D

EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE TO IMPACT

33

E

EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE TO WATER IMMERSION

36

F

EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE TO CATHODIC DISBONDING

38

G

STRAIN /POLARIZATION TEST

42

iii/iv -

This Gas Business Engineering Technical Specification is intended for use by British Gas and if it is used where British Gas is not involved then care shall be taken to ensure that the Technical Specification is correctly applied. Contractors and other users external to British Gas pie should direct their requests for further copies of this Gas Business Engineering Technical Specification in the first instance to the department responsible for the initial issue of their contract documentation. Compliance with this Gas Business E ' ngineering Technical Specification does not confer immunity from compliance with any legal or statutory obligations. Comments regarding the technical content of this Technical Specification should be directed to: Standards Group Design Standards Department British Gas plc 326 High Holbom London WC1 V 7PT Application for further copies of this Technical Specification should be directed to: Standards Production Unit British Gas plc Operational Centre Brick Kiln Street Coventry Road Hirickley Leicestershire LE10 ONA.GBE/CW6: PART 1 FOREWORD This Gas Business Engineering Technical Specification having been approved by the Materials and Construction Group as document MCG 92/779 is published under the authority of British Gas plc for use throughout the Company. The other part of this series (GBE/CW6: Part 2) specifies requirements for factory applied coatings. This Gas Business Engineering Technical Specification forms Part 1 of a two-part series of specifications dealing with the performance requirements and methods of test of materials that can be used for the protective external coating on steel line pipe and associated fittings. Contract requirements A Gas Business Engineering specification does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. This Gas Business Engineering Technical Specification. which is hereby superseded. which has been amended to accord with the requirements of the EC Utilities Directive. is a revision of BGC/PS/M6: Part 1 (dated January 1985). Requirements for field applied coatings formerly specified in BGC/PS/CW6: Part 3 (now withdrawn) are specified in BG/PS/M5. -vREVISION OF GAS BUSINESS ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS .

by the issue of amendments or of rev~ editions.GBE/CW6: PART 1 Gas Business Engineering specifications are revised. it is important that users should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition& Any person who. Amendment record Incorporated into text Amendment Number Dated Name Initials Brief history First published as BGC/PS/CW6: Part 1 January 1985 Re-issued as GBE/CM: Part 1 January 1993  British Gas plc 1993 This Gas Business Engineering specification is copyright and must not be reproduced in whole or in part by any means without the approval in writing of British Gas plc. when necessary. in the course of using a Gas Business Engineering specification. encounters any inaccuracy or ambiguity is requested to notify the Standards Group without delay in order that the appropriate action may be taken. -vi - SECTION ONE .

It deals specifically with the properties and performance tests to establish suitability for use with Part 2 of this Specification. Section One of this Specification covers general requirements. Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHI-1) Regulations - The Health and Safety at Work etc. SECTION ONE BS3900 - Methods of test for paints: Part B2 Determination of volatile matter and nonvolatile matter Part F2 Determination of resistance to humidity (cyclic condensation) . Unless otherwise specified the latest editions of these documents. Act 1974 British Standards BS 1387 - Specification for screwed and socketed steel tubes and tubulars and for plain end steel tubes suitable for welding or for screwing to BS 21 pipe threads BS 2015 - Glossary of paint terms Hereinafter referred to as ‘this Specification'.REQUIREMENTS FOR COATING MATERIALS AND METHODS OF TEST SECTION ONE . Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances Regulations 1984 .GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1. shall apply. SCOPE This Part 1 of Gas Business Engineering Technical spec ication* GBE/CW6 specifies materials for use as anti-corrosion coatings on steel line pipe and fatings. Statutes and Regulations - Classification. which deals with factory applied coatings. REFERENCES This Specification makes reference to the documents listed below. Section Two covers fusion bonded powder and Section Three covers multi-component liquid coating materials.GBE/CW6: PART 1 GAS BUSINESS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR THE EXTERNAL PROTECTION OF STEEL LINE PIPE AND FITTINGS USING FUSION BONDED POWDER AND ASSOCIATED COATING SYSTEMS PART 1 . including all addenda and revisions. 2. and for use with BG/PS/CWS for certain field applied coatings.

Coating systems may include the use of primer or chemical pretreatment of the steel surface to enhance adhesion. 4. the pretreatment and coating material shall be clearly specified as a combined system. Manufacturer: the producer of the coating material being offered for test or his appointed agents or assigns.1.Factory applied coatings.(Failing weight test) British Gas specifications BG/PS/CM2 - Specification for internal coating materials for steel line pipe and finings 3G/PS/CW - Code of practice for the selection and application of field applied external pipework coatings GBE/CW6 - Technical specification for the external protection of steel line pipe and fittings using fusion bonded powder and associated coating systems: Part 2 . In such cases. . including the Contractor's personal representatives. Quality Assurance: the Quality Systems and Quality Audits Department of British Gas. Contractor: the person. DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this Specification the following definitions shall apply: British Gas: British Gas plc. successors and permitted assigns. 3.1 Coating systems Only coating systems conforming to this Specification shall be considered for application in accordance with GBE/C~ Part 2. firm or company with whom British Gas enters into a contract to which this Specification applies. COATING MATERIALS 4. British Gas representative: the person appointed from time to time by British Gas and notified in writing to the Contractor to act as British Gas representative for the purposes of the Contract.Test for impact resistance of pipeline coatings .1 Acceptable materials 4.GBE/CW6: PART 1 PartF3 Part F4 BS 7079 Resistance to artificial weathering (enclosed carbon arc) Resistance to continuous salt spray Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM G 14-77 .

1. or manufacturing supply route. initials or identification mark. where appropriate. Thus.1. Any coating system made up with a recycled material mix shall meet the requirements of this Specification. which may include formulations. be marked in accordance with the Classification. c) Batch number. the ratio Of recycled to virgin material shall be stated. 4. to satisfy itself of compliance by the Contractor. on request and in confidence. of a material may be proposed for consideration as a variant by British Gas and supply of the modified material shall not be implemented until such time as the revised procedure qualification trials have been completed. after economic evaluation. such details as may be required by British Gas. batch sampling and manufacturing inspection. by way of testing. d) Date of manufacture and 'use by' date. these new values may be adopted as the minimum requirements and the Specification would be up-graded accordingly. b) Name of material. SECTION ONE .4 Supply of data The Contractor shall furnish. where certain minimum performance values are stated and should future coating material test submissions yield better performance than the specified requirements then. manufacturing tolerances and application data associated with the coating materials being used. f) Safety data sheet (included with delivery).GBE/CW6: PART 1 SECTION ONE Where recycled material is used.3 Application of this Specification It is intended that this Specification be used to encourage and stimulate the development of progressively better external pipeline coatings. Fusion bonded powder shall also meet the requirements of Part 1 of this Specification without the use of chemical pretreatment. 4. Containers and any associated packaging shall. Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances Regulations 1984 The Contractor shall require the Manufacturer to supply certificates confirming that tests specified in this Specification have been carried out on the batches supplied and that the materials meet the specified requirements. Any change of formulation.2 Identification of materials All materials supplied for coating operations shall be suitably marked giving the following information: a) Manufacturer's name. 4.2 Compliance With this Specification The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that all coating materials and equipment comply with all of the provisions specified in this Specification and Quality Assurance may make any investigation necessary. typical physical constants. e) Storage temperature limits.1. 4. British Gas also reserve the right of direct communication with the Manufacturer should the need arise. These certificates shall be made available for examination by British Gas on request.

5. VARIANTS A contractor shall only propose variants to this Specification where the text indicates that variants would be considered by British Gas. together with his recommendations for safe handling in accordance with the requirements of the Health and Safety at Work etc. be provided with handling points. e. .4 Toxicity and handling Any hazard including toxic. Containers and associated packages shall be marked with their weights and. corrosive risks and fire risks.GBE/CW6: PART 1 4. handles or handholes.3 Production data sheets The Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining data sheets from the Manufacturer which shall include values for all the basic properties of the material as specified in the 'Basic properties' clause in the appropriate Section of this Specification. Act 1974 and the COSHH Regulations. associated with coating materials offered for use to meet the requirements of this Specification shall be specified by the Manufacturer. where appropriate.g. 4.

5 Density The density of the powder shall be measured for all batches produced. Tg. The glass transition temperature of the fully cured powder shall also be quoted. 6.1 General The Contractor shall obtain from the Manufacturer specified and qualified ranges of values for all properties listed in 6. SECTION TWO .GBE/CW6: PART 1 SECTION TWO SECTION TWO . 6. and the values shall conform with the value originally specified.4 Particle size analysis The particle size distribution of the powder shall be the optimum to suit the particular method of application. 6. 6. 6.2 to 6. and the values obtained of each batch shall be used for comparison with values originally quoted.2 to 6. This shall subsequently be used for comparison with type spectrograms.8 inclusive that will ensure an acceptable coating.7 Thermal analysis Thermal analysis data for each batch shall be made available showing. shall be obtained from a typical batch of the powder. Each batch shall be checked for conformity with the values originally quoted. BASIC PROPERTIES OF THE POWDER 6.2.BASIC PROPERTIES AND TESTS FOR POWDER AND CURED COATING 6. 6. 6.7 inclusive.2 Infra-red scan An infra-red spectrogram. preferably made by using a standard potassium bromide (KBr) disc. and T 92 (see Appendix A) shall be identified by the Manufacturer. The limiting values of AH. the powder shall not exhibit any significant change from the properties identified in 6.3 Gel time A hot plate technique shall be used to obtain values of the gel time. The reference curve shall be provided as part of the production data sheet (see 4. The frequency of testing shall be in accordance with 9. the glass transition of the raw powder and also the enthalpy of the curing powder. by use of a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Particle size range shall be quoted in the production data sheet.6 Moisture content The moisture content of the powder shall be less than 0.5% by weight and shall be checked for every batch.3).8 Stability After ageing for 120 days at 25 +1 OC in a sealed container.

1. 7.1. made available. which have been prepared by application on to polished steel plates. 7. 6 mm thick.1 General requirements The Contractor shall ensure that the tests specified in 8. expressed as g/24 h m 2 /mm thickness shall be specified by the Manufacturer together with the method of test.2 to 8. The tests shall be carried out on sections of 6 mm thick laboratory coated standard steel plate.3 and results of the tests. BASIC PROPERTIES OF THE DETACHED COATING FILM 7.2 to 7. The tests shall be carried out on detached coating samples.6 Water permeability The water permeability of the cured material. 8. 400 pm to 450 gm thick.5 Dielectric strength The dielectric strength of the cured material shall be quoted by the Manufacturer as kV/mm together with the method of test. demonstrating compliance.1.7 inclusive are carried out by the Manufacturer in accordance with 9. foaming or other defects. Prior to coating.1 General requirements The Contractor shall ensure that the tests specified in 7.3. Values for tensile strength shall be quoted in MN/m 2 as maximum strength and strength at break.4. A destructive film thickness test shall be carried out to verify the accuracy of the coating thickness measurement technique employed. the elongations at 'yield' and 'break' shall be quoted by the Manufacturer. BASIC PROPERTIES OF THE CURED APPLIED COATING 8.4 Elongation When tested in accordance with 7.GBE/CW6: PART 1 7.3 Tensile strength Test specimens of detached coatings shall be tested at an extension rate. The coating thickness shall be in the range 400 microns to 450 microns. of 1 mm/min.2 Micro-sectioning A cross-section of the cured film shall be examined at a magnification of X1 00 and shall be seen to be homogeneous and essentially free of voids. 7. 7. 7.1 Physical performance test requirements 8. SECTION TWO . the steel surface shall be blast cleaned using G34 grit to BS 7079 Sa 3 quality and surface profile of between 50 microns and 100 microns peak to trough height.7 Water absorption The quantity of water absorbed after three months immersion at 20 OC shall be quoted by the Manufacturer. 7.9 inclusive are carried out in duplicate by the Manufacturer in accordance with 9. previously coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). as appropriate to the test requirement.

7. In cases of doubt. 8.9 Hardness test The Manufacturer shall specify the method used to test coating hardness and shall quote the values obtained. shall be coated to a film thickness of 400 pm to 450 gm and be properly cured.7 Impact resistance test Impact resistance shall be determined in accordance with Appendix D using plate specimens.1. 8.1.6 Flexibility test Steel plates. 1. 8.1.1 (at a deflection rate of 25 mm/min) over appropriate sized mandrels. disbond or pinhole and shall pass a holiday test in accordance with Appendix C.coating cure test Thermal analysis shall be carried out. The method of statistical analysis described in ASTM G 14-77 shall also apply.2 Environmental test requirements 8. 8.5 Thermal analysis .2 Cissing and pinholing test The coating shall not show signs of cissing or pinholing when applied to a prepared steel panel. in accordance with Appendix A.2.1. a further test may be carried out by applying the coating to a grit roughened glass panel and examining it by viewing over a bright light source. British Gas shall have the right to examine the results on request.1. 8. The coating shall withstand a minimum mean impact value of 1.3 Blistering and appearance test The coating shall not show signs of blistering and shall exhibit uniform appearance when examined by either of the tests specified in 8. After bending in accordance with clause 13.5 J without resulting in a breakdown or loss of adhesion of the coating.8 Adhesion test The adhesion test procedure shall be as specified in clauses E. 8.5 and E-6 and the results assessed in accordance with clause E. 8. SECTION TWO 8. the coating shall not crack.4 Sagging test The coating shall not exhibit sagging when applied to a steel panel in the vertical plane prepared in accordance with 8. The values of Tg.1.2. on samples taken from laboratory prepared panels which are to be used for subsequent performance testing.1.2.GBE/CW6: PART 1 Testing of applied coatings shall be Carried out seven days after application of the coating in respect of 8.1. and T 92 specified by the Manufacturer shall be in a range to ensure the coating is adequately cured to meet subsequent performance tests.1. 8.5.1.2.6.3 and 8. 8. 50 mm x 300 mm x 6 mm thick. 1.1 General requirements . The Contractor shall obtain complete results of all thermal analyses from the Manufacturer for record purposes.

4 Water immersion test The sample panels shall be subjected to a water ' immersion test as specified in Appendix E. The coating shall not lose adhesion. shall not disbond for greater than 5 mm radius from the edge of the damaged coating after 28 days. SECTION TWO 9.8 inclusive are carried out in duplicate by the Manufacturer and the results of the tests. The test shall not show loss of adhesion greater than 3 mm after 28 days.2. 8.2 is carried out in duplicate by the Manufacturer and the results of the test. All tests shall be carried out on coatings properly cured and in the thickness range 400 microns to 450 microns. demonstrating compliance. apart from superficial chalking. in accordance with BS 3900: Part F3.7 Artificial weathering test Coated steel test plates shall be exposed for 2000 h to artificial weathering.6 Salt spray resistance test Coated steel test plates shall be cross-cut and exposed for 2000 h to continuous salt spray conditions in accordance with BS 3900: Part F4. and shall show no signs of deterioration. area of maximum strain. 8. 8.GBE/CW6: PART 1 The Contractor shall ensure that the tests specified in 8.3 Thermal stability test 8.3. 8.2. 8. 8. The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that the range of values for any material under consideration will be capable of providing a finished product in compliance with the relevant Sections of GBE/C~ Part 2. made available. The coating shall not lose adhesion and no underfilm corrosion or blistering of the film shall occur.2. i. 8. demonstrating compliance.2 Cathodic disbondment test Sample panels shall be tested by the procedure specified in Appendix F.3 Strain/polarization cracking test The sample panels shall be subjected to a bend strain at 20 OC and then polarized and tested as specified in Appendix G with the test area selected on the minimum radius of the bend. QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS .2.5 Humidity resistance test Coated steel test plates shall be exposed for 2000 h in accordance with BS 3900: Part F2.2. and no underfilm corrosion or blistering of the film shall occur. made available. The coating.2 to 8. 8.2.e.2.3.1 General requirements The Contractor shall ensure that the test specified in 8.2 Test conditions Coated steel test plates shall be exposed to dry heat at 50 OC for three months to determine thermal stability and shall still meet the full requirements of this Specification. when subjected to an impressed current at a negative voltage of 1500 mV at 20 OC.2.3.

3 arid 9.2. 1.8 shall be carried out.2.3 At least once every 8 h of continuous production.8 shall be carried out once per year.2 to 8.2. 10.2 to 7. 9.2 to 6.1 Before dispatch from the factory. the tests specified in 8.3 and 8.2.2. the tests specified In 7. process or formulation change is made to the coating system.7 inclusive arid in 8. source.2.2 During the production of each separate batch of powder or twice every 8 h of continuous production (whichever is the more frequent). 8. .2 to 8.5 Any time a production. the Manufacturer shall carry out sampling and testing of the manufactured material covered by this Specification In accordance with 9.7 Inclusive. 8.4.9 inclusive shall be carried out. COMPLIANCE The coating material shall not be dispatched until it has been demonstrated that the Manufacturer's inspection and testing complies with the requirements of this Specification. the tests specified in 6.4 The tests specified in 7.GBE/CW6: PART 1 9. 9.1 .7 Inclusive shall be carried out.4 and the requirements of 6. 9. 9. 1 9.8 Inclusive and the requirements of 6.2 to 7.2.

and that of the mixture when prepared for use in the correct ratio. 11. b) Show no deterioration in application properties.7 Flash point The flash point of each material component as supplied. both by weight and by volume. shall be specified by the Manufacturer. two-thirds full at 20 OC to 25 OC for 24 h.3 Viscosity The viscosity of each material component as supplied. 11. listed in 11.8 inclusive. c) Show no deterioration in curing properties. SECTION THREE . 1 General This Section Three covers multi-component liquid systems suitable for both spraying and brush application.BASIC PROPERTIES AND TESTS OF MULTI-COMPONENT LIQUID COATING MATERIALS AND CURED COATING 11. from the Manufacturer. and that of the mixture when prepared for use. The Contractor shall obtain. The method of test shall be in accordance with the method given in BS 3900: Part B2. 11.4 Relative density The relative density of each material component as supplied.5 Mixing ratio The mixing ratio of material components shall be specified by the Manufacturer.2 to 11. shall not show signs of skinning or other deterioration. that will ensure an acceptable coating.2. together with the method of test. and that of the mixture when prepared for use in the correct ratio. The separate material components. 11. shall be specified by the Manufacturer. The frequency of testing shall be in accordance with 14. 11.GBE/CW6: PART 1 SECT1ON THREE SECTION THREE . 11.6 Pot life The pot life measured in accordance with the definitions contained in BS 2015 shall be quoted by the Manufacturer.2 Total non-volatile content The total non-volatile content shall be specified by the Manufacturer for each individual material component as supplied. when stored in closed containers approximately 75 mm diameter x 75 mm high. together with the method of test. specified and qualified ranges of values for all properties. shall be specified by the Manufacturer. BASIC PROPERTIES OF UNMIXED COATING MATERIALS 11.8 Stability The separate material components when stored at 20 OC to 25 OC for a period of 6 months shall: a) Show no signs of hard settlement. 11.

The Contractor shall ensure that the tests specified in 13.2 Micro-sectioning A cross-section of the cured film shall be examined at magnification of X100 and shall be seen to be homogeneous and essentially free of voids or other defects. made available.1. to achieve optimum properties before test. BASIC PROPERTIES OF CURED APPLIED COATING 13. 12.2 to 13. Values for tensile strength shall be quoted in MN/m2 as maximum strength and strength at break.7 inclusive are carried out by the Manufacturer at the frequency specified in 14.3 Tensile strength Test specimens of detached coatings shall be tested at an extension rate of 1 mm/min.3.1. 12. demonstrating compliance. 12. expressed as g/24 h m21mm thickness shall be specified by the Manufacturer together with the method of test.1 General requirements Coating materials shall develop adequate handling properties within 24 h of application to suit factory or field conditions.5 Dielectric strength The dielectric strength of the cured material shall be quoted by the Manufacturer as kV/mm together with the method of test. 12. the elongations at 'yield' and 'break' shall be quoted by the Manufacturer. 13.7 inclusive are carried out in duplicate by the Manufacturer in accordance with 14. . 12. previously coated with PTFE. The coating shall be applied to give a minimum dry film thickness of 1.5 mm and allowed to cure at 20 OC to 25 OC and 60% to 70% relative humidity for a period of seven days.1.1 General requirements The Contractor shall ensure that the tests specified in 12. 6 mm thick. Samples shall be of uniform thickness for all tests. BASIC PROPERTIES OF DETACHED COATING FILM 12.1 Physical performance test requirements 13.4.2 to 12.4 Elongation When tested in accordance with 12. 12.3 and the results of the tests.6 Water permeability The water permeability of the cured material.7 Water absorption The quantity of water absorbed after three months immersion at 20 OC shall be quoted by the Manufacturer.GBE/CW6: PART 1 12. The tests shall be carried out on detached coating samples which have been prepared by application on to polished steel plates.

13. After bending in accordance with clause B.5 and E. disbond or pinhole and shall pass a holiday test in accordance with Appendix C.1.3 Blistering and appearance test The coating shall show no signs of blistering and shall exhibit uniform appearance when examined by efther of the tests specified in 13. 13. has been placed in a vertical position and has remained in that position until the coating is dry.2 Closing and pinholing test The coating shall show no signs of cissing or pinholing when applied to a prepared steel panel.1.4 Sagging test The coating shall not exhibit sagging when applied to a steel panel in the vertical plane prepared and coated in accordance with 13. 13. a further test may be carried out by applying the coating to a grit roughened glass panel and examining it by viewing over a bright light source.1.7.2. 50 mm x 300 mm x 6 mm thick.5 mm and allowed to cure at 20 OC to 25 OC and 60% to 70% relative humidity for a period of 24 h to achieve optimum properties before test. Coating application shall normally be by a suitable technique with pre-heating of components.2 Environmental test requirements .1.1. 13. Sa 3 quality to produce a profile of between 50pm and 100 pm peak to trough height. 1 (at a deflection rate of 25 mm/min) over appropriate sized mandrels. Testing of applied coatings shall be carried out seven days after the coating application.1 and be properly cured.1.5 Flexibility test Steel plates. shall be coated in accordance with 13. to BS 7079. 13. The coating shall withstand a minimum impact of 5 J without resulting in a breakdown or loss of adhesion of the coating.6 Impact resistance test Coated steel plates shall be tested in accordance with Appendix D. 13.1.6 and the results assessed in accordance with clause E. In cases of doubt. 13.8 Hardness and cure of coating The hardness and degree of cure of the coating shall be determined and the Manufacturer shall specify the hardness range to indicate the correct degree of cure of the coating. where necessary.GBE/CW6: PART 1 SECTION THREE The tests shall normally be carried out on standard steel surfaces which have been blast cleaned.7 Adhesion test The adhesion test procedure shall be as specified in clauses E. 13.1. the coating shall not crack.1 and which.1.1. The coating shall be applied to give a dry film thickness of not less than 1. immediately subsequent to coating. using G34 grit.

3.4 are carried out in duplicate by the Manufacturer in accordance with 14. made available.2. 13. when subjected to an impressed current at a negative voltage of 1500 mV at 20 OC. 13.2.7 Artificial weathering test Coated steel test plates shall be exposed for 2000 h to artificial weathering.2 Cathodic disbondment test Sample panels shall be tested by the procedure specified in Appendix F.GBE/CW6: PART 1 13. 13.2. and shall show no signs of deterioration. apart from superficial chalking.5 Humidity resistance test Coated steel test plates shall be exposed for 2000 h in accordance with SS 3900: Part F2. i. The test shall show no loss of adhesion greater than 3 mm after 28 days.4 and the results of the tests.2. 13.6 Salt spray resistance test Coated steel test plates shall be exposed for 2000 h to continuous salt spray conditions in accordance with SS 3900: Part F4. shall not disbond for greater than 5 mm radius from the edge of the damaged coating after 28 days.3 Strain/polarization cracking test The sample panels shall be subjected to a bend strain at 20 OC and then polarized and tested as specified in Appendix G with the test area selected on the minimum radius of the bend.2. 13. demonstrating compliance.3 and 13.2. 13. in accordance with SS 3900: Part F3.e.2.2.2. The tests specified in 13.4 Water immersion test The sample panels shall be subjected to a water immersion test as specified in Appendix E.2.2. The coating.5 to 13.8 Inclusive shall be carried out once to provide evidence of satisfactory long term performance. 13.2.3.3. . Coating shall not Jose adhesion and no underfilm corrosion or blistering of the film shall occur. 13.3 Thermal stability test 13.1 General The Contractor shall ensure that the test specified in 13. demonstrating compliance.1 General The Contractor shall ensure that the tests specified in 13. made available.2.2 Test conditions Coated steel test plates shall be exposed to dry heat at 50 OC for three months to determine thermal stability and shall still meet the full requirements of this Specification. 13. area of maximum strain. Coating shall not lose adhesion and no underfilm corrosion or blistering of the film shall occur.2 is carried out in duplicate by the Manufacturer and the results of the test.

2. QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 14.2. source.4 (considered as type tests) and the requirements of 11. the tests specified in 13.GBE/CW6: PART 1 SECTION THREE 14. .2.8 shall be carried *out once per year or at any time a production.2 to 12.1.14.13.8 inclusive shall also be met.3 At least once every 8 h of continuous production. the Manufacturer shall carry out sampling and testing of the manufactured material covered by this Specification in accordance with 14.2. 14.1.3 and 13.3 and 11.4 The tests specified in 12.5 to 11.1 Before dispatch from the factory.2. process or formulation change is made to the coating system.2.3 and 14.7 inclusive shall be carried out. 15. the manufactured material covered by this Specif 14. the tests specified in 11.7 inclusive and in 13.4 shall be carried out. COMPLIANCE The coating material shall not be dispatched until it has been demonstrated that the Manufacturer's inspection and testing complies with the requirements of this Specification.4. 14. The requirements of 11. 11.2 During the production of each separate batch or twice every 8 h of continuous production (whicheveris the more frequent).2 to 13.

c) Take the melting point as the intersection of the leading edge of the fusion endotherm with the projected baseline.1 INTRODUCTION This appendix details methods by which the thermal characteristics of a powder (see clause A-2) and the thermal characteristics of cured coating (see clause A3) can be evaluated. c) Analytical balance capable of weighing to an accuracy of 0. tin and lead which have melting points of 156.5.2.2.2 EVALUATION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POWDER A. Values for glass transition temperature and heat of cure can be derived from the trace.6). . When full cure is achieved. d) Liquid nitrogen or other cooling fluid.GBE/CW6: PART 1 APPENDIX A METHODS FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POWDER AND CURED COATING A.1 Temperature axis calibration A method suitable for checking the temperature axis calibration is as follows: a) Calibrate the upper temperature scale of the DSC using samples of pure indium. Alternatively.3 Calibration of the Differential Scanning Calorimeter A. A.1 Principle The method for the determination of powder reactivity and glass transition temperatures of powder consists of heating the powder at a constant rate in a DSC. b) Melt the metal samples in open pans in either static air or under inert gas purge. the following accessories will be required: a) Aluminium sample pans. therefore adjust the instrument such that these values are correct at the scanning rate employed in the test.2 Apparatus The apparatus used shall be a DSC* with sufficient calorimetric sensitivity to respond to the glass transition temperature of the powder (the thermal analysis curve shall be capable of displaying the heat flow rate at a sensitivity of not less than 400 gW/cm). Additionally.2.4 OC respectively.e. a DSC with a built-in cooling device is acceptable provided it can cool the sample rapidly at the rate required in the method. A further device is required to measure the area under the cure exotherm (see A.1 mg. A. i. depending on the test procedure being followed. There are a number of DSC machines available and correlation shall be demonstrated.2. The results obtained are influenced by the scan rate.2.3. the sample is cooled rapidly to ambient temperature and a second DSC run is carried out.6 OC. 20 OC/min. b) Quench cooling accessory. 231. A first trace is made which records thermal changes in the sample between ambient temperature and some point after full cure. Confirm the accuracy of both axes by calibration before powder testing is carried out.9 OC and 327. A.

K1 = proportionality constant. The cell calibration coefficient E can be determined at any given temperature through the use of a material of known specific heat (e.e. Hr = heating rate. m = sample mass Equation (1) is derived from another equation (2).difference in Y-axis deflection between the sample and empty pan curves at the temperature of interest. i. A. made up of: a) The signal attenuation setting on the Y-axis.g. ie: where H = A (B E qs) m H = heat released (2) A = area of the exotherm B = time base setting (see A. 9 this is substituted in equation (2) and transposed. which relates the heat release (or absorption) to the area of the event on the thermogram. b) The cell calibration coefficient E (dimensionless). Alternatively. inches.g.GBE/CW6: PART 1 In practice. iridium) to the area produced from the melting endotherm. q.2. etc.3 Method for determining the cell coefficient E .). we arrive at the equation for E.2. melting points are usually within 2 OC to 3 OC of the accepted values when determined at a 20 OC/min scan rate and this is found to be adequate for Tg measurements of the coating film. A. It the measured value differs from the true value by more than 2 OC to 3 OC. the cell constant may be determined by relating the latent heat fusion of the pure material (e.2. measured in units of length (centimetres.3.5. recalibrate the temperature axis.3. sapphire (A12 03)) using the following equation: E where CP Hr m qs δY (1) Cp = specific heat of sample at the temperature of interest. (Y-axis range in mW or equivalent).3 e) The heat release is a function of the specific heat of the test material and equal to: H = CpHrAB 1 δY (3) Therefore.2 Theory of calorimetric calibration The mV signal which drives the pen in the Y direction is a measure of the rate of heat absorbed or evolved and is derived from the following equation: dh = K1 δy dt where δY = .

When the cold sample is taken from cold storage.3. take representative amounts (approximately 50 g) from each container. the vertical difference between the traces. Heat the pan up to the initial ambient temperature and hold until equilibrium is obtained. select a baseline slope setting which gives a virtually horizontal line when the reference and sample pans are loaded identically. the baseline slope control shall be adjusted until the best line is achieved. coning and quartering or riffle sampling is not necessary. Where applicable. Record the following information for each sample: a) Date b) Time c) Powder lot number/batch number A.3.5.2.2. 1 mg. Take powder for DSC tests directly from the 250 g sample.4 Sampling When it is necessary to sample large amounts of powder from the sample batch (e.2.2. When amounts of powder less than 1 kg are involved.3. .3.2 Preparation of test samples Weigh out accurately between 10 mg and 15 mg of powder into an aluminium sample pan.1.3. The accuracy of weighing shall be + 0. in case subsequent testing is required.3.5.2. allow at least 30 min in its closed container to reach ambient temperature. at a temperature not higher than 0 OC. several kilogram boxes).3.5.2. A.3. A. if needed. to calculate E values at these points. The average of E over the range of interest shall be used. If the trace is not almost horizontal. A.3.2. However.5 Test procedure A. This shall be achieved by setting the starting temperature to ambient temperature and running in isothermal mode.1 Instrument setting The test procedure and instrument settings depend upon the design of equipment employed.3 Standard air test Carry out the standard air test under the following conditions: a) Use open pans throughout.GBE/CW6: PART 1 A-2.3.4 Measure several values for &Y.2.2 Load the sample pan with a weighed sapphire disc for a second run. Take a final sample (approximately 250 g) and store it in an airtight container. A.3 Run a second trace using the same final temperature as is used in A. A typical temperature calibration chart is shown in FigureA1. there are certain essential features in the test method which shall be followed W consistent and comparable results are to be obtained. A. Analyse different batches separately. This is normally carried out with empty pans.1 Place two empty pans in the DSC cell and run a temperature programme between ambient temperatureand 300 'C. b) Use an empty aluminium pan for the reference. to give adequate sensitivity. A. Heavier weights (up to 25 mg) may be used.2. mix together and sample by coning and quartering.g.

The points at which the cure exotherm commences and ends are used to calculate the heat release. The test temperature of 280ºC may be subject to change depending on the type of coating material under test.6 Measuring the heat released during cure It is necessary to measure the area under the curing exotherm either in the determination of thermal stability. Care must be taken to distinguish between the onset of cure (Toc) and the onset of flow (Tof) and to commence the baseline at Toc (see Figure A.1 Principle . It is conventional to take Tg as the point of intersection of the extrapolated baseline at the low temperature end and the tangent of the curve at the inflection point (see Figure A. f) Heat the sample from ambient temperature to 280 OC at a rate of 20 OC/min and record the trace.3.2.5. it may be necessary with some Instruments to change from a temperature base on the abscissa to one of time before the onset of cure. d) Appropriate experimental data recording conditions. e) If exothermal areas are to be recorded accurately.3). the step usually covering several degrees. It should be advised by the powder manufacturer. A. or when the quality of oversprayed powder is in question.2.2). using an inert gas purge instead of static air throughout the test. or a similar method.3). carry out the test in static air at atmospheric pressure. For raw powders. A flow rate of 40 ml/min shall be used. the Tg usually takes the form of a baseline shift with a superimposed endothermic peak (see Figure A. weigh it and compare it with the weight of a known area of the same paper d) Count the squares within the exothermal area marked on the chart paper One of these.5 Measuring the glass transition temperature The glass transition temperature (Tg) is defined as that temperature (or temperature range) at which the coating polymer is transformed from a hard and often brittle material (the glass) into a tough.4 Inert gas test Carry out the inert gas test as for the standard air test (see A. These are: a) Electronic integration using a computer or a dedicated integrator b) Planimeter c) Cut out the exothermal area marked on the chart paper. rubber-like material. Repeat this procedure for the second run.3 MEASUREMENT OF DEGREE OF CURE OF POWDER COATING A. There are several ways of measuring the exothermal area which vary in their accuracy. A.GBE/CW6: PART 1 c) No purge gas is employed. shall be selected for use with the DSC.3).2. A.5. The glass transition temperature of the cured material is visible on the DSC trace as a baseline shift.5. A. except that this run may be terminated at approximately 20 OC in excess of the second run glass transition temperature (Tg2). resulting from a marked step-like change in specific heat at Tg.2. They are usually determined by drawing in the baseline to the exotherm using a rule. Rapidly cool the sample to ambient temperature.5.

GBE/CW6: PART 1 The method of assessment of the cure of the powder coating film cure by measurement of its glass transition temperature consists of heating a ground coating sample at a constant rate in a DSC.2 Apparatus The apparatus used shall be a DSC with sufficient calorimetric sensitivity to respond to the glass transition temperature of the materials under test (the thermal analysis curve should display the heat flow rate at a sensitivity of 400 pW/cm minimum). The results obtained are influenced by the scan rate.6 OC. The glass transition temperatures before and after heating are determined and are used to assess the degree of cure. melting points are usually within 2 OC to 3 OC of the true values when determined at a 20 OC/min scan rate and this is found to be adequate for Tg measurements of the coating film.4 OC respectively. the following accessories will be required: a) Aluminium sample pans. 20 OC/min. Alternatively. b) Quench cooling accessory. b) Melt the samples in open pans in either static air or under an inert gas purge. A first trace is made which records thermal changes in the sample between ambient temperature and some point after full cure as defined by the powder manufacturer. 231. e) Hammer and cold chisel. In practice. The sample is cooled to ambient temperature and a second run carried out. c) Analytical balance capable of weighing to an accuracy of 0. d) Liquid nitrogen or other cooling fluid. .1 mg.3 Temperature axis calibration The method to be used for checking the temperature axis calibration is as follows: a) Calibrate the upper temperature scale of the DSC using samples of pure indium.3. tin and lead which have melting points of 156. A.9 OC and 327. c) Take the melting point as the intersection of the leading edge of the fusion endotherm with the projected baseline. When the temperature deviation is higher than this. i. depending on the test procedure being followed. f) Microhammer mill or equivalent A. therefore adjust the instrument such that these values are correct at the scanning rate employed in the test. a DSC with a built-in cooling device is acceptable provided it can cool the sample rapidly at the rate required in the method. Additionally.3. it is necessary to adjust the sample thermocouple reference junction.e. It is essential that samples are initially pretreated in the calorimeter to remove moisture and to confer a uniform thermal history.

3. Grind the flakes to pieces small enough to pass through a 2. A.5. The accuracy of weighing shall be +0. 20 . 9 needed.3.5 Location of sample on component Test procedure A. there are certain essential features in the test method which shall be followed if consistent and comparable results are to be obtained.GBE/CW6: PART 1 If adjustment has been necessary to bring within limits. Where applicable.3 Standard air test Carry out the standard air test under the following conditions: a) Use open pans to assist the release of moisture from the sample during pretreatment b) Use an empty aluminium pan for the reference c) No purge gas is employed.1 Instrument setting The test procedure and instrument settings used depends upon the design of equipment involved. but at the same time avoid the inclusion of steel debris. carry out the test in static air at atmospheric pressure d) Appropriate experimental data recording conditions e) It will normally be necessary to subject the coating sample to thermal pretreatment before assessment of its degree of cure. The powder Manufacturer should specify the thermal pretreatment required for the product. A.5.3.2 Preparation of test samples Weigh out accurately between 10 mg and 15 mg of ground coating into an aluminium sample pan. select a baseline slope setting which gives a virtually horizontal line when the reference and sample pans are loaded identically. Take samples from test panels in a similar manner.4 Sampling Remove coating film samples from the coated component using a hammer and cold chisel. Heavier weights (up to 25 mg) may be used.e. This is normally carried out with empty pans.8 mm aperture sieve in a microhammer mill.3. Record the following information for each sample: a) Date b) Time c) Component number d) Sequence number e) Powder lot number/batch number f) A. This will typically require heating the sample in the DSC cell from ambient temperature (i.1 mg. Pretreatment is designed to remove any absorbed moisture from the coating because moisture is known to influence glass transition temperature measurements. Such pretreatment shall not significantly advance the cure of the coating sample. Collect the coating flakes in a plastics bag and identity. A. Sample a component at several points along Its length and around Its circumference. This produces fuded coating flakes. Care should be taken to remove samples of full film m thickness. carry out a further calibration to demonstrate that the instrument is calibrated accurately.5.3. However. to give adequate sensitivity.

probably in the range 1 W OC to 150 OC. rubber-like material. Repeat the procedure for the second run. The glass transition temperature is visible on the DSC trace as a baseline shift.3. Rapidly cool the sample to ambient temperature using liquid nitrogen or a suitable cooling fluid. A. Use a flow rate of 40 milmin throughout the test. but avoids significant degradation. f) Heat the sample from ambient temperature to a temperature specified by the Manufacturer. except that this run may be terminated at approximately 20 OC higher than the second glass transition temperature (T92).5. Immediately cool the sample to ambient temperature with liquid nitrogen or a suitable cooling fluid.5 Measuring the glass transition temperature The glass transition temperature (Tg) is defined as that temperature (or temperature range) at which the coating polymer is transformed from a hard and brittle material (the glass) into a tough.3). Make a suitable record of the pretreatment run. It is conventional to take Tg as the point of intersection of the extrapolated baseline at the low temperature end and the tangent of the curve at the inflection point (see Figure A. alternatively. so that the sample achieves full cure. a DSC with a built-in cooling device is acceptable provided K can cool the sample rapidly at the rate required in the method. resulting from a marked step-like change in specific heat at Tg. A. using an inert gas purge instead of static air throughout the test.3. the step usually covering several degrees.5. at a rate of 20 OC/min.GBE/CW6: PART 1 OC to 25 OC) to some defined temperature higher than 1 W OC. . This required temperature Will typically be attained within 120 s and held for a period up to 60 s. Make pen records of both (Tgl) and (T 92) runs.2).4 Inert gas test Carry out the inert gas test as for the standard air test (see A.5. This establishes the first glass transition temperature (Tgl).3.

GBE/CW6: PART 1 .

GBE/CW6: PART 1 .

GBE/CW6: PART 1 .

1 Cold cut test specimens 356 mm long x 50 mm wide from a pipe section with the long axis in the circumferential direction. = Bend the panel until it makes contact with the entire surface area of the mandrel. Bend (at a deflection rate of 25 mm/min) over appropriate sized mandrels (see 8.3 Set the panel support gap set according to the following formula: Support gap = M + 2t + 4 mm.3 depending on the intended coating application and the temperature of the test. select specimens which show a minimal variation in pipe wall thickness. After bending. B.1. In this case. in mm. where m = chord length across the mandrel arc.1.2.2 Select mandrel sizes according to the following formula: D = t(l .2. Where seamless pipe is being tested. the coating shall not exhibit visible signs of cracks.1.GBE/CW6: PART 1 APPENDIX B FLEXIBILITY TEST B.2) at two substrate test temperatures (5 OC and 20 OC). disbonding or pinholes and shall pass a holiday detection test when tested in accordance with Appendix C.1).2 Select mandrel sizes according to the following formula: 1 D1 = -t S 1 where D1 = + mandrel diameter.1.) shall be disregarded in evaluating the test results.2 TESTS ON PIPE SPECIMENS B.4 During bending. in mm (see Figure B.254 mm (0.1. 1 Do .1 Apply the coating to steel plates 50 mm x 300 mm x 6 mm thick and properly cure.S) S where D = t mandrel diameter. Inspect specimens immediately after bending and again after 24 h at 20 OC. B. particularly within the test area (i. After bending.010 in. B. Bend the test specimens over appropriate sized mandrels at two substrate test temperatures (5 OC and 20 OC). = plate thickness.e. middle 75 mm to 100 mm of specimen). in mm. in mm (see Figure B. This area shall not exceed 25% of the mandrel surface area. in mm. the area of the panel where the gap exceeds 0.1 LABORATORY PREPARED TEST PANELS B. disbond or pinhole when holiday tested in accordance with Appendix C. peaking (point at which a gap occurs between the mandrel and the panel) may be observed at the centre of the panel. B. The are length of the mandrel shall be fixed at 225 ± 25 mm.t .1). Inspect plates immediately after bending and again after 24 h at 20 OC. B. S = one of the values in clause B. the coating shall not crack. t plate thickness.

t = pipe wall nominal thickness.2 For coatings intended for use on line pipe.1).2. set the panel support gap according to the following formula: Support gap = M + 2t + 4 mm where M = chord length across the mandrel arc.2.02 at a temperature of 5 OC. The arc length of the mandrel shall be fixed at 225 ~L 25 mm.1 For coatings intended for use on fittings. This area shall not exceed 25% of the mandrel surface area.3 DO = original specified pipe outside diameter. Bend the specimen until contact is made with 75 + 10% of the mandrel area. B.3. the following S values shall.GBE/CW6: PART 1 B. in mm. in mm. Bend the specimen until it makes contact with the entire surface area of the mandrel.5 For specimens from pipes having an outside diameter in the range 305 mm to 405 mm. In this case. t = plate thickness.03 at a temperature of 20 OC. set the panel support gap according to the following formula: Support gap = M + 2t + 29 mm where M = chord length across the mandrel arc.3 depending on the intended coating application and the temperature of the test. in mm (see Figure B.005 at a temperature of 5ºC S = 0.2. Test specimens from pipes having an outside diameter below 305 mm by an appropriate method. . peaking (point at which a gap occurs between the mandrel and the panel) may be observed at the centre of the panel.3. in mm.4 For specimens from pipes having an outside diameter in the range 406 mm to 1219 mm. apply: S = 0. S = one of the values specified in clause B. B. B.01 at a temperature of 20ºC B. in mm (see Figure B. B.2. the following S values shall apply: S = 0. t = plate thickness.254 mm (0.6 During bending.3 S VALUES B. the area of the panel where the gap exceeds 0.) shall be disregarded in evaluating the test results. 1).010 in. in mm. S = 0.

an environmental chamber which controls the temperature in the bending apparatus may be used. .GBE/CW6: PART 1 B. The test specimens shall not be immersed in any liquefied coolant to achieve the test temperature. Alternatively.4 TESTING AT 5 OC Testing at 5 OC may be carried out by pre-cooling the panel in a refrigerator to a temperature slightly lower than 5 OC and carrying out the bending operation when the panel temperature reaches 5 + 2 OC.

GBE/CW6: PART 1 .

C.3 and substitute the folloylling: For all coating systems the wire brush typeof electrode shall be used. The rate of travel of the probe over the surface shall not exceed 300 mm/s.4 IDENTIFICATION METHOD All holidays shall be identified with a waterproof marker. suitably curved to conform to the contour of the coated surface. C. CW6:1 AMD No 1 Dec `993 . C. non-pulsing holiday detection equipment on surfaces at temperatures below 90 OC and free from moisture. ge 32 APPENDIX C Delete the existing text of clause C.3 ELECTRODE TYPE For all coating systems the wire brush type of electrode shall be used. a suitable procedure shall be agreed with the coating applicator and shall normally be the one that is approved within the procedure qualification.2 OPERATING VOLTAGE The operating voltage shall be 125 V per 25 pm of coating thickness.5 EQUIPMENT CALIBRATION All holiday detectors shall be calibrated at the beginning of every working day and. when requested by British Gas. For fittings.GBE/CW6: PART 1 APPENDIX C HOLIDAY DETECTION OF COATINGS C. C.1 EQUIPMENT Holiday detection shall be carried out using dc. suitably curved to conform to the contour of the coated surface of pipe. additionally.

D. D.3. in m.3. check the coating thickness in the test area using a thickness gauge. in joules.81W H = impactor height.3. D.4 Retest the impact area for holidays using the detector set at the required operating voltage.6 inclusive serve to assess the comparative resistance of coatings to impact damage. D.2).3.GBE/CW6: PART 1 APPENDIX D EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE TO IMPACT D. 1 to accommodate a 14.3 Drop the impact weight from a height calculated to impart the specified impact energy to the coating.5 Repeat D. in kg.3. The impact height may be calculated using the following formula: H where = J 9.3.2 to D.7 After every 20 impacts fit a new ball bearing. D.2.3 and D. D.3.3.1 GENERAL The procedures specified in clauses D.4 at four more locations evenly spaced over the surface of the component. D. W = impactor mass.3 TEST PROCEDURE ON COMPONENTS D.2 TEST EQUIPMENT The following test equipment will be required: a) A variable impact tester (ASTM G14-77.3. paragraph 4.2 Position the impact tester on a holiday free site 300 + 50 mm from one end of the component.3 mm diameter ball bearing and equipped with a minimum impact mass of 1 kg b) A sufficient supply of 14.1 Check the test site to ensure that it is free from holidays with the holiday detector set at the required voltage for the particular coating film (see clause C.3. J = impact energy. D.3. D.6 Rotate the ball bearing after each impact.2 or equivalent) with punch hammer type indentor modified as shown in Figure D.3 mm diameter ball bearings manufactured from EN31 steel with a Vickers hardness of 800 to 930 c) A holiday detector (see Appendix C) d) A thickness gauge e) Repair materials D.8 If a holiday is caused by the impact test. .

6.4 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR COMPONENTS Repair any holiday caused by impact testing using repair materials.5.2 to D.GBE/CW6: PART 1 D. D. D.2 Test impact areas for failure using the holiday detector set at a voltage of 125 V per 25 gm of coating thickness (this relates to coating thickness before impact damage). Verity this by testing in accordance with clause E. paragraphs 6 to 9. The additional modifications to the ASTM procedure specified in D..1 Test sample panels (300 mm x 50 mm x 6 mm) and test panels (300 mm X 50 mm) cold cut from component in the longitudinal direction according to the procedure detailed in ASTM G l 4-77.6.7.4 Rotate the ball bearing after each impact. D-5.5.6 Increase the height by an increment of 10 mm between impacts.7 There shall be no disbonding at the minimum impact energy. 0.5 TEST PROCEDURE ON PANELS D. D. D.3 The minimum spacing between impacts along the centre line of the specimen shall be 25 mm..5. the test shall be recorded as a 'Pass'. using the apparatus detailed in clause D.5. (A typical calculation is shown in Figure D.6 and report in accordance with clause E.1 If the coating withstands the specified impact energy without forming a holiday.5 After every 20 impacts fit a new ball bearing.6 inclusive shall apply. D.5.5.S. .S. D.'and the measured coating thickness shall be recorded. 1). D.2 The impact strength shall be converted to impact energy in joules and this value shall be reported. If a holiday is formed at the specified impact energy. the test shall be reported as 'Fail at thickness of .2 a).6 REPORTING RESULTS D.

GBE/CW6: PART 1 .

6. E.3 SAMPLE PREPARATION E. e.g. E.7 inclusive shall be used to assess the comparative resistance of coatings applied to components (free of holidays) to loss of adhesion due to water absorption. g) Elastomeric adhesive for repairing test areas. E.g.2 Using the steel rod fitted through the 6 mm diameter hole.4 PREPARATION OF TEST AREA E. suspend the specimen panel in the water bath immersing all but the top 50 mm of the panel. f) 5 mm diameter steel rod 450 mm long.2 EQUIPMENT The following equipment will be required: a) A water bath which shall be maintained at a temperature of 50 + 2 OC.2 c)). e) Pointed sharp knife. c) Internal pipe coating material (complying with BG/PS/CM2).4.3. remove the panel from the water bath and allow it to cool to ambient temperature.4 Test the coating adhesion as specified in clause E.1 Carry out an initial adhesion test as described in clause E. E. E.1 Laboratory prepared specimens Prepare 300 mm x 50 mm x 6 mm panels under conditions of application and cure similar to those for a coated component.4.5. in the case of a fitting.3.3 Protect the bare metal of the panel with internal coating material (see clause E.1 GENERAL The equipment and procedure detailed in clauses E. E. test the prepared panels for holidays with the holiday detector set at the required voltage (see clause C. E.4.2 Drill a 6 mm diameter hole through the test panel within 25 mm of one end.GBE/CW6: PART 1 APPENDIX E EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE TO WATER IMMERSION E.2 Specimens taken from components Cold cut 300 mm x 50 mm specimens from a sample pipe or.2 to E. E.5. Sillastic silicone-rubber.5.5 INITIAL TEST PROCEDURE E. E. E. grades RTV 738 or RTV 732 or equivalent. e. d) 6 mm diameter twist drill.1 To ensure freedom from holidays. from the pipe pup which has been coated as a test piece.2). .6.5.3 At intervals of 24 h. b) A holiday detector. Stanley type or similar.

E. shall constitute a 'Fail' condition.7 If.6.g.2 For all coated components and coatings on panels equal to or less than 600 pm thickness.6. Take care to protect the eyes and hands when carrying out this operation. make two incisions approximately 13 mm long through to the metal surface to form a V with an angle of approximately 300 at the intersection point. 'Junior' type or similar) make two incisions through to the metal surface to form an X with an angle of approximately 300 at the point of intersection. E.2. Cohesive failure. E.3) as appropriate.5. E.g.3 For laboratory panels with coatings greater than 600 pm thickness use the following procedure: a) Using a small hacksaw blade (e.6.6 INVESTIGATION PROCEDURE E. E.6. b) Draw a sharp knife along the cut lines to ensure that the hacksaw blade has reached the metal surface.5. after seven days immersion. caused by voids leaving a honeycomb structure on the specimen surface. The extent of the adhesive failure between the coating and the metal substrate shall be recorded. .S.6. For the purpose of this test.5 Repair the test area using elastomeric adhesive. force the coating from the steel substrate using the sharp pointed knife. b) Starting at the point of intersection force the coating from the steel substrate using the sharp pointed knife. E. the coating is retested and is found to be satisfactory.7 REPORTING RESULTS Refusal of the coating to peel or a cohesive failure within the coating shall be recorded as a 'Pass'.1 Use one or other of the following procedures (E. E. cohesive failure will be recorded where some coating material remains on the metal surface and where difficulty in coating removal has been experienced. use the following procedure: a) Using a sharp pointed knife (e.6 Return the panel to the water bath immediately.GBE/CW6: PART 1 E. Stanley knife or similar). return the panel to the water bath and repeat the adhesion test at intervals of seven days up to a total immersion time of 28 days. c) Starting at the point of intersection. Take care to protect the eyes and hands when carrying out this operation.

constructed from glass or plastics with porous plug.3. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure F. F. Accuracy of 0.2 Reagent An electrolyte comprising a sodium chloride (NaCI) solution. 1Q +2%.3.2.1 Apparatus The following apparatus will be required: a) A stabilized dc power unit having a voltage output of 12 V and a capability to supply 20 mA simultaneously to each test area in circuit.5 digit). c) Variable resistor.5 mm thick platinized titanium strip (one required for each test area). b) Digital voltmeter.4 PREPARATION OF TEST AREAS . input impedance 103 M Q. 1 W (one required for each test area).2 Specimens taken from components Test panels 300 mm x 50 mm shall be cut from a sample production coated pipe. a silastic silicone rubber grade RTV 738 or RTV 732 or equivalent material.GBE/CW6: PART 1 APPENDIX F EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE TO CATHODIC DISBONDING F. range 1 k Q :110%. 1 W (one required for each specimen).g. F.1 Laboratory prepared specimens Sample panels 300 mm X 50 mm x 6 mm shall be prepared simulating the conditions of application for a factory coated pipe.1 GENERAL The procedures detailed in clauses F. f) Reference electrode of the saturated calomel type. k) Fixed resistor. F. (3% W/V). F.1 % + 1 digit at 20 +1 OC.2 to F. 1 a). or similar length of 6 mm wide. The diameter should be not greater than 10 mm. i) A length of rigid plastics pipe per test area to be used as a solution container (approximate dimensions 60 mm long x 50 mm nominal bore). range 1. d) 75 mm length of 0.3 PREPARATION OF TEST PANELS F. j) Elastomeric adhesive for fixing the plastics pipe to the test surface. 1. g) 6 mm diameter twist drill with included cutting angle of 1600.2 TEST REQUIREMENT F.8 inclusive serve to assess the comparative resistance of damaged pipe coatings to disbonding when exposed to cathodic protection in potentially corrosive soils.2. F. h) Equipment for maintaining the temperature of the specimens and test area at 20 +2 OC.8 mm diameter platinum wire.9W V (3. 30 g of NaCt should be dissolved in distilled water and made up to 1 litre. e. e) Holiday detection equipment.

F. force the coating from the steel substrate using the sharp pointed knife. b) To ensure that the hacksaw blade has reached the metal surface. remove the electrolyte and plastics tube from one test site and remove excess moisture. Make the cuts through to the metal surface and to extend radially from the 6 mm hole. F. F. Figure F. 'Junior' type or similar make two cuts across the 6 mm hole at an angle of approximately 300 to each other to form a truncated W. F.4) as appropriate: F.5.6. Take care to protect the eyes and hands when carrying out this operation.5 Repeat the investigation procedure at the second test site after 28 days F.1 g).g.2 Fix two lengths of rigid plastics tube perpendicular to the coated surface using a suitable elastomes ric adhesive (see Figure F. 1).4.5. at intervals of 24 h. 1 a).2.1 After seven days. every 24 h.6. adjust the voltmeter reading to read a negative voltage of 1500 mV with respect to the calomel electrode. Stanley type or similar).6 INVESTIGATION PROCEDURE F.4 Every 24 h check the plastics tubes for loss of electrolyte and restore the level with distilled water as necessary. draw the point of the sharp knife along the cut lines.5 INITIAL TEST PROCEDURE F.g.6.1 Fill each plastics tube with NaCI electrolyte to a depth of approximately 50 mm (see F. F. force the coating from the steel substrata using the sharp pointed knife. Maintain this temperature throughout the test period. F. F-5.6. F. F.2.2) with the apparatus set up as shown in. Also record. the current flow by measuring the voltage drop across the 1 Q fixed resistor. Bring the temperature of the specimens and test area to 20 + 2 OC.2 Connect a voltmeter and reference electrode to each test rig in turn as shown in Figure F. make two incisions approximately 13 mm long through to the metal surface extending radially from the 6 mm hole and at an angle of approximately 300 to each other to form a truncated V.2 Use one or other of the following procedures (F. Take care to protect the eyes and hands when carrying out this operation. Carry this out using the variable resistance shown in Figure F.6.2).6.3 Drill a 6 mm diameter hole through the coating to the metal surface in the centre of each test area using the drill specified in F.4. With the tip of the calomel reference electrode positioned approximately 10 mm from the centre of the hole.3. Place them with their centres on the centre line of the panel width and equidistant from the panel ends and each other and leave for a period of 12 h to allow the adhesive to fully cure.3 For coatings up to and including 600 um use the following procedure: a) Using a sharp-pointed knife (e. 1 c) Starting at the base of the truncated V.5.1 Test the prepared panels for holidays with the holiday detector set at the required voltage (see clause C. F.6.GBE/CW6: PART 1 F. 1 b). F.4. the voltmeter indication for each test area and adjust the variable resistor to correct any drift from the negative voltage setting of 1500 mV. b) Starting at the base of the truncated V.3 Record.4 For all coatings in excess of 600 g m thickness use the following method: a) Using a small hacksaw blade (e.7 REPORTING OF RESULTS . 1 a).

GBE/CW6: PART 1 The amount of disbonding shall be quoted as the radial distance from the edge of the pre-damage to which the coating peels easily from the metal surface. .

. area of maximum strain.1 Bend the test sections In accordance with the method detailed in Appendix B using a value of S = 0. After 28 days polarization.3 The area of coating exposed to the electrolyte shall not exhibit signs of cracks.005 for fitting powders at a temperature of 20 +2 OC. with a single test site selected on the minimum radius of the bend. disbondment or pinholes and shall pass a holiday detection test as detailed in Appendix C.02 for line pipe powders and S = 0.2 Polarize the specimens. as detailed in Appendix F. i. G. remove the electrolyteand plastics tube and remove excess moisture.GBE/CW6: PART 1 APPENDIX G STRAIN/POLARIZATION TEST G.e. G.