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# THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

MEASUREMENT FOR POOR CONDUCTOR.
( LEE’S DISC METHOD )

STUDENT NAME
GROUP

:
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LECTURER’S NAME : PROF.HANAFI ATAN
( EXAMINER )

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY
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In solid is due to the vibration of molecules in a lattice and the energy is transferred by free electrons. thermometers and oil.C Power supply. The quantity Q/t is estimated from the heat emitted from the system when steady state is reached. . Lee's disc apparatus. Conduction of heat take place in all form of matter. Explain the physical process by which heat flow by conduction through matters in a material. Experiments show that the rate at which the body emits thermal energy depends only on the temperature in excess of the surroundings and on the nature of the surface. APPARATUS D. including that of the poor conductor are coated in the same manner so that they have the same emissivity е . Before heating.OBJECTIVE To determine the thermal conductivity of a poor conductor material by Lee's Disc method. It is advisable to learn more on heat conduction in materials from relevant text books and then answer the following question : 1. rheostat. they gain energy ( from heat ) and vibrate more vigorous. The transferred of energy always take place from the region of higher temperature to the lower temperature. voltmeter. INTRODUCTION In this Lee's Disc method. the particels or matters in the material are vibrating in their lattice position. Perspex as a poor conductor material is made into a thin disc sandwiched between two copper discs. We assume that all surfaces. ammeter. In gases and liquid is due to the collisions and diffusion of particles during random motion. When they are subjected to heat. They collides with their neighbouring particles and thus the energy is transferred from one to another.

T-T' and ℓ with respect to heat flow. K. h is directly proportional to A and ( T – T’ ) and ℓ inversely proportional to ℓ. From the equation h=kA ( T – T’ ) . 3. h as shown by equation ( 3 ). Explain whether instruction to conduct experiment for two different values of electrical power. . The different values of P does not affect the result of thermal conduction. 4. larger temperature difference ( T – T’ ) also causes higher rate of heat flow. Good thermal conductor will have large thermal conductivity value. It is indipendent of electrical power supply but dependent on its type of material. the value of K should be the same for all experiment because k is constant which shows the properties of a thermal conductor. P will produce an expected results for the coefficient of thermal conduction. From the graph of T against 1/t . In fact. a larger cross-sectional area results in higher rate of heat flow. which is when t approaching to infinity ( t → ∞ ) . Explain the meaning and the physical impact for the variation in values of A. k or otherwise. Based on the equation. Meanwhile. But heat flow is slow for a very long ℓ.2. the graph intercepts with y-axis when1/t = 0. Explain why temperature at steady state can be derived from the graph of T against 1/t. This shown that the temperature is steady and will not change with time after conducted for a very long time. which is when the temperature of two surfaces are the same. Explain the physical process which leads to steady state in a heat conduction experiment. Steady state is reached when the rate of heat conduction is the same in both in and out direction. The heat is transfer in two direction however the rate of heat conduction from hotter surfaces to colder surface is higher than that of the colder surfaces to hotter surface. 5. Heat conduction occurs if there’s difference in temperature between two surfaces. Two surfaces in contact will result in the transfer of energy.

LEE’S DISC METHOD .

09 d2 41.1 ¯h 12.65 DIAMETER OF THE DISC ( d ) DISC ( mm ) A B C Perspex disc d1 41.60 .25 41.60 ¯d 41.62 12.30 41.65 12.35 41.61 5.DATA THICKNESS OF THE DISC ( h ) DISC ( mm ) A B C Perspex disc h1 12.65 12.32 41.30 41.75 12.6 12.25 41.35 41.28 41.6 5.25 41.75 d3 41.30 41.07 h2 12.1 h3 12.61 5.62 12.35 41.7 12.30 41.7 12.62 5.

5 29.0 33.5 2.0 29.125 0.5 2.5 1.5 2.5 31.0 32.0 32.5 29.5 32.0 29.036 0.0 1. t ( minutes ) 1/t TA TB TC TB .0 1.5 31.0 30.0 29.0 30.0 29.5 30.5 32.5 32.5 32.111 0.0 31.5 1.0 33.5 29.167 0.0 30.043 0.063 0.0 31.0 33.0 31.0 31.0 30.5 2.048 0.034 0.0 29.Table 1 : I = 0.091 0.5 2.143 0.5 28.0 32.5 28.5 29.TA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1.5 2.5 29.5 31.5 28.053 0.5 2.0 30.038 0.0 30.5 32.5 28.050 0.25 Ampere and V = 2 volt.5 2.000 0.0 32.0 32.059 0.0 30.5 29.0 29.0 29.5 33.5 31.0 2.5 32.5 2.0 31.037 0.5 .5 31.0 2.5 2.0 29.500 0.0 30.045 0.077 0.033 28.0 32.0 30.0 0.0 2.250 0.0 2.5 2.5 29.5 29.0 29.5 30.5 2.0 29.5 31.5 1.0 31. Time.067 0.5 30.0 32.5 29.5 31.200 0.5 29.5 28.5 30.0 1.0 30.5 30.0 2.100 0.5 2.0 32.0 29.0 30.040 0.5 31.5 2.0 33.5 29.056 0.5 2.5 1.0 31.5 28.0 31.0 32.5 32.083 0.042 0.5 31.5 31.5 32.333 0.0 29.5 30.0 2.0 32.5 28.071 0.5 0.0 32.

5 5.5 6.063 0.5 31.038 0.0 28.5 36.0 5.091 0.5 5.0 6.0 6.5 34.5 33.5 2.5 31. t ( minutes ) 1/t TA TB TC TB .5 29.5 35.333 0.0 34.5 29.0 28.0 37.0 4.5 27.5 35.5 29.5 6.5 30.0 36.0 35.5 .250 0.0 35.0 6.0 34.0 6.083 0.0 34.5 28.0 30.0 5.143 0.5 35.5 29.067 0.0 33.0 3.5 5.0 30.0 30.125 0.034 0.5 30. Time.043 0.5 28.045 0.059 0.033 26.0 35.000 0.500 0.5 28.0 6.0 36.0 30.0 37.0 6.111 0.0 26.30 Ampere and V = 2 volt.5 33.5 37.5 4.5 26.5 34.0 28.040 0.5 6.5 36.0 26.071 0.0 37.053 0.5 28.0 36.5 37.167 0.0 27.0 35.0 33.0 29.037 0.048 0.5 3.5 32.0 32.5 28.5 37.5 2.0 6.077 0.Table 2 : I = 0.036 0.0 26.TA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1.5 27.5 30.5 30.0 29.0 37.0 6.5 4.042 0.0 31.0 4.0 30.0 28.5 31.100 0.0 30.200 0.5 26.0 27.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 2.0 34.0 29.050 0.5 32.0 30.0 37.0 31.056 0.0 37.0 26.0 36.0 32.0 31.5 28.5 35.0 3.5 36.0 4.5 31.0 28.5 28.5 36.5 27.0 33.5 32.

5 28.0 26.5 1.5 1.0 2.0 26.5 30.0 2.0 2.143 0.5 27.056 0.0 30.0 30.5 28.0 1.5 30.5 27.0 30.5 29.5 26.0 27.250 0.063 0.0 1.111 0.5 29.0 30.5 26.0 26.045 0.0 26.5 27.5 28.200 0.5 28.5 1.0 28.5 26.5 27.5 30.0 28.0 2.0 29.000 0.0 28.037 0.5 0.35 Ampere and V = 2 volt.038 0.500 0. .5 29.0 27.0 2.5 27.053 0.050 0.5 27.5 2.0 30.5 29. t ( minutes ) 1/t TA TB TC TB .0 28.5 29.0 29.5 27.0 26.0 29.5 28.042 0.0 28.0 2.077 0.5 1.0 27.0 27. Time.5 27.125 0.0 28.0 29.0 27.083 0.5 30.0 1.0 30.5 26.048 0.5 30.5 29.0 30.0 27.0 26.5 30.5 29.5 30.5 26.0 CALCULATION.043 0.0 2.0 29.0 26.5 27.5 2.0 30.0 27.059 0.0 27.5 28.0 29.067 0.0 1.036 0.0 2.5 2.5 26.0 2.Table 3 : I = 0.167 0.0 27.0 2.0 2.5 27.5 1.0 27.5 27.5 29.0 30.0 1.5 0.0 28.5 27.0 27.5 29.0 2.0 30.0 29.5 28.TA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1.0 28.071 0.034 0.091 0.0 29.040 0.0 27.0 2.5 2.0 27.333 0.0 1.0 30.0 27.033 26.100 0.

32 ) ( 12. Area of disc B. ( 12.6361 X 10 ¯ ³ m² Area of perspex. aA.70 X 10 ¯ ³ ) = 1. Calculate the cross-sectional area of the copper and perspex discs.32 X 10 ¯ ³ ) 4 + π ( 41. .61 X 10 ¯ ³ ) . aS.62 X 10 ¯ ³ ) .1. Area of disc A = cross-sectional area of A + area of curved surface = πrA² + 2 πrAhA = πdA² + 2πdAhA 4 2 = π ( 41. Area of disc C. Area of disc A.28 X 10 ¯ ³ ) = 1. Area of disc C = area of curved surface = 2πdChC 2 = π ( 41. Area of disc B = area of curved surface = 2πdBhB 2 = π ( 41.30 X 10 ¯ ³ ) = 1. aC. aB.65 m² .637 X 10 ¯ ³ m² ( 12.

Calculate the value of K and estimate its errors. A’ A’ = πds² = π ( 41.09 X 10 ¯ ³ ) . .65 X 10 ¯ ³ ) = 6.3624 X 10 ¯ ³ m² 2.65 X 10 ¯ ³ 4 4 )² = 1. Cross-sectional area of Perspex.66 E-4 m² ( 5.Area of perspex = area of curved surface = 2π ( dS ) hS 2 = π ( 41.

TA Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 30°C Temperature at steady state from the graph = 28.5°C Average temperature = 1. therefore the average value for both temperature must be determined and used in calculation). TC Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 33°C Temperature at steady state from the graph = 29.25°C 4) The difference in temperature between Disc A and Disc B.TA ) Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 2. TB Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 32. T against 1/t should have been equal to the value obtained directly from the thermometer.75 ) = 30°C 6) K1 = IV ℓ ( asTs + 2aA TA ) . Ts Ts = ½ ( TA + TB ) = ½ ( 29. Calculation of Thermal Conductivity from table 1.75°C 3) Temperature of Disc C.5°C Temperature at steady state from the graph = 0. K1 1) Temperature of Disc A.25°C 2) Temperature of Disc B.25 + 30. ( TB .5°C Average temperature = 29.5°C Average temperature = 31.5°C Temperature at steady state from the graph = 29°C Average temperature = 30.5°C 5) Temperature of Perspexs plate.( It is important to note that the temperature at steady state obtained from the graph. There is no way to obtain the precise value for temperature at steady state through experiment.

545 ) 48.6361x10¯ ³ x31.25)+(6. K2 1) Temperature of Disc A.25)(2)(5.545 x 10¯ ³ ( 96.25)[2(1.09 x 10¯ ³ ) [( 6.65 x 29.66 E-4 x 30)+(1.364 ( 4. TA .25 ) ] (1.75)+(1.637x10¯ ³ x 30.66 E-4 x 30 ) + 2 ( 1.65 x 29.( aATA + asTs + aBTB + acTC ) [ 2A’ ( TB – TA )] = ( 0.243 x 10¯ ³ Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ Calculation of Thermal Conductivity from table 2.3624)(1.0872 x 10¯ ³ ) K1 = 1.5)] = 2.

75°C 3) Temperature of Disc C.65x28.09 x 10¯ ³ ) [( 6. TB Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 37°C Temperature at steady state from the graph = 28.25°C 5) Temperature of Perspexs plate.5) + (6.63) + (1.5°C Temperature at steady state from the graph = 2°C Average temperature = 4. TC Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 37.3624 x10¯ ³)(4.5°C 2) Temperature of Disc B.65 x 28. Ts Ts = ½ ( TA + TB ) = ½ ( 28.5 + 32.3 )( 2 ) ( 5.66 E-4 x 30.Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 31°C Temperature at steady state from the graph = 26°C Average temperature = 28.2873 0.637x10¯ ³x30.TA ) Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 6.63 °C 6) K2 = IV ℓ ( asTs + 2aA TA ) ( aATA + asTs + aBTB + acTC ) [ 2A’ ( TB – TA )] = ( 0.525 Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ Calculation of Thermal Conductivity from table 3. K3 .5460 K2 = 0.6361x10¯ ³)[2(1.5°C Average temperature = 32.5°C Temperature at steady state from the graph = 28.63 ) + 2 ( 1.75 ) = 30.66 E-4 x 30.75)+(1.5 ) ] (1.5°C Average temperature = 33°C 4) The difference in temperature between Disc A and Disc B. ( TB .25 )] = 0.

Ts Ts = ½ ( TA + TB ) = ½ ( 29 + 28.5 °C Average temperature = 28. K = K1 + K2 + K3 .65 x29 ) + (6.625 ) + 2 ( 1.25) + (1.35 )( 2 ) (5.75) + (1. TC Temperature at steady state from the experiment =30. TB Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 30°C Temperature at steady state from the graph =26.637x10¯ ³x 28.625 °C 6) K3 IV ℓ ( asTs + 2aA TA ) = ( aATA + asTs + aBTB + acTC ) [ 2A’ ( TB – TA )] = ( 0.3624 x10¯ ³)(4.09 x 10¯ ³ ) [( 6.7168 0.65 x 29 ) ] ( 1.25°C 3) Temperature of Disc C.25°C 5) Temperature of Perspexs plate.25 ) = 28. ( TB .25 )] = 0.66 E-4 x 28.614 Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ 3. TA Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 28°C Temperature at steady state from the graph = 30°C Average temperature = 29°C 2) Temperature of Disc B.1) Temperature of Disc A.66 E-4 x 28.5°C Temperature at steady state from the graph =27°C Average temperature = 28.75°C 4) The difference in temperature between Disc A and Disc B.5460 K3 = 0.6361x10¯ ³x28.75) [2(1.5°C Average temperature = 1. Calculate the average value of K .TA ) Temperature at steady state from the experiment = 2°C Temperature at steady state from the graph = 0.

2.525 Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ K3 = 0.243 x 10¯³ Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ K2 = 0.38 Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ DISCUSSION.243 x 10¯³ + 0. The range of K1 is 1. it can be conclude that the value of K is the same for the given conducting material.38 Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ The results obtained are slightly different among themselves therefore . 1.525 + 0. From the experiments the value of thermal conductivity.525 Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ . regardless the current and the voltage applied.614 3 = 0.243 x 10¯³ Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ The range of K2 is 0.614 Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ ˍˍ K = 0. K which obtained from different value of currents and voltage are :K1 = 1.3 = 1.

The range of K3 is 0. PRECAUTIONS 1. The deviation of the value maybe caused by some error during the experiment such as :a) The flow of the air is not stable because the experiment was carried out under airconditioned. Switch off the air-conditioner and fan while carried on the experiment to minimize heat lost to surrounding. This will increased the heat lost to the surrounding. thermometer. air and others.20 Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹. c) There are heat lost to the surrounding such as oil. b) The improper contact of thermometer and the copper disc results in unconsistent reading of the temperature. The above results are slightly deviated from the standard value. .614 Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹ The theoretical value of K for Perspex is about 0. d) Parallax error when taking reading from the experiment.

3. . the value of Thermal Conductivity of Perspex. 4.38 Wm¯¹ ºC¯¹. CONCLUSIONS. ˍ Based on the experiments.Avoid parallax error. Make sure that voltage reading is not exceed 5V as current may melt down the thin heating element wire. 5. Add a drop of oil into the holes to ensure good thermal contact between disc and thermometer. Clean Perspex and copper plate properly before starts the experiments. K is 0.2. 6. Maintain both voltage and current throughout the experiment. The value of K is almost constant for every different values of current and voltage. Ensure that the line of vision of observer is perpendicular to thermometer scale.