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Readings

The library and the Web offer a vast selection of material that is relevant to this
module. The trick is to read critically, and with an eye to working out what matters
from a strategic perspective. As a starting point, here’s a brief list of general readings.
Edward Mead Earle, ed., Makers of Modern Strategy From Machiavelli to Hitler
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1943)
In many respects the better of the two editions. The chapters on Clausewitz and Ludendorff
are particularly valuable

Azar Gat, A History of Military Thought: From the Enlightenment to the Cold War
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001)
Very good on the intellectual influences feeding into strategy

Williamson Murray, MacGregor Knox & Alvin Bernstein, eds, The Making of
Strategy: Rulers, States, and War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994)
As tends to happen with edited volumes, this one is of variable quality. Have a look at J.W.
Honig’s review in Survival, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Winter 1997-98), pp. 188-190

Peter Paret, ed., Makers of Modern Strategy From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986)
Another collection of variable quality, but useful nonetheless

What follows is a list of additional readings that are more closely focused on the
lecture topics, which should provide you with a starting point for your own
explorations. Wherever possible, I’ve included texts that are available electronically.
Unless otherwise indicated, the journal articles are available via the library’s ejournal
collection. I have also provided some hyperlinks to other sources.
What is strategy and how does it work?
Carl von Clausewitz, On War, tr. J. J. Graham (London: N. Trübner, 1874), rev. edn F.
N. Maude (London: Kegan & Paul, 1908), esp. Bk 1, Ch. 1
More literal and consistent in its choice of terms than the Howard & Paret edition, although
somewhat less readable. The text is now available online via this LINK. If you’re interested in
buying a copy you might consider the 2004 reprint (NY: Barnes & Noble), which contains a
very useful introduction by J.W. Honig. You can also read the latter online at LINK

The French Revolution & Napoleon
Anja V. Hartmann & Beatrice Heuser, eds, War, Peace and World Orders in Europe
(London: Routledge, 2001), Ch. 15 LINK
Charles Ingrao, ‘Paul W. Schroeder’s Balance of Power: Stability or Anarchy?’,
International History Review, Vol. 16, No. 4 (November 1994), pp. 681-700

ed. No. ‘Moltke and the German Military Tradition: His Theories and Legacies’. 91-99 A neat little article on Moltke Azar Gat.: Columbian University Press. but keep your critical faculties engaged when reading Prussian / German Strategy Earle. pp. ed. pp. pp.Political context to eighteenth-century warfare. 3rd edn (Houndsmill: Palgrave. Makers of Modern Strategy. Joint Force Quarterly (Spring 1998).. Parameters (Spring 1996). The Making of Strategy. International Security. Herwig. 20 Lawrence Freedman. Makers of Modern Strategy. 109-42 . Makers of Modern Strategy. 4 (Spring 1992). Destroying the Village: Eisenhower and Thermonuclear War (N. 113-15 An excellent little summary of the philosophy of Enlightenment Paret. Economist. 24. Vol. ‘The Prussian Model and Military Planning Today’. No electronic version available ‘Crimes of Reason’. 16 March 1996. however Aaron L. No. pp. Chs 10. Vol.. 4 Solid. now with a post-cold war update. ‘Ideology. ‘Why Didn’t the United States Become a Garrison State?’. Makers of Modern Strategy. eds. Friedberg. Chs 8 & 13 Antulio J. Journal of Strategic Studies. Useful. National Policy. The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy. Ch.Y. Chs 9 & 12 Paret.. pp. ed. 16. Murray et al. 67-75 Military efficiency is not enough…. Ch. 1-18 Holger H. Echevarria II.. Technology and Strategic Doctrine between the World Wars’. ed. traditional account. 11 & 19 US Strategy Campbell Craig. Earlier editions are still useful for our purposes. 3 (September 2001). 1998) Eisenhower considered that any war fought between nuclear powers would tend to the extreme Earle. 2003) The standard account.

Vol. 566-82 Kennan’s famous articulation of the policy of Containment Vietnam / Gulf / Balkans Cohen & Shelton’s statement to the Senate Armed Services Committee Hearing on Kosovo After-Action Review (1999) LINK NATO didn’t really know how it won in Kosovo? Janice Fleck. Vol. 2 (January 1957). International Security. 2 (August 1983). The Making of Strategy. 238-56 Maurice Matloff. Chs 15 & 25 David Alan Rosenberg. 76. No. Vol.: Simon & Schuster. Foreign Affairs. ‘How Kuwait Was Won: Strategy in the Gulf War’.Y. pp. ‘The Origins of Overkill: Nuclear Weapons and American Strategy. No. pp.Some reasons why the US put nuclear weapons at the centre of its cold-war strategy Fred Kaplan. pp. ed. Vol. pp. 25. ‘The 90-Division Gamble’ LINK Chapter from official account of US forces during the Second World War Murray et al. 4 (July 1947). Makers of Modern Strategy. 4 (Spring 1983). 1983) Lively account of developments in US nuclear strategy. Commentary. 3–71 Lots of operational detail on the subject X [George Kennan]. Is her argument about strategic objectives quite correct? Lawrence Freedman & Efraim Karsh. Chs 8 & 14 Paret. 35. eds. No. Luttwak. 77-82 James E. King Jr. The Wizards of Armageddon (N. International Security. Vol. 5-41 Useful article on the subject Lawrence Freedman. ‘Limited War Theory in Vietnam: A Critique According to Clausewitz’ (1994) LINK An interesting essay from a student at the US National Defense University. Review of International Studies. Vol. 7. pp. 335-58 Useful discussion of the constraints operating on the application of force . For an interesting review see Edward N. ‘Of Bombs and Men’. ‘The Sources of Soviet Conduct’. No. ‘Victims and victors: reflections on the Kosovo war’. 16. ‘Nuclear Plenty and Limited War’. 1945–1960’. 26 (2000). No. pp. 2 (Autumn 1991). Foreign Affairs.. Vol.

3 (Autumn 1999). Vol. Pape Jr. Vol. 1964) . 1970) Roger Tranquier. The library also has an electronic version Régis Debray. 2 (Fall 1982). Moreno.Y. Revolutionary War in World Strategy. No. 1967) Joshua Johnson. B. 2 (Autumn 1990). ‘From Cuba to Bolivia: Guevara’s Foco Theory in Practice’. 2 (April 1970). Samuel. Civil Wars.: Prager. 6 (2006). 15. Griffith (N. 27. tr. 26-42 The argument about politicizing strategy is the relevant section for our purposes John Stone. pp. On Guerrilla Warfare. tr.. Bobbye Ortiz (N. pp. Daniel Lee (London: Pall Mall Press. pp. Innovations.: MR Press. Ch. ‘Coercive Airpower in the Vietnam War’. Modern Warfare: A French view of Counterinsurgency.Y. 83-113 A typical response to the failure of limited war in Vietnam. ‘Che Guevara on Guerrilla Warfare: Doctrine. 26-32 LINK José A.Robert A. Vol. pp. Comparative Studies in Society and History. Practice and Evaluation’. No. Vol. 7. ed. 1961) You can read an electronic version at LINK Paret. 408-27 The ‘theoretical’ section is a bit awry. Guerrilla Warfare A selection of writings available in various editions. 114-133 See also the response by Edward Friedman in the same journal Selected Military Writings of Mao-Tse Tung (Peking: Foreign Languages Press. Vol. Journal of Strategic Studies. ‘Vietnam and the American theory of limited war’. Revolution in the Revolution? Armed Struggle and Political Struggle in Latin America. Is he correct? John Stone. No. 3 (September 2004). pp. 1945-1969 (London: Secker & Warburg. 1963) Mao-Tse Tung. pp. tr. 103-46 Stephen Peter Rosen. No. International Security. International Security. Land-Power and the Challenge of Ethnic Conflict’. ‘Air-Power. Makers of Modern Strategy. No. 27 Robert Thompson. Vol. ‘Politics. 12. but useful nevertheless Insurgency & Counterinsurgency Che Guevara. 2. Technology and the Revolution in Military Affairs’.

3 (Autumn 2007). ‘Iraq. Military Review. Survival. Gordon. Survival. Journal of Strategic Studies. No. pp. You can find it at LINK . Vol. 17-46 Has too much emphasis been placed on the use of force in the ‘War on Terror’? Sarah E. 107-20 Al-Qaeda’s strategy in its wider context Daniel Byman. Survival. pp. 4 (August 2005). Liberal Wars and Illiberal Containment’. Vol. LXXXV. No. 121-50 Some options reviewed FM 3-24 / MCWP3-33. No. 49. pp. ‘Winning the Right War’. pp. No. ‘Changing the Army for Counterinsurgency Operations’. No. 48. Survival. 571-95 A good introduction to the strategic dimension of terrorism Bruce Riedel.5. 51-65 The wider context Philip H. Vol. 2007) Very useful. 6 (November-December 2005). 28. Vol. 2-15 A much-cited critique of early US strategy in Iraq Peter R Neumann & MLR Smith. ‘Strategic Terrorism: The Framework and its Fallacies’. Counterinsurgency (December 2006) US Army and Marine Corps doctrine for counter-insurgency Lawrence Freedman. No. 4 (Winter 2006).You can read an electronic version at LINK The ‘War on Terror’ Nigel Alwyn Foster. pp. 49. ‘The Military Strategy of Global Jihad’ (Strategic Studies Institute. 3 (Autumn 2007). Vol. 49. Zabel. pp. Vol. ‘US Counter-terrorism Options: A Taxonomy’. ‘Return of the Knights: al-Qaeda and the Fruits of Middle East Disorder’. 4 (Winter 200708).