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**for Single Carrier Wireless System with FDE
**

Wahyul Amien SYAFEI∗ , Kunitoshi NISHIJO∗ , Yuhei NAGAO∗ , Masayuki KUROSAKI∗ and Hiroshi OCHI†

∗ Department

**of Computer Science and Electronics
**

Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka Campus, Kawazu 680-4, Iizuka, Japan 820-8502

Email: (wasyafei,nishijo,nagao,kurosaki,ochi) @dsp.cse.kyutech.ac.jp

† Radrix.co.ltd. Email: support@radrix.com

Abstract—

It has been verified recently that single carrier cyclic prefixed

(SC-CP) with frequency domain equalizer (FDE) is a promising

system for mobile communication and robust channel estimation

is needed to build the equalizer’s weight. Conventional SC-CP

wireless sytem uses training sequences that put in every packet

to get the channel information. This increases the overhead of

the system. Here we propose a new channel estimation technique by employing cyclic prefix (CP) to maintain both system

performance and throughput for this SC wireless system, with

300 kHz bandwidth and 1.6 Mbps throughput. The CP, which is

inserted between blocked data to avoid inter-block interference

(IBI), can be viewed as a source of channel information. If we can

estimate the transmitted CP by conventional way, we can continue

to estimate the channel adaptively. The simulation results show

that the proposed channel estimation technique can maintain

the system performance and gives 14,9 % higher throughput

compared with the conventional one when the number of packet

is increased.

Index Terms—channel estimation, cyclic prefix, frequency

domain equalization, single carrier, wireless.

I. I

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has

received a lot of attention. By implementing Inverse Fast

Fourier Transform (IFFT) at the transmitter and FFT at the

receiver, OFDM converts an inter-symbol interference (ISI)

channel into parallel ISI-free subchannels with gains equal to

the channel frequency response (CFR) values on the FFT grid.

At the receiver, each subchannel can be easily equalized by

a single-tap equalizer using scalar division. To eliminate IBI

between successive IFFT processed blocks, a CP of length no

less than the CIR order is inserted per transmitted block, and

discarded at the receiver. In addition to IBI suppression, the

CP also converts the linear channel convolution into circular

convolution, which facilitates diagonalization of the associated

channel matrix and lead to get the equalizer weight easily.

On the other side, an OFDM signal consists of N sinusoidal

waves, so a peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) becomes

higher as N is increased [1], [2]. It also suﬀers from intercarrier interference (ICI) due to frequency oﬀset between

transmitter and receiver and Doppler shift. All of these drawbacks come from the IFFT at the transmitter. [3], [4].

It also has been verified that carefully designed linear

precoding OFDM (LP-OFDM) is more eﬀective in dealing

with frequency-selectivity. One very good linear precoder,

ISBN 978-89-5519-136-3

**actually annihilates the IFFT at the transmitter, and lends itself
**

to a single-carrier (SC) whether it is cyclic prefixed (SC-CP)

or zero-padded (SC-ZP) [5]. This lead to simpler transmitter

and better performance compared to OFDM.[4], [6], [7].

Correct channel estimation is very important to the implementation of any communication system. In most system,

a known training sequence is sent by the transmitter and

a training algorithm is performed by the receiver on the

observed channel output and the known input to estimate

the channel. The determinictics least square (DLS) channel

identification algorithm is such a simple and widely used

training approach. However it is not suited for time variant

(TV) channel. In practice, we either assume that the channel

is time invariant (TIV) and use the initial training to get

CIR information or periodically sent this training sequence to

track the channel variation. These solutions obviously yield in

performance loss or decreasing the throughput. Other solution

was proposed in [8], using CP to adaptively estimate the

channel in Multicarrier modulation system. The algorithm can

track the channel variation and the performance is comparable

to system with retraining. However this scheme employs real

value of the transmitted time-domain signal by using IFFT

size twice bigger than data size.

In this paper we propose adaptive channel estimation

employing CP in SC modulation with frequency domain

equalization (FDE) to maintain both system performance and

throughput. CP brings more channel information than Pilot

symbols and CP size is shorter than training sequence that

usually occupies one block of data. We let the transmitted

time-domain signal stays in complex value and use the same

size of FFT and the data block. The paper is organized as

follows. In Section II we explain the SC-CP with FDE system,

obervation on CP, the proposed system and adaptive channel

estimation technique using CP. Section III deals with the

comparation between the proposed system with conventional

and ideal system shown by simulation. Finally, We write some

conclusion in Section IV.

II. T P A C E T

Notation: Upper-case letters denote frequency domain signals; Lower-case letters denote time domain signals; Bold

letters denote matrices; (·)T and (·)H denote transpose and

Hermitian matrix; [.]i,, j denotes the (i, j)-th entry of a matrix;

-1032-

Feb. 17-20, 2008 ICACT 2008

E.[5].k Xˆ 1. The relationship between ycp (k) and the transmitted prefix xcp (k) is (8) ycp (k) = Tk h + wcp (k) -1033- Feb.k −1 Estimator Received Cyclic Prefix Fig. In this section we see that by using cyclic prefix.k Xˆ 0.k IFFT xˆ1. Figure 1 shows the transceiver of conventional SC-CP with FDE system. In each packet.k −1 Estimated Cyclic Prefix F y(k) = DH F x(k) + F w(k) (4) Y(k) = DH X(k) + W(k) (5) or The proposed adaptive channel estimator 0i. make it gives better performance than OFDM. we obtain the received signal after removing the CP as: = D−1 H Y(k) = X(k) + D−1 H W(k) (6) We get the estimated data after IFFT as xˆ (k) = = ˆ FH X(k) x(k) + D−1 H w(k) (7) Here we can see that FDE can suppres channel eﬀect from the received data. as: F h˜ FH = DH ISBN 978-89-5519-136-3 (2) The CFR information in Eq. j denotes zero matrix with size defined by index (i × j) . Zero forcing (ZF) FDE is done by multiplying the FFT output above with the inverse of DH .k F. k −1 Hˆ 0. · · · .v ≥ l.k = N − 2 exp(− j2πnk/N). [11]. k One-tap The transceiver of SC-CP system with FDE … Y1. the system performance degrades. we can diagonalize such matrix by pre and post-mulitplication with F and FH . F y(k) = F h˜ x(k) + F w(k) xn −1.2.k Xˆ n −1.k Yn −1. Y0. 17-20. such a scheme increases the overhead of the system. From circulant matrix properties.e. the transmitted data is recovered perfectly. 2008 ICACT 2008 . Observation on Cyclic Prefix y(k) = h˜ x(k) + w(k) (1) where x(k) = [x0. we obtain … … Channel yn −v .n−l ]T . i. The FFT output of Eq. Obviously.k ]T is transmitted data block.k . otherwise. Let’s first consider the received prefix part ycp (k) which is originally discarded. [9].k −1 N−1 where DH = diag[H(e j0 ) H(e j2π N · · · H(e j2π N ))] is a N × N diagonal matrix with its diagonal entries are CFR which can be obtained by Fh. where F is a N × N FFT matrix which its (n. Addition … Pilot Insertion … Gray Mapper … … S/P P/S … … Fig. especially under mobile environment. Combining with frequency domain equalizer (FDE) at the receiver.C-SC-CP Transmitter Data Generator Scrambler CRC-32 Convolutional Encoder C-SC-CP with FDE Receiver Puncturer Deinterleaver Gray Demapper Interleaver Depuncturer Viterbi Decoder De-scrambler CRC-32 Data Sink AWGN Pilot Remove Phase Tracker … IFFT … Frequency Domain Equalizer … FFT … C. retraining must be done periodically to keep on with the channel variations. B. In our proposed system. as illustrated in Fig.P. ˆ X(k) A. k)-th entry is defined 1 by [F]n. diag(x) is a diagonal matrix with x on its diagonal. [10]. yn −1. and h˜ is a N × N circulant matrix with first column is [h 01. retraining is not necessary to track the channel variations.k Channel Estimator xn −v . x1. SC-CP with FDE System SC-CP as one kind of LP-OFDM eliminates the need of IFFT at the transmitter. we enhance the dashed-line bracketed part to build the adaptive channel estimation by employing CP.k … … … FFT y1. k −1 S/P FFT yn −1.k ]T is aditive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).k . 2. However. for a time varying channel. as illustrated in Fig. Remove … S/P … Channel P/S … C. 2.k −1 (3) by considering Eq. w(k) = [w0.k … Hˆ n −1.1 is … y0 . w1. wn−1.D.P. If the lenght of CP (v) is equal to or greater than the length of channel impulse response (CIR) (l). · · · . conventional system uses 3 blocks of training sequence in the preamble for channel estimation purpose followed by 20 blocks of the data. In the absence of noise. xn−1.k . For a time invariant channel. k xˆ n −1.k . 2 is usually obtained by training process.3. 1. k 1 Quantizer xˆ0. only initial training is needed.

k−1 ]T .10 shows that if we send {xcp } to the channel as the training sequence. Note: xm−p.k · · · x−1.k−1 and wcp (k) = [w−p. the conventional and the proposed system. preamble. After arranging these estimated CP to Eq. We can use this training sequences to estimate the channel if we can recover the transmitted CP {xcp } correctly. NBPS C = 4.k−1 = x−p.k and xn−1.k · · · y−1. or x−p. By considering the non-data parts in the preamble.. Preamble 3 SC symbols Preamble B 40 samples 37.6Mbps where NBPS C is number of coded bit which is defined by modulation type. 3. 2) Adaptive Channel Estimation: To make this channel estimator adaptif we use the recursive least-square (RLS) algorithm to get the channel estimation value from Eq. Since we use 16-QAM. System Performance The performance comparation between the ideal.5 us C. .5 us … DATA 1 40 samples 112. which is formed as xl (k) = [x−l.k−1 · · · x−v+l.k · · · } the relationship between these two satisfies ycp = xcp ∗ h + wcp (10) Eq. the proposed system gives better performance compared to the conventional one as the SNR is increased. (note that xn−v. A.k−1 · · · y−v+l. 1. 2008 ICACT 2008 . The main parameters of the system specification and simulation are shown in Table I and Table II. System Throughput We can calculate the throughput for the conventional system from Table I and II as ND × NBPS C × R (15) Throughputmax = TS Y M 30 × 4 × 12 = 37. 9 we can estimate the channel in time domain as ˆ (11) h(k) = T−1 k ycp (k) By the properties of Toeplitz matrix we can obtain the T−1 (k) by using T† (k). .k−1 .k−1 . We can see that on low SNR conventional system shows good performance.k ··· x−p..k y−v.k ]T is the AWGN correspondence to the CP.k−1 · · · x−1.k · · · x−1.k−1 · · · xm−p.k x−v. The Proposed System ˆ h(k) = Γ−1 (k) z(k) Preamble C1 40 samples DATA 20 SC symbols (12) Perfect synchronization is assummed.k = x−1. time domain channel estimator and FFT. · · · . 2 has 3 diﬀerent parts compared to conventional one. . Tk = (9) . Ideal system means that the information of CIR already provided at the receiver while conventional system uses retraining sequence in every packet i. However after 23 dB of SNR. They are Quantizer. . .k · · · w−1.4.k−1 y−p. B. Since we do the channel estimation in time domain while the equalization is in frequency domain.11 to CFR value then build the zero forcing equalizer coeﬃcient DH . S R Our proposed adaptive channel estimator as shown in Fig. . For channel estimation purpose we just take the last v samples of Quantizer output [ x¯n−v. The estimated channel at time k is ISBN 978-89-5519-136-3 Preamble C2 40 samples 862.k−1 x−p. we need FFT to convert the estimated CIR of Eq.k ] as the estimated CP. Hence if all the prefix parts concatenate = together to form a pair of sequences {xcp } {· · · x−p.k xm−1. we obtain the data rate becomes 20 × 1. respectively..5 us = 750 us 37. for l = v.k = x−v.e. .k · · · } and {ycp } = {· · · y−p.k−1 · · · y−1.k · · · y−1. to estimate the CIR. while z(k) = λ1 z(k − 1) + λ2 p xl (k) y∗l (k) (14) l=1 is the approximation of the cross-correlation vector between the transmitted CP and the received CP.5 × 10−6 = 1.5 us Fig.3913 Mbps (16) Throughputcon = 23 -1034- Feb.k ).k−1 ]T and yl (k) = [y−l. . usually we use λ2 = 1 and λ1 < 1. The channel estimation value is updated every k time. 1) Time Domain Channel Estimator: Quantizer is used to to reduce the probability of error propagation by quantizing (round up) the estimated data after IFFT xˆ (k) to the original Quadrature Amplitudo Modulation (QAM) symbol value. where [·]† is the pseudo invers matrix. .where Tk is a fat Toeplitz matrix with the lower triangle is composed by transmitted CP [xcp (k)]T and the upper triangle is composed by the previous transmitted CP which is actually the last v part of the previous symbol [xcp (k − 1)]T . III. the channel output is exactly {ycp }.5 us DATA 20 40 samples 20 x 37. v − 1. x−1...6 Mbps = 1.k xm−1. we use a block RLS method which updates the channel estimation value by blocks. 17-20. . While λ1 and λ2 are forgetting factors for the data between blocks and within same block. Packet Format where Γ(k) = λ1 Γ(k − 1) + λ2 p xl (k) xlH (k) (13) l=1 is the approximation of the correlation matrix of the transmitted CP. Noticing that the data in Eq.10 due to its good tracking property [12]. 1 and 8 arrive block by block.k · · · x¯n−1.. in a static multipath channel is shown in Fig.

5 37. 5. Vehicular Technology Conf. Wang and G. [4] Z. Benyamin-Seeyar.52. 2369-2380. Huang. J. May 2000. Phoenix. Giannakis. X.2. [5] Z. For future work we will enhanced the algorithm and examine the proposed system under dynamic channel then use higher modulation such as 64 QAM to achieve higher throughput. Florida. Lin and S. Furthermore. 50 100 150 Number of Transmitted Packet (P) 200 Throughput comparation for the first 200 of P [6] Z.35 [1] D Falconer. 2002. Giannakis. vol. in Proc. Japan. X. OFDM or Single Carrier Block Transmission?. Masayuki Kurosaki.6 Mbps 23 + 20 × (P − 1) (17) where P is the number of transmitted packet. vol.B. 2000. Wang. certainly the system throughput can be increased by using higher modulation. No. No.40 IV. Taiwan. AZ. pp. No. Generalized Circular Transform for OFDM Transmission. 2004 . Vol. P. Ma. Ohno. S. L. Frequency Domain Equalization for Single-Carrier Broadband Wireless Systems.0 0. and G. Comparison between Adaptive OFDM and Single Carrier Modulation with Frequency Domain Equalization. in Proc. IEEE Communications Magazine. A. pp. pp. 29-48. 660-664.. Zheng. Ariyavisitakul. Englewood Cliﬀs. Giannakis. September 2003.447 0. 15 SNR (dB) 1. No. and J.3. Lu. C In this paper. pp. we have presented an adaptive channel estimation technique using cyclic prefix for SC wireless system with FDE. we annhilate the need of training sequences start from the second transmitted packet and get the higher data rate as Throughput pro = 10 0 Fig.066 32 30 7. Prentice Hall. Vol.B. 1997. in Proc. [3] S. and Hiroshi Ochi. Optimality of Single Carrier Zero-Padded Block Transmission?.474-478.10. vol. No. where Fourier Meets Shannon. Czylwik. of IEEE Workshop on Signal Proc. pp. 291-293. [12] S. IEEE Transactions on Communications. such as 64 QAM. March 17-21. Adaptive Filter Theory.47. J. and B. Wang and K. Taoyuan. As P is increased we almost attain the maximum data rate. 40.60 After applying the adaptive channel estimator that employs CP.45 Retraining System 1. [2] X. 865-869. Vol. in Proc. 20 1. 267270. and G. [11] Z.372] 5 5000 −5 10 0 5 Fig.3. [10] A. Phoong. R ISBN 978-89-5519-136-3 25 30 Bit error rate comparation in multipath channel 1. Eidson. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.1. Giannakis. ”Performance Verification between OFDM and SC-FDE For Narrowband Mobile Communication System. 17-20. Ma. Tottori. 2001. Performance of Single-Carrier Block Transmission Over Multipath Fading Fading Channels With Linear Equalization. pp. 2007. 3. Vol. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. -1035- Feb. 4. [8] X. [7] Y. Ray Liu Adaptive Channel Estimation Using Cyclic Prefix in Multicarrier Modulation System. Kunitoshi Nishijo.54.B. 380-394. The proposed system can maintain the system performance and gives 14. IEICE Society Conference Procedings. 2002.813 0. pp. pp. pp. Orlando. In this simulation we send 5000 packets and show the throughput for the first 200 transmitted packets in Fig. 2. October 1999. Vehicular Technology Conf.676 0. Vol. no. Wang and G.9 % higher throughput as the number of transmitted packet is increased.50 Proposed System 1. BER Minimized OFDM Systems with Channel Independent Precoders. 10. Wang. Yuhei Nagao. IEEE Communications Letters Vol. 5.55 0. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine.9. 3678-3687.85 300 30 2 1. 2008 ICACT 2008 .55 Maximum Data rate 1. [9] Wahyul Amien Syafei.5 −1 10 −2 10 bit error rate PARAMETER Frequency Carrier [MHz] Bandwidth [kHz] Number of data (ND ) Number of pilot FFT sampling [MHz] FFT Point FFT period (T FFT ) [µs] CP length (TGI ) [µs] Symbol period (T S Y M ) [µs] 0 10 −3 10 −4 10 TABLE II S P Modulation Coding rate (R) Multipath CIR Delay spread [µs] Number of transmitted packet (P) 16 QAM 1/2 [1. March 2004. Linearly Precoded or Coded OFDM Against Wireless Channel Fades?. Adnavces in Wireless Comm.TABLE I S P Ideal Retraining Adaptive SC 265. New Jersey. March 20-23. October 2006.51. Throughput (Mbps) 20 + 20 × (P − 1) × 1. Wireless Multicarrier Communications.. September 12.B. pp. 4th Edition. Wireless Communications Networking Conf. 58-66. Haykin. 4.M.

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