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Popular Kheti
Volume -2, Issue-3 (July-September), 2014
Available online at www.popularkheti.info
© 2014 popularkheti.info
ISSN: 2321-0001

Package and Practices for Integrated Pest Management of Mango
(Mangifera indica)
B. M. Meena1, Anirudha Chattopadhyay2, S. C. Meena3* and S. S. Rathore4
Research Scholar, Department of Entomology, RCA, MPUAT, Udaipur, Rajasthan
2
Asstt. Prof., Department of Plant Pathology, C.P. College of Agriculture,
S. D. Agricultural University, S. K. Nagar, Gujarat
3, 4
Research Scholars, Department of Plant Pathology, RCA, MPUAT, Udaipur, Rajasthan
1

*Email of corresponding author: meena.suresh23jan@gmail.com

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a suitable approach for the management of
pests and diseases of mango. There are number of insect-pests and diseases
reported to cause havoc in mango orchard. Their occurrence and distribution is
varying based on seasonal change and agro-climatic locations. Therefore, mango
growers are adopting some generic approaches to solve pest problem and getting
some considerable output. However, to achieve better yield, there is need to adopt
some specific pest management practices which are mainly need based on
prevalence of the pest and diseases in specific crop season. Therefore, taking this
in consideration, a general Integrated Pest Management schedule was formulated
based on the calendar of pest and disease profile of mango for managing pests and
diseases of mango.
Introduction
Mango has been described as the “king of fruits”, known for its strong aroma, delicious taste,
and high nutritive value, is a prominent horticultural crop of India. Mango is a tropical and
subtropical fruit crop grown in India over an area of 2.5 million hectares with production of
18.02 million tonnes during 2012-13 (NCIPM). The perennial crop grown in diverse
agro-climatic conditions face differential biotic and abiotic stress limiting the production and
productivity of mango. But its productivity is comparatively lower than other countries like
china. This may be due to certain limitations viz., traditional low density cultivation and poor
plant population, growing of traditional low yielding varieties, poor nutrient, water, and
climate change is expected to trigger the changes in diversity and abundance of arthropods and
diseases and poor management practices, etc. There are nearly 1000 mango varieties in
India. However, only about 20 varieties are grown commercially. Most of the Indian mango
varieties have specific eco-geographical requirements for optimum growth and fruiting. Thus,
grown in different ecological regions like Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Bombay Green and Fazri
in North India; Banganapalli, Totapuri, Neelum, Pairi, Suvarnarekha, Mulgoa, Kalapadi and
Rumani in South India; Alphonso, Kesar, Mankurad, Fernandin’ and ‘Vanraj’ in Western
India; Langra, Fazri; Chausa, Zardalu, Himsagar and Malda in Eastern India, etc. This huge

Popular Kheti

ISSN: 2321-0001

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Maximise production of healthy. United Kingdom. Bahrain. pest is mango. 2014. 2(3): 100-107 Popular Article genetic diversity was exploited for better crop improvement programme to produce various export quality cultivars. nitidulus and Amritodus atkinsoni ) Most destructive pests of all varieties of mango and widespread pest throughout the country. Japan (fruit flies). it also attacks about 62 other active from November to plants and widely distributed in the May. Kuwait. Oman. Nymphs and adults suck the sap of inflorescence causes withering. Due to pest attack drying of leaves and inflorescence. 17 species of mites and 26 species of nematodes to infest mango trees and about 45 per cent of which have been reported from India. Key pests Features 1. Some of the major insect-pests and diseases are listed here: A. Kheti.. Complete reliance only on organic to control pests is also impossible in large scale successfully. No. Fruit flies. there is a need of adoption of suitable integrated pest management practises by mango growers that will help in following ways: 1. etc and earned some foreign exchange also. reduction in natural enemies of insect pests and pollinators. ISSN: 2321-0001 101 . etc. USA. To mitigate these problems. Promoting non-chemical eco-friendly approaches 4. occupational health hazard. there would be the chance to reduce acceptance of Indian Mango in world market. bug It is a polyphagous pest. besides Low temperature. resurgence of pests. Nepal.. Shade and high humidity conditions with moderately high temperature are favourable for their multiplication. high incidence of pests and diseases. USA (fruit flies & Stone weevil). Reduce pesticide residues on fruit 5. List of Insect-Pests Of National Importance S. 2. Pop. three most common and destructive species of hoppers. Shedding of flower buds and flowers and honey dew secrecation on lower leaves and development of sooty mould. The heavy use of these chemical pesticides also has resulted in high degree of environmental pollution.Meena et al. Singapore. etc. The excessive use of some hazardous pesticides to control these pests. Production of import quality fruits 6. Bangladesh. Although Mango (fresh fruits) and processed mango products are exported from India to different importing countries like United Arab Emirates. Its export is mainly hindered due to quarantine concerns. Mango hopper (Idioscopus clypealis. Minimise the use of the quantum of pesticides 3. Maximize the benefit/ cost ratio Pest Status on Mango in India There are more than 175 species of insects. good quality fruit 2. Saudi Arabia. stone weevil and pulp weevil infesting mango fruits in India are of quarantine concerns to many countries viz. Mango mealy (Drosicha mangiferae) Popular Kheti Seasonal distribution A low population of hoppers has been recorded in mango orchards throughout the year but it shoots up during FebruaryApril and JuneAugust. But Indian exports are not significant in comparison to the other mango producing countries of the world. Indo-Gangetic plains. social risk and low profitability with low benefit cost ratio. Qatar. I.

) India. No signs of during March-May. Larvae of this moth feed on the bark and weaken the tree. B. It is widely distributed in India and south east Asia. especially in Uttar Pradesh.continent. Stem borer (Batocera Both beetles are serious pests of rufomaculata. attacks the population. the highest population is found in February. temperature humidity prevailing during ovary. 2014.) more prone to attack by this pest. looks similar High humidity enhances its (Sternochetus to the mango seed weevil. Kheti.April. 9. Totapuri. Moderate temperature and moderate humidity prevailing during September-October. it is common pest in southern areas enhances its mangiferae) India. Varieties with high TSS and infestation. direct and indirect economic losses (36-40%). Popular Kheti mite Exit in north India. January-March are the ideal environmental conditions for the development and reproduction of mango Midge. Haryana and Punjab. 4. catterpiller (Inderbela shady and neglected orchards are sp. More activity frigidus) flesh rather than the seed. Bangalo..) 500 species. Fruit fly (Bactrocera The genus Bactrocera includes about sp. Mango stone weevil Important monophagous pest of High humidity in coastal (Sternochetus mango. Neelum. mango in north-western parts of the rubus) India sub. This pest remains active during December. Oriental fruit fly B. anthers and stalks of stamens. Mango scale This pest is found throughout India. (Aspiodiotus Both nymphs and adults desap the destructor) leaves cause yellowing. to high Mango gall Midges It is widely distributed throughout Moderate with low (Procystiphora sp. Popular Article High temperature coupled with high humidity prevailing during May-July months. Due to mite attack malformed leaves and buds giving bunchy top appearance. High temperature and high humidity during JulyAugust enhances its infestation. Mango Pulp Weevil Exist in north-east India. eight species of genus Bactrocera are identified among quarantine pests. 10. sugar such as Alphonso. Bark eating It also feeds on other fruit plants. the weevil on the outside of the fruit. 7. Mango bud (Aceria Mangiferae) The pest has three seasonal populations. 2(3): 100-107 3.Grub makes zigzag tunnels in pulp and eats unripe tissue and bore into cotyledons. old. ISSN: 2321-0001 102 . 6. Maggots feed on flower buds. oozing of fluid and brownish rotten patches on fruits. dorsalisis the most destructive of all fruit flies. In India. Banganpalli are more prone to attack by this pest. 5.Meena et al. 8. Maggot of fruit fly bore into semi-ripen fruits with decayed spots. Grub bore into the sap wood and macking irregular tunnels and feeding the vascular tissues due to this wilting of branches or entire tree. June and July months. Pop.

Different steps of the module are: 1.. heavy morning mist and moderate humidity (70%) are highly favourable for disease development. mangiferae-indicae ) 6. HP. 2.) 5. 12. Pop. B. Monitoring/ Field Scouting: To assess the increasing/decreasing trend in pest and disease incidence in orchard at regular interval. Bacterial canker Angular brown cankerous (X. 4. blighted leaves. Cool (10moniliforme var. Mango Malformation UP. Active throughout the year. Gujarat. Kheti. Moisture and newly (Fusarium Haryana. No. surrounded by chlorotic halo. Red ant (Oecophyllas Found throughout India. Popular Kheti ISSN: 2321-0001 103 . Bihar. Popular Article High temperature and high humidity during JuneNovember is suitable for its development and reproduction. particularly in older trees followed by drying of leaves. Construct the maradina) nests by webbing together the leaves and influence the photosynthesis process of plants. Caterpillars feed gregariously by the scraping the leaf surface and they soon get webbed together shoots and leaves and feed inside.) It is a common pest of mango throughout India. Optimum temperature of 25 ºC and favourable moisture conditions. leaves and young fruits. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) Die-back (Lasiodiplodia theobromae) White superficial powdery growth of fungus on inflorescence. branches giving ‘fire scorch’ appearance Black velvety thin covering on the surface of the leaves. These include evolving efficient methods of pest control through pest surveys and monitoring. 2014. 3. Maharastra. Punjab. List of Diseases of National Importance S. the atmospheric temperature 2830ºC coupled with above 80% humidity are congenial for its multiplication. Powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae) 2. Dropping of unfertilized infected flowers. vegetative growth. AP. in north-west India IPM Strategies on Mango There are some basic steps involved for the implementation of IPM on mango. High humidity and presence of sugary substances spot The disease spreads rapidly during rains and is severe during July-August. Diseases Symptoms Environmental factors 1. Leaf webber (Orthaga sp. fruitsruptured and shot hole’ symptom. marble size fruits) Brown spots of various sizes scattered on leaf surface. 2(3): 100-107 11. MP. campestrispv. Drying back of twigs from top downwards. Sooty Mould (Capnodium sp. stem and fruits Cool & cloudy weather. J&K. Survey: The main aim is to observe the initial development of pest and diseases in endemic area and to warn the farmers for field scouting in that area having indication of pest and disease build up. stalk. Vegetative and floral malformation. 15ºC) & humid weather subglutinans) during Dec-Jan. development of suitable IPM modules and validation of IPM modules.Meena et al.

2(3): 100-107 Popular Article 3. Stem borer.. IPM Module: Need based. Calendar of IPM Activities to be Performed Throughout the Year based on Pest and Disease Profile Months Target pest IPM strategy July Mealy bug. • Reduce the mealy bug population by removing weeds Inflorescence like Clerodendrum infortunatum and grasses by midge. • If infestation of leaf webber is severe. Kheti. Popular Kheti ISSN: 2321-0001 104 .. 4. • Proper drainage in nursery. bark • Remove and destroy midge affected flowers and tender eating caterpillar.3 feet height) after scraping the loose bark. • If infestation of mango stem borer and bark eating caterpillar are severe then apply the copper oxychloride paste on the trunk of the tree or hook out the grub from the bore hole .05% @ 2ml/lit. 5. silk cotton and other hosts and grow tolerant mango varieties viz. Red rust. remove alternate host. • Sanitation and removal of weeds from orchard. • Raking soil below the tree to destroy the pupae helps to Red rust manage the mango inflorescence midge. • For the management of mango scales pruning of infested branches and burning them. Pop. area wise suitable IPM module should be generated depending on crop ecology and pest profiling of the specific area. • Spraying of copper oxychloride (COC) for red rust and anthracnose.3% for timely picking of fruits August Leaf webber. Humayudin helping us to reduce the infestation of mango stem borer. • Spraying of quinalphos @ 0. shoots. 2014. Implementation: After validation.apply monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 to 20 ml/ hole or apply carbofuran 3G 5 g per hole and plug with mud. the generated IPM module can implemented and recommended for mango growers. spray with quinalphos 0.Meena et al. ploughing during June-July in the mango orchard. Neelam. Validation: The IPM module generated in this way should be validated through field trails in various locations.05%. To prevent bark eating caterpillar and oviposition by adult beetles of mango stem borer swab Coal tar + Kerosene @ 1:2 or Carbaryl 50 WP 20 g / l (basal portion of the trunk . If infestation is severe spray with phosphomidon 40SL 2 ml/lit. • Deep ploughing of orchard to expose the egg after harvesting. remove and destroy dead and severely affected branches of the tree. • Spraying of copper oxychloride (COC) @ 0. • Webbed leaves should be removed and burnt wherever Anthracnose possible for the management of mango leaf webber. Mango Scale.

• For the reduction of hopper populations. Die-back.5 to 1 meter above the ground level and fastened by twine with a grease barrier at the lower end to control mealy bug populations. • Spray with dicofol 18. • Removal of diseased foliage / twigs infected with anthracnose (twig blight stage) • Deep ploughing of orchards for exposing eggs and pupae of insects.. • Release of Australian ladybird beetle.3% copper oxy-chloride (g/L) after pruning. for the control of mango bud mite.5 EC 2. Mealy bug. Phoma blight November Mealy bugs. 2014.5 ml/lit.. Fruit fly. first spray at the time of panicle emergence and second spray two weeks after first spray. If infestations of hoppers are severe spray two rounds of acephate 75 SP@ 1g/lit. or fenitrothion 50 EC 12ml/lit. 2(3): 100-107 October Eggs of mealy bug. 400 gauges thick) should be put around the tree trunk at 0. • Spraying of copper oxychloride (3 g/L) for die back. Powdery mildew February Mango bud mite March April Powdery mildew Powdery mildew Popular Kheti Popular Article • Flooding of orchards with water in October kills the eggs of mealy bug • Pruning of infected and dried branches. Hopper January Inflorescence midge. of water. Anthracnose.5ml/lit or wettable sulphur 50WP 2 g /lit.2ml/lit or phosphamidon 40SL 2 ml/lit of water. Pop. Anthracnose. methyl demeton 25 EC @ 1-2 ml/lit. • If population of midge rises towards the economic injury. • In case of heavy infestation of mealy bugs apply Profenofos 50 EC 1. • Removal of weeds and infected young leaves for powdery mildew. or chlopyriphos 20EC 2. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 50/tree for the biological control of mealy bug.Meena et al. or Spray two rounds of imidacloprid 0. • Alkathene sheets (30 cm wide.5 ml/lit. orchards must be kept clean by ploughing and removal of weeds. • Removal of weeds and regular ploughing to clean orchard. as the incidence very severe in overcrowded orchards. of water. Kheti. avoid close planting. spray dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/lit. • Spray of karanj based or neem based biodynamic preparation for eco-friendly management of mealy bugs. Phoma blight December Mealy bug. Die-back. 10 cm below the dried portion and pasting of copper oxy-chloride • Spray of 0. • Raking of soil around the tree trunk and mixing with Neem Cake. • Removal of weeds in orchards which harbour insects and diseases. • Spraying with sulphur @ 2 g/L • Second spraying of wettable sulphur @ 2 g/ L after fruit setting ISSN: 2321-0001 105 .

marble stage of the fruit second at 15 days interval) and Red ants during non flowering season direct spray towards the base of the trunk. Post Harvest Practices 1.25 KGY to 0. • For the management of red ants nests should be removed and destroyed mechanically or by spraying any of the contact insecticides Monocrotophos 2ml/lit. Harvested fruits ripe uniformly without any disease and fruit fly infestation. B. before 45 days prior to harvests. Ensure traps are active till harvest by replacing lures. Harvesting at proper maturity stage.Meena et al. Uniform ripening. Pulp weevil. Treat the fruits with hot water at 48-49ºC for one hour. 7.05) 15 days before harvesting 2. for the management of bud mite. size and maturity to control anthracnose. Pre Harvest Practices 1. 6. 3.5 EC 2. 6. • Spray application of fenthion 100EC 1ml/lit. stem end rot and black rot. provide summer ploughing to expose the pupa and monitor the activity of flies with methyl eugenol sex lure traps. 2(3): 100-107 May June Popular Article • For the management of fruit fly. Install male annihilation methyl eugenol trap @ 5 nos. fruit fly. VHT is generally done at 46-49ºC for 20-30 minutes depending on variety. Fruit fly. 7. where fruit fly is the target insect. Bagging of fruits (for controlling the post harvest diseases and bruises) with newspaper or brown paper bags one month prior to harvest. vapour heat treatment is required to control fruit fly.1%) to trap the fruit flies.5ml/lit. Popular Kheti ISSN: 2321-0001 106 . 4. 2014. Bait spray .1%) or Penconazole (0. Vapour Heat Treatment (VHT): For exporting mangoes to Japan.combing molasses or jaggery 10 g and dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/lit. Kheti. 3. /ha. collect fallen infested fruits and dispose them by dumping in a pit.1%) + malathion (0. (First at Mango bud mite.. 5.025 percent Carbendazim in hot water (52 ± 1ºC) for 5-10 minutes depending on the variety. Proper packaging /wrapping of fruits. Fruit fly. • Spray with dicofol 18. 2. Fruits are irradiated 0. Avoid delay in harvest and may be done before onset of rain. Pre harvest spray of Carbendazim (0. sooty mould Post Harvest IPM Activities of Mango A. 4. Hot water dip treatment to be given to harvested fruits in 0. Cold storage (5% CO2 and 5% O2 at 13ºC temperature and 85-90% relative humidity) to extend shelf life up to 4-5 weeks. Pop. Hanging of methyl eugenol traps (0. multiplication of both stone weevil and pulp weevil and Stone weevil.75 KGY to control fruit fly and stone weevil to export fruits to USA. • Collection and destruction of fallen fruits will prevent the Anthracnose. 5.

151-154 pp. Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. 2(3): 100-107 Popular Article Conclusion IPM module described in the present article is simple to apply irrespective of locality and socioeconomic status of the mango growers. 4 pp. 2007. Quarantine and Storage. community approach among mango growers should be promoted. National Horticulture Board. The economic benefit of the recommended IPM schedule is to be quantified. School of Science and Primary Industries. New Delhi. David BV and Ramamurthy VV. Ministry of Agriculture. Technical Bulletin 19. location and pest profiling of any region. Hyderabad. 2011. Anonymous. 310-317 pp. 2005. Atwal AS and Dhaliwal GS. Any Government subsidy if available should easily be accessible to farmers. Insect. Directorate of Plant Protection. it can be modified accordingly by the farmers themselves. Pinese B. This will help for its success in long run. Lucknow. Pop. Agricultural pests of South Asia and their management. Jeyakumar P and Monga D. Renkang P and Keith C. Biswas BC and Kumar L. New Delhi. Government of India. 24pp. Always socio-economic condition of the growers should be kept in consideration before recommendation and implementation of this strategy. Area wide. It is suitable IPM package and practices for mango pests and diseases that can easily be adopted by any mango growers. Mealybugs and their management. 2014. 2010. 2002. ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region. mite and vertebrate pests and their management in horticulture Crops. 54pp. Revolution in mango production success stories of some farmers. Time to time assessment of implemented IPM module is also necessary for its betterment and improvement in long run. References Anonymous. Tanwar RK.Meena et al. 2012. Kheti. 2012. Popular Kheti ISSN: 2321-0001 108 . Australia.. 39 pp. Ranchi. Reddy PP. Any need based modification or change in the strategic plan based on situation. 2013. Faridabad. 21pp. IPM Package No-34. Charles Darwin University. New Delhi. National Centre for Integrated Pest Management. Research Centre. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture. Integrated Pest Management Package for Mango. National Centre for Integrated Pest Management. Fertiliser Marketing News. 16pp. DPI&F North Queensland Multan. NICRA. Integrated pest management in Australian mangoes. 2005. A manual for conventional and organic mango growers in Australia. Elements of Economic Entomology. and Central Institute for Subtropical Agriculture. 2006. 41-55 pp. Manual for mango pest surveillance.