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Mindanao University of Science and Technology

C.M. Recto Avenue, Lapasan,
Cagayan de Oro City

“SPOT WELDING”

SUBMITTED BY:
RAYMOND S. NACUA
BSME-4A

SUBMITTED TO:
ENGR. VENERANDO COMALING

DATE:
OCTOBER , 2015

on one or both of the workpieces to be joined. Another feature of spot welding is that the energy delivered to the spot can be controlled to produce reliable welds. Heat is concentrated at the projections. The amount of heat (energy) delivered to the spot is determined by the resistance between the electrodes and the magnitude and duration of the current. Applying too much energy will melt too much metal.118 in) thickness range. nuts. and make a hole rather than a weld. That permits the welding to occur without excessive heating of the remainder of the sheet. Typically the sheets are in the 0. Forcing a large current through the spot will melt the metal and form the weld. eject molten material.SPOT WELDING Spot welding is a process in which contacting metal surfaces are joined by the heat obtained from resistance toelectric current. The projections can also serve as a means of positioning the workpieces. and type of electrodes. Projection welding is often used to weld studs. The attractive feature of spot welding is that a lot of energy can be delivered to the spot in a very short time (approximately 10–100 milliseconds). ] The amount of energy is chosen to match the sheet's material properties. Applying too little energy will not melt the metal or will make a poor weld. its thickness. or projections.5 to 3 mm (0. and . the weld is localized by means of raised sections. which permits the welding of heavier sections or the closer spacing of welds. In this process. Projection welding is a modification of spot welding. The process uses two shaped copper alloy electrodes to concentrate welding current into a small "spot" and to simultaneously clamp the sheets together.020 to 0. Work-pieces are held together under pressure exerted by electrodes.

and multiple projection welds can be arranged by suitable designing and jigging. Tool Styles Electrodes used in spot welding can vary greatly with different applications. The current from the electrodes is then applied briefly after which the current is removed but the electrodes remain in place for the material to cool.008 to 1. usually copper. and may stretch the material as well as anneal it.25 inches (0. Workpiece thickness can range from 0. The chemical properties affected include the metal's internal resistance and its corrosive properties. Both water and a brine solution may be used as coolants in spot welding mechanisms. light duty. Each tool style has a different purpose. The equipment used in the spot welding process consists of tool holders and electrodes. offset eccentric tips for reaching into corners and small spaces. causing it to warp. Tool holding methods include a paddle-type. This reduces the material's fatigue strength. universal. It is also frequently used to join crossed wires and bars. . Radius style electrodes are used for high heat applications. the electrode force and the diameter of the electrodes themselves.20 to 32 mm). The width of the workpieces is limited by the throat length of the welding apparatus and ranges typically from 5 to 50 inches (13 to 130 cm). This is another high-production process. electrodes with a truncated tip for high pressure. Processing and Equipment Spot welding involves three stages. The electrodes generally are made of a low resistance alloy. and are designed in many different shapes and sizes depending on the application needed. The tool holders function as a mechanism to hold the electrodes firmly in place and also support optional water hoses that cool the electrodes during welding. and regular offset. the first of which involves the electrodes being brought to the surface of the metal and applying a slight amount of pressure. After the current is removed from the workpiece. Effects The spot welding process tends to harden the material.01 sec to 0. surface cracks and a bad appearance.63 sec depending on the thickness of the metal. The physical effects of spot welding include internal cracking. The two materials being welded together are known as the workpieces and must conduct electricity. Weld times range from 0. and finally offset truncated for reaching into the workpiece itself. eccentric electrodes for welding corners. it is cooled via the coolant holes in the center of the electrodes.other screw machine parts to metal plate.

Electrical notes The basic spot welder consists of a power supply. the voltage between the electrodes is only about 1. That heat and the clamping force will soften and smooth out the material at the electrode-material interface and make better contact (that is. the electrodes and the workpiece are conducting that heat away. The perimeter of the spot will conduct away a lot of heat and keep the perimeter at a lower temperature. the cables. The interior of the spot has less heat conducted away. and the welding electrodes. the sheet thickness and desired size of the nugget. an energy storage unit (e. a welding transformer. a switch. The welding electrodes are part of the transformer's secondary circuit.g. An important feature of the transformer is it reduces the current level that the switch must handle. the entire spot melts. and the contact resistance between the workpieces. typically in the 5 to 22 volt range. and the welding electrodes. The open circuit voltage from the transformer is higher than this.0 mm sheet steel. so most of the initial energy will be dissipated there. [7] There is the resistance of secondary winding. Modern welding equipment can monitor and adjust the weld in real-time to ensure a consistent weld. a capacitor bank). The resistance of the weld spot changes as it flows and liquefies. and the "weld" becomes a hole. The resistance presented to the welder is complicated. lower the contact resistance). The welding transformer steps down the voltage and steps up the current. the material runs out or otherwise fails.. The voltage needed for welding depends on the resistance of the material to be welded. When welding a common combination like 1. more electrical energy will go into the workpiece and the junction resistance of the two workpieces. At the beginning of the weld. If the welding current is applied too long. then the energy storage element isn't needed. This decrease in voltage results from the reduction in resistance caused by the workpiece melting. There is also the contact resistance between the welding electrodes and the workpiece. As electrical energy is delivered to the weld and causes the temperature to rise. Consequently. If the power demands are not high.0 + 1. The energy storage element allows the welder to deliver high instantaneous power levels. The goal is to apply enough energy so that a portion of material within the spot melts without having the entire spot melt. The switch causes the stored energy to be dumped into the welding transformer. The . There is also a control box that manages the switch and may monitor the welding electrode voltage or current.5 V at the start of the weld but can fall as low as 1 V at the end of the weld. the contact resistances are usually high. There is the resistance of the workpieces. so it melts first.

. Welding goggles with a 5. power. Spot welding can be easily identified on many sheet metal goods. Aluminium alloys can be spot welded. Welder sizes range from 5 to 500 kVA. but their much higher thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity requires higher welding currents. used in a variety of industries.5 m/s. where it is used almost universally to weld the sheet metal to form a car. While spot welding does not generate UV light as intensely as arc welding. and the electric current and magnetic field interact with each other to produce a large magnetic force field too. and more expensive welding transformers Perhaps the most common application of spot welding is in the automobile manufacturing industry. Safety It is common for a spray of molten metal droplets (sparks) to be ejected from the area of the weld during the process. where small-scale spot welding equipment is used when resizing metal "molar bands" used in orthodontics. the large electric current induces a large magnetic field. As such. more powerful. and many of the industrial robots found on assembly lines are spot welders (the other major use for robots being painting). Thicker stock is more difficult to spot weld because the heat flows into the surrounding metal more easily. Micro spot welders. Fields During spot welding. such as metal buckets.5 kVA or less for precision welding needs.The fast motion in spot welding can be observed with high speed photography.0 shade are recommended. can go down to 1. Applications Spot welding is typically used when welding particular types of sheet metal.equipment may seek to control different variables during the weld. or energy. the heat energy distribution in spot welding could be dramatically changed by the fast motion of the melted metal. eye protection is required. Spot welding is also used in the orthodontist's clinic. Spot welders can also be completely automated. This requires larger. voltage. welded wire mesh or wire mesh. such as current. which drives the melted metal to move very fast at a velocity up to 0.

BMW plant in Leipzig. Germany: Spot welding of BMW 3 series car bodies with KUKA industrial robots Vehicle door Spot Welding Machine . The cells are joined by spot welding thin nickel straps to the battery terminals. Connecting surfaces should be free of contaminants such as scale.Another application is spot welding straps to nickel–cadmium or nickel–metal hydride cells to make batteries. as might happen if conventional soldering were done. to ensure quality welds. and dirt. Spot welding can keep the battery from getting too hot. Good design practice must always allow for adequate accessibility. Metal thickness is generally not a factor in determining good welds. oil.

SMAW . spot welding d. seam welding c .Spot Welder A Spot Welding Robot QUESTIONS: 1.plastic welding b. A process in which contacting metal surfaces are joined by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current. a.

Seam welding 5. None of these 9. 0. Both a and b b. In spot welding . convert DC to AC d. what is a rectifier? a. brine d. AC to DC c.2. None of the above 8. a coolant used for spot welding. oil c.5mm 4. Cooled air b. 5-10 inches c. by how much is the frequency is being used? . In spot welding. 5-30 inches d. 5-20 inches b. What are the composition of the electrode used in spot welding? a . what is the typical range for the metal sheet thickness to be used? a.0.5-3mm d. induction welding b. Aluminum b. a.3-0. a. In spot welding . 3mm-5mm b. production welding c. copper alloy d. 5-50 inches 7. it converts a. both a and b b. projection welding d. none of the above 6. Is a modification of spot welding.steel alloy c. An inverter is sometimes used in spot welding . convert AC to DC c. Alloy 3. The width of the workpieces is limited by the throat length of the welding apparatus and ranges typically from ? a. DC to AC d. any range c.

the weld is localized by means of raised sections. 5-20 ms c. 10-100 ms d. projection welding d.a. The attractive feature of spot welding is that a lot of energy can be delivered to the spot in a very short time (approximately _________) ? a. amperage d. coolant d. Workpieces b. 50 Hz c. Support optional water hoses that cool the electrodes during welding. spot 17. four d. Resistance 13. a. spot welding c. a. 60 Hz d. excellent weld d. electrodes c. Five 16. Current b. a. Efficient weld 14. In this process. How many stages involve on spot welding? a. two c. What welding process is somehow similar to spot welding? a. voltage c. Poor weld b. Applying too little energy will make a ______. seam welding d. 40-50 ms b. seam welding b. 40 Hz 10. The equipment used in the spot welding process consists of tool holders and ____. GTAW 11. a. . Three b. 70 Hz b. good weld c. The amount of heat (energy) delivered to the spot is determined by the ______ between the electrodes and the magnitude and duration of the current.20-50 ms 12. Plastic welding 15. FCAW b. SMAW c.

b 9. paddle-type c.a. c 20. d 17. a 3. so most of the initial energy will be dissipated there. The two materials being welded together are known as the work pieces and must _______. a. c 18. b 14. b 16. d 11. a 2. heavy d. High b. conduct electricity c. b 6. At the beginning of the spot welding. d 4. the contact resistances are usually____ . conduct heat d. universal d. Electrodes b. low c. tool holders c. b 7. Heavy duty 19. a 13. a 5. b 10. d 8. None of the above 18. b 15. light ANSWERS: 1. b 12. c . Light duty b. b 19. a. coolants d. Insulate electricity b. All of the above 20. Tool holding methods are the following except : A.