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A. 802.

1 Interconnection (Bridging)
IEEE 802.1 is a working group of the IEEE 802 project of the IEEE Standards
Association.
It is concerned with:

802 LAN/MAN architecture

internetworking among 802 LANs, MANs and wide area networks

802 Link Security

802 overall network management

protocol layers above the MAC & LLC layers
B. 802.2 Logical Link Control

IEEE 802.2 is the original name of the ISO/IEC 8802-2 standard which
defines Logical Link Control (LLC) as the upper portion of the data link
layer of the OSI Model.[1] The original standard developed by the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in collaboration with the American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) was adopted by the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1998, but it still remains an integral
part of the family of IEEE 802 standards for local and metropolitan networks.
LLC is a software component that provides a uniform interface to the user of
the data link service, usually the network layer. LLC may offer three types of
services:

Unacknowledged connectionless mode services (mandatory)

Connection mode services (optional)

Acknowledged connectionless mode services (optional)

Conversely, the LLC uses the services of the Media Access Control (MAC),
which is dependent on the specific transmission medium (Ethernet, Token
Ring, FDDI, 802.11, etc.). Using LLC is compulsory for all IEEE 802 networks

4 Token Bus LAN Token bus is a network implementing the token ring protocol over a "virtual ring" on a coaxial cable. SSAP (Source Service Access Point) and the Control field. D.2 sublayer adds some control information to the message created by the upper layer and passed to the LLC for transmission to another node on the same data link. This is generally a local area network technology with some wide area network applications. routers) by various types of copper or fiber cable. The two 8-bit fields DSAP and SSAP allow to multiplex various upper layer protocols above LLC. 802.2. the token is passed on to the next node on the virtual ring. Physical connections are made between nodes and/or infrastructure devices (hubs.with the exception of Ethernet.3 Ethernet (CSMA/CD) LAN IEEE 802. Each node must know the address of its neighbour in the . The LLC Header consist of DSAP (Destination Service Access Point). to specify a specific operation and to facilitate connection control and flow control (in connection mode) or acknowledgements (in acknowledged connectionless mode). C. 802. many protocols use the Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) extension which allows using of EtherType values to specify the protocol being transported atop IEEE 802.[1] A token is passed around the network nodes and only the node possessing the token may transmit.3 also defines LAN access method using CSMA/CD. If a node doesn't have anything to send. 802. The 8 or 16 bit HDLC-style Control field serves to distinguish communication mode. The resulting packet is generally referred to as LLC Protocol Data Unit (PDU) and the additional information added by the LLC sublayer is the LLC HEADER.3 is a technology that supports the IEEE 802. It also allows vendors to define their own protocol value spaces.1 network architecture.3 is a working group and a collection of IEEE standards produced by the working group defining the physical layer and data link layer's media access control (MAC) of wired Ethernet. The IEEE 802. 802. However. It is also used in Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) which is not part of the IEEE 802family. switches.

Due to difficulties handling device failures and adding new stations to a network. A means for carrying Internet Protocol over token bus was developed.5 and was fairly successful. 802.[4] In order to guarantee the packet delay and transmission in Token bus protocol.5 version. Token bus was used by General Motorsfor their Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) standardization effort. F. a modified Token bus was proposed in Manufacturing Automation Systems and flexible manufacturing system (FMS).4 Working Group is disbanded and the standard has been withdrawn by the IEEE.5 Token Ring LAN Token ring local area network (LAN) technology is a communications protocol for local area networks. and eliminating the collisions of contention-based access methods. The main difference is that the endpoints of the bus do not meet to form a physical ring. but there were several other earlier implementations of token rings). (The main focus of this article is the IBM/IEEE 802.[5] The IEEE 802. Introduced by IBM in 1984. It uses a special three-byte frame called a "token" that travels around a logical "ring" of workstations or servers. 802. This token passing is a channel access method providing fair access for all stations.[6] E.6 Metropolitan Area Networks (DQDB) . it was then standardized with protocol IEEE 802.[2] Token bus was standardized by IEEE standard 802.4. so a special protocol is needed to notify the other nodes of connections to. It is mainly used for industrial applications.ring. token bus gained a reputation for being unreliable and difficult to upgrade. the ring. but gradually eclipsed by the later versions of Ethernet. particularly in corporate environments.[3] This is an application of the concepts used in token ringnetworks. and disconnections from.

The working group did issue a recommendation in 1989.IEEE 802. DQDB is rated for a maximum of 160 km before significant signal degradation over fiberoptic cable with an optical wavelength of 1310 nm. but is currently inactive and in hibernation.6 is a standard governed by the ANSI for Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). This form supports 150 Mbit/s transfer rates. H. 802. It consists of two unconnected unidirectional buses.9 Isochronous LAN The 802. The IEEE 802. . mostly for the same reasons that the FDDI standard failed. 802.7 is a sub-standard of the IEEE 802 which covers broadband local area networks. IsoEthernet combines 10 megabits per second Ethernet and 96 64kilobits per second ISDN "B" channels.8 Fiber Optic TAG The Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group was to create a LAN standard for fiber optic media used in token passing computer networks like FDDI. This was part of the IEEE 802 group of standards. It was originally developed to provide data and voice/video over the same wire without degradation by fixing the amount of bandwidth assigned to the Ethernet and B-channel sides. with recent designs using native Ethernet or MPLS. 802.6 standard uses the Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) network form. The FDDI-based standard failed due to its expensive implementation and lack of compatibility with current LAN standards. G.9 Working Group of the IEEE 802 networking committee developed standards for integrated voice and data access over existing Category 3 twisted-pair network cable installations. It is an improvement of an older standard (also created by ANSI) which used the Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) network structure. This standard has also failed. Most MANs now use Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) or Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network designs. I. Its major standard was usually known as isoEthernet.7 Broadband TAG IEEE 802.

0 f. in this application 802. Parts b. and h are incorporated in IEEE Standard 802.10 is a former standard for security functions that could be used in both local area networks and metropolitan area networks based on IEEE 802 protocols. SDE Security Labels h. The Cisco Inter-Switch Link (ISL) protocol for supporting VLANs on Ethernet and similar LAN technologies was based on IEEE 802.1Q.There was some vendor support for isoEthernet. The IEEE 802.10 specifies security association management and key management.11 Wireless LAN . Secure Data Exchange (SDE) protocol c.10. Security for wireless networks was standardized in802. 802. Key Management d. as well as access control. f. SDE Sublayer Management g. SDE PICS Conformance. .10 has largely been replaced by IEEE 802. J. The standard being developed has 8 parts: a. data confidentiality and data integrity. 802.has now been incorporated in 'a' e.10-1998. but it lost in the marketplace due to the rapid adoption of Fast Ethernet and the working group was disbanded.11i. K. 802.10 Security IEEE 802. g. e. including security management b. Model. SDE Over Ethernet 2.10 standards were withdrawn in January 2004 and this working group of the IEEE 802 is not currently active.

4. One faction wanted to keep CSMA/CD in order to keep it pure Ethernet.11 is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 2. The base version of the standard was released in 1997.3 committee as Fast Ethernet. It is also called 100VG-AnyLANbecause it was defined to carry both Ethernet and token ring frame types.12 committee was formed and standardized 100BaseVG. Of the Fast Ethernet standards. the corporate world tends to market to the revisions because they concisely denote capabilities of their products. L. 100BASE-TX is by far the most common.12 Demand Priority 100BaseVG is a 100 Mbit/s Ethernet standard specified to run over four pairs of category 3 UTP wires (known as voice grade. since IEEE 802. Fast Ethernet is a collective term for a number of Ethernet standards that carry traffic at the nominal rate of 100 Mbit/s (the original Ethernet speed was 10 Mbit/s). 100BaseVG was originally proposed by Hewlett-Packard. The first faction argued that. 100BaseVG started in the IEEE 802. . it was not the place to develop a different protocol. 5. 802. even though the collision domain problem limited the distances to one tenth that of 10BASE-T. in the market place. and also to make it a deterministic protocol. While each amendment is officially revoked when it is incorporated in the latest version of the standard. M. As a result.3 was the Ethernet committee. 3. Thus. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802). 802. and 60 GHz frequency bands. each revision tends to become its own standard. hence the "VG"). ratified by the ISO in 1995 and was practically extinct by 1998. Another faction wanted to change to a polling architecture from the hub (they called it "Demand Priority Protocol") in order to maintain the 10baseT distances. The standard and amendments provide the basis for wireless network products using the Wi-Fi brand.6. the IEEE 802. and has had subsequent amendments.IEEE 802.13 Unused (Reserved for Fast Ethernet Development) In computer networking.

which has more than 25.15 is a working group of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) IEEE 802 standards committee which specifies wireless personal area network(WPAN) standards. but no longer maintains the standard.15. computing.3u standard[1] and remained the fastest version of Ethernet for three years before it was superseded by the Gigabit Ethernet. N.15 varies based on the number of active projects. and protects the trademarks. manages the qualification program. O. networking. There are 10 major areas of development.4 to 2.485 GHz[4]) from fixed and mobile devices.15 web site.Fast Ethernet was introduced in 1995 as the IEEE 802. . It can connect several devices. overcoming problems of synchronization.[5] it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables.[7] A manufacturer must make a device meet Bluetooth SIG standards to market it as a Bluetooth device.14 Cable Modem A cable modem is a type of network bridge and modem that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC) and RFoG infrastructure. and consumer electronics. which are licensed to individual qualifying devices. 802.1 Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.Asia and the Americas. The number of Task Groups in IEEE 802. The Bluetooth SIG oversees development of the specification.15. taking advantage of the high bandwidth of a HFC and RFoG network. Europe.[8] A network of patents apply to the technology. They are commonly deployed in Australia. The current list of active projects can be found on the IEEE 802. Cable modems are primarily used to deliver broadband Internet access in the form of cable Internet. [6] The IEEE standardized Bluetooth as IEEE 802. Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG).1. not all of which are active. 802.000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication.15 Wireless Personal Area Network (PAN) IEEE 802. and building personal area networks (PANs). 802.

802. The IEEE 802. [6] See also: UWB Forum and WiMedia Alliance IEEE 802. clarified ambiguities. Multi-band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM) and Direct Sequence UWB (DS-UWB).[5] which is funded by IEEE 802 volunteers. backed by two different industry alliances and was withdrawn in January 2006.15.3 for applications which involve imaging and multimedia.3b-2006[edit] Main article: IEEE 802.2-2003 standard was published in 2003[3] and task group two went into "hibernation".3 IEEE 802.3b-2005 amendment was released on May 5. the amendment defined the following new features:[7] .15.15.15. Documents related to the development of IEEE 802. corrected errors. IEEE P802. It enhanced 802. This amendment include many optimizations.15. The members of the task group were not able to come to an agreement choosing between two technology proposals.3 to improve implementation and interoperability of the MAC.3-2003 is a MAC and PHY standard for high-rate (11 to 55 Mbit/s) WPANs. 2006.3a[edit] Main article: IEEE P802.15.3a was an attempt to provide a higher speed Ultra wideband PHY enhancement amendment to IEEE 802.802.3a are archived on the IEEE document server. and added editorial clarifications while preserving backward compatibility.3b IEEE 802.15.15.15.15.15.3a IEEE 802.15.3-2003[edit] Main article: IEEE 802.15.3 IEEE 802. The standard can be downloaded via the IEEE Get program.2 Task group two addresses the coexistence of wireless personal area networks (WPAN) with other wireless devices operating in unlicensed frequency bands such as wireless local area networks (WLAN). Among other changes.15.15.

15. up to 3. IEEE 802. . real time streaming and wireless data bus for cable replacement. The millimeter-wave WPAN allows very high data rate. This mmWave WPAN is defined to operate in the 57–66 GHz range.).15. a new MAC layer management entity (MLME) service access point (SAP)  implied acknowledgment policy that allow polling  logical link control/subnetwork access protocol (LLC/SNAP) headers  multicast address assignment  multiple contention periods in a superfame  a method for relinquishing channel time to another device in the PAN  faster network recover in the case when the piconet coordinator (PNC) abruptly disconnects  a method for a device to return information about signal quality of a received packet.255 in North America).3c-2009[edit] Main article: IEEE 802. up to 5 Gb/s)  Audio/visual (AV) mode (OFDM.15.3-2003.3c IEEE 802. 57–64 GHz is available as unlicensed band defined by FCC 47 CFR 15. The IEEE 802.3 Gb/s)  High speed interface (HSI) mode (single carrier. Depending on the geographical region.15. etc.3c-2009 was published on September 11.8 Gb/s). The task group TG3c developed a millimeter-wave-based alternative physical layer (PHY) for the existing 802. 2009. home theater. streaming content download (video on demand. short range (10 m) for applications including high speed internet access.3 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) Standard 802. HDTV. anywhere from 2 to 9 GHz of bandwidth is available (for example.3 Task Group 3c (TG3c) was formed in March 2005. A total of three PHY modes were defined in the standard:[8]  Single carrier (SC) mode (up to 5.15.15.

it can be used with 6LoWPAN and standard Internet protocols to build a wireless embedded Internet. and multihop unicasting. The latest international standard for WBAN is the IEEE 802. It is maintained by the IEEE 802. It uses existing industrial scientific medical (ISM) bands as well as frequency bands approved by national medical and/or regulatory authorities. each of which further extends the standard by developing the upper layers which are not defined in IEEE 802.4 is a standard which specifies the physical layer and media access control for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). Alternatively. Short-range.15.15.6 standard which aims to provide an international standard for low power. 802. short range.15. addressing. and Thread specifications.6 standard is the latest international standard for Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). MiWi. wireless communications in the vicinity of. and the high rate mesh supports multihop timeguaranteed service.15.15. In addition.15.6 The IEEE 802. reliable broadcasting. This . and data rates up to 10 Mbps is required while simultaneously complying with strict non-interference guidelines where needed. This standard is composed of two parts: low-rate WPAN mesh less and high-rate WPAN mesh networks.4 IEEE 802. which has defined it in 2003. the low-rate mesh supports multicasting. WBAN supports a variety of real-time health monitoring and consumer electronics applications. 802. trace route and energy saving function. [3] WirelessHART.15.5 IEEE 802.15. and extremely reliable wireless communication within the surrounding area of the human body. Support for quality of service (QoS).15.4-2006 MAC. stable.4.[2] ISA100. portability support. and scalable wireless mesh networking.15. The low-rate mesh is built on IEEE 802. a human body (but not limited to humans) are specified in this standard. The common features of both meshes include network initialization. supporting a vast range of data rates for different applications.5 provides the architectural framework enabling WPAN devices to promote interoperable.[1] It is the basis for the ZigBee.11a.3/3b MAC. while the high rate mesh utilizes IEEE 802. extremely low power.802.15 working group. or inside.

skinny. The IEEE 802.15. Features of the proposed include:  discovery for peer information without association  discovery of the number of devices in the network  group communications with simultaneous membership in multiple groups (typically up to 10)  relative positioning  multi-hop relay  security The draft standard is under development. and changes in characteristics as a result of the user motions. female. more information can be found on the IEEE 802.15.9 received IEEE Standards Board approval on 7 December 2011 to form a Task Group to develop a recommended practice for the transport of Key Management Protocol (KMP) datagrams. 802.15.).15.15 Task Group 8 web page. The inaugural meeting for Task Group 7 was held during January 2009. heavy.15. etc.9 IEEE P802.15.8 received IEEE Standards Board approval on 29 March 2012 to form a Task Group to develop a standard for Peer Aware Communications (PAC) optimized for peer to peer and infrastructureless communications with fully distributed coordination operating in bands below 11 GHz.8 IEEE P802..standard considers effects on portable antennas due to the presence of a person (varying with male. The proposed standard is targeting data rates greater than 100 with scalable data rates up to 10 Mb/s. 802. The . where it was chartered to write standards for freespace optical communication using visible light.7 As of December 2011.7 Visible Light Communication Task Group has completed draft 5c of a PHY and MAC standard for Visible Light Communication (VLC).[1] 802. radiation pattern shaping to minimize the specific absorption rate (SAR) into the body.

Adding KMP support is critical to a proper security framework.15.recommended practice will define a message framework based on Information Elements as a transport method for key management protocol (KMP) datagrams and guidelines for the use of some existing KMPs with IEEE Std 802. Some of the existing KMPs that it may address are IETF's PANA.4 can result in weak keys.4 wireless networks (changes on the order of a minute time frame). which is a common avenue for attacking the security system.15. with minimal impact to route handling. and 4-WayHandshake.15.4. The recommended practice will not create a new KMP.10 IEEE P802.1X. IKEv2. IEEE Std 802.10 received IEEE Standards Board approval on 23 August 2013 to form a Task Group to develop of a recommended practice for routing packets in dynamically changing 802. it has not provided a mechanism for establishing the keys used by this feature.4 has always supported datagram security.[14] While IEEE Std 802.15.15. 802.[15] The route related capabilities the that the recommended practice will provide include the following:  Route establishment  Dynamic route reconfiguration  Discovery and addition of new nodes  Breaking of established routes  Loss and recurrence of routes  Real time gathering of link status  Allowing for single hop appearance at the networking layer (not breaking standard L3 mechanisms)  Support of broadcast  Support of multicast . Lack of key management support in IEEE Std 802.15. HIP. The goal is to extend the coverage area as the number of nodes increase.

avoiding congestion . provides a packet based transmission. The nodes also negotiate for bandwidth among themselves using fairness algorithms. The IEEE Standards Board established a working group in 1999 to develop standards for broadband for wireless metropolitan area networks. The 802.16 family of standards is officially called WirelessMAN in IEEE.17a through 802.17d.[1] The version IEEE 802. also known as IEEE 802. 802.16j-2009. The Workgroup is a unit of the IEEE 802 local area network and metropolitan area network standards committee. it has been commercialized under the name "WiMAX" (from "Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access") by the WiMAX Forum industry alliance.16-2009 was amended by IEEE 802. These ringlets are set up by creating RPR stations at nodes where traffic is supposed to drop. in order to increase the efficiency of Ethernet and IP services. is a protocol standard designed for the optimized transport of data traffic over optical fiber ring networks.[2] It is designed to provide the resilience found in SONET/SDH networks (50 ms protection) but. The Forum promotes and certifies compatibility and interoperability of products based on the IEEE 802. Q. RPR works on a concept of dual counter rotating rings called ringlets. Although the 802. per flow (a flow is the ingress and egress of data traffic).17 Resilient Packet Ring Resilient Packet Ring (RPR). the last of which was adopted in May 2011. 802.17. which can use either ringlet of the ring. RPR uses Media Access Control protocol (MAC) messages to direct the traffic.16 Broadband Wireless IEEE 802. The standard began development in November 2000[1] and has undergone several amendments since its initial standard was completed in June 2004.16 standards.16 is a series of wireless broadband standards written by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). instead of setting up circuit oriented connections.16e-2005 amendment version was announced as being deployed around the world in 2009. Effective frame forwarding P. The amended standards are 802.

The avoidance of failed spans is accomplished by using one of two techniques known as steering and wrapping. is a working group of IEEE 802. in which the bandwidth is consumed around the entire ring) it can reuse the freed space to carry additional traffic. which is subject to fairness queuing).18 Radio Regulatory WG IEEE 802.WPAN)  IEEE 802. R. This is primarily used to support Internet access traffic. In wrapping. Under steering.and failed spans. All traffic on the ring is assigned a Class of Service (CoS) and the standard specifies three classes.11 (Wireless Local area network.18. Class B (or Medium) traffic is a mix of both a CIR and an excess information rate (EIR.1D) to further enhance efficiency in point to multipoint applications and VLAN tagging (IEEE 802. the LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMCS).WLAN)  IEEE 802. utilizing whatever bandwidth is available. such as voice and video.1Q). 802. which defines an optional spatially aware sublayer (SAS). Another concept within RPR is what is known as spatial reuse. The RPR standard also supports the use of learning bridges (IEEE 802. One drawback of the first version of RPR was that it didn't provide spatial reuse for frame transmission to/from MAC addresses not present in the ring topology. Because RPR strips the signal once it reaches the destination (unlike a SONET UPSR/SDH SNCP ring. The working group currently[when?] has 6 projects on standards for radio-based systems:  IEEE 802. This was addressed by IEEE 802. the traffic is looped back at the last node prior to the break and routed to the destination station. This allows spatial reuse for frame transmission to/from MAC address not present in the ring topology.17b.WMAN) .16 (Wireless Metropolitan area network . Class A (or High) traffic is a pure committed information rate (CIR) and is designed to support applications requiring low latency and jitter. if a node or span is broken. the Radio Regulatory Technical Advisory Group ("RR-TAG").15 (Wireless Personal area network . Class C (or Low) is best effort traffic. all nodes are notified of a topology change and they reroute their traffic.

19 is the Wireless Coexistence Technical Advisory Group (TAG) within the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee. This can lead to interference between these two wireless networks.[1] MBWA is no longer being actively developed. These unlicensed wireless devices may operate in the same unlicensed frequency band in the same location.21 Media Independent Handoff 802. 802. 802. S. The main standard was published in 2008. U.WRAN). The standard provides information to allow handing over to and .20 Mobile Broadband Wireless IEEE 802. which balance the interests of all the wireless LMCS projects. You can get more information at: http://www. IEEE 802.ieee802.22 (Wireless Regional Area Network .21 (Hand-off/Interoperability Between Networks)  IEEE 802. Many of the IEEE 802 wireless standards use unlicensed spectrum and hence need to address the issue of coexistence.20 (Wireless Mobility)  IEEE 802. 802. T. and then makes comments and recommends policies to regulators.20 or Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) is a specification by the standard association of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for mobile wireless Internet access networks.21 is an IEEE standard published in 2008. The standard supports algorithms enabling seamless handover between networks of the same type as well as handover between different network types also called Media independent handover (MIH) or vertical handover.org/18/ The RR-TAG monitors the interests of the above 6 projects. at both national and international levels. The TAG deals with coexistence between unlicensed wireless networks.19 Coexistence TAG IEEE 802.

11.22 Systems.22 WG is a working group of IEEE 802 LAN/MAN standards committee which was chartered to write the 802. The standard was published January 2009. More than 30 companies have joined the working group.[1] The development of the IEEE 802.[2] The standard was expected to be finalized in Q1 2010.22. IEEE P802. V. 802.23 Emergency Working Services This standard defines a media independent framework within IEEE 802 to provide consistent access and data that facilitate compliance to applicable civil authority requirements for communications systems that include IEEE .22.1 is a related standard being developed to enhance harmful interference protection for low power licensed devices operating in TV Broadcast Bands. 802. IEEE P802.3. The IEEE 802.802.16.2 respectively. The group produced a first draft of the standard including the protocol definition in May 2005. It is the first worldwide effort to define a standardized air interface based on CR techniques for the opportunistic use of TV bands on a non-interfering basis.2 is a recommended practice for the installation and deployment of IEEE 802. 802. IEEE 802. on a non-interfering basis. and is therefore timely and has the potential for a wide applicability worldwide.21 working group started work in March 2004.22 WRANs are designed to operate in the TV broadcast bands while assuring that no harmful interference is caused to the incumbent operation: digital TV and analog TV broadcasting.15.22.22 Wireless Regional Area Networks IEEE 802. 3GPP and 3GPP2 networks through different handover mechanisms.1 and 802.22 WRAN standard is aimed at using cognitive radio (CR) techniques to allow sharing of geographically unused spectrum allocated to the television broadcast service. typical of rural environments. 802. The two 802.[1] IEEE 802. W. to bring broadband access to hard-to-reach. low population density areas.22 standard. is a standard for wireless regional area network (WRAN) using white spaces in the television (TV) frequency spectrum. but was finally published in July 2011.22. and low power licensed devices such as wireless microphones.22 task groups (TG1 and TG2) are writing 802.22.from 802.

24 determines what makes the horizontal technologies supportive of the applications. for questions regarding the use of 802 standards in those vertical applications. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).24 Vertical Applications TAG The IEEE 802.24 also determines what enhancements to the horizontal technologies would improve their ability to support the applications. IEEE 802.. NOTE: The IEEE 802 technologies are applied to support the vertical applications. eHealth . This standard specifies a layer 2 entity and associated behaviors with a uniform structure of management information for transferring data required by an emergency services request. 802.802 networks. The Emergency Services Working Group was created by IEEE 802 EC and IEEE-SASB action in March of 2010 X. IEEE 802. Smart Homes.24:  Acts as a liaison and point of contact with industry organizations. that require more than one IEEE 802 WG's input. IEEE societies. IEEE 802. presentations and other documents that do not require a PAR that describe the application of 802 standards to those vertical applications  Acts as a resource for understanding 802 standards for regulatory agencies and for certification efforts by industry bodies.24 Vertical Applications Technical Advisory Group (TAG) focuses on application categories that use IEEE 802 technology and are of interest to multiple IEEE 802 WGs and have been assigned to IEEE 802.24 by the IEEE Executive Committee. Examples of potential vertical application categories are: Smart Grid. government agencies. etc.  Develops white papers. For those application categories. Smart Cities. This includes a data link layer interface for a consistent view of IEEE 802 networks by IP (Internet Protocol) based citizen-to-authority emergency services capabilities from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies (ECRIT). other SDOs.