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Relion® 670 series

Transformer protection RET670
Application manual

Document ID: 1MRK 504 116-UEN
Issued: December 2012
Revision: C
Product version: 1.2

© Copyright 2012 ABB. All rights reserved

Copyright
This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without written
permission from ABB, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third
party, nor used for any unauthorized purpose.
The software and hardware described in this document is furnished under a license
and may be used or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of such license.

Trademarks
ABB and Relion are registered trademarks of the ABB Group. All other brand or
product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective holders.

Warranty
Please inquire about the terms of warranty from your nearest ABB representative.
ABB AB
Substation Automation Products
SE-721 59 Västerås
Sweden
Telephone: +46 (0) 21 32 50 00
Facsimile: +46 (0) 21 14 69 18
http://www.abb.com/substationautomation

Disclaimer
The data, examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for the concept
or product description and are not to be deemed as a statement of guaranteed
properties. All persons responsible for applying the equipment addressed in this
manual must satisfy themselves that each intended application is suitable and
acceptable, including that any applicable safety or other operational requirements
are complied with. In particular, any risks in applications where a system failure and/
or product failure would create a risk for harm to property or persons (including but
not limited to personal injuries or death) shall be the sole responsibility of the
person or entity applying the equipment, and those so responsible are hereby
requested to ensure that all measures are taken to exclude or mitigate such risks.
This document has been carefully checked by ABB but deviations cannot be
completely ruled out. In case any errors are detected, the reader is kindly requested
to notify the manufacturer. Other than under explicit contractual commitments, in
no event shall ABB be responsible or liable for any loss or damage resulting from
the use of this manual or the application of the equipment.

Conformity
This product complies with the directive of the Council of the European
Communities on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC Directive 2004/108/EC) and concerning
electrical equipment for use within specified voltage limits (Low-voltage directive
2006/95/EC). This conformity is the result of tests conducted by ABB in
accordance with the product standards EN 50263 and EN 60255-26 for the EMC
directive, and with the product standards EN 60255-1 and EN 60255-27 for the low
voltage directive. The product is designed in accordance with the international
standards of the IEC 60255 series.

Table of contents

Table of contents
Section 1

Introduction.....................................................................13
Introduction to the application manual..............................................13
About the complete set of manuals for an IED............................13
About the application manual......................................................14
Intended audience.......................................................................14
Related documents......................................................................15
Revision notes.............................................................................15

Section 2

Requirements.................................................................17
Current transformer requirements....................................................17
Current transformer classification................................................17
Conditions....................................................................................18
Fault current................................................................................19
Secondary wire resistance and additional load...........................19
General current transformer requirements..................................20
Rated equivalent secondary e.m.f. requirements........................20
Transformer differential protection.........................................20
Distance protection.................................................................21
Restricted earth fault protection (low impedance
differential)..............................................................................22
Current transformer requirements for CTs according to
other standards............................................................................25
Current transformers according to IEC 60044-1,
class P, PR.............................................................................25
Current transformers according to IEC 60044-1, class
PX, IEC 60044-6, class TPS
(and old British Standard, class X).........................................25
Current transformers according to ANSI/IEEE.......................26
Voltage transformer requirements....................................................27
SNTP server requirements...............................................................27
IEC 61850-9-2LE Merging unit requirements ..................................27

Section 3

IED application...............................................................29
General IED application....................................................................29
Analog inputs....................................................................................31
Introduction..................................................................................31
Setting guidelines........................................................................31
Setting of the phase reference channel..................................31
Setting parameters......................................................................56
Local human-machine interface.......................................................62
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Application manual

Table of contents

Human machine interface ...........................................................62
Local HMI related functions.........................................................64
Introduction.............................................................................64
General setting parameters....................................................64
Indication LEDs...........................................................................65
Introduction.............................................................................65
Setting parameters.................................................................65
Basic IED functions..........................................................................67
Self supervision with internal event list........................................67
Application..............................................................................67
Setting parameters.................................................................68
Time synchronization...................................................................68
Application..............................................................................68
Setting guidelines...................................................................69
Setting parameters.................................................................71
Parameter setting groups............................................................74
Application..............................................................................74
Setting guidelines...................................................................74
Setting parameters.................................................................74
Test mode functionality TEST.....................................................75
Application..............................................................................75
Setting guidelines...................................................................75
Setting parameters.................................................................75
Change lock CHNGLCK..............................................................75
Application..............................................................................76
Setting parameters.................................................................76
IED identifiers..............................................................................77
Application..............................................................................77
Setting parameters.................................................................77
Product information.....................................................................77
Application..............................................................................77
Setting parameters.................................................................77
Rated system frequency PRIMVAL.............................................78
Application..............................................................................78
Setting guidelines...................................................................78
Setting parameters.................................................................78
Signal matrix for binary inputs SMBI...........................................79
Application..............................................................................79
Setting guidelines...................................................................79
Setting parameters.................................................................79
Signal matrix for binary outputs SMBO ......................................79
Application..............................................................................79
Setting guidelines...................................................................79
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Setting parameters.................................................................80
Signal matrix for mA inputs SMMI...............................................80
Application..............................................................................80
Setting guidelines...................................................................80
Setting parameters.................................................................80
Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI..........................................80
Application..............................................................................80
Frequency values...................................................................80
Setting guidelines...................................................................81
Setting parameters.................................................................86
Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM...........................................87
Application..............................................................................87
Setting guidelines...................................................................87
Setting parameters.................................................................88
Authority status ATHSTAT..........................................................88
Application..............................................................................88
Setting parameters.................................................................88
Denial of service DOS.................................................................88
Setting guidelines...................................................................89
Differential protection........................................................................89
Transformer differential protection T2WPDIF and
T3WPDIF ....................................................................................89
Application..............................................................................89
Setting guidelines...................................................................90
Setting example......................................................................98
Setting parameters...............................................................110
Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance REFPDIF .....115
Application............................................................................115
Setting guidelines.................................................................120
Setting parameters...............................................................122
1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF ................122
Identification.........................................................................122
Application............................................................................123
Connection examples for high impedance differential
protection..............................................................................129
Setting guidelines.................................................................132
Setting parameters...............................................................144
Impedance protection ....................................................................145
Distance measuring zones, quadrilateral characteristic
ZMQPDIS, ZMQAPDIS, ZDRDIR..............................................145
Identification.........................................................................145
Application............................................................................145
Setting guidelines.................................................................161
Setting parameters...............................................................170
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Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral characteristic for
series compensated lines ZMCPDIS, ZMCAPDIS,
ZDSRDIR...................................................................................172
Application............................................................................172
Setting guidelines.................................................................214
Setting parameters...............................................................226
Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with fixed
angle FDPSPDIS.......................................................................230
Identification.........................................................................230
Application............................................................................230
Setting guidelines.................................................................230
Setting parameters...............................................................237
Full-scheme distance measuring, Mho characteristic
ZMHPDIS .................................................................................238
Application............................................................................238
Setting guidelines.................................................................251
Setting parameters...............................................................258
Full-scheme distance protection, quadrilateral for earth
faults ZMMPDIS, ZMMAPDIS...................................................259
Application............................................................................259
Setting guidelines.................................................................274
Setting parameters...............................................................280
Additional distance protection directional function for earth
faults ZDARDIR.........................................................................281
Application............................................................................281
Setting guidelines.................................................................281
Setting parameters...............................................................283
Mho impedance supervision logic ZSMGAPC...........................284
Application............................................................................284
Setting guidelines.................................................................284
Setting parameters...............................................................285
Faulty phase identification with load encroachment
FMPSPDIS................................................................................286
Application............................................................................286
Setting guidelines.................................................................287
Setting parameters...............................................................289
Distance protection zone, quadrilateral characteristic,
separate settings ZMRPDIS, ZMRAPDIS and ZDRDIR............290
Application............................................................................290
Setting guidelines.................................................................305
Setting parameters...............................................................312
Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with settable
angle FRPSPDIS.......................................................................314
Application............................................................................314
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Application manual

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Load encroachment characteristics......................................319
Setting guidelines.................................................................324
Setting parameters...............................................................326
Power swing detection ZMRPSB ..............................................327
Application............................................................................327
Setting guidelines.................................................................328
Setting parameters...............................................................336
Power swing logic ZMRPSL .....................................................337
Application............................................................................337
Setting guidelines.................................................................338
Setting parameters...............................................................344
Pole slip protection PSPPPAM .................................................344
Application............................................................................344
Setting guidelines.................................................................347
Setting parameters...............................................................357
Phase preference logic PPLPHIZ..............................................358
Application............................................................................358
Setting guidelines.................................................................361
Setting parameters...............................................................362
Current protection...........................................................................363
Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output
PHPIOC ....................................................................................363
Application............................................................................363
Setting guidelines.................................................................364
Setting parameters...............................................................368
Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC .................368
Application............................................................................368
Setting guidelines.................................................................369
Setting parameters...............................................................380
Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC ...........384
Application............................................................................385
Setting guidelines.................................................................385
Setting parameters...............................................................388
Four step residual overcurrent protection, zero, negative
sequence direction EF4PTOC ..................................................388
Application............................................................................388
Setting guidelines.................................................................390
Setting parameters...............................................................400
Four step directional negative phase sequence overcurrent
protection NS4PTOC ................................................................405
Application............................................................................405
Setting guidelines.................................................................407
Setting parameters...............................................................411

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Application manual

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Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power
protection SDEPSDE ................................................................416
Application............................................................................416
Setting guidelines.................................................................417
Setting parameters...............................................................425
Thermal overload protection, two time constants TRPTTR ......427
Application............................................................................427
Setting guideline...................................................................428
Setting parameters...............................................................431
Breaker failure protection CCRBRF .........................................432
Application............................................................................432
Setting guidelines.................................................................432
Setting parameters...............................................................436
Pole discordance protection CCRPLD .....................................436
Application............................................................................437
Setting guidelines.................................................................437
Setting parameters...............................................................438
Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP..........................438
Application............................................................................439
Setting guidelines.................................................................441
Setting parameters...............................................................444
Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP ...........................445
Application............................................................................445
Setting guidelines.................................................................447
Setting parameters...............................................................451
Broken conductor check BRCPTOC ........................................452
Application............................................................................452
Setting guidelines.................................................................452
Setting parameters...............................................................453
Capacitor bank protection CBPGAPC.......................................453
Application............................................................................454
Setting guidelines.................................................................458
Setting parameters...............................................................460
Negativ sequence time overcurrent protection for machines
NS2PTOC .................................................................................461
Application............................................................................461
Setting guidelines.................................................................465
Setting parameters...............................................................467
Voltage protection...........................................................................468
Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV ...........................468
Application............................................................................468
Setting guidelines.................................................................469
Setting parameters...............................................................471
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV .............................473
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Application manual

Table of contents

Application............................................................................474
Setting guidelines.................................................................475
Setting parameters...............................................................477
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV ............479
Application............................................................................479
Setting guidelines.................................................................480
Setting parameters...............................................................485
Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH .......................................486
Application............................................................................487
Setting guidelines.................................................................489
Setting parameters...............................................................492
Voltage differential protection VDCPTOV .................................493
Application............................................................................493
Setting guidelines.................................................................495
Setting parameters...............................................................497
Loss of voltage check LOVPTUV .............................................497
Application............................................................................497
Setting guidelines.................................................................498
Setting parameters...............................................................498
Frequency protection......................................................................498
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF ........................................498
Application............................................................................499
Setting guidelines.................................................................499
Setting parameters...............................................................501
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF ..........................................501
Application............................................................................501
Setting guidelines.................................................................502
Setting parameters...............................................................503
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC ........................503
Application............................................................................503
Setting guidelines.................................................................504
Setting parameters...............................................................505
Multipurpose protection..................................................................505
General current and voltage protection CVGAPC.....................505
Application............................................................................505
Setting guidelines.................................................................511
Setting parameters...............................................................520
Secondary system supervision.......................................................527
Current circuit supervision CCSRDIF .......................................527
Application............................................................................527
Setting guidelines.................................................................528
Setting parameters...............................................................528
Fuse failure supervision SDDRFUF..........................................528
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Application manual

Table of contents

Application............................................................................528
Setting guidelines.................................................................529
Setting parameters...............................................................532
Control............................................................................................533
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing
SESRSYN.................................................................................533
Application............................................................................534
Application examples...........................................................539
Setting guidelines.................................................................545
Setting parameters...............................................................551
Apparatus control APC..............................................................553
Application............................................................................554
Interaction between modules...............................................560
Setting guidelines.................................................................562
Setting parameters...............................................................563
Interlocking ...............................................................................565
Configuration guidelines.......................................................566
Interlocking for line bay ABC_LINE .....................................567
Interlocking for bus-coupler bay ABC_BC ...........................572
Interlocking for transformer bay AB_TRAFO .......................578
Interlocking for bus-section breaker A1A2_BS.....................579
Interlocking for bus-section disconnector A1A2_DC ...........582
Interlocking for busbar earthing switch BB_ES ...................590
Interlocking for double CB bay DB ......................................596
Interlocking for 1 1/2 CB BH ................................................598
Horizontal communication via GOOSE for interlocking
GOOSEINTLKRCV..............................................................599
Voltage control...........................................................................599
Application............................................................................600
Setting guidelines.................................................................632
Setting parameters...............................................................643
Logic rotating switch for function selection and LHMI
presentation SLGGIO................................................................650
Application............................................................................650
Setting guidelines.................................................................651
Setting parameters...............................................................652
Selector mini switch VSGGIO....................................................652
Application............................................................................652
Setting guidelines.................................................................653
Setting parameters...............................................................653
IEC61850 generic communication I/O functions DPGGIO........653
Application............................................................................654
Setting guidelines.................................................................654
Single point generic control 8 signals SPC8GGIO....................654
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Application manual

Table of contents

Application............................................................................654
Setting guidelines.................................................................654
Setting parameters...............................................................655
AutomationBits, command function for DNP3.0 AUTOBITS.....655
Application............................................................................655
Setting guidelines.................................................................656
Setting parameters...............................................................656
Single command, 16 signals SINGLECMD...............................670
Application............................................................................670
Setting guidelines.................................................................672
Setting parameters...............................................................672
Scheme communication.................................................................673
Scheme communication logic for residual overcurrent
protection ECPSCH ..................................................................673
Application............................................................................673
Setting guidelines.................................................................674
Setting parameters...............................................................674
Current reversal and weak-end infeed logic for residual
overcurrent protection ECRWPSCH..........................................675
Application............................................................................675
Setting guidelines.................................................................676
Setting parameters...............................................................678
Logic...............................................................................................678
Tripping logic SMPPTRC ..........................................................678
Application............................................................................678
Setting guidelines.................................................................682
Setting parameters...............................................................683
Trip matrix logic TMAGGIO.......................................................683
Application............................................................................683
Setting guidelines.................................................................683
Setting parameters...............................................................684
Configurable logic blocks...........................................................684
Application............................................................................684
Setting parameters...............................................................685
Fixed signal function block FXDSIGN.......................................686
Application............................................................................686
Setting parameters...............................................................687
Boolean 16 to Integer conversion B16I.....................................687
Application............................................................................687
Setting guidelines.................................................................688
Boolean 16 to Integer conversion with logic node
representation B16IFCVI...........................................................688
Application............................................................................688
Setting guidelines.................................................................688
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Application manual

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Integer to Boolean 16 conversion IB16.....................................688
Application............................................................................688
Setting parameters...............................................................689
Integer to Boolean 16 conversion with logic node
representation IB16FCVB..........................................................689
Application............................................................................689
Setting parameters...............................................................689
Monitoring.......................................................................................689
Measurement.............................................................................689
Application............................................................................690
Zero clamping.......................................................................692
Setting guidelines.................................................................692
Setting parameters...............................................................702
Event counter CNTGGIO...........................................................715
Identification.........................................................................715
Application............................................................................715
Setting parameters...............................................................715
Event function EVENT...............................................................715
Introduction...........................................................................715
Setting guidelines.................................................................715
Setting parameters...............................................................716
Logical signal status report BINSTATREP................................718
Application............................................................................718
Setting guidelines.................................................................719
Setting parameters...............................................................719
Measured value expander block RANGE_XP...........................719
Application............................................................................719
Setting guidelines.................................................................720
Disturbance report DRPRDRE..................................................720
Application............................................................................720
Setting guidelines.................................................................721
Setting parameters...............................................................726
Event list....................................................................................736
Application............................................................................736
Setting guidelines.................................................................736
Indications.................................................................................736
Application............................................................................736
Setting guidelines.................................................................737
Event recorder ..........................................................................737
Application............................................................................737
Setting guidelines.................................................................738
Trip value recorder....................................................................738
Application............................................................................738
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Application manual

...............................................742 Setting guidelines...........................................................740 Application............................................................................................................755 Loss of communication......747 Setting parameters..................................739 Metering.........748 Application....................................................752 Introduction..............................................................................................745 Setting guidelines................................................741 Application.......................................740 Pulse-counter logic PCGGIO....................................................755 Consequence on accuracy for power measurement functions when using signals from IEC 61850-9-2LE communication...........................................................................................749 Setting guidelines.................Table of contents Setting guidelines..........................................747 IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions SPGGIO............................................752 Setting guidelines..........739 Application.......................................740 Setting parameters....................................................................749 Application...................................................................................................................................................................................................................748 Setting parameters......745 Overview....................................748 Setting parameters.........................................................................................................................................................................................740 Setting guidelines............................................................748 IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions MVGGIO................................................................................................................743 Section 4 Station communication......................................................752 IEC 61850-9-2LE communication protocol.......................738 Disturbance recorder................................................754 Specific settings related to the IEC 61850-9-2LE communication.......................748 Setting guidelines.......................................745 Application IEC 61850-8-1........................................................................................................................................................................756 11 Application manual .748 Setting guidelines...745 IEC 61850-8-1 communication protocol....................................................................................................................................................749 IEC 61850-8-1 redundant station bus communication................................. SP16GGIO......................................................................................................741 Function for energy calculation and demand handling ETPMMTR................................742 Setting parameters................748 Application.........................................................................................739 Setting guidelines.........................................................................................750 Setting parameters.....................................

.............................779 Application.764 Application.................................................................................................................766 Application..................................................................791 Description of configuration A40...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................788 Introduction.............................................................................766 Setting guidelines..768 Setting parameters.......................................................777 Application.........................................793 Description of configuration B40...........................................787 Description of configuration RET670.................................................799 Section 7 Glossary........................................................................................................................................................780 Setting parameters.758 Setting parameters..........................................................795 Description of configuration A10...............................................................................769 IEC 60870-5-103 communication protocol......................................................................................................................783 Section 6 Configuration.....803 12 Application manual ......778 Setting parameters.....................................................................................................788 Description of configuration B30........................................779 Binary signal transfer..............................................................................................765 SPA communication protocol................................778 Section 5 Remote communication.............769 Setting parameters.........................779 Setting guidelines............ MULTICMDSND..............................................................779 Communication hardware solutions............778 Setting guidelines................................778 Settings....769 Application................................................................................................................Table of contents Setting examples for IEC 61850-9-2LE and time synchronization.........................................................763 LON communication protocol....................................................................................................................................................797 Description of configuration A25.........................................................................................................................................764 Setting parameters..................................787 Introduction....788 Description of configuration A30...774 Multiple command and transmit MULTICMDRCV..............

setting parameters and technical data sorted per function. input and output signals.vsd IEC09000744 V1 EN The Application Manual (AM) contains application descriptions.1 About the complete set of manuals for an IED Decommissioning deinstalling & disposal Maintenance Operation Commissioning Installing Engineering Planning & purchase The user’s manual (UM) is a complete set of five different manuals: Engineeringmanual Installation and Commissioning manual Operator’s manual Application manual Technical reference manual IEC09000744-1-en. The application manual should be used to find out when and for what purpose a typical protection function could be used. The manual should also be used when calculating settings. setting guidelines and setting parameters sorted per function. The technical reference 13 Application manual .1.Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Section 1 Introduction About this chapter This chapter introduces the user to the manual as such. 1. The Technical Reference Manual (TRM) contains application and functionality descriptions and it lists function blocks.1 Introduction to the application manual 1. logic diagrams.

installation and commissioning phase. The chapter “Glossary” is a list of terms. The chapters are organized in the chronological order (indicated by chapter/section numbers) in which the protection IED should be installed and commissioned. acronyms and abbreviations used in ABB technical documentation. The Engineering Manual (EM) contains instructions on how to engineer the IEDs using the different tools in PCM600. and during normal service. setting and configuration as well as verifying settings and performing directional tests. 1. The manual covers procedures for mechanical and electrical installation. The chapter “Configuration” describes the preconfiguration of the IED and its complements.Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 116-UEN C manual should be used as a technical reference during the engineering phase.1. energizing and checking of external circuitry. The Operator’s Manual (OM) contains instructions on how to operate the protection IED during normal service once it has been commissioned. The chapter discusses application possibilities and gives guidelines for calculating settings for a particular application. LHMI functions as well as communication engineering for IEC 61850 and DNP3. The chapter “IED application” describes the use of the included software functions in the IED.3 The chapter “Requirements” describes current and voltage transformer requirements. The chapter “Station communication“ describes the communication possibilities in a SA-system. 14 Application manual . The chapter “Remote communication“ describes the remote end data communication possibilities through binary signal transferring. The Installation and Commissioning Manual (ICM) contains instructions on how to install and commission the protection IED. Intended audience General The application manual is addressing the system engineer/technical responsible that is responsible for specifying the application of the IED.1. The manual provides instructions on how to set up a PCM600 project and insert IEDs to the project structure. The manual can also be used as a reference during periodic testing.2 About the application manual The application manual contains the following chapters: • • • • • • 1. The operator’s manual can be used to find out how to handle disturbances or how to view calculated and measured network data in order to determine the cause of a fault. The manual also recommends a sequence for engineering of protection and control functions.

Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Requirements The system engineer/technical responsible must have a good knowledge about protection systems.abb. 1.1. protection equipment.5 Revision notes Revision Description A Minor corrections made B Minor corrections made C Maintenance updates.4 Related documents Documents related to RET670 Identity number Operator’s manual 1MRK 504 114-UEN Installation and commissioning manual 1MRK 504 115-UEN Technical reference manual 1MRK 504 113-UEN Application manual 1MRK 504 116-UEN Product guide customized 1MRK 504 117-BEN Product guide pre-configured 1MRK 504 118-BEN Product guide IEC 61850-9-2 1MRK 504 104-BEN Sample specification SA2005-001283 Connection and Installation components 1MRK 513 003-BEN Test system. 1.com/substationautomation. protection functions and the configured functional logics in the protection. PR corrections 15 Application manual . COMBITEST 1MRK 512 001-BEN Accessories for 670 series IEDs 1MRK 514 012-BEN 670 series SPA and signal list 1MRK 500 092-WEN IEC 61850 Data objects list for 670 series 1MRK 500 091-WEN Engineering manual 670 series 1MRK 511 240-UEN Communication set-up for Relion 670 series 1MRK 505 260-UEN More information can be found on www.1.

16 .

Typical examples of high remanence type CT are class P. The small air gap has only very limited influences on 17 Application manual . PX. 2.1 Current transformer requirements The performance of a protection function will depend on the quality of the measured current signal.m. This CT is made with a small air gap to reduce the remanence to a level that does not exceed 10% of the saturation flux. that is specified below. TPS. Saturation of the current transformer (CT) will cause distortion of the current signal and can result in a failure to operate or cause unwanted operations of some functions. In this type of transformers the remanence can be up to around 80% of the saturation flux. TPX according to IEC.1 Current transformer classification To guarantee correct operation. To fulfill the requirement on a specified time to saturation the CTs must fulfill the requirements of a minimum secondary e.1. 2.f. This CT has a magnetic core without any airgap and a remanent flux might remain almost infinite time. the current transformers (CTs) must be able to correctly reproduce the current for a minimum time before the CT will begin to saturate. There are many different standards and a lot of classes but fundamentally there are three different types of CTs: • • • High remanence type CT Low remanence type CT Non remanence type CT The high remanence type has no limit for the remanent flux.Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Section 2 Requirements About this chapter This chapter describes current and voltage transformer requirements. X according to BS (old British Standard) and non gapped class C. This protection IED has been designed to permit heavy CT saturation with maintained correct operation. K according to ANSI/IEEE. Conventional magnetic core CTs are usually specified and manufactured according to some international or national standards. Consequently CT saturation can have an influence on both the dependability and the security of the protection. There are several different ways to specify CTs. The low remanence type has a specified limit for the remanent flux. class P. which specify different protection classes as well.

directionality. It is difficult to give general recommendations for additional margins for remanence to avoid the minor risk of an additional time delay. TPY according to IEC are low remanence type CTs. 2. The requirements are also specified according to other standards. Depending on the protection function phase-to-earth. The air gaps will also decrease the measuring accuracy in the non-saturated region of operation. In the same time. close in forward and reverse faults.f. They depend on the performance and economy requirements. Eal according to the IEC 60044 – 6 standard is used to specify the CT requirements for the IED. The dependability and security of the protection was verified by checking for example. internal and external faults. Class TPZ according to IEC is a non remanence type CT. PR) are used.Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C the other properties of the CT. time delays. P. The non remanence type CT has practically negligible level of remanent flux. The performances of the protection functions have been checked in the range from symmetrical to fully asymmetrical fault currents.m. The current transformer models are representative for current transformers of high remanence and low remanence type. phase-to-phase and threephase faults have been tested for different relevant fault positions for example. Class PR. TPX) the small probability of fully asymmetrical faults. Primary time constants of at least 120 ms have been considered at the tests. The current requirements below are thus applicable both for symmetrical and asymmetrical fault currents. When current transformers of low remanence type (for example.1. together with high 18 Application manual . unwanted operations. The requirements below are therefore fully valid for all normal applications. PX. TPS. The rated equivalent limiting secondary e. The results may not always be valid for non remanence type CTs (TPZ).f. TPY. Because of the almost negligible risk of additional time delays and the non-existent risk of failure to operate the remanence have not been considered for the dependability cases. normally no additional margin is needed.2 Conditions The requirements are a result of investigations performed in our network simulator. overreach and stability. for example. This type of CT has relatively big air gaps in order to reduce the remanence to practically zero level. in different ways but it is possible to approximately compare values from different classes. these air gaps reduce the influence of the DCcomponent from the primary fault current. zone 1 reach faults. Different standards and classes specify the saturation e. For current transformers of high remanence type (for example. As unwanted operations are not acceptable at all maximum remanence has been considered for fault cases critical for the security. The remanence in the current transformer core can cause unwanted operations or minor additional time delays for some protection functions.m. faults in reverse direction and external faults.

4 Secondary wire resistance and additional load The voltage at the current transformer secondary terminals directly affects the current transformer saturation. Even in a case where the phase-toearth fault current is smaller than the three-phase fault current the phase-to-earth fault can be dimensioning for the CT depending on the higher burden. In addition fully asymmetrical fault current will not exist in all phases at the same time. For three-phase faults the neutral current is zero and it is just necessary to consider the resistance up to the point where the phase wires are connected to the common neutral wire. must be used in the calculation for phase-to-earth faults and the phase resistance. maximum fault current for the relevant fault position should be used and therefore both fault types have to be considered. The conclusion is that the loop resistance. For earth faults the loop includes the phase and neutral wire. In isolated or high impedance earthed systems the phase-to-earth fault is not the dimensioning case and therefore the resistance of the single secondary wire always can be used in the calculation.3 Fault current The current transformer requirements are based on the maximum fault current for faults in different positions. This voltage is developed in a loop containing the secondary wires and the burden of all relays in the circuit. The current for a single phase-to-earth fault will exceed the current for a three-phase fault when the zero sequence impedance in the total fault loop is less than the positive sequence impedance. The most common practice is to use four wires secondary cables so it normally is sufficient to consider just a single secondary wire for the three-phase case. As the burden can be considerable different for three-phase faults and phase-toearth faults it is important to consider both cases.1. When calculating the current transformer requirements. Maximum fault current will occur for three-phase faults or single phase-to-earth faults. 2. twice the resistance of the single secondary wire. may normally be used in the calculation for three-phase faults. Fully asymmetrical fault current will be achieved when the fault occurs at approximately zero voltage (0°).Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C remanence in the same direction as the flux generated by the fault. normally twice the resistance of the single secondary wire. the resistance of a single secondary wire. 19 Application manual . 2.1. for this case. has to be kept in mind at the decision of an additional margin. Investigations have shown that 95% of the faults in the network will occur when the voltage is between 40° and 90°.

Requirements for CTs specified in different ways are given at the end of this section.1.m. Eal according to the IEC 60044-6 standard. 5P).6. If a very sensitive setting of this function will be used it is recommended that the current transformer should have an accuracy class which have an current error at rated primary current that is less than ±1% (for example. Eal that is larger than the maximum of the required secondary e. requirements With regard to saturation of the current transformer all current transformers of high remanence and low remanence type that fulfill the requirements on the rated equivalent secondary e. However.f. The current error of the current transformer can limit the possibility to use a very sensitive setting of a sensitive residual overcurrent protection.1 Transformer differential protection The current transformers must have a rated equivalent secondary e.m. The CT requirements for the different functions below are specified as a rated equivalent limiting secondary e.m.1. Eal below can be used. 2.1.5 1MRK 504 116-UEN C General current transformer requirements The current transformer ratio is mainly selected based on power system data for example.Section 2 Requirements 2.m. it should be verified that the current to the protection is higher than the minimum operating value for all faults that are to be detected with the selected CT ratio. 2. If no explicit recommendation is given for a specific function we therefore recommend contacting ABB to confirm that the non remanence type can be used.f.f. If current transformers with less accuracy are used it is advisable to check the actual unwanted residual current during the commissioning.f. The minimum operating current is different for different functions and normally settable so each function should be checked. Ealreq below: E al ³ E alreq = 30 × I nt × Isn I pn æ S ö × ç R CT + R L + R2 ÷ Ir ø è (Equation 1) EQUATION1412 V1 EN E al ³ E alreq = 2 × I tf × EQUATION1413 V1 EN Isn æ S ö × ç R CT + R L + R2 ÷ I pn è Ir ø (Equation 2) 20 Application manual .f.6 Rated equivalent secondary e. maximum load. The characteristic of the non remanence type CT (TPZ) is not well defined as far as the phase angle error is concerned.m.

f.m. The loop resistance containing the phase and neutral wires must be used for faults in solidly earthed systems.1. Eal that is larger than the maximum of the required secondary e. In such cases and if both main CTs have equal ratios and magnetization characteristics the CTs must satisfy equation 1 and equation 3. SR The burden of an IED current input channel (VA). E al ³ E alreq = If × Isn æ S ö × ç R CT + R L + R2 ÷ I pn è Ir ø (Equation 3) EQUATION1414 V1 EN where: If 2.2 Maximum primary fundamental frequency current that passes two main CTs without passing the power transformer (A) Distance protection The current transformers must have a rated equivalent secondary e.6. the fault current may pass two main CTs for the transformer differential protection without passing the power transformer.m.f.150 VA/channel for Ir=5 A In substations with breaker-and-a-half or double-busbar double-breaker arrangement. SR=0. Ealreq below: E al ³ E alreq = æ I k max ×Isn S ö × a × ç R CT + R L + R2 ÷ I pn Ir ø è (Equation 4) EQUATION1080 V1 EN E al ³ E alreq = EQUATION1081 V1 EN æ I kzone1× Isn S ö × k × ç R CT + R L + R2 ÷ I pn Ir ø è (Equation 5) 21 Application manual .Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C where: Int The rated primary current of the power transformer (A) Itf Maximum primary fundamental frequency current that passes two main CTs and the power transformer (A) Ipn The rated primary CT current (A) Isn The rated secondary CT current (A) Ir The rated current of the protection IED (A) RCT The secondary resistance of the CT (W) RL The resistance of the secondary wire and additional load (W). The resistance of a single secondary wire should be used for faults in high impedance earthed systems.020 VA/channel for Ir=1 A and Sr=0.

For impedance earthed transformers the requirements for the phase CTs are depending whether it is three individual CTs connected in parallel or it is a cable CT enclosing all three phases.m.Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C where: 2. In solidly earthed systems the loop resistance containing the phase and neutral wires should be used for phase-to-earth faults and the resistance of the phase wire should be used for three-phase faults. k = 4 for the primary time constant Tp£ 30 ms k = 6 for the primary time constant Tp> 30 ms Restricted earth fault protection (low impedance differential) The requirements are specified separately for solidly earthed and impedance earthed transformers.m.6. Ealreq below: Eal ³ Ealreq = 30 × I nt × I sn æ S ö × ç RCT + RL + R2 ÷ I pn è Ir ø (Equation 6) EQUATION2237 V1 EN Eal ³ Ealreq = 2 × I etf × EQUATION2238 V1 EN I sn æ S ö × ç RCT + RL + R2 ÷ I pn è Ir ø (Equation 6) 22 Application manual . SR=0.1.f. a= 2 for the primary time constant Tp£ 50 ms a = 3 for the primary time constant Tp> 50 ms k A factor of the primary time constant for the dc component in the fault current for a three-phase fault at the set reach of zone 1.f. SR The burden of an IED current input channel (VA).150 VA/channel for Ir=5 A a This factor is a function of the primary time constant for the dc component in the fault current.3 Ikmax Maximum primary fundamental frequency current for close-in forward and reverse faults (A) Ikzone1 Maximum primary fundamental frequency current for faults at the end of zone 1 reach (A) Ipn The rated primary CT current (A) Isn The rated secondary CT current (A) Ir The rated current of the protection IED (A) RCT The secondary resistance of the CT (W) RL The resistance of the secondary wire and additional load (W).020 VA/channel for Ir=1 A and Sr=0. Neutral CTs and phase CTs for solidly earthed transformers The neutral CT and the phase CTs must have a rated equivalent secondary e. Eal that is larger than or equal to the maximum of the required secondary e. In isolated or high impedance earthed systems the resistance of the single secondary wire always can be used.

m.m.f. the fault current may pass two main phase CTs for the restricted earth fault protection without passing the power transformer. Ealreq below: Eal ³ Ealreq = 3 × I etf × I sn I pn æ × ç RCT + RL + è ö ÷ Ir ø SR 2 (Equation 8) EQUATION2240 V1 EN Where: Ietf Maximum primary fundamental frequency phase-to-earth fault current that passes the CTs and the power transformer neutral (A) Ipn The rated primary CT current (A) Isn The rated secondary CT current (A) Ir The rated current of the protection IED (A) Table continues on next page 23 Application manual .Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Where: Int The rated primary current of the power transformer (A) Ietf Maximum primary fundamental frequency phase-to-earth fault current that passes the CTs and the power transformer neutral (A) Ipn The rated primary CT current (A) Isn The rated secondary CT current (A) Ir The rated current of the protection IED (A) RCT The secondary resistance of the CT () RL The resistance of the secondary wire and additional load (Ω). SR=0. In such cases and if both main CTs have equal ratios and magnetization characteristics the CTs must satisfy Requirement (12) and the Requirement (14) below: Eal ³ Ealreq = I ef × I sn I pn æ × ç RCT + RL + è ö ÷ Ir ø SR 2 (Equation 7) EQUATION2239 V1 EN Where: Ief Maximum primary fundamental frequency phase-to-earth fault current that passes two main CTs without passing the power transformer neutral (A) Neutral CTs and phase CTs for impedance earthed transformers The neutral CT and phase CTs must have a rated equivalent secondary e.150 VA / channel for IR = 5 A In substations with breaker-and-a-half or double-busbar double-breaker arrangement. The loop resistance containing the phase and neutral wires shall be used.f. Eal that is larger than or equal to the required secondary e. SR The burden of a REx670 current input channel (VA).020 VA / channel for IR = 1 A and SR = 0.

f. The three individual phase CTs must have a rated equivalent secondary e. SR The burden of a REx670 current input channel (VA). Eal that is larger than or equal to the maximum of the required secondary e.Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C RCT The secondary resistance of the CT (Ω) RL The resistance of the secondary wire and additional load (Ω). RLsw The resistance of the single secondary wire and additional load (Ω). The loop resistance containing the phase and neutral wires shall be used. Examples of such cases can be cross-country faults or phase-to-phase faults with high fault currents and unsymmetrical distribution of the phase currents between the CTs. the phase side CTs must fulfill the Requirement (17) below: Eal ³ Ealreq = I f × EQUATION2242 V1 EN I sn I pn æ × ç RCT + RL + è ö ÷ Ir ø SR 2 (Equation 10) 24 Application manual . Ealreq below: Eal ³ Ealreq = 2 × I tf × I sn æ S ö × ç RCT + RL + R2 ÷ I pn è Ir ø (Equation 9) EQUATION2241 V1 EN Where: Itf Maximum primary fundamental frequency three-phase fault current that passes the CTs and the power transformer (A).f.020 VA / channel for Ir = 1 A and SR = 0. To cover these cases. SR = 0. In impedance earthed systems the phase-to-earth fault currents often are relatively small and the requirements might result in small CTs. The zero sequence fault current level can differ much and is often difficult to calculate or estimate for different cases. with summation of zero sequence currents from more than one CT.m. However. there is a risk that the CTs can be exposed for higher fault currents than the considered phase-to-earth fault currents above.150 VA / channel for Ir = 5 A In case of three individual CTs connected in parallel (Holmgren connection) on the phase side the following additional requirements must also be fulfilled. in applications where the zero sequence current from the phase side of the transformer is a summation of currents from more than one CT (cable CTs or groups of individual CTs in Holmgren connection) for example. in substations with breaker-and-a-half or double-busbar double-breaker arrangement or if the transformer has a Tconnection to different busbars.m.

7. Eknee (Ek for class PX. the CTs according to class PX.1.m. IEC 60044-6.f. The requirements according to some other standards are specified below. Eknee that fulfills the following: 25 Application manual . E2max that fulfills the following: E2 max > max E alreq EQUATION1383 V2 EN 2.1.f. Therefore. the CTs according to class P and PR must have a secondary limiting e.Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Where: 2. X and TPS must have a rated knee-point e.m.m. EkneeBS for class X and the limiting secondary voltage Ual for TPS). Ealreq it is possible to judge if the CT fulfills the requirements. class PX.1 Current transformers according to IEC 60044-1. It is not possible to give a general relation between the Eknee and the Eal but normally the Eknee is approximately 80 % of the Eal. class TPS (and old British Standard.7 If Maximum primary fundamental frequency three-phase fault current that passes the CTs (A) RL The resistance of the secondary wire and additional load (Ω). By comparing this with the required secondary e.m. PR A CT according to IEC 60044-1 is specified by the secondary limiting e. The value of the E2max is approximately equal to the corresponding Eal according to IEC 60044-6. class X) CTs according to these classes are specified approximately in the same way by a rated knee-point e. Current transformer requirements for CTs according to other standards All kinds of conventional magnetic core CTs are possible to use with the IEDs if they fulfill the requirements corresponding to the above specified expressed as the rated equivalent secondary e. 2.f.2 (Equation 11) Current transformers according to IEC 60044-1.m. From different standards and available data for relaying applications it is possible to approximately calculate a secondary e.f. of the CT comparable with Eal.f.7. The loop resistance containing the phase and neutral wires shall be used. Therefore. E2max. Eal according to the IEC 60044-6 standard.1.f.f.m. The value of the Eknee is lower than the corresponding Eal according to IEC 60044-6.m. class P.

m.f. A rated secondary terminal voltage UANSI is specified for a CT of class C.m. UANSI is 400 V for a C400 CT. complex quantity) of the standard ANSI burden for the specific C class (W) UANSI The secondary terminal voltage for the specific C class (V) The CTs according to class C must have a calculated rated equivalent limiting secondary e. A corresponding rated equivalent limiting secondary e.3 (Equation 12) Current transformers according to ANSI/IEEE Current transformers according to ANSI/IEEE are partly specified in different ways.m. Therefore. UkneeANSI can approximately be estimated to 75 % of the corresponding Eal according to IEC 60044 6.8 · (maximum of Ealreq) EQUATION2100 V1 EN 2. EalANSI can be estimated as follows: E a lANSI = 20 × I s n × R C T + U A NSI = 20 × I s n × R C T + 20 × Is n × Z b ANSI EQUATION971 V1 EN (Equation 13) where: ZbANSI The impedance (that is. according to IEC and BS.75 · (maximum of Ealreq) EQUATION2101 V1 EN (Equation 15) 26 Application manual . There are a number of standardized UANSI values for example. UANSI is the secondary terminal voltage the CT will deliver to a standard burden at 20 times rated secondary current without exceeding 10 % ratio correction. The knee-point voltage UkneeANSI normally has a lower value than the knee-point e.Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Eknee » Ek » EkneeBS » Ual > 0. the CTs according to ANSI/ IEEE must have a knee-point voltage UkneeANSI that fulfills the following: EkneeANSI > 0. EalANSI that fulfills the following: E alANSI > max imum of E alreq EQUATION1384 V1 EN (Equation 14) A CT according to ANSI/IEEE is also specified by the knee-point voltage UkneeANSI that is graphically defined from an excitation curve.f.1.f.7.

2. or local without synchronization. that is not a PC with SNTP server software. The ferro-resonance requirements of the CVTs are specified in chapter 7. This part of the IEC61850 is specifying “Communication Service Mapping (SCSM) – Sampled values over ISO/IEC 8802”. 27 Application manual . The capacitive voltage transformers (CVTs) should fulfill the requirements according to the IEC 60044–5 standard regarding ferro-resonance and transients.5 of the standard. that is not more than 4-5 switches or routers away from the IED. Transients caused by capacitive voltage transformers (CVTs) can affect some protection functions. The SNTP server should be stable.4 IEC 61850-9-2LE Merging unit requirements The merging units that supply the IED with measured values via the process bus must fulfill the IEC61850-9-2LE standard. or at least equipped with a real-time operating system. that is. either synchronized from a stable source like GPS. For example the IED covers the client part of the standard.3 SNTP server requirements The SNTP server to be used is connected to the local network.2 Voltage transformer requirements The performance of a protection function will depend on the quality of the measured input signal. Magnetic or capacitive voltage transformers can be used. The transient responses for three different standard transient response classes. The 9-2 part of the IEC61850 protocol uses also definitions from 7-2. T1. The protection IED has effective filters for these transients. which gives secure and correct operation with CVTs. not the server part. 2. Using a local SNTP server without synchronization as primary or secondary server in a redundant configuration is not recommended. T2 and T3 are specified in chapter 15. CVTs according to all classes can be used. in other words – sampled data over Ethernet. “Basic communication structure for substation and feeder equipment – Abstract communication service interface (ACSI)”.Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 2. The set of functionality implemented in the IED (IEC61850-9-2LE) is a subset of the IEC61850-9-2. The SNTP server is dedicated for its task.4 of the standard.

by consensus.Section 2 Requirements 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The standard does not define the sample rate for data. Note that the IEC 61850-9-2 LE standard does not specify the quality of the sampled values. have the same quality as direct input of currents and voltages. A/D conversion inaccuracy. at 50Hz or 4800 samples/sec. together with the merging unit. the accuracy of the current and voltage inputs to the merging unit and the inaccuracy added by the merging unit must be coordinated with the requirement for actual type of protection function. frequency range. In principle shall the accuracy of the current and voltage transformers. Thus. Factors influencing the accuracy of the sampled values from the merging unit are for example anti aliasing filters. There are two sample rates defined: 80 samples/cycle (4000 samples/sec. The IED can receive data rates of 80 samples/cycle. 28 Application manual . step response. truncating. in the industry. time tagging accuracy etc. at 60 Hz) for a merging unit “type1” and 256 samples/cycle for a merging unit “type2”. but in the UCA users group recommendations there are indicated sample rates that are adopted. only the transportation.

as differential protection for a tertiary connected reactor. monitoring and control for two.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Section 3 IED application About this chapter This chapter describes the use of the included software functions in the IED. autotransformers. A low impedance restricted earth-fault protection function is available as a complimentary sensitive and fast main protection against winding earth faults.It is suitable for differential applications with multi-breaker arrangements with up to six restraint CT inputs.and three-winding transformers. as T-differential protection for the transformer feeder in a mesh-corner or ring arrangement. This function includes a directional zero-sequence current criterion for additional security. The differential function offers a high sensitivity for low-level internal faults. is 29 Application manual . based on the theory of symmetrical components . The chapter discusses application possibilities and gives guidelines for calculating settings for a particular application. The unique and innovative sensitive differential protection feature of the RET670 provides the best possible coverage for winding internal turn-to-turn faults. generator-transformer units. as tertiary bus protection and so on. no interposing CTs are required. It can be used as restricted earth fault or. also as differential protection on autotransformers. lock-out contact output and so on. 3. as three functions are included. special railway transformers and shunt reactors. Since RET670 has very low requirements on the main CTs. phase shifting transformers. The differential protection function is provided with 2nd harmonic and wave-block restraint features to avoid tripping for magnetizing inrush current. Tripping from pressure relief/Buchholz and temperature devices can be done through the transformer IED where pulsing. and 5th harmonic restraint to avoid tripping for overexcitation.1 General IED application RET670 provides fast and selective protection. The transformer IED is designed to operate correctly over a wide frequency range in order to accommodate power system frequency variations during disturbances and generator start-up and shut-down. Additionally a high impedance differential function is available. A very fast differential protection function with settable CT ratio matching and vector group compensation makes this IED the ideal solution even for the most demanding applications.

load transfer logic and so on. over/under voltage and over/under frequency protection functions are also available. Serial data communication is via optical connections to ensure immunity against disturbances. Distance protection functionality for phase-to-phase and/or phase-to-earth faults is available as back-up protection for faults within the transformer and in the connected power system. which can optionally be made directional and/or voltage controlled. closing of breaker rings. Each MU has eight analogue channels. The binary inputs are heavily stabilized against disturbance to prevent incorrect operations at for example dc system capacitive discharges or DC earth faults. provide further alternative backup protection. Breaker failure protection for each transformer breaker allows high speed back-up tripping of surrounding breakers. The advanced logic capability. The graphical configuration tool ensures simple and fast testing and commissioning. Conventional and Merging Unit channels can be mixed freely in your application. negative and zero sequence overcurrent functions.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C performed. The transformer IED can also be provided with a full control and interlocking functionality including Synchrocheck function to allow integration of the main and/ or a local back-up control. RET670 can be used in applications with the IEC 61850-9-2LE process bus with up to two Merging Units (MU). allows special applications such as automatic opening of disconnectors in multibreaker arrangements. earth. Out of Step function is available to separate power system sections close to electrical centre at occurring out of step. where user logic is prepared with a graphical tool. positive. 30 Application manual . normally four current and four voltages. Versatile phase. Thermal overload with two time-constants. The wide application flexibility makes this product an excellent choice for both new installations and the refurbishment of existing installations. A built-in disturbance and event recorder provides valuable data to the user about status and operation for post-fault disturbance analysis. The binary inputs are heavily stabilized against disturbances to prevent incorrect operations during for example during DC system capacitive discharges or DC earth faults. volts per hertz.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. 3.2. This analog channels phase angle will always be fixed to zero degrees and all other angle information will be shown in relation to this analog input.1 Setting of the phase reference channel All phase angles are calculated in relation to a defined reference.2 Setting guidelines The available setting parameters related to analog inputs are depending on the actual hardware (TRM) and the logic configuration made in PCM600. 31 Application manual . Setting values are in primary quantities as well and it is important to set the data about the connected current and voltage transformers properly.2 Analog inputs 3. The parameter PhaseAngleRef defines the analog channel that is used as phase angle reference. that are sampled by Merging units (MU) connected to a process bus.2. Measuring and protection algorithms in the IED use primary system quantities. Example The setting PhaseAngleRef=10 shall be used if a phase-to-earth voltage (usually the L1 phase-to-earth voltage connected to VT channel number 10 of the analog card) is selected to be the phase reference.1 Introduction Analog input channels must be configured and set properly to get correct measurement results and correct protection operations. For power measuring and all directional and differential functions the directions of the input currents must be defined properly.2. The IED has the ability to receive analog values from primary equipment. via the IEC 61850-9-2 LE protocol. 3. During testing and commissioning of the IED the reference channel can be changed to facilitate testing and service values reading. An appropriate analog input channel is selected and used as phase reference.2. A reference PhaseAngleRef can be defined to facilitate service values reading. The availability of VT inputs depends on the ordered transformer input module (TRM) type.

P. See figure 1 A positive value of current. and so on (forward) means that the quantity has a direction towards the object.A negative value of current.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting of current channels The direction of a current to the IED is depending on the connection of the CT. This information must be set in the IED. and so on (reverse) means a direction away from the object. CTStarPoint set to FromObject or ToObject. Q. power. Definition of direction for directional functions Reverse Definition of direction for directional functions Forward Forward Reverse Protected Object Line. Example 1 Two IEDs used for protection of two objects. and so on means that the quantity has the direction into the object and a negative value means direction out from the object. The convention of the directionality is defined as follows: A positive value of current. Unless indicated otherwise. I Measured quantity is positive when flowing towards the object e.g. P. 32 Application manual . power. the main CTs are supposed to be star connected and can be connected with the earthing point to the object or from the object. etc e. For directional functions the direction into the object is defined as Forward and the direction out from the object is defined as Reverse. Q.g. a positive quantities always flowing towards the object and a direction defined as Forward always is looking towards the object. The following examples show the principle. See figure 1. I Measured quantity is positive when flowing towards the object Set parameter CTStarPoint Correct Setting is "ToObject" Set parameter CTStarPoint Correct Setting is "FromObject" en05000456.vsd IEC05000456 V1 EN Figure 1: Internal convention of the directionality in the IED With correct setting of the primary CT direction. . transformer. power.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Line Ip Transformer Ip Ip Line Reverse Is Transformer protection Setting of current input: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Transformer as reference object.vsd IEC05000753 V1 EN Figure 2: Example how to set CTStarPoint parameters in the IED The figure 2 shows the normal case where the objects have their own CTs. Correct setting is "ToObject" Forward Definition of direction for directional functions Is Setting of current input: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Transformer as reference object. Correct setting is "ToObject" Line protection Setting of current input: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Line as reference object. The settings for CT direction shall be done according to the figure. Correct setting is "FromObject" en05000753. Example 2 Two IEDs used for protection of two objects and sharing a CT. 33 Application manual . This means that the protection is looking towards the line. To protect the line the direction of the directional functions of the line protection shall be set to Forward.

With these settings the directional functions of the line protection shall be set to Forward to look towards the line. but here the transformer is feeding just one line and the line protection uses the same CT as the transformer protection does.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Transformer Line Reverse Transformer protection Setting of current input: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Transformer as reference object. Correct setting is "ToObject" Forward Definition of direction for directional functions Line protection Setting of current input: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Line as reference object.vsd IEC05000460 V1 EN Figure 3: Example how to set CTStarPoint parameters in the IED This example is similar to example 1. Correct setting is "FromObject" en05000460. Correct setting is "ToObject" Setting of current input: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Transformer as reference object. The CT direction is set with different reference objects for the two IEDs though it is the same current from the same CT that is feeding the two IEDs. 34 Application manual . Example 3 One IED used to protect two objects.

This means that the direction Forward for the line protection is towards the transformer.vsd IEC05000461 V1 EN Figure 4: Example how to set CTStarPoint parameters in the IED In this example one IED includes both transformer and line protection and the line protection uses the same CT as the transformer protection does. Correct setting is "ToObject" en05000461. When a function is set to Reverse and shall protect an object in reverse direction it shall be noted that some directional functions are not symmetrical regarding the reach in forward and reverse direction.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Transformer Line Forward Definition of direction for directional line functions Transformer and Line protection Setting of current input: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Transformer as reference object. It is in first hand the reach of the directional criteria that can differ. 35 Application manual . To look towards the line the direction of the directional functions of the line protection must be set to Reverse. For both current input channels the CT direction is set with the transformer as reference object. The CT direction for the current channels to the line protection is set with the line as reference object and the directional functions of the line protection shall be set to Forward to protect the line. The direction Forward/Reverse is related to the reference object that is the transformer in this case. Normally it is not any limitation but it is advisable to have it in mind and check if it is acceptable for the application in question. The same currents are fed to two separate groups of inputs and the line and transformer protection functions are configured to the different inputs. If the IED has a sufficient number of analog current inputs an alternative solution is shown in figure 5. Correct setting is "ToObject" Reverse Setting of current input: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Transformer as reference object.

vsd IEC05000462 V1 EN Figure 5: Example how to set CTStarPoint parameters in the IED 36 Application manual . Correct setting is "ToObject" Setting of current input for transformer functions: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Transformer as reference object. Correct setting is "ToObject" Forward Definition of direction for directional line functions Setting of current input for line functions: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Line as reference object. Correct setting is "FromObject" en05000462.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Transformer Line Reverse Transformer and Line protection Setting of current input for transformer functions: Set parameter CTStarPoint with Transformer as reference object.

37 Application manual . Regardless which one of the above two options is selected busbar differential protection will behave correctly. set CTStarPoint = ToObject. In that case for all CT inputs marked with 1 in figure 6. set CTStarPoint = FromObject. In that case for all CT inputs marked with 1 in figure 6.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Busbar 2 Busbar Protection 1 2 1 en06000196. and for all CT inputs marked with 2 in figure 6.vsd IEC06000196 V1 EN Figure 6: Example how to set CTStarPoint parameters in the IED For busbar protection it is possible to set the CTStarPoint parameters in two ways. The second solution will be to use all connected bays as reference objects. The first solution will be to use busbar as a reference object. set CTStarPoint = FromObject. set CTStarPoint = ToObject. and for all CT inputs marked with 2 in figure 6.

The ConnectionType: phase phase/phase-earth and GlobalBaseSel.vsd IEC06000641 V1 EN Figure 7: Commonly used markings of CT terminals Where: a) is symbol and terminal marking used in this document. For a 1000/1 A CT the following setting shall be used: • • CTprim = 1000 (value in A) CTsec =1 (value in A).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The main CT ratios must also be set. Note that for these two cases the CT polarity marking is correct! It shall be noted that depending on national standard and utility practices. Terminals marked with a dot indicates the primary and secondary winding terminals with the same (that is. configure and set CT inputs for most commonly used CT connections Figure 7 defines the marking of current transformer terminals commonly used around the world: IPri In the SMAI function block. Examples on how to connect. This is done by setting the two parameters CTsec and CTprim for each current channel. positive) polarity b) and c) are equivalent symbols and terminal marking used by IEC (ANSI) standard for CTs. This is done with the parameter: AnalogInputType: Current/voltage. you have to set if the SMAI block is measuring current or voltage. P2 (H2) P1 (H1) ISec S2 (X2) S1 (X1) S2 (X2) x P2 (H2) a) S1 (X1) x P1 (H1) b) c) en06000641. the rated secondary current of a CT has typically one of the following values: • • 1A 5A However in some cases the following rated secondary currents are used as well: 38 Application manual .

L1 L2 L3 IED IL3 IL2 IL1 4 2 1 IL1 CT 600/5 Star Connected 3 SMAI_20 IL2 IL3 Protected Object IEC11000025-2-en.vsd IEC11000025 V2 EN Figure 8: Star connected three-phase CT set with star point towards the protected object 39 Application manual . It gives an overview of required actions by the user in order to make this measurement available to the built-in protection and control functions within the IED as well.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • 2A 10A The IED fully supports all of these rated secondary values. It is recommended to: • • use 1A rated CT input into the IED in order to connect CTs with 1A and 2A secondary rating use 5A rated CT input into the IED in order to connect CTs with 5A and 10A secondary rating Example on how to connect a star connected three-phase CT set to the IED Figure 8 gives an example on how to connect a star connected three-phase CT set to the IED.

negative and zero sequence quantities by using the fundamental frequency phasors for the first three input channels (channel one taken as reference for sequence quantities) These calculated values are then available for all built-in protection and control functions within the IED. It shall be noted that for all these current inputs the following setting values shall be entered. In that case the pre-processing block will calculate it by vectorial summation of the three individual phase currents. which connects the residual/neutral current input to the fourth input channel of the preprocessing function block 6). more than one preprocessing block might be connected in parallel to these three CT inputs. The third parameter as set in this example will have no influence on the measured currents (that is. Depending on the type of functions. Note that this connection in SMT shall not be done if the residual/neutral current is not connected to the IED. It shall be noted that if this connection is not made. which need this current information. the IED will still calculate this current internally by vectorial summation of the three individual phase currents. which connects these three current inputs to the first three input channels on the preprocessing function block 6). For this application most of the preprocessing settings can be left to the default values. 5) is a connection made in the Signal Matrix tool (SMT). If frequency tracking and compensation is required (this feature is typically required only for IEDs installed in the generating stations). 2) shows how to connect residual/neutral current from the three-phase CT set to the fourth inputs in the IED. which are connected to this preprocessing function block in the configuration tool. currents are already measured towards the protected object). 4) are three connections made in the Signal Matrix tool (SMT). Another alternative is to have the star point of the three-phase CT set as shown in figure : 40 Application manual . 6) is a Preprocessing block that has the task to digitally filter the connected analog inputs and calculate: • • • fundamental frequency phasors for all four input channels harmonic content for all four input channels positive. then the setting parameters DFTReference shall be set accordingly.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Where: 1) The drawing shows how to connect three individual phase currents from a star connected three-phase CT set to the three CT inputs of the IED. 3) is the TRM where these current inputs are located. • • • CTprim=600A CTsec=5A CTStarPoint=ToObject Inside the IED only the ratio of the first two parameters is used.

It gives an overview of the required actions by the user in order to make this measurement available to the built-in protection and control functions in the IED as well. 41 Application manual . The third parameter as set in this example will invert the measured currents (that is. Example how to connect delta connected three-phase CT set to the IED Figure 10 gives an example how to connect a delta connected three-phase CT set to the IED.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C IL2 IL1 L3 IED IL3 L2 L1 4 1 IR IL3 IL2 CT 800/1 Star Connected 6 3 IL1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 SMAI2 BLOCK AI 01 (I) AI 02 (I) AI3P ^GRP2L1 AI1 ^GRP2L2 AI2 ^GRP2L3 ^GRP2N AI3 AI4 AIN AI 03 (I) AI 04 (I) 5 AI 05 (I) AI 06 (I) Protected Object IEC06000644-3-en. turn the currents by 180°) in order to ensure that the currents within the IED are measured towards the protected object.vsd IEC06000644 V3 EN Figure 9: Star connected three-phase CT set with its star point away from the protected object In this case everything is done in a similar way as in the above described example. except that for all used current inputs on the TRM the following setting parameters shall be entered as shown in the example figure 9: • • • CTprim=600A CTsec=5A CTStarPoint=FromObject Inside the IED only the ratio of the first two parameters is used.

600 = 346 A 3 CT sec = 5 A CTprim = IECEQUATION2413 V1 EN • (Equation 16) CTStarPoint=ToObject Inside the IED only the ratio of the first two parameters is used. Table continues on next page 42 Application manual .vsd IEC06000645 V3 EN Figure 10: Delta DAB connected three-phase CT set Where: 1) shows how to connect three individual phase currents from a delta connected three-phase CT set to three CT inputs of the IED. currents are already measured towards the protected object). 2) is the TRM where these current inputs are located. IEC06000645-3-en. The third parameter as set in this example will have no influence on the measured currents (that is.Section 3 IED application L3 IED IL3 L2 IL2 IL1 L1 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 5 2 3 1 CT 600/5 in Delta DAB Connected IL1-IL2 IL2-IL3 IL3-IL1 SMAI2 1 2 BLOCK AI 01(I) 3 4 AI 02(I) 5 6 AI 03(I) # Not used AI3P ^GRP2L1 AI1 ^GRP2L2 AI2 ^GRP2L3 AI3 ^GRP2N AI4 AIN 7 8 AI 04(I) 4 9 10 AI 05(I) 11 12 AI 06(I) Protected Object . It shall be noted that for all these current inputs the following setting values shall be entered.

Depending on the type of functions which need this current information. 4) shows that the fourth input channel of the preprocessing function block shall not be connected in SMT.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3) are three connections made in Signal Matrix Tool (SMT).vsd IEC06000646 V3 EN Figure 11: Delta DAC connected three-phase CT set 43 Application manual . For this application most of the preprocessing settings can be left to the default values. 5) is a Preprocessing block that has the task to digitally filter the connected analog inputs and calculate: • • • fundamental frequency phasors for all four input channels harmonic content for all four input channels positive. Another alternative is to have the delta connected CT set as shown in figure 11: L1 L3 IED IL3 IL1 IL2 L2 5 2 3 CT 800/1 in delta DCA Connected IL1-IL3 IL2-IL1 IL3-IL2 SMAI2 1 2 BLOCK AI 01 (I) 3 4 5 6 AI 02 (I) AI 03 (I) #Not used AI3P ^GRP2L1 AI1 ^GRP2L2 AI2 ^GRP2L3 AI3 ^GRP2N AI4 AIN 7 8 AI 04 (I) 4 9 10 AI 05 (I) 11 12 AI 06 (I) Protected Object IEC06000646-3-en. If frequency tracking and compensation is required (this feature is typically required only for IEDs installed in the generating stations) then the setting parameters DFTReference shall be set accordingly. negative and zero sequence quantities by using the fundamental frequency phasors for the first three input channels (channel one taken as reference for sequence quantities) These calculated values are then available for all built-in protection and control functions within the IED. which are connected to this preprocessing function block in the configuration tool. which connect these three current inputs to first three input channels of the preprocessing function block 6). more then one preprocessing block might be connected in parallel to these three CT inputs.

currents are already measured towards the protected object). except that for all used current inputs on the TRM the following setting parameters shall be entered: 800 = 462 A 3 CT sec = 1A CTprim = (Equation 17) IECEQUATION2414 V1 EN • CTStarPoint=ToObject Inside the IED only the ratio of the first two parameters is used. It gives an overview of the required actions by the user in order to make this measurement available to the built-in protection and control functions within the IED as well. everything is done in a similar way as in the above described example. Example how to connect single-phase CT to the IED Figure 12 gives an example how to connect the single-phase CT to the IED. IED Protected Object 2 1 2 L1 L2 L3 AI 01(I) 3 4 5 6 b) CT 1000/1 a) INP 8 AI 04(I) 9 10 SMAI2 AI 03(I) 3 7 1 5 AI 02(I) BLOCK ^GRP2L1 AI1 # Not used ^GRP2L2 AI2 # Not used ^GRP2L3 AI3 ^GRP2N AI 05(I) AI 06(I) 4 INP 12 AI4 AIN 11 INP AI3P # Not used IEC06000647-3-en. The third parameter as set in this example will have no influence on the measured currents (that is.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C In this case.vsd IEC06000647 V3 EN Figure 12: Connections for single-phase CT input 44 Application manual .

currents are already measured towards the protected object). 2) is TRM where these current inputs are located. 3) shows that in this example the first three input channel of the preprocessing block is not connected in Signal Matrix Tool (SMT). This is done by setting the two parameters VTsec and VTprim for each voltage channel. in the configuration tool. For connection (b) shown in figure 12: CTprim = 600 A CT sec = 5 A IECEQUATION2415 V1 EN (Equation 19) CTStarPoint=FromObject Inside the IED only the ratio of the first two parameters is used. 5) is a Preprocessing block that has the task to digitally filter the connected analog inputs and calculate: • • • fundamental frequency phasors for all four input channels harmonic content for all four input channels positive. For connection (a) shown in figure 12: CTprim = 600 A CT sec = 5 A IECEQUATION2415 V1 EN (Equation 18) CTStarPoint=ToObject Inside the IED only the ratio of the first two parameters is used. which are connected to this preprocessing function block. The third parameter as set in this example will have no influence on the measured currents (that is.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Where: 1) shows how to connect single-phase CT input in the IED. For this application most of the preprocessing settings can be left to the default values If frequency tracking and compensation is required (this feature is typically required only for IEDs installed in the generating stations) then the setting parameters DFTReference shall be set accordingly. negative and zero sequence quantities by using the fundamental frequency phasors for the first three input channels (channel one taken as reference for sequence quantities) These calculated values are then available for all built-in protection and control functions within the IED. Setting of voltage channels As the IED uses primary system quantities the main VT ratios must be known to the IED. which connect this CT input to the fourth input channel of the preprocessing function block 5). The phase-to-phase value can be used even if each channel is connected to a phase-to-earth voltage from the VT. Example Consider a VT with the following data: 45 Application manual . The third parameter as set in this example will invert the measured currents (that is. 4) shows the connection made in SMT tool. turn the currents by 180°) in order to ensure that the currents within the IED are measured towards the protected object. It shall be noted that for all these current inputs the following setting values shall be entered.

vsd IEC06000591 V1 EN Figure 13: Commonly used markings of VT terminals Where: a) is the symbol and terminal marking used in this document.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 132kV 110V 3 3 (Equation 20) EQUATION2016 V1 EN The following setting should be used: VTprim=132 (value in kV) VTsec=110 (value in V) Examples how to connect. 46 Application manual . configure and set VT inputs for most commonly used VT connections Figure 13 defines the marking of voltage transformer terminals commonly used around the world. Terminals marked with a dot indicate the primary and secondary winding terminals with the same (positive) polarity b) is the equivalent symbol and terminal marking used by IEC (ANSI) standard for phase-toearth connected VTs c) is the equivalent symbol and terminal marking used by IEC (ANSI) standard for open delta connected VTs d) is the equivalent symbol and terminal marking used by IEC (ANSI) standard for phase-tophase connected VTs It shall be noted that depending on national standard and utility practices the rated secondary voltage of a VT has typically one of the following values: • • • • • 100 V 110 V 115 V 120 V 230 V The IED fully supports all of these values and most of them will be shown in the following examples. + + UPri USec a) A (H1) a (X1) A (H1) da (X1) A (H1) a (X1) N (H2) n (X2) N (H2) dn (X2) B (H2) b (X2) b) c) d) en06000591.

IEC06000599-3-en. L1 IED L2 L3 66 kV 3 66 kV 3 2 110V 3 1 13 14 AI 07 (I) BLOCK 16 17 AI 08 (U) 18 AI 09 (U) 19 110V 3 SMAI2 15 20 #Not used AI 10 (U) AI3P ^GRP2L1 AI1 ^GRP2L2 AI2 ^GRP2L3 AI3 ^GRP2N AI4 AIN 21 22 AI 11 (U) 23 24 66 kV 3 5 3 4 AI 12 (U) 110V 3 .vsd IEC06000599 V3 EN Figure 14: A Three phase-to-earth connected VT 47 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Examples on how to connect a three phase-to-earth connected VT to the IED Figure 14 gives an example on how to connect a three phase-to-earth connected VT to the IED. It as well gives overview of required actions by the user in order to make this measurement available to the built-in protection and control functions within the IED.

as shown in figure 16. 66 110 66 = 3 110 3 EQUATION1903 V1 EN (Equation 21) 3) are three connections made in Signal Matrix Tool (SMT).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Where: 1) shows how to connect three secondary phase-to-earth voltages to three VT inputs on the IED 2) is the TRM where these three voltage inputs are located. 48 Application manual . which connect these three voltage inputs to first three input channels of the preprocessing function block 5). which are connected to this preprocessing function block in the configuration tool. It shall be noted that this VT connection is only used on lower voltage levels (that is. more then one preprocessing block might be connected in parallel to these three VT inputs. Example on how to connect a phase-to-phase connected VT to the IED Figure 15 gives an example how to connect a phase-to-phase connected VT to the IED. Depending on the type of functions which need this voltage information. negative and zero sequence quantities by using the fundamental frequency phasors for the first three input channels (channel one taken as reference for sequence quantities) These calculated values are then available for all built-in protection and control functions within the IED. rated primary voltage below 40 kV). For this application most of the preprocessing settings can be left to the default values. However the following settings shall be set as shown here: UBase=66 kV (that is. Alternatively. the following setting values shall be entered: VTprim =66 kV VTsec = 110 V Inside the IED. 4) shows that in this example the fourth (that is. 5) is a Preprocessing block that has the task to digitally filter the connected analog inputs and calculate: • • • fundamental frequency phasors for all four input channels harmonic content for all four input channels positive. It shall be noted that the ratio of the entered values exactly corresponds to ratio of one individual VT. rated Ph-Ph voltage) If frequency tracking and compensation is required (this feature is typically required only for IEDs installed in the generating stations) then the setting parameters DFTReference shall be set accordingly. It gives an overview of the required actions by the user in order to make this measurement available to the built-in protection and control functions within the IED as well. residual) input channel of the preprocessing block is not connected in SMT tool. For these three voltage inputs. Thus the preprocessing block will automatically calculate 3Uo inside by vectorial sum from the three phase to earth voltages connected to the first three input channels of the same preprocessing block. the fourth input channel can be connected to open delta VT input. only the ratio of these two parameters is used.

IEC06000600-3-en. It shall be noted that for these three voltage inputs the following setting values shall be entered: VTprim=13.8kV 120V 13.8kV IED 120V 2 5 3 1 13 14 AI 07(I) SMAI2 15 16 BLOCK AI 08(U) 17 18 AI 09(U) #Not Used 19 20 22 AI1 ^GRP2L2 AI2 ^GRP2L3 AI3 ^GRP2N AI 11(U) AI4 AIN AI 10(U) 21 AI3P ^GRP2L1 4 23 24 AI 12(U) .8 kV VTsec=120 V Please note that inside the IED only ratio of these two parameters is used.vsd IEC06000600 V3 EN Figure 15: A Two phase-to-phase connected VT Where: 1) shows how to connect the secondary side of a phase-to-phase VT to the VT inputs on the IED 2) is the TRM where these three voltage inputs are located. Table continues on next page 49 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C L1 L2 L3 13.

which are connected to this preprocessing function block in the configuration tool. Example on how to connect an open delta VT to the IED for high impedance earthed or unearthed Figure 16 gives an example about the wiring of an open delta VT to the IED for high impedance earthed or unearthed power systems. It shall be noted that this type of VT connection presents a secondary voltage proportional to 3U0 to the IED. negative and zero sequence quantities by using the fundamental frequency phasors for the first three input channels (channel one taken as reference for sequence quantities) These calculated values are then available for all built-in protection and control functions within the IED. In case of a solid earth fault close to the VT location the primary value of 3Uo will be equal to: 3U 0 = 3. However the following settings shall be set as shown here: ConnectionType=Ph-Ph UBase=13. For this application most of the preprocessing settings can be left to the default values.UPh . 50 Application manual . Thus the secondary windings of open delta VTs quite often have a secondary rated voltage equal to one third of the rated phase-to-phase VT secondary voltage (110/3V in this particular example). 5) Preprocessing block has a task to digitally filter the connected analog inputs and calculate: • • • fundamental frequency phasors for all four input channels harmonic content for all four input channels positive.8 kV If frequency tracking and compensation is required (this feature is typically required only for IEDs installed in the generating stations) then the setting parameters DFTReference shall be set accordingly. more than one preprocessing block might be connected in parallel to these three VT inputs 4) shows that in this example the fourth (that is.E EQUATION1921 V2 EN (Equation 22) The primary rated voltage of an open Delta VT is always equal to UPh-E. Depending on the type of functions.UPh .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3) are three connections made in the Signal Matrix tool (SMT). Three series connected VT secondary windings gives a secondary voltage equal to three times the individual VT secondary winding rating. Figure gives overview of required actions by the user in order to make this measurement available to the built-in protection and control functions within the IED as well. residual) input channel of the preprocessing block is not connected in SMT. which need this voltage information. which connects these three voltage inputs to first three input channels of the preprocessing function block 5).Ph = 3.

6kV 3 2 13 14 110V 3 AI 07 (I) 5 15 16 AI 08 (U) 17 6.6kV 3 110V 3 IEC06000601-3-en.vsd IEC06000601 V3 EN Figure 16: Open delta connected VT in high impedance earthed power system 51 Application manual .6kV 3 1 110V 3 18 AI 09 (U) 19 3 20 AI 10 (U) 21 +3Uo 22 AI 11 (U) SMAI2 BLOCK ^GRP2L1 AI1 # Not Used ^GRP2L2 AI2 # Not Used ^GRP2L3 AI3 ^GRP2N 23 24 AI3P # Not Used AI4 AIN AI 12 (U) 4 6.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C L1 IED L2 L3 6.

52 Application manual . For this application most of the preprocessing settings can be left to the default values. It shall be noted that for this voltage input the following setting values shall be entered: VTprim = 3 × 6. which connect this voltage input to the fourth input channel of the preprocessing function block 5). only the ratio of these two parameters is used. It shall be noted that the ratio of the entered values exactly corresponds to ratio of one individual open delta VT.6 = EQUATION1925 V1 EN 3 110 3 (Equation 25) 3) shows that in this example the first three input channel of the preprocessing block is not connected in SMT tool. 4) shows the connection made in Signal Matrix Tool (SMT). If frequency tracking and compensation is required (this feature is typically required only for IEDs installed in the generating stations ) then the setting parameters DFTReference shall be set accordingly.6 110 6. which are connected to this preprocessing function block in the configuration tool. 3 × 6.6 = 11. negative and zero sequence quantities by using the fundamental frequency phasors for the first three input channels (channel one taken as reference for sequence quantities) These calculated values are then available for all built-in protection and control functions within the IED.43kV (Equation 23) EQUATION1923 V1 EN VT sec = 3 × 110 3 = 110V (Equation 24) EQUATION1924 V1 EN Inside the IED.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Where : 1) shows how to connect the secondary side of the open delta VT to one VT input on the IED. +3U0 shall be connected to the IED 2) is the TRM where this voltage input is located. 5) is a Preprocessing block that has the task to digitally filter the connected analog input and calculate: • • • fundamental frequency phasors for all four input channels harmonic content for all four input channels positive.

three series connected VT secondary windings will give the secondary voltage equal only to one individual VT secondary winding rating.Ph 3 = U Ph .vsd IEC06000602 V3 EN Figure 17: Open delta connected VT in low impedance or solidly earthed power system 53 Application manual . L1 IED L2 L3 138kV 3 138kV 3 2 13 14 115V 3 AI07 (I) 15 16 17 18 1 115V 3 5 19 20 AI08 (U) AI09 (U) 3 AI10 (U) 21 +3Uo 22 SMAI2 BLOCK # Not Used ^GRP2L1 AI1 # Not Used ^GRP2L2 AI2 # Not Used ^GRP2L3 AI3 AI11 (U) ^GRP2N 23 24 138kV 3 AI3P AI4 AIN AI12 (U) 4 115V 3 IEC06000602-3-en. Thus the secondary windings of such open delta VTs quite often has a secondary rated voltage close to rated phaseto-phase VT secondary voltage. 115V or 115/√3V as in this particular example. that is. It shall be noted that this type of VT connection presents secondary voltage proportional to 3U0 to the IED. In case of a solid earth fault close to the VT location the primary value of 3Uo will be equal to: 3Uo = U Ph .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Example how to connect the open delta VT to the IED for low impedance earthed or solidly earthed power systems Figure 17 gives an example about the connection of an open delta VT to the IED for low impedance earthed or solidly earthed power systems. Figure 17 gives an overview of the actions which are needed to make this measurement available to the built-in protection and control functions within the IED.E (Equation 26) EQUATION1926 V1 EN The primary rated voltage of such VT is always equal to UPh-E Therefore.

138 115 138 = 3 115 3 EQUATION1930 V1 EN (Equation 29) 3) shows that in this example the first three input channel of the preprocessing block is not connected in SMT tool. only the ratio of these two parameters is used. 54 Application manual . Example on how to connect a neutral point VT to the IED Figure 18 gives an example on how to connect a neutral point VT to the IED. which connect this voltage input to the fourth input channel of the preprocessing function block 4). 4) shows the connection made in Signal Matrix Tool (SMT). It shall be noted that for this voltage input the following setting values shall be entered: VTprim = 3× 138 3 = 138kV (Equation 27) EQUATION1928 V1 EN VT sec = 3× 115 3 = 115V (Equation 28) EQUATION1929 V1 EN Inside the IED. 2) is TRM where this voltage input is located. For this application most of the preprocessing settings can be left to the default values. which are connected to this preprocessing function block in the configuration tool. +3Uo shall be connected to the IED. It shall be noted that the ratio of the entered values exactly corresponds to ratio of one individual open delta VT. If frequency tracking and compensation is required (this feature is typically required only for IEDs installed in the generating stations) then the setting parameters DFTReference shall be set accordingly.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Where: 1) shows how to connect the secondary side of open delta VT to one VT input in the IED. This type of VT connection presents secondary voltage proportional to U0 to the IED. 5) preprocessing block has a task to digitally filter the connected analog inputs and calculate: • • • fundamental frequency phasors for all four input channels harmonic content for all four input channels positive. negative and zero sequence quantities by using the fundamental frequency phasors for the first three input channels (channel one taken as reference for sequence quantities) These calculated values are then available for all built-in protection and control functions within the IED.

E 3 (Equation 30) EQUATION1931 V2 EN Figure 18 gives an overview of required actions by the user in order to make this measurement available to the built-in protection and control functions within the IED as well. IED Protected Object 2 5 13 14 L1 L2 L3 AI07 (I) 15 16 AI08 (I) SMAI2 17 18 1 BLOCK AI09 (I) 19 3 20 AI10 (U) # Not Used AI1 # Not Used ^GRP2L2 AI2 # Not Used ^GRP2L3 AI3 21 22 AI3P ^GRP2L1 ^GRP2N AI11 (U) AI4 AIN 23 R Uo 24 AI12 (U) 4 6.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C In case of a solid earth fault in high impedance earthed or unearthed systems the primary value of Uo voltage will be equal to: U0 = UPh .vsd IEC06000603 V3 EN Figure 18: Neutral point connected VT 55 Application manual .6kV 3 100V IEC06000603-3-en.Ph = UPh .

For this voltage input the following setting values shall be entered: VTprim = 6. which connects this voltage input to the fourth input channel of the preprocessing function block 5). It shall be noted that the ratio of the entered values exactly corresponds to ratio of the neutral point VT. which are connected to this preprocessing function block in the configuration tool.6 3 = 3. only the ratio of these two parameters is used. 5) is a preprocessing block that has the task to digitally filter the connected analog inputs and calculate: • • • fundamental frequency phasors for all four input channels harmonic content for all four input channels positive. 3) shows that in this example the first three input channel of the preprocessing block is not connected in SMT tool. For this application most of the preprocessing settings can be left to the default values. If frequency tracking and compensation is required (this feature is typically required only for IEDs installed in the generating stations) then the setting parameters DFTReference shall be set accordingly. 3.2.3 Setting parameters The available setting parameters related to analog inputs are depending on the actual hardware (TRM) and the logic configuration made in PCM600. U0 shall be connected to the IED. 4) shows the connection made in Signal Matrix Tool (SMT).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Where: 1) shows how to connect the secondary side of neutral point VT to one VT input in the IED. 56 Application manual . It shall be noted that for this voltage input the following setting values shall be entered: is the TRM or AIM where this voltage input is located. 2) is the TRM where this voltage input is located. negative and zero sequence quantities by using the fundamental frequency phasors for the first three input channels (channel one taken as reference for sequence quantities) These calculated values are then available for all built-in protection and control functions within the IED.81kV EQUATION1933 V1 EN (Equation 31) VT sec = 100V EQUATION1934 V1 EN (Equation 32) Inside the IED.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 1: Name PhaseAngleRef Table 2: Name AISVBAS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) TRM40-Ch1 TRM40-Ch2 TRM40-Ch3 TRM40-Ch4 TRM40-Ch5 TRM40-Ch6 TRM40-Ch7 TRM40-Ch8 TRM40-Ch9 TRM40-Ch10 TRM40-Ch11 TRM40-Ch12 TRM41-Ch1 TRM41-Ch2 TRM41-Ch3 TRM41-Ch4 TRM41-Ch5 TRM41-Ch6 TRM41-Ch7 TRM41-Ch8 TRM41-Ch9 TRM41-Ch10 TRM41-Ch11 TRM41-Ch12 MU1-L1I MU1-L2I MU1-L3I MU1-L4I MU1-L1U MU1-L2U MU1-L3U MU1-L4U MU2-L1I MU2-L2I MU2-L3I MU2-L4I MU2-L1U MU2-L2U MU2-L3U MU2-L4U MU3-L1I MU3-L2I MU3-L3I MU3-L4I MU3-L1U MU3-L2U MU3-L3U MU3-L4U Unit - Step - Default TRM40-Ch1 Description Reference channel for phase angle presentation TRM_12I Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTStarPoint1 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim1 1 . FromObject= the opposite Table continues on next page 57 Application manual .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint2 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec1 1 .

FromObject= the opposite CTsec9 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim2 1 .Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTsec2 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec8 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint11 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint3 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec3 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim6 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint7 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim5 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint5 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint9 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim3 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec6 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current 58 Application manual .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint10 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim8 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec4 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec7 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint12 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint6 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec10 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim9 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim7 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint4 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim4 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec12 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec11 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec5 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim11 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint8 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim12 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim10 1 .

05 400.999 V 0.999. FromObject= the opposite CTsec6 1 .001 .00 kV 0.2000. FromObject= the opposite CTsec1 1 .001 110.001 110.05 400. FromObject= the opposite CTsec3 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim5 1 .001 110.05 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim6 1 .00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec8 0.05 .999. FromObject= the opposite CTsec4 1 .999 V 0. FromObject= the opposite CTsec5 1 .00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec9 0.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec10 0.2000.999.999 V 0.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint5 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.05 400.05 .00 kV 0.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim12 0. FromObject= the opposite CTsec2 1 .001 .001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim8 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 3: Name TRM_6I_6U Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTStarPoint1 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim4 1 .00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec11 0.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim10 0.00 Rated VT primary voltage 59 Application manual .999.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec12 0.05 400.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current VTsec7 0.00 kV 0.05 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint2 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim7 0.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint3 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim2 1 .001 .2000.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint4 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999.999.2000.05 .2000.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim1 1 .05 400.001 .2000.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint6 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999 V 0.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim11 0.001 110.999 V 0.999 V 0.001 110.05 .001 .001 .00 kV 0.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim9 0.00 kV 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim3 1 .00 kV 0.

FromObject= the opposite CTsec4 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim1 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec1 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint3 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec4 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec1 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim2 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint2 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim6 1 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 4: TRM_6I Non group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTStarPoint1 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec6 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec2 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim5 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec3 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec5 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint3 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim2 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current Table 5: Name TRM_7I_5U Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTStarPoint1 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim4 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec3 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint4 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim1 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim3 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint6 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec2 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint4 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current Table continues on next page 60 Application manual .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint2 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint5 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim3 1 .

FromObject= the opposite CTsec6 1 .999 V 0.999.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec9 0.2000.00 kV 0. FromObject= the opposite CTsec4 1 .000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim8 0.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint4 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec10 0.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint5 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.2000.001 110. FromObject= the opposite CTsec2 1 .001 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim1 1 .05 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current Table continues on next page 61 Application manual .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint2 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.05 400.999.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint3 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999 V 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim4 1 .05 400.001 110.05 400.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim2 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec3 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec7 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec5 1 .000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim11 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTprim4 1 .05 .00 kV 0.999.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim12 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec11 0.001 .000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim10 0.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec12 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim6 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim5 1 .2000.001 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec1 1 .05 .001 110.2000.001 110.999 V 0.05 .999.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim9 0.00 kV 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim7 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current VTsec8 0.05 400.999.001 110.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint7 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.2000.00 kV 0.001 .00 kV 0.00 Rated VT primary voltage Step Default Table 6: Name TRM_9I_3U Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Description CTStarPoint1 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.05 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint6 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999 V 0.001 .999 V 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim3 1 .

10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim5 1 .05 .001 . Up to 12 single line diagram pages can be defined. FromObject= the opposite CTsec5 1 .999.001 110.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim8 1 . The small size LCD can display seven lines of text and the medium size LCD can display the single line diagram with up to 15 objects on each page. The local HMI is divided into zones with different functionality.999 V 0.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim11 0.05 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current VTsec10 0.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec11 0.001 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec9 1 .001 110.00 kV 0.2000.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint9 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.00 kV 0. The difference between the two models is the size of the LCD. depending on the product capability.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec12 0.3. FromObject= the opposite CTsec7 1 .05 .3 Local human-machine interface 3.1 Human machine interface The local human machine interface is available in a small and a medium sized model.05 400.999.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim7 1 .000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim10 0.05 400.001 110.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTStarPoint5 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.00 Rated VT primary voltage 3. 62 Application manual .2000.999 V 0.999.001 .000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim12 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim6 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint6 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint8 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec6 1 .2000.999 V 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim9 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint7 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.00 kV 0. FromObject= the opposite CTsec8 1 .05 400.

switch for selection between local and remote control and reset. which consist of 15 LEDs (6 red and 9 yellow) with user printable label. alpha numeric HMI 63 Application manual . Isolated RJ45 communication port. Keypad with push buttons for control and navigation purposes. All LEDs are configurable from PCM600. Liquid crystal display (LCD).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • • • Status indication LEDs. IEC05000055-LITEN V1 EN Figure 19: Small. Alarm indication LEDs.

• • • 3.20 % 1 0 Contrast level for display DefaultScreen 0-0 - 1 0 Default screen EvListSrtOrder Latest on top Oldest on top - - Latest on top Sort order of event list SymbolFont IEC ANSI - - IEC Symbol font for Single Line Diagram 64 Application manual .2 Local HMI related functions 3.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C IEC05000056-LITEN V1 EN Figure 20: Medium graphic HMI.120 Min 10 60 Local HMI display timeout AutoRepeat Off On - - On Activation of auto-repeat (On) or not (Off) ContrastLevel -10 .3. 15 controllable objects 3.3.1 Introduction The local HMI can be adapted to the application configuration and to user preferences.2.2 Table 7: Name Function block LocalHMI Function block LEDGEN Setting parameters General setting parameters SCREEN Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Language English OptionalLanguage - - English Local HMI language DisplayTimeout 10 .2.3.

either in collecting or restarting mode. Four sequences operate as latch type.0 Defines the disturbance length tMax 0. See the technical reference manual for more information.0 s 0.100.1 0. The input and output signals of LEDGEN are configured with PCM600.1 0.0 . The light from the LEDs can be steady (-S) or flashing (-F).3.1 Introduction The function block LEDGEN controls and supplies information about the status of the indication LEDs. LEDs (number 7–15) for start indications are yellow.3.3 Indication LEDs 3. Each indication LED on the local HMI can be set individually to operate in six different sequences • • Two sequences operate as follow type. • • Two of the latching sequence types are intended to be used as a protection indication system.100. Two of the latching sequence types are intended to be used as signaling system in collecting (coll) mode with an acknowledgment functionality.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. 3. • • LEDs (number 1–6) for trip indications are red.3.3. The input signal for each LED is selected individually with the Signal Matrix Tool in PCM600.2 Table 8: Name Setting parameters LEDGEN Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation mode for the LED function tRestart 0. with reset functionality.3.0 .0 Maximum time for the definition of a disturbance SeqTypeLED1 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 1 SeqTypeLED2 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 2 Table continues on next page 65 Application manual .0 s 0.

Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description SeqTypeLED3 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 3 SeqTypeLED4 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 4 SeqTypeLED5 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 5 SeqTypeLED6 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 6 SeqTypeLED7 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 7 SeqTypeLED8 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S sequence type for LED 8 SeqTypeLED9 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 9 SeqTypeLED10 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 10 SeqTypeLED11 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 11 Table continues on next page 66 Application manual .

4 Basic IED functions 3.4. Apart from the built-in supervision of the various modules. a corresponding event is generated.1. a corresponding event is generated. external time synchronization (in operation/out of order).1 Application The protection and control IEDs have many functions included . events are also generated when the status changes for the: • • built-in real time clock (in operation/out of order).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description SeqTypeLED12 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 12 SeqTypeLED13 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 13 SeqTypeLED14 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 14 SeqTypeLED15 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 15 3. The supervisory functions supervise the status of the various modules in the IED and. Both hardware and software supervision is included and it is also possible to indicate possible faults through a hardware contact on the power supply module and/ or through the software communication. The fault signals make it easier to analyze and locate a fault.1 Self supervision with internal event list 3. Similarly. when the failure is corrected. 67 Application manual . Internal events are generated by the built-in supervisory functions.4. in case of failure. The included selfsupervision with internal event list function block provides good supervision of the IED.

2. The list can store up to 40 events. For IED's using IEC61850-9-2LE from one single MU as analog data source. 3.4. that is.2 Time synchronization 3. events and disturbances within the entire station. and even between line ends. This makes it possible to compare events and disturbance data between all IEDs in the system. The internal events are time tagged with a resolution of 1 ms and stored in a list. Without time synchronization. only the events within the IED can be compared to one another. 3. The information can only be retrieved with the aid of PCM600 Event Monitoring Tool.1 Application Use time synchronization to achieve a common time base for the IEDs in a protection and control system. 68 Application manual .2 Setting parameters The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600. or to the port at the back of the IED. The list of internal events provides valuable information. In the IED.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Events are also generated: • whenever any setting in the IED is changed. Time-tagging of internal events and disturbances are an excellent help when evaluating faults. The time synchronization from the clock to the IED can be either optical PPS or IRIGB. The list cannot be cleared and its content cannot be modified. which can be used during commissioning and fault tracing. can be compared at evaluation. With time synchronization.4. The PC can either be connected to the front port. the oldest event is overwritten.1. when it is full. the internal time can be synchronized from a number of sources: • • • • • • • BIN (Binary Minute Pulse) GPS SNTP IRIG-B SPA LON PPS For IEDs using IEC61850-9-2LE in "mixed mode" a time synchronization from an external clock is recommended to the IED and all connected merging units.4. The list is based on the FIFO principle.

Fine time messages are sent every second and comprise only seconds and milliseconds. that is year. month. At a given point in time. TimeSynch When the source of the time synchronization is selected on the local HMI. The time synchronization source can also be set from PCM600. second and millisecond. In this case. The setting tells the IED which of these that shall be used to synchronize the IED. minute. minute. when the GPS signal quality is bad. hour.4. LON and SPA contains two types of synchronization messages: • • Coarse time messages are sent every minute and contain complete date and time. day. day. the IED will automatically choose SNTP as the time-source. 3. Odut of these. second and millisecond.2. the parameter is called TimeSynch. month. for instance SNTP. The setting alternatives are: FineSyncSource which can have the following values: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Off SPA LON BIN (Binary Minute Pulse) GPS GPS+SPA GPS+LON GPS+BIN SNTP GPS+SNTP GPS+IRIG-B IRIG-B PPS CoarseSyncSrc which can have the following values: 69 Application manual . hour. It is possible to set a backup time-source for GPS signal.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C the MU and IED still needs to be synchronized to each other. only one time-source will be used. Synchronization The setting parameters for the real-time clock with external time synchronization (TIME) are set via local HMI or PCM600. This could be done by letting the MU supply a PPS signal to the IED.2 Setting guidelines System time The time is set with years.

The parameter SyncMaster defines if the IED is a master. see section "IEC 61850-9-2LE communication protocol" in section "Station communication". either via the local HMI or via any of the communication ports. HWSyncSrc: This parameter must not be set to Off if AppSynch is set to Synch. GPS alone shall synchronize the analogue values in such systems. The GPS will thus provide the complete time synchronization. AppSynch: If this parameter is set to Synch. time quality will always be not sufficient. some functions are blocked. Set the fine time synchronization source (FineSyncSource) to GPS. if the time quality is worse than the limit set by SyncAccLevel. thereby some functions are blocked. The time synchronization fine tunes the clock (seconds and milliseconds). 70 Application manual . or not a master for time synchronization in a system of IEDs connected in a communication network (IEC61850-8-1). See section "IEC 61850-9-2LE communication protocol" in section "Station communication". SyncAccLevel: If this parameter is set to Unspecified. The system time can be set manually. If set to Off the time quality in the IED will never reach SyncAccLevel and some functions are blocked. The SyncMaster can have the following values: • • Off SNTP -Server Set the course time synchronizing source (CoarseSyncSrc) to Off when GPS time synchronization of line differential function is used.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • • • Off SPA LON SNTP DNP CoarseSyncSrc which can have the following values: • • • • Off SNTP DNP IEC60870-5-103 The function input to be used for minute-pulse synchronization is called TIMEMINSYNC.

4. An optical PPS signal can be supplied to the optical interface of the IRIG-B module. or from the merging unit.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Process bus IEC 61850-9-2LE synchronization For the time synchronization of the process bus communication (IEC 61850-9-2LE protocol) an optical PPS or IRIG-B signal can be used. This signal should emanate from either an external GPS clock. 3.2.3 Setting parameters Path in the local HMI is located under Main menu/Setting/Time Path in PCM600 is located under Main menu/Settings/Time/Synchronization Table 9: Name TIMESYNCHGEN Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CoarseSyncSrc Off SPA LON SNTP DNP - - Off Coarse time synchronization source FineSyncSource Off SPA LON BIN GPS GPS+SPA GPS+LON GPS+BIN SNTP GPS+SNTP IRIG-B GPS+IRIG-B PPS - - Off Fine time synchronization source SyncMaster Off SNTP-Server - - Off Activate IED as synchronization master TimeAdjustRate Slow Fast - - Fast Adjust rate for time synchronization HWSyncSrc Off GPS IRIG-B PPS - - Off Hardware time synchronization source AppSynch NoSynch Synch - - NoSynch Time synchronization mode for application SyncAccLevel Class T5 (1us) Class T4 (4us) Unspecified - - Unspecified Wanted time synchronization accuracy 71 Application manual .

16 - 1 3 Hardware position of IO module for time synchronization BinaryInput 1 .18 IP Address 1 0.Section 3 IED application Table 10: Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C SYNCHBIN Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description ModulePosition 3 .0 Server IP-address RedServIP-Add 0 .16 - 1 1 Binary input number for time synchronization BinDetection PositiveEdge NegativeEdge - - PositiveEdge Positive or negative edge detection Table 11: Name SYNCHSNTP Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description ServerIP-Add 0 .0.0.0 Redundant server IP-address Table 12: Name DSTBEGIN Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description MonthInYear January February March April May June July August September October November December - - March Month in year when daylight time starts DayInWeek Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday - - Sunday Day in week when daylight time starts WeekInMonth Last First Second Third Fourth - - Last Week in month when daylight time starts UTCTimeOfDay 0 .0.18 IP Address 1 0.172800 s 1 3600 UTC Time of day in seconds when daylight time starts 72 Application manual .0.

172800 s 1 3600 UTC Time of day in seconds when daylight time ends Table 14: Name NoHalfHourUTC Table 15: Name TIMEZONE Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) -24 .24 Unit - Step 1 Default 0 Description Number of half-hours from UTC SYNCHIRIG-B Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description SynchType BNC Opto - - Opto Type of synchronization TimeDomain LocalTime UTC - - LocalTime Time domain Encoding IRIG-B 1344 1344TZ - - IRIG-B Type of encoding TimeZoneAs1344 MinusTZ PlusTZ - - PlusTZ Time zone as in 1344 standard 73 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 13: Name DSTEND Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description MonthInYear January February March April May June July August September October November December - - October Month in year when daylight time ends DayInWeek Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday - - Sunday Day in week when daylight time ends WeekInMonth Last First Second Third Fourth - - Last Week in month when daylight time ends UTCTimeOfDay 0 .

3. Only the selected number of setting groups will be available in the Parameter Setting tool (PST) for activation with the ActiveGroup function block. either from the local HMI or configurable binary inputs. is set with the parameter t. Setting is done with parameter MAXSETGR and shall be set to the required value for each IED. defines how many setting groups are used.4. 3. 3. if the setting values of their parameters are continuously optimized according to the conditions in the power system.10.0 Unit Step s 0. Different conditions in networks with different voltage levels require highly adaptable protection and control units to best provide for dependability.3 Parameter setting groups 3. is used to select which parameter group to be active. The length of the pulse.0 .4.3. Operational departments can plan for different operating conditions in the primary equipment. The active group can also be selected with configured input to the function block SETGRPS.3 Table 16: Name t Setting parameters ActiveGroup Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 0. especially.0 Description Pulse length of pulse when setting changed 74 Application manual . sent out by the output signal SETCHGD when an active group has changed. SETGRPS.3. The protection engineer can prepare the necessary optimized and pretested settings in advance for different protection functions. The parameter MAXSETGR defines the maximum number of setting groups in use to switch between.1 Application Six sets of settings are available to optimize IED operation for different power system conditions. results in a highly adaptable IED that can cope with a variety of power system scenarios.1 Default 1.4.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. Only the number of setting groups set will be available in the Parameter Setting tool for activation with the ActiveGroup function block. Six A function block. By creating and switching between fine tuned setting sets.4. Protection units operate with a higher degree of availability.2 Setting guidelines The setting ActiveSetGrp. security and selectivity requirements.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 17: Name SETGRPS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description ActiveSetGrp SettingGroup1 SettingGroup2 SettingGroup3 SettingGroup4 SettingGroup5 SettingGroup6 - - SettingGroup1 ActiveSettingGroup MAXSETGR 1-6 No 1 1 Max number of setting groups 1-6 3.2 Setting guidelines Remember always that there are two possible ways to place the IED in the TestMode= On” state.4. the IED is set to normal operation (TestMode = Off).4. the input signal INPUT on the TESTMODE function block might be activated in the configuration. This means that it is possible to see when a function is activated or trips.4 Test mode functionality TEST 3.4. 3. If. or all functions.3 Table 18: Name Setting parameters TESTMODE Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description TestMode Off On - - Off Test mode in operation (On) or not (Off) EventDisable Off On - - Off Event disable during testmode CmdTestBit Off On - - Off Command bit for test required or not during testmode 3.1 Application The protection and control IEDs may have a complex configuration with many included functions. To make the testing procedure easier. the IEDs include the feature that allows individual blocking of a single-.4. several-.4. It also enables the user to follow the operation of several related functions to check correct functionality and to check parts of the configuration. and so on.5 Change lock CHNGLCK 75 Application manual . 3.4.4.4. but the functions are still shown being in the test mode.

5. However. If any logic is included in the signal path to the CHNGLCK input.4.1 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Application Change lock function CHNGLCK is used to block further changes to the IED configuration once the commissioning is complete.4. CHNGLCK is deactivated. EnableCom EnableHMI. This guarantees that by setting that signal to a logical zero.Section 3 IED application 3. defined in ACT or SMT. then please contact the local ABB representative for remedial action. The purpose is to make it impossible to perform inadvertent IED configuration and setting changes. The CHNGLCK function is configured using ACT.5. in PCM600 the message will be "Operation denied by active ChangeLock". then all attempts to modify the IED configuration and setting will be denied and the message "Error: Changes blocked" will be displayed on the local HMI.2 Table 19: Name Operation Setting parameters CHNGLCK Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) LockHMI and Com LockHMI. When CHNGLCK has a logical one on its input. when activated. The CHNGLCK function should be configured so that it is controlled by a signal from a binary input card. LockCom Unit - Step - Default LockHMI and Com Description Operation mode of change lock 76 Application manual . If such a situation would occur in spite of these precautions. that logic must be designed so that it cannot permanently issue a logical one to the CHNGLCK input. LOCK Binary input signal that will activate/deactivate the function. CHNGLCK will still allow the following actions that does not involve reconfiguring of the IED: • • • • • • • • • • • Monitoring Reading events Resetting events Reading disturbance data Clear disturbances Reset LEDs Reset counters and other runtime component states Control operations Set system time Enter and exit from test mode Change of active setting group The binary input controlling the function is defined in ACT or SMT. 3.

99999 - 1 0 Unit number 3.4. 3.2 Table 20: Name Setting parameters TERMINALID Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description StationName 0 .7.4.1 Application The Product identifiers function identifies the IED. The function has seven pre-set.4.4.6 IED identifiers 3.4. a-z and 0-9 in station. 77 Application manual .6.1 Application IED identifiers (TERMINALID) function allows the user to identify the individual IED in the system.6.18 - 1 Object name Object name ObjectNumber 0 .18 - 1 Unit name Unit name UnitNumber 0 . settings that are unchangeable but nevertheless very important: • • • • • • IEDProdType ProductDef FirmwareVer SerialNo OrderingNo ProductionDate The settings are visible on the local HMI . not only in the substation.99999 - 1 0 Station number ObjectName 0 . object and unit names.7 Product information 3.18 - 1 Station name Station name StationNumber 0 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. Use only characters A-Z.7. 3.4. but in a whole region or a country.2 Setting parameters The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600. under Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/Product identifiers They are very helpful in case of support process (such as repair or maintenance).99999 - 1 0 Object number UnitName 0 .

0 Description Rated system frequency 78 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Factory defined settings The factory defined settings are very useful for identifying a specific version and very helpful in the case of maintenance.1 Application The rated system frequency is set under Main menu/General settings/ Power system/ Primary Values in the local HMI and PCM600 parameter setting tree. depending on the small issues corrected in between releases. interchanging IEDs between different Substation Automation Systems and upgrading. For every release numbers (like 1.4.60.4. IEDMainFunType • • • • Describes the type of the IED (like REL. REC or RET). Example: 1.4.0.8. They can only be viewed. Example: 128 (meaning line protection).0 .4. The settings are found in the local HMI under Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/Product identifiers The following identifiers are available: • IEDProdType • • FirmwareVer • • • Describes the firmware version.2 Setting guidelines Set the system rated frequency.8 Rated system frequency PRIMVAL 3. Refer to section "Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI" for description on frequency tracking. The factory made settings can not be changed by the customer.17) there can be one or more firmware versions. Example: REL670 Main function type code according to IEC 60870-5-103. repair.8. 3.0 50.4.8.0 Unit Step Default Hz 10.5.3 Table 21: Name Frequency Setting parameters PRIMVAL Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 50. 3.51 Firmware versions numbers are “running” independently from the release production numbers. SerialNo OrderingNo ProductionDate 3.

9 Signal matrix for binary inputs SMBI 3. If SMBOs are connected (in SMT) but their inputs not.2 Setting guidelines There are no setting parameters for the Signal matrix for binary inputs SMBI available to the user in Parameter Setting tool. the user must give a name to SMBO instance and SMBO outputs.9. The user defined name for the input or output signal will also appear on the respective output or input signal.10 Signal matrix for binary outputs SMBO 3. 79 Application manual . all the physical outputs will be set by default. It is important that SMBO inputs are connected when SMBOs are connected to physical outputs through the Signal Matrix Tool.4.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.4. directly in the Application Configuration tool. This might cause malfunction of primary equipment and/or injury to personnel. 3.4. the user shall give a name to SMBI instance and the SMBI inputs.9.1 Application The Signal matrix for binary outputs function SMBO is used within the Application Configuration tool in direct relation with the Signal Matrix tool.2 Setting guidelines There are no setting parameters for the Signal matrix for binary outputs SMBO available to the user in Parameter Setting tool.10. These names will define SMBI function in the Signal Matrix tool. However. directly in the Application Configuration tool. 3.4. SMBI represents the way binary inputs are brought in for one IED configuration. SMBO represents the way binary outputs are sent from one IED configuration.9.3 Setting parameters The function does not have any parameters available in local HMI or PCM600.4.4. 3.1 Application The Signal matrix for binary inputs function SMBI is used within the Application Configuration tool in direct relation with the Signal Matrix tool. 3. These names will define SMBO function in the Signal Matrix tool.10.4. However.

11 Signal matrix for mA inputs SMMI 3. IntBlockLevel. phase angle.12 Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI 3. also known as the preprocessor function.2 Setting guidelines There are no setting parameters for the Signal matrix for mA inputs SMMI available to the user in the Parameter Setting tool. The SMAI function is used within PCM600 in direct relation with the Signal Matrix tool or the Application Configuration tool.11. processes the analog signals connected to it and gives information about all aspects of the analog signals connected. frequency.12.4. 3.11. This information is then used by the respective functions in ACT (for example protection.1 Application Signal matrix for analog inputs function (SMAI). 3. directly in the Application Configuration tool.4. If positive sequence voltage is lower than IntBlockLevel the function is blocked. However.4. to validate if the frequency measurement is valid or not. measurement or monitoring).Section 3 IED application 3.3 Setting parameters The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600. 3.4.10. like the RMS value. IntBlockLevel. is set in % of UBase/√3 80 Application manual .1 Application The Signal matrix for mA inputs function SMMI is used within the Application Configuration tool in direct relation with the Signal Matrix tool. harmonic content.11.4. SMMI represents the way milliamp (mA) inputs are brought in for one IED configuration.4. 3.4. the user must give a name to SMMI instance and SMMI inputs.3 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting parameters The function does not have any parameters available in local HMI or PCM600.12. sequence components and so on.2 Frequency values The frequency functions includes a functionality based on level of positive sequence voltage. 3.4.

GRPxL2 and GRPxL3 to the same voltage input as shown in figure 21 to make SMAI calculating a positive sequence voltage (that is input voltage/√3).vsd IEC10000060 V1 EN Figure 21: Connection example The above described scenario does not work if SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-N. and so on – 244 values in total).3 Setting guidelines The parameters for the signal matrix for analog inputs (SMAI) functions are set via the local HMI or PCM600.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C If SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-Ph at least two of the inputs GRPxL1. If only one phase-phase voltage is available and SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-Ph the user is advised to connect two (not three) of the inputs GRPxL1. The outputs from the above configured SMAI block shall only be used for Overfrequency protection (SAPTOF). all three inputs GRPxL1. frequency and frequency derivates. SMAI outputs give information about every aspect of the 3ph analog signals acquired (phase angle. the same type of connection can be used but the SMAI ConnectionType setting must still be Ph-Ph and this has to be accounted for when setting IntBlockLevel.12. If only one phase-earth voltage is available. If SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-N and the same voltage is connected to all three SMAI inputs. either voltage or current. Besides the 81 Application manual . If SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-N. GRPxL2 and GRPxL3 must be connected in order to calculate positive sequence voltage. IEC10000060-1-en. 3. Underfrequency protection (SAPTUF) and Rate-of-change frequency protection (SAPFRC) due to that all other information except frequency and positive sequence voltage might be wrongly calculated. GRPxL2 and GRPxL3 must be connected in order to calculate positive sequence voltage. RMS value. Every SMAI function block can receive four analog signals (three phases and one neutral value).4. the positive sequence voltage will be zero and the frequency functions will not work properly.

logic function blocks used with these fast cycle protection functions need to have 3 ms task cycle. only the neutral signal NegateN or both Negate3Ph+N. ConnectionType: Connection type for that specific instance (n) of the SMAI (if it is Ph-N or Ph-Ph). needs to be connected to the processing SMAI function block. Examples of adaptive frequency tracking 82 Application manual . it is possible to choose to negate only the phase signals Negate3Ph. In addition. negation means rotation with 180° of the vectors. Depending on connection type setting the not connected Ph-N or Ph-Ph outputs will be calculated. MinValFreqMeas: The minimum value of the voltage for which the frequency is calculated.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C block “group name”. AdDFTRefChn will use DFT reference from the selected group block. Instantaneous protection function with a 3 ms cycle time. However. the analog inputs type (voltage or current) and the analog input names that can be set directly in ACT. Negation: If the user wants to negate the 3ph signal. These DFT reference block settings decide DFT reference for DFT calculations. Settings DFTRefExtOut and DFTReference shall be set to default value InternalDFTRef if no VT inputs are available. Even if the user sets the AnalogInputType of a SMAI block to “Current”. DFTReference: Reference DFT for the block. The settings InternalDFTRef will use fixed DFT reference based on set system frequency. UBase: Base voltage setting (for each instance x). Reference block for external output (SPFCOUT function output). when own group selected adaptive DFT reference will be used based on calculated signal frequency from own group. the MinValFreqMeas is still visible. not last among them being the low level of currents that one can have in normal operating conditions. using the current channel values as base for frequency measurement is not recommendable for a number of reasons. DFTRefExtOut: Parameter valid only for function block SMAI1 . which is also running at 3 ms task cycle. Same procedure needs to be followed for each cycle time. The setting ExternalDFTRef will use reference based on what is connected to input DFTSPFC. expressed as percent of UBase (for each instance n).

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Task time group 1 SMAI instance 3 phase group SMAI1:1 1 SMAI2:2 2 SMAI3:3 3 SMAI4:4 4 SMAI5:5 5 SMAI6:6 6 SMAI7:7 7 SMAI8:8 8 SMAI9:9 9 SMAI10:10 10 SMAI11:11 11 SMAI12:12 12 Task time group 2 SMAI instance 3 phase group SMAI1:13 1 SMAI2:14 2 SMAI3:15 3 SMAI4:16 4 SMAI5:17 5 SMAI6:18 6 SMAI7:19 7 SMAI8:20 8 SMAI9:21 9 SMAI10:22 10 SMAI11:23 11 SMAI12:24 12 AdDFTRefCh7 AdDFTRefCh4 Task time group 3 SMAI instance 3 phase group SMAI1:25 1 SMAI2:26 2 SMAI3:27 3 SMAI4:28 4 SMAI5:29 5 SMAI6:30 6 SMAI7:31 7 SMAI8:32 8 SMAI9:33 9 SMAI10:34 10 SMAI11:35 11 SMAI12:36 12 IEC07000197. The examples shows a situation with adaptive frequency tracking with one reference selected for all instances. SMAI blocks are available in three different task times in the IED. Example 1 83 Application manual . In practice each instance can be adapted to the needs of the actual application. Two pointed instances are used in the following examples.vsd IEC07000197 V2 EN Figure 22: Twelve SMAI instances are grouped within one task time.

For task time group 2 this gives the following settings: SMAI1:13 – SMAI12:24: DFTReference = ExternalDFTRef to use DFTSPFC input as reference (SMAI7:7) For task time group 3 this gives the following settings: SMAI1:25 – SMAI12:36: DFTReference = ExternalDFTRef to use DFTSPFC input as reference (SMAI7:7) Example 2 84 Application manual .e.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C SMAI1:13 SMAI1:1 BLOCK DFTSPFC ^GRP1L1 ^GRP1L2 ^GRP1L3 ^GRP1N SPFCOUT AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AIN BLOCK DFTSPFC ^GRP1L1 ^GRP1L2 ^GRP1L3 ^GRP1N SPFCOUT AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AIN SMAI1:25 BLOCK DFTSPFC ^GRP1L1 ^GRP1L2 ^GRP1L3 ^GRP1N SPFCOUT AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AIN IEC07000198-2-en. Observe that the selected reference instance (i. For task time group 1 this gives the following settings (see Figure 22 for numbering): SMAI1:1: DFTRefExtOut = AdDFTRefCh7 to route SMAI7:7 reference to the SPFCOUT output. frequency tracking master) must be a voltage type.vsd IEC07000198 V3 EN Figure 23: Configuration for using an instance in task time group 1 as DFT reference Assume instance SMAI7:7 in task time group 1 has been selected in the configuration to control the frequency tracking . Observe that positive sequence voltage is used for the frequency tracking feature. DFTReference = AdDFTRefCh7 for SMAI1:1 to use SMAI7:7 as reference (see Figure 23) SMAI2:2 – SMAI12:12: DFTReference = AdDFTRefCh7 for SMAI2:2 – SMAI12:12 to use SMAI7:7 as reference.

e. frequency tracking master) must be a voltage type. For task time group 1 this gives the following settings (see Figure 22 for numbering): SMAI1:1 – SMAI12:12: DFTReference = ExternalDFTRef to use DFTSPFC input as reference (SMAI4:16) For task time group 2 this gives the following settings: SMAI1:13: DFTRefExtOut = AdDFTRefCh4 to route SMAI4:16 reference to the SPFCOUT output. Observe that positive sequence voltage is used for the frequency tracking feature. Observe that the selected reference instance (i. DFTReference = AdDFTRefCh4 for SMAI1:13 to use SMAI4:16 as reference (see Figure 24) SMAI2:14 – SMAI12:24: DFTReference = AdDFTRefCh4 to use SMAI4:16 as reference. Assume instance SMAI4:16 in task time group 2 has been selected in the configuration to control the frequency tracking for all instances. For task time group 3 this gives the following settings: SMAI1:25 – SMAI12:36: DFTReference = ExternalDFTRef to use DFTSPFC input as reference (SMAI4:16) 85 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C SMAI1:1 SMAI1:13 BLOCK DFTSPFC ^GRP1L1 ^GRP1L2 ^GRP1L3 ^GRP1N SPFCOUT AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AIN BLOCK DFTSPFC ^GRP1L1 ^GRP1L2 ^GRP1L3 ^GRP1N SPFCOUT AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AIN SMAI1:25 BLOCK DFTSPFC ^GRP1L1 ^GRP1L2 ^GRP1L3 ^GRP1N SPFCOUT AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AIN IEC07000199-2-en.vsd IEC07000199 V3 EN Figure 24: Configuration for using an instance in task time group 2 as DFT reference.

05 .2000.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.200 % 1 10 Limit for frequency calculation in % of UBase UBase 0.05 400. 2=Current Table 23: Name SMAI1 Non group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Negation Off NegateN Negate3Ph Negate3Ph+N - - Off Negation MinValFreqMeas 5 .4 Setting parameters Table 22: SMAI1 Non group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description DFTRefExtOut InternalDFTRef AdDFTRefCh1 AdDFTRefCh2 AdDFTRefCh3 AdDFTRefCh4 AdDFTRefCh5 AdDFTRefCh6 AdDFTRefCh7 AdDFTRefCh8 AdDFTRefCh9 AdDFTRefCh10 AdDFTRefCh11 AdDFTRefCh12 External DFT ref - - InternalDFTRef DFT reference for external output DFTReference InternalDFTRef AdDFTRefCh1 AdDFTRefCh2 AdDFTRefCh3 AdDFTRefCh4 AdDFTRefCh5 AdDFTRefCh6 AdDFTRefCh7 AdDFTRefCh8 AdDFTRefCh9 AdDFTRefCh10 AdDFTRefCh11 AdDFTRefCh12 External DFT ref - - InternalDFTRef DFT reference ConnectionType Ph-N Ph-Ph - - Ph-N Input connection type TYPE 1-2 Ch 1 1 1=Voltage.12.00 Base voltage 86 Application manual .4.00 kV 0.

4.13.00 kV 0. 87 Application manual .1 Application The analog summation block 3PHSUM function block is used in order to get the sum of two sets of 3 phase analog signals (of the same type) for those IED functions that might need it.05 400.13 Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM 3.05 .4.2000. Group 1 .00 Base voltage 3.2 Setting guidelines The summation block receives the three-phase signals from SMAI blocks.Group 2.4. 3. DFTReference: The reference DFT block (InternalDFT Ref. Group 2 . SummationType: Summation type (Group 1 + Group 2.200 % 1 10 Limit for frequency calculation in % of UBase UBase 0. The summation block has several settings.13. 2=Current Table 25: Name SMAI2 Non group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Negation Off NegateN Negate3Ph Negate3Ph+N - - Off Negation MinValFreqMeas 5 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 24: SMAI2 Non group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description DFTReference InternalDFTRef AdDFTRefCh1 AdDFTRefCh2 AdDFTRefCh3 AdDFTRefCh4 AdDFTRefCh5 AdDFTRefCh6 AdDFTRefCh7 AdDFTRefCh8 AdDFTRefCh9 AdDFTRefCh10 AdDFTRefCh11 AdDFTRefCh12 External DFT ref - - InternalDFTRef DFT reference ConnectionType Ph-N Ph-Ph - - Ph-N Input connection type TYPE 1-2 Ch 1 1 1=Voltage.DFTRefGrp1 or External DFT ref) .Group 1 or –(Group 1 + Group 2)).

14 Authority status ATHSTAT 3. 3. expressed as percent of UBasebase voltage setting (for each instance x).15 Denial of service DOS 88 Application manual .05 400.05 .2000. 3.4. 3.2 Setting parameters The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600.00 Base voltage 3.13.3 Table 26: Name Setting parameters 3PHSUM Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description SummationType Group1+Group2 Group1-Group2 Group2-Group1 -(Group1+Group2) - - Group1+Group2 Summation type DFTReference InternalDFTRef AdDFTRefCh1 External DFT ref - - InternalDFTRef DFT reference Table 27: Name 3PHSUM Non group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description FreqMeasMinVal 5 . or can be sent to the station control for the same purpose.200 % 1 10 Amplitude limit for frequency calculation in % of Ubase UBase 0.4.00 kV 0.4.14.1 Application Authority status (ATHSTAT) function is an indication function block. which informs about two events related to the IED and the user authorization: • • the fact that at least one user has tried to log on wrongly into the IED and it was blocked (the output USRBLKED) the fact that at least one user is logged on (the output LOGGEDON) The two outputs of ATHSTAT function can be used in the configuration for different indication and alarming reasons.4.14. UBase: Base voltage setting.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C FreqMeasMinVal: The minimum value of the voltage for which the frequency is calculated.4.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. It serves as the main protection of transformers in case of winding failure. three-winding T3WPDIF IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.1 Application The transformer differential protection is a unit protection. A small interturn fault including just a few turns will result in an undetectable amount of current until it develops into an earth or phase fault.2 device number 87T 3Id/I SYMBOL-BB V1 EN 87T 3Id/I SYMBOL-BB V1 EN 3. When bushing current transformers are used for the differential IED. Interturn faults.5 Differential protection 3. Interturn faults are the most difficult transformer winding fault to detect with electrical protections. Short circuits and earth faults in windings and terminals will normally be detected by the differential protection. the bus-work or cables between the current transformers and the power transformer.1.4. the protective zone does not include the bus-work or cables between the circuit breaker and the power transformer. which are flashovers between conductors within the same physical winding. is also possible to detect if a large enough number of turns are short-circuited. 89 Application manual . As the differential protection is a unit protection it can be designed for fast tripping. twowinding T2WPDIF Transformer differential protection.1 Setting guidelines The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600.15. 3. The protective zone of a differential protection includes the transformer itself. Such a busbar protection will include the bus-work or cables between the circuit breaker and the power transformer. It is important that the faulty transformer be disconnected as fast as possible. For this reason it is important that the differential protection has a high level of sensitivity and that it is possible to use a sensitive setting without causing unwanted operations during external faults.1 Transformer differential protection T2WPDIF and T3WPDIF Function description IEC 61850 identification Transformer differential protection. In some substations there is a current differential protection relay for the busbar.5.5. Internal electrical faults are very serious and will cause immediate damage.

The differential protection should never operate on faults outside the protective zone. One classical way of defining the bias current has been Ibias = (I1 + I2) / 2. it has been found that if the bias current is defined as the highest power transformer current this will reflect the difficulties met by the current transformers much better. However. restrained differential protections have been developed and are now adopted as the general practice in the protection of power transformers. The main reasons for unwanted differential currents may be: • • • • • • 3. current and phase angle changes caused by the protected transformer. The protection should be provided with a proportional bias. The differential current should theoretically be zero during normal load or external faults if the turn-ratio and the phase shift are correctly compensated. loads and operating conditions of the current transformers zero sequence currents that only flow on one side of the power transformer normal magnetizing currents magnetizing inrush currents overexcitation magnetizing currents Setting guidelines The parameters for the Transformer differential protection function are set via the local HMI or Protection and Control IED Manager (PCM600). which makes the protection operate for a certain percentage differential current related to the current through the transformer.2 mismatch due to varying tap changer positions different characteristics. However. A correct analysis of fault conditions by the differential protection must take into consideration changes due to the voltage. where I1 is the magnitude of the power transformer primary current. Restrained and unrestrained differential protection To make a differential IED as sensitive and stable as possible. (applications with T-connections). 90 Application manual .1. A transformer differential protection compares the current flowing into the transformer with the current leaving the transformer. and I2 the magnitude of the power transformer secondary current. For applications where the power transformer rated current and the CT primary rated current can differ considerably. This stabilizes the protection under through fault conditions while still permitting the system to have good basic sensitivity.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C thus providing selective disconnection of the faulty transformer. The differential protection function uses the highest current of all restrain inputs as bias current. The bias current can be defined in many different ways.5. The numerical microprocessor based differential algorithm as implemented in the IED compensates for both the turns-ratio and the phase shift internally in the software. No auxiliary current transformers are necessary. Traditional transformer differential protection functions required auxiliary transformers for correction of the phase shift and ratio. there are several different phenomena other than internal faults that will cause unwanted and false differential currents.

The usual practice for transformer protection is to set the bias characteristic to a value of at least twice the value of the expected spill current under through faults conditions. short circuit power of the systems. High primary currents may be expected. availability of information on the tap changer position. The second section of the restrain characteristic has an increased slope in order to deal with increased differential current due to additional power transformer losses during heavy loading of the transformer and external fault currents. If the conditions are known more in detail. The selection of suitable characteristic should in such cases be based on the knowledge of the class of the current transformers. the current transformer primary current is not limited by the power transformer impedance. In either case. In this way the best possible combination between sensitivity and security for differential protection function with T connection is obtained. These criteria can vary considerably from application to application and are often a matter of judgment.3 * IBase is recommended in normal applications. A default setting for the operating characteristic with IdMin = 0. If the conditions are known in more detail. The second slope is increased to ensure stability under heavy through fault conditions which could lead to increased differential current due to saturation of current transformers. This summed current is converted to pu value using the power transformer winding rated currents. higher or lower sensitivity can be chosen. short circuit power of the systems. higher or lower sensitivity can be chosen. and so on. This bias quantity gives the best stability against an unwanted operation during external faults. For current transformers with primaries in series with the power transformer winding. the current transformer primary current for external faults will be limited by the transformer impedance. The selection of suitable characteristic should in such cases be based on the knowledge of the class of the current transformers. The third section of the restrain characteristic decreases the sensitivity of the restrained differential function further in order to cope with CT saturation and transformer losses during heavy through faults. Default settings for the operating characteristic with IdMin = 0. When the current transformers are part of the bus scheme. and so on. such as a breaker-and-a-half or a ring bus scheme.1MRK 504 116-UEN C Section 3 IED application measured currents in the T connections are converted to pu value using the rated primary current of the CT.3pu of the power transformer rated current can be recommended as a default setting in normal applications. but one additional "measuring" point is introduced as sum of this two T currents. any deficiency of current output caused by saturation of one current transformer that is not matched by a similar deficiency of another current transformer will cause a false differential current to appear. After that the highest pu value is taken as bias current in pu. availability of information on the load tap changer position. Transformers can be connected to buses in such ways that the current transformers used for the differential protection will be either in series with the power transformer windings or the current transformers will be in breakers that are part of the bus. as in the breaker-and-a-half or the ring bus scheme. Differential protection can overcome this problem if the bias is obtained separately from each 91 Application manual . The main philosophy behind the principle with the operate bias characteristic is to increase the pickup level when the current transformers have difficult operating conditions.

In the following case. The unrestrained operation level has a default value of IdUnre = 10pu. the unrestrained differential operation level can be set to IdUnre = 1. Each current connected to the IED is available for biasing the differential protection function.75pu The overall operating characteristic of the transformer differential protection is shown in figure 25. which is typically acceptable for most of the standard power transformer applications. 92 Application manual . special care shall be taken in order to prevent unwanted operation of transformer differential IED for through-faults due to different CT saturation of "T-connected" CTs. Thus if such uneven saturation is a possibility it is typically required to increase unrestrained operational level to IdUnre = 20-25pu For differential applications on HV shunt reactors. It is therefore important to avoid paralleling of two or more current transformers for connection to a single restraint input. this setting need to be changed accordingly: • • When CT from "T-connection" are connected to IED. due to the fact that there is no heavy through-fault condition. as in the breaker-and-ahalf or the ring bus scheme.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C set of current transformer circuits.

SlopeSection2 5.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C operate current [ times IBase ] Operate 5 unconditionally UnrestrainedLimit 4 Operate 3 conditionally 2 Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 SlopeSection3 1 IdMin SlopeSection2 Restrain 0 0 1 2 3 EndSection1 EndSection2 4 5 restrain current [ times IBase ] en05000187-2. Power transformer connection groups of the Yd or Dy type cannot transform zero 93 Application manual . EndSection1 3. but not on the other side. EndSection2 4.vsd IEC05000187 V2 EN Figure 25: Representation of the restrained-. This is the case when zero sequence current cannot be properly transformed to the other side of the power transformer. IdMin 2. SlopeSection3 Elimination of zero sequence currents A differential protection may operate unwanted due to external earth-faults in cases where the zero sequence current can flow on only one side of the power transformer. and the unrestrained operate characteristics slope = D Ioperate × 100% D Irestrain EQUATION1246 V1 EN (Equation 33) and where the restrained characteristic is defined by the settings: 1.

It is recommended to set parameter I2/I1Ratio = 15% as default value in case no special reasons exist to choose another value. the fifth harmonic is the lowest harmonic which can serve as a criterion for overexcitation. tripping) of the other two phases due to the harmonic pollution of the differential current in that phase (waveform. As the third harmonic currents cannot flow into a delta winding. which may result in differential current as well. The same is true for an earthed star winding. the operation of the differential protection is restrained. If the ratio of the second harmonic to fundamental harmonic in the differential current is above the settable limit. When parameter CrossBlockEn is set to On. generator step-up transformers in power stations) should be provided with an overexcitation protection based on V/Hz to achieve a trip before the core thermal limit is reached. If the ratio of the fifth harmonic to fundamental harmonic in the differential current is above a settable limit the operation is restrained. Cross-blocking between phases Basic definition of the cross-blocking is that one of the three phases can block operation (that is. In the algorithm the user can control the cross-blocking between the phases via the setting parameter CrossBlockEn. There are no time related settings 94 Application manual . Both these restraint methods are used by the IED. Transformers likely to be exposed to overvoltage or underfrequency conditions (that is. 2nd or 5th harmonic content). Even if both the star and delta winding are earthed. Overexcitation restraint method Overexcitation currents contain odd harmonics. so that they do not appear as differential currents. The differential protection function is provided with a fifth harmonic restraint to prevent the protection from operation during an overexcitation condition of a power transformer. If a delta winding of a power transformer is earthed via an earthing transformer inside the zone protected by the differential protection there will be an unwanted differential current in case of an external earth-fault. the zero sequence current is usually limited by the earthing transformer on the delta side of the power transformer. The elimination of zero sequence current is done numerically by setting ZSCurrSubtrWx=Off or On and doesn't require no auxiliary transformers or zero sequence traps.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C sequence current. because the waveform is symmetrical about the time axis. Instead it is necessary to eliminate the zero sequence current from every individual winding by proper setting of setting parameters ZSCurrSubtrWx=Off or On Inrush restraint methods With a combination of the second harmonic restraint and the waveform restraint methods it is possibly to get a protection with high security and stability against inrush effects and at the same time maintain high performance in case of heavy internal faults even if the current transformers are saturated. This had once been achieved by means of interposing auxiliary current transformers. cross blocking between phases will be introduced. To make the overall differential protection insensitive to external earth-faults in these situations the zero sequence currents must be eliminated from the power transformer IED currents on the earthed windings. It is recommended to use I5/I1Ratio = 25% as default value in case no special reasons exist to choose another setting. The second harmonic restraint function has a settable level.

In this way cross-blocking of the temporary nature is achieved. the internal/external fault discriminator compares the relative phase angle between the negative sequence current contributions from the HV side and LV side of the power transformer using the following two rules : 95 Application manual . which should be compared. This magnitude check. a step-up transformer in a power station with directly connected auxiliary transformer on its LV side) the value for this setting shall be increased to at least 12%. If the user has no well-justified reason for another value. 60 degrees shall be applied. In order to perform a directional comparison of the two phasors their magnitudes must be high enough so that one can be sure that they are due to a fault. is too small (less than the set value for IMinNegSeq). guarantees stability of the algorithm when the power transformer is energized. When parameter CrossBlockEn is set to Off. any cross blocking between phases will be disabled. the relative position between these two phasors is checked. which is in our case the power transformer HV side rated current. In cases where the protected transformer can be energized with a load connected on the LV side (e. the value of this minimum limit must not be too high. defined by matrix expression see the technical reference manual. If either of the negative sequence current contributions. Therefore this limit value (IMinNegSeq) is settable in the range from 1% to 20% of the differential protections IBasecurrent. which determines the boundary between the internal and external fault regions. The default setting 60 degrees somewhat favors security in comparison to dependability. On the other hand. Only if the magnitude of both negative sequence current contributions are above the set limit. This is necessary in order to prevent unwanted operation due to LV side currents during the transformer inrush. The default value is 60 degrees. As soon as the operating point for this phase is below the set bias characteristic cross blocking from that phase will be inhibited. If the above conditions concerning magnitudes are fulfilled. In should be noted that this is the default (recommended) setting value for this parameter. It practically performs a directional comparison between these two phasors. with a step of 1 degree. External/Internal fault discriminator The internal/external fault discriminator operation is based on the relative position of the two phasors (in case of a two-winding transformer) representing the W1 and W2 negative sequence current contributions. It can be selected in the range from 30 degrees to 90 degrees. no directional comparison is made in order to avoid the possibility to produce a wrong decision.g. in order to guarantee a good sensitivity of the internal/external fault discriminator. but the phase with the operating point above the set bias characteristic will be able to cross-block the other two phases if it is self-blocked by any of the previously explained restrained criteria.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C involved. The setting NegSeqROA represents the so-called Relay Operate Angle. The default value is 4%.

This assures high algorithmstability during external faults.W3. Under external fault condition and with no current transformer saturation. the whole power transformer is protected..W3. at the same time the differential function is still capable of trip ping quickly for evolving faults. During internal fault and with no current transformer saturation. the fault is external. If the negative sequence currents contributions from HV and LV sides are 180 degrees out of phase or at least in the external fault region. the angle shall ideally be 0 degrees. it may differ somewhat from the ideal zero value. The principle of the internal/external fault discriminator can be extended to autotransformers and transformers with three windings. the fault is internal. The rule applied by the internal/external fault discriminator in case of three-winding power transformers is: • • If all comparisons indicate an internal fault. the algorithm automatically reduces to the two-winding version. 96 Application manual . The directional comparisons which are possible. Practically. W1 . This assures response times of the new and advanced of the differential protection below one power system cycle (below 20 ms for 50 Hz system) for all more severe internal faults.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • If the negative sequence currents contributions from HV and LV sides are in phase or at least in the internal fault region. but only two comparisons are necessary in order to positively determine the position of the fault with respect to the protected zone. the negative sequence threshold (IMinNegSeq) is increased internally. the relative angle is theoretically equal to 180 degrees. are: W1 . Even for heavy internal faults with severely saturated current transformers this new differential protection operate well below one cycle.W2. The internal/external fault discriminator has proved to be very reliable. including the non-connected winding. since the harmonic distortions in the differential currents do not slow down the differential protection operation. It has been given a great power. any eventual blocking signals produced by either the harmonic or the waveform restraints are ignored. and W2 . Nevertheless. If a disturbance is detected and the internal/ external fault discriminator characterizes this fault as an external fault.that is. If the bias current is more than 110% of IBase. and at the same time the internal/external fault discriminator characterizes this fault as an internal. However. If any comparison indicates an external fault. External faults happen ten to hundred times more often than internal ones as far as the power transformers are concerned. then it is an internal fault. If all three windings are connected to their respective networks then three directional comparisons are made. but due to possible different negative sequence source impedance angles on HV and LV side of power transformer. the conventional additional criteria are posed on the differential algorithm before its trip is allowed. START signals set by ordinary differential protection. then it is an external fault If one of the windings is not connected. an unrestrained operation is achieved for all internal faults. If a fault is detected.

The following options are available: Not Used / Winding 1 / Winding 2 / Winding 3. typical setting value 10s). advanced open CT detection feature. typical setting value is 5% to 10% of base current). This feature can block the unexpected operation created by the Transformer differential function in case of open CT secondary circuit under normal load condition. Open CT detection The Transformer differential function has a built-in. 21 for OLTC with 21 positions) Parameter TapHighVoltTC1 defines the end position for OLTC1 where highest no-load voltage for that winding is obtained (for example. for three–winding differential protection. Set the time delay defined by parameter tAlarmDelay two times longer than the on-load tapchanger mechanical operating time (For example. When value Not Used is selected the differential function will assume that OLTC1 does not exist and it will disregard all other parameters related to first OLTC Parameter LowTapPosOLTC1 defines the minimum end tap position for OLTC1 (typically position 1) Parameter RatedTapOLTC1 defines the rated (for example. Differential current alarm Differential protection continuously monitors the level of the fundamental frequency differential currents and gives an alarm if the pre-set value is simultaneously exceeded in all three phases. The following parameters which are set under general settings are related to this compensation feature: • • • • • • Parameter LocationOLTC1 defines the winding where first OLTC (OLTC1) is physically located. mid) position for OLTC1 (for example. To obtain such operation set parameter IDiffAlarm equal to two times the on-load tap-changer step size (For example.5%) The above parameters are defined for OLTC1. position with maximum number of turns) Parameter StepSizeOLTC1 defines the voltage change per OLTC1 step (for example. The threshold for the alarm pickup level is defined by setting parameter IDiffAlarm.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C On-line compensation for on-load tap-changer position The Transformer differential (TW2PDIF for two winding and TW3PDIF for three winding) function in the IED has a built-in facility to on-line compensate for onload tap-changer operation. Similar parameters shall be set for second on-load tap-changer designated with OLTC2 in the parameter names. 1. 97 Application manual . An alarm signal can also be issued to substation operational personnel to make remedy action once the open CT condition is detected. This threshold should be typically set in such way to obtain operation when on-load tap-changer measured value within differential function differs for more than two steps from the actual on-load tap-changer position. This feature can be used to monitor the integrity of on-load tap-changer compensation within the differential function. 11 for OLTC with 21 positions) This tap position shall correspond to the values for rated current and voltage set for that winding Parameter HighTapPsOLTC1 defines the maximum end tap position for OLTC1 (for example.

3 for phase L3) Switch onto fault feature The Transformer differential (TW2PDIF for two winding and TW3PDIF for three winding) function in the IED has a built-in. In the past this was performed with help of interposing CTs or special connection of main CTs (delta connected CTs). 98 Application manual . 3. However for a real inrush case the differential protection function will properly restrain from operation.1.5. This feature can be enabled or disabled by the setting parameter SOTFMode. In order to correctly apply transformer differential protection proper compensation for: • • • power transformer phase shift (vector group compensation) CT secondary currents magnitude difference on different sides of the protected transformer (ratio compensation) zero sequence current elimination (zero sequence current reduction) shall be done. advanced switch onto fault feature. For more information about the operating principles of the switch onto fault feature please read the technical reference manual. When SOTFMode = On this feature is enabled.3 Setting example Introduction Differential protection for power transformers has been used for decades. 2 for phase L2. With numerical technology all these compensations are done in IED software. It shall be noted that when this feature is enabled it is not possible to test the 2nd harmonic blocking feature by simply injecting one current with superimposed second harmonic.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The following setting parameters are related to this feature: • • • • Setting parameter OpenCTEnable enables/disables this feature Setting parameter tOCTAlarmDelay defines the time delay after which the alarm signal will be given Setting parameter tOCTReset defines the time delay after which the open CT condition will reset once the defective CT circuits have been rectified Once the open CT condition has been detected. then all the differential protection functions are blocked except the unrestraint (instantaneous) differential protection The outputs of open CT condition related parameters are listed below: • • • • OpenCT: Open CT detected OpenCTAlarm: Alarm issued after the setting delay OpenCTIN: Open CT in CT group inputs (1 for input 1 and 2 for input 2) OpenCTPH: Open CT with phase information (1 for phase L1. In that case the switch on to fault feature will operate and the differential protection will trip.

Typical main CT connections for transformer differential protection Three most typical main CT connections used for transformer differential protection are shown in figure 26.1MRK 504 116-UEN C Section 3 IED application The Differential transformer protection is capable to provide differential protection for all standard three-phase power transformers without any interposing CTs. The protected power transformer data are always entered as they are given on the nameplate. 99 Application manual . In such cases the ratio for the main CT connected in delta shall be intentionally set for √(3)=1. At the same time the power transformer vector group shall be set as Yy0 because the IED shall not internally provide any phase angle shift compensation.732 times smaller than actual ratio of individual phase CTs (for example. These are internal compensations within the differential function. Differential function will by itself correlate nameplate data and select proper the reference windings. instead of 800/5 set 462/5) In case the ratio is 800/2. All other settings should have the same values irrespective of main CT connections. set the ratio as 800/5 in the IED. It is assumed that the primary phase sequence is L1-L2-L3. It shall be noted that irrespective of the main CT connections (star or delta) on-line reading and automatic compensation for actual load tap changer position can be used in the IED. The necessary phase angle shift compensation will be provided externally by delta connected main CT. often designed for such typical delta connections. It has been designed with assumption that all main CTs will be star connected.88A. For such applications it is then only necessary to enter directly CT rated data and power transformer data as they are given on the power transformer nameplate and differential protection will automatically balance itself. However the IED can also be used in applications where some of the main CTs are connected in delta.

secondary currents fed to the IED: • • • are directly proportional to the measured primary currents are in phase with the measured primary currents contain all sequence components including zero sequence current component For star connected main CTs.732 times) in comparison with star connected CTs lag by 30° the primary winding currents (this CT connection rotates currents by 30° in clockwise direction) do not contain zero sequence current component For DAC delta connected main CTs. for the particular star connection shown in figure 26.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C IL1 L1 Protected Transformer Winding IL2 L2 CT Star Connected CT in Delta DAC Connected L3 IL1-IL2 IL2-IL3 IL3-IL1 IL1-IL3 IL2-IL1 IL3-IL2 IL1 IL2 IL3 IL3 CT in Delta DAB Connected en06000549. The “StarPoint” parameter.vsd IEC06000549 V1 EN Figure 26: Commonly used main CT connections for Transformer differential protection. For delta DAB connected main CTs. secondary currents fed to the IED: • • • are increased √3 times (1. It shall be noted that delta DAC connected main CTs must be connected exactly as shown in figure 26. shall be set ToObject. secondary currents fed to the IED: 100 Application manual . ratio shall be set for √3 times smaller than the actual ratio of individual phase CTs. For delta DAC connected main CTs. the main CT ratio shall be set as it is in actual application. for this particular connection shall be set ToObject. The “StarPoint” parameter. If star connected main CTs have their star point away from the protected transformer this parameter should be set FromObject. For star connected main CTs.

The “StarPoint” parameter. Second solution will be with delta connected main CT on Y (that is.732 times) in comparison with star connected CTs lead by 30° the primary winding currents (this CT connection rotates currents by 30° in anti-clockwise direction) do not contain zero sequence current component For DAB delta connected main CT ratio shall be set for √3 times smaller in RET 670 then the actual ratio of individual phase CTs. Application Examples Three application examples will be given here. 2. For each example two differential protection solutions will be presented: • • First solution will be with all main CTs star connected. For each differential protection solution the following settings will be given: 1. Input CT channels on the transformer input modules. star) connected sides of the protected power transformer. for this particular connection shall be set ToObject. General settings for the transformer differential protection where specific data about protected power transformer shall be entered. 101 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • are increased √3 times (1. Example 1: Star-delta connected power transformer without on-load tapchanger Single line diagrams for two possible solutions for such type of power transformer with all relevant application data are given in figure 27. For more detailed info regarding CT data settings please refer to the three application examples presented in section "Application Examples". It shall be noted that delta DAB connected main CTs must be connected exactly as shown in figure 26. Finally the setting for the differential protection characteristic will be given for all presented applications.

Enter the following settings for all three CT input channels used for the LV side CTs see table 28. 102 Application manual . earthed) to/from protected transformer.earth no-load voltages.9 MVA 69/12. Thus the DAC delta CT connection must be used for 69 kV CTs in order to put 69 kV & 12.5 kV currents in phase. it must be ensured that the HV currents are rotated by 30° in clockwise direction. 2. For star connected CTs make sure how they are stared (that is.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C CT 300/5 Star 20.5 kV YNd1 (YDAC) CT 800/5 Star en06000554.5 kV YNd1 (YDAC) CT 800/5 Star CT 300/5 in Delta (DAC) 20. 4. Check that HV & LV CTs are connected to 5 A CT inputs in the IED.5 kV side phase-to.9 MVA 69/12. To ensure proper application of the IED for this power transformer it is necessary to do the following: 1. 3.vsd IEC06000554 V1 EN Figure 27: Two differential protection solutions for star-delta connected power transformer For this particular power transformer the 69 kV side phase-to-earth no-load voltages lead by 30 degrees the 12. Thus when external phase angle shift compensation is done by connecting main HV CTs in delta. For second solution make sure that HV delta connected CTs are DAC connected. as shown in the right-hand side in figure 27.

Use default value. see table 29. Table 29: Setting parameter CTprim CT input channels used for the HV side CTs Selected value for both solution 1 (star connected CT) 300 Selected value for both solution 2 (delta connected CT) 300 3 = 173 EQUATION1888 V1 EN CTsec 5 5 CTStarPoint From Object ToObject (Equation 34) To compensate for delta connected CTs. Enter the following settings for all three CT input channels used for the HV side CTs. Not relevant for this application. 6. 1) 2) To compensate for delta connected CTs Zero-sequence current is already removed by connecting main CTs in delta 103 Application manual .5 kV 12.5 kV RatedCurrentW1 175 A 175 A RatedCurrentW2 965 A 965 A ConnectTypeW1 STAR (Y) STAR (Y) ConnectTypeW2 delta=d star=y 1) ClockNumberW2 1 [30 deg lag] 0 [0 deg] 1) ZSCurrSubtrW1 On Off 2) ZSCurrSubtrW2 Off Off TconfigForW1 No No TconfigForW2 No No LocationOLTC1 Not used Not used Other Parameters Not relevant for this application. see table 30. see equation 34. Enter the following values for the general settings of the Transformer differential protection function. Table 30: Setting parameter General settings of the differential protection function Select value for both solution 1 (star connected CT) Selected value for both solution 2 (delta connected CT) RatedVoltageW1 69 kV 69 kV RatedVoltageW2 12. Use default value.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 28: Setting parameter CT input channels used for the LV side CTs Selected value for both solutions CTprim 800 CTsec 5 CTStarPoint ToObject 5.

vsd IEC06000555 V1 EN Figure 28: Two differential protection solutions for delta-star connected power transformer For this particular power transformer the 115 kV side phase-to-earth no-load voltages lead by 30° the 24.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Delta-star connected power transformer without tap charger Single line diagrams for two possible solutions for such type of power transformer with all relevant application data are given in figure 28. Check that HV & LV CTs are connected to 5 A CT inputs in the IED. For second solution make sure that LV delta connected CTs are DAB connected. To ensure proper application of the IED for this power transformer it is necessary to do the following: 1.9 kV Dyn1 (DABY) CT 1500/5 Star CT 400/5 Star 60 MVA 115/24. CT 400/5 Star 60 MVA 115/24.9 kV Dyn1 (DABY) CT 1500/5 in Delta (DAB) en06000555. 3. Thus. the DAB CT delta connection (see figure 28) must be used for 24. Thus when external phase angle shift compensation is done by connecting main 24.9 kV CTs in delta. as shown in the right-hand side in figure 28.9 kV currents in phase. it must be ensured that the 24. earthed) to/from protected transformer. For star connected CTs make sure how they are 'star'red (that is. 104 Application manual .9 kV CTs in order to put 115 kV & 24.9 kV currents are rotated by 30° in anti-clockwise direction. 2.9 kV side phase-to-earth no-load voltages.

CT input channels used for the LV side CTs Setting parameter Selected value for both Solution 1 Selected value for both (star connected CT) Solution 2 (delta connected CT) CTprim 1500 1500 3 = 866 EQUATION1889 V1 EN CTsec 5 5 CTStarPoint ToObject ToObject (Equation 35) To compensate for delta connected CTs. Table 31: Setting parameter CT input channels used for the HV side CTs Selected value for both solutions CTprim 400 CTsec 5 CTStarPoint ToObject 5. Table 32: General settings of the differential protection Setting parameter selected value for both Solution 1 (star conected CT) Selected value for both Solution 2 (delta connected CT) RatedVoltageW1 115 kV 115 kV Rated VoltageW2 24.9 kV 24. Enter the following settings for all three CT input channels used for the HV side CTs. 6. see equation 35. see table32. see table "CT input channels used for the LV side CTs". see table 31.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 4. Enter the following settings for all three CT input channels used for the LV side CTs.9 kV RatedCurrentW1 301 A 301 A RatedCurrentW2 1391 A 1391 A ConnectTypeW1 Delta (D) STAR (Y) 1) ConnectTypeW2 star=y star=y ClockNumberW2 1 [30 deg lag] 0 [0 deg] 1) ZSCurrSubtrW1 Off Off ZSCurrSubtrW2 On On 2) TconfigForW1 No No TconfigForW2 No No Table continues on next page 105 Application manual . Enter the following values for the general settings of the differential protection function.

75 kV currents in phase. 1) 2) To compensate for delta connected CTs.5) kV YNyn0(d5) CT 500/5 Star 31. Zero-sequence current is already removed by connecting main CTs in delta.75/(10.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting parameter selected value for both Solution 1 (star conected CT) Selected value for both Solution 2 (delta connected CT) LocationOLTC1 Not Used Not Used Other parameters Not relevant for this application.5/31. To ensure proper application of the IED for this power transformer it is necessary to do the following: 106 Application manual . either both DAC or both DAB as shown in the right-hand side in figure 29) in order to put 110 kV & 36. Star-star connected power transformer with load tap changer and tertiary not loaded delta winding Single line diagrams for two possible solutions for such type of power transformer with all relevant application data are given in figure 29.vsd IEC06000558 V1 EN Figure 29: Two differential protection solutions for star-star connected transformer. Thus. It shall be noted that this example is applicable for protection of autotransformer with not loaded tertiary delta winding as well. Not relevant for this application. both set of CTs must be identically connected (that is. when external phase angle shift compensation is done by connecting main CTs in delta. Use default value.5) kV YNyn0(d5) CT 500/5 in Delta (DAB) en06000558. CT 200/1 in Delta (DAB) CT 200/1 Star 31.75/(10.5/31.75 kV side phase-to-earth no-load voltages.5% /36.5) MVA 110±11×1.5% /36.5/(10. For this particular power transformer the 110 kV side phase-to-earth no-load voltages are exactly in phase with the 36.5/(10.5) MVA 110±11×1. Use default value.

either both DAC or both DAB). Enter the following settings for all three CT input channels used for the LV side CTs Table 34: Setting parameter CTprim CT input channels used for the LV side CTs Selected value for both Solution 1 Selected value for both Solution 2 (star connected) (delta connected) 500 500 3 = 289 EQUATION1892 V1 EN CTsec 5 5 CTStarPoint ToObject ToObject (Equation 37) To compensate for delta connected CTs. 5. see table 35 107 Application manual . 4. When delta connected CTs are used make sure that both CT sets are identically connected (that is. 7. Table 33: Setting parameter CTprim CT input channels used for the HV side CTs Selected value for both solution 1 (star connected CTs) 200 Selected value for both Solution 2 (delta connected CTs) 200 3 = 115 EQUATION1891 V1 EN CTsec 1 1 CTStarPoint FromObject ToObject (Equation 36) To compensate for delta connected CTs. see equation 36. see equation 37. Check that LV CTs are connected to 5 A CT inputs in the IED.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 1. For star connected CTs make sure how they are 'star'red (that is. 6. see table 33. 3. Check that HV CTs are connected to 1 A CT inputs in the IED. Enter the following values for the general settings of the differential protection function. 2. Enter the following settings for all three CT input channels used for the HV side CTs. earthed) towards or away from the protected transformer.

Not relevant for this application.5% 1. 108 Application manual . Thus on sides where CTs are connected in delta the zero sequence current elimination shall be set to Off in the IED. Use default value. The zero sequence current is eliminated by the main CT delta connections. 1) Zero-sequence current is already removed by connecting main CTs in delta. The power transformer vector group shall typically be set as Yy0 because the compensation for power transformer the actual phase shift is provided by the external delta CT connection.732 times smaller than the actual individual phase CT ratio. For such applications the following shall be kept in mind: 1.5% Other parameters Not relevant for this application. The following table summarizes the most commonly used star-delta vector groups around the world and provides information about the required type of main CT delta connection on the star side of the protected transformer.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 35: General settings of the differential protection function Setting parameter Selected value for both Solution 1 Selected value for both Solution 2 (star connected) (delta connected) RatedVoltageW1 110 kV 110 kV RatedVoltageW2 36. However the IED has been designed with the assumption that all main CTS are star connected.75 kV 36.75 kV RatedCurrentW1 165 A 165 A RatedCurrentW2 495 A 495 A ConnectTypeW1 STAR (Y) STAR (Y) ConnectTypeW2 star=y star=y ClockNumberW2 0 [0 deg] 0 [0 deg] ZSCurrSubtrW1 On Off 1) ZSCurrSubtrW2 On Off 1) TconfigForW1 No No TconfigForW2 No No LocationOLT1 Winding 1 (W1) Winding 1 (W1) LowTapPosOLTC1 1 1 RatedTapOLTC1 12 12 HighTapPsOLTC1 23 23 TapHighVoltTC1 23 23 StepSizeOLTC1 1. 2. 3. Summary and conclusions The IED can be used for differential protection of three-phase power transformers with main CTs either star or delta connected. The IED can be used in applications where the main CTs are delta connected. Use default value. The ratio for delta connected CTs shall be set √(3)=1.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C IEC vector group YNd1 Positive sequence no-load voltage phasor diagram Required delta CT connection type on star side of the protected power transformer and internal vector group setting in the IED DAC/Yy0 Y IEC06000559 V1 EN Dyn1 DAB/Yy0 Y IEC06000560 V1 EN YNd11 DAB/Yy0 Y IEC06000561 V1 EN Dyn11 DAC/Yy0 Y IEC06000562 V1 EN YNd5 DAB/Yy6 Y IEC06000563 V1 EN Dyn5 DAC/Yy6 Y IEC06000564 V1 EN 109 Application manual .

curr.02 . usually W1 curr.4 Table 36: Name Setting parameters T2WPDIF Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On SOTFMode Off On - - On Operation mode for switch onto fault tAlarmDelay 0. alarm.1.000 s 0.000 s 0.60 IB 0. of base curr. seq.01 10. curr. function is activated tOCTUnrstDelay 0.1 40.20 Dif.0. fault discriminator Table 37: Name T2WPDIF Group settings (advanced) Unit Step Default EndSection1 Values (Range) 0. curr. in s 110 Application manual .0 % 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. prot.00 IB 0.000 Time delay for diff currents alarm level IDiffAlarm 0.0 Max.120. / ext.000 .250 Reset delay in s.1.10.00 .0 .000 Open CT: time in s to alarm after an open CT is detected tOCTResetDelay 0.1 60.001 0.01 1.25 Description End of section 1.0 .0 % 0.0 % 0.00 Unrestrained diff.50 IB 0.00 IB 0. multiple of Winding 1 rated current CrossBlockEn Off On - - On Operation Off/On for cross-block logic between phases NegSeqDiffEn Off On - - On Operation Off/On for neg.04 Neg.0 % 0. IdUnre 1.01 10.0 Operate Angle for int.1 25.1 80.001 3. seq.00 End of section 2.0 Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain characteristic.6000.00 IB 0.01 3. ratio of 5th harm. cur. neg. diff.100 . in % OpenCTEnable Off On - - Off Open CT detection feature. Open CTEnable Off/On tOCTAlarmDelay 0. multi.0 . seq.100.05 .100.30 Section1 sensitivity.0.20 .000 s 0. usually W1 curr. in % SlopeSection3 30. in % I5/I1Ratio 5. to fundamental harm dif.0 Max.00 .50.0 Deg 0.00 s 0.10. in % I2/I1Ratio 5.1 15.60. differential protections IMinNegSeq 0.5. multiple of Winding 1 rated current SlopeSection2 10.0 . limit.01 0. protection blocked after this delay.100 . multiple of Winding 1 rated current EndSection2 1.05 . After delay.01 0.0 Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain characteristic.0 . ratio of 2nd harm. multiple of base curr.10 .50.1. must be higher than this level to be used NegSeqROA 30.00 Unrestr.001 10.10.100.20 IB 0.01 0. to fundamental harm dif. IdMin 0.

99999 A 1 3000 CT primary rating in A. T-branch 1. 6) Table continues on next page 111 Application manual .100 - 1 6 OLTC1 rated tap/mid-tap position designation (e.99999 A 1 1000 Rated current of transformer winding 2 in A ConnectTypeW1 WYE (Y) Delta (D) - - WYE (Y) Connection type of winding 1: Y-wye or Ddelta ConnectTypeW2 WYE (Y) Delta (D) - - WYE (Y) Connection type of winding 2: Y-wye or Ddelta ClockNumberW2 0 [0 deg] 1 [30 deg lag] 2 [60 deg lag] 3 [90 deg lag] 4 [120 deg lag] 5 [150 deg lag] 6 [180 deg] 7 [150 deg lead] 8 [120 deg lead] 9 [90 deg lead] 10 [60 deg lead] 11 [30 deg lead] - - 0 [0 deg] Phase displacement between W2 & W1=HV winding. YES / NO CT1RatingW1 1 . seq.g. T-branch 2.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 38: T2WPDIF Non group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description RatedVoltageW1 0.00 kV 0.05 400. current subtraction for W2 side.00 kV 0. On / Off ZSCurrSubtrW2 Off On - - On Enable zer. W1 side CT2RatingW1 1 . on transf. T-branch 2. on transf.) for winding 2. YES / NO CT1RatingW2 1 . on transf.05 231.00 Rated voltage of transformer winding 2 in kV RatedCurrentW1 1 . On / Off TconfigForW1 No Yes - - No Two CT inputs (T-config. hour notation ZSCurrSubtrW1 Off On - - On Enable zer.99999 A 1 577 Rated current of transformer winding 1 (HV winding) in A RatedCurrentW2 1 .2000. on transf. T-branch 1. W2 side LocationOLTC1 Not Used Winding 1 (W1) Winding 2 (W2) - - Not Used Transformer winding where OLTC1 is located LowTapPosOLTC1 0 . W2 side CT2RatingW2 1 .00 Rated voltage of transformer winding 1 (HV winding) in kV RatedVoltageW2 0. seq.99999 A 1 3000 CT primary rating in A. W1 side TconfigForW2 No Yes - - No Two CT inputs (T-config.99999 A 1 3000 CT primary in A.05 .05 .99999 A 1 3000 CT primary rating in A.) for winding 1. current subtraction for W1 side.10 - 1 1 OLTC1 lowest tap position designation (e.2000.g. 1) RatedTapOLTC1 1 .

of base current.100 - 1 11 OLTC1 highest tap position designation (e.00 IB 0. SlopeSection2 10. of base curr.0 .00 Unrestr. alarm. NegSeqROA 30. limit. multi. seq.25 Description End of section 1. of base curr. in % I5/I1Ratio 5. ratio of 5th harm. usually W1 curr.01 0. usually W1 curr. multi.1 15.0 % 0.20 Dif.00 % 0.05 .30.0 % 0.20 . 11) TapHighVoltTC1 1 .0 . differential protections IMinNegSeq 0.000 Time delay for diff currents alarm level IDiffAlarm 0. cur.100 - 1 1 OLTC1 end-tap position with winding highest no-load voltage StepSizeOLTC1 0. in % OpenCTEnable Off On - - Off Open CT detection feature.1 80.0 Operate Angle for int. ratio of 2nd harm. CrossBlockEn Off On - - On Operation Off/On for cross-block logic between phases NegSeqDiffEn Off On - - On Operation Off/On for neg. curr.05 .01 1. usually W1 curr. / ext.1 25.0 Max.00 Voltage change per OLTC1 step in percent of rated voltage Step Default Table 39: Name T3WPDIF Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On SOTFMode Off On - - On Operation mode for switch onto fault feature tAlarmDelay 0.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description HighTapPsOLTC1 1 .0.1 60.00 .60 IB 0.00 IB 0.60.20 IB 0.100.10. seq.g. curr. IdUnre 1. multi.01 3.0 % 0.0 .0 Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain characteristic.0 Max.00 . neg.100. usually W1 curr. mult.1.50 IB 0. of base current.01 0. fault discriminator Table 40: Name T3WPDIF Group settings (advanced) Unit Step Default EndSection1 Values (Range) 0.000 .00 End of section 2. prot.100.0 Deg 0. in % SlopeSection3 30. multiple of base curr. Open CTEnable Off/On Table continues on next page 112 Application manual . IdMin 0. to fundamental harm dif.30 Section1 sensitivity.50.01 10. curr.02 .0.1 40. seq.01 .0 Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain characteristic. limit.120.0 .000 s 0.50.0 % 0. usually W1 curr. of base curr.00 IB 0.04 Neg. usually W1 curr.01 1. to fundamental harm dif. in % I2/I1Ratio 5. multi.1.0 . EndSection2 1.01 0.001 10.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit tOCTAlarmDelay 0.10 . function is activated tOCTUnrstDelay 0.001 3.10.6000. hour notation ZSCurrSubtrW1 Off On - - On Enable zer. After delay.05 .50 Rated voltage of transformer winding 3 in kV RatedCurrentW1 1 . seq.05 .00 kV 0. protection blocked after this delay.001 0.99999 A 1 1000 Rated current of transformer winding 2 in A RatedCurrentW3 1 . current subtraction for W1 side. hour notation ClockNumberW3 0 [0 deg] 1 [30 deg lag] 2 [60 deg lag] 3 [90 deg lag] 4 [120 deg lag] 5 [150 deg lag] 6 [180 deg] 7 [150 deg lead] 8 [120 deg lead] 9 [90 deg lead] 10 [60 deg lead] 11 [30 deg lead] - - 5 [150 deg lag] Phase displacement between W3 & W1=HV winding.99999 A 1 7173 Rated current of transformer winding 3 in A ConnectTypeW1 WYE (Y) Delta (D) - - WYE (Y) Connection type of winding 1: Y-wye or Ddelta ConnectTypeW2 WYE (Y) Delta (D) - - WYE (Y) Connection type of winding 2: Y-wye or Ddelta ConnectTypeW3 WYE (Y) Delta (D) - - Delta (D) Connection type of winding 3: Y-wye or Ddelta ClockNumberW2 0 [0 deg] 1 [30 deg lag] 2 [60 deg lag] 3 [90 deg lag] 4 [120 deg lag] 5 [150 deg lag] 6 [180 deg] 7 [150 deg lead] 8 [120 deg lead] 9 [90 deg lead] 10 [60 deg lead] 11 [30 deg lead] - - 0 [0 deg] Phase displacement between W2 & W1=HV winding.10. in s Table 41: Name Step Default Description T3WPDIF Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default RatedVoltageW1 0.05 10.00 Rated voltage of transformer winding 2 in kV RatedVoltageW3 0.2000.00 Unrestrained diff.00 kV 0.000 s 0.01 10.05 400.00 s 0.00 Description Rated voltage of transformer winding 1 (HV winding) in kV RatedVoltageW2 0.100 .100 . On / Off Table continues on next page 113 Application manual .250 Reset delay in s. diff.2000.2000.00 kV 0.99999 A 1 577 Rated current of transformer winding 1 (HV winding) in A RatedCurrentW2 1 .05 .000 Open CT: time in s to alarm after an open CT is detected tOCTResetDelay 0.000 s 0.05 231.

11) TapHighVoltTC2 1 .00 % 0. seq.10 - 1 1 OLTC2 lowest tap position designation (e.99999 A 1 3000 CT primary in A. On / Off ZSCurrSubtrW3 Off On - - On Enable zer.00 Voltage change per OLTC1 step in percent of rated voltage LocationOLTC2 Not Used Winding 1 (W1) Winding 2 (W2) Winding 3 (W3) - - Not Used Transformer winding where OLTC2 is located LowTapPosOLTC2 0 .99999 A 1 3000 CT primary rating in A. 11) TapHighVoltTC1 1 . W1 side TconfigForW2 No Yes - - No Two CT inputs (T-config. T-branch 1. on transf.100 - 1 1 OLTC1 end-tap position with winding highest no-load voltage StepSizeOLTC1 0.g.01 1. 6) HighTapPsOLTC2 1 .) for winding 2.99999 A 1 3000 CT primary rating in A. W2 side TconfigForW3 No Yes - - No Two CT inputs (T-config. T-branch 1. YES / NO CT1RatingW1 1 . T-branch 1.100 - 1 6 OLTC2 rated tap/mid-tap position designation (e.g. W3 side LocationOLTC1 Not Used Winding 1 (W1) Winding 2 (W2) Winding 3 (W3) - - Not Used Transformer winding where OLTC1 is located LowTapPosOLTC1 0 . T-branch 2.00 Voltage change per OLTC2 step in percent of rated voltage 114 Application manual . 6) HighTapPsOLTC1 1 . 1) RatedTapOLTC2 1 .00 % 0.) for winding 1. W2 side CT2RatingW2 1 . T-branch 2.99999 A 1 3000 CT primary rating in A. seq. YES / NO CT1RatingW3 1 .g. T-branch 2.100 - 1 6 OLTC1 rated tap/mid-tap position designation (e. on transf. on transf. 1) RatedTapOLTC1 1 . W3 side CT2RatingW3 1 .g.100 - 1 11 OLTC2 highest tap position designation (e.g.g.99999 A 1 3000 CT primary rating in A. current subtraction for W3 side.01 . on transf.10 - 1 1 OLTC1 lowest tap position designation (e. YES / NO CT1RatingW2 1 .30.30. on transf. W1 side CT2RatingW1 1 .Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description ZSCurrSubtrW2 Off On - - On Enable zer. on transf. On / Off TconfigForW1 No Yes - - No Two CT inputs (T-config.100 - 1 1 OLTC2 end-tap position with winding highest no-load voltage StepSizeOLTC2 0. current subtraction for W2 side.01 .99999 A 1 3000 CT primary rating in A.) for winding 3.100 - 1 11 OLTC1 highest tap position designation (e.01 1.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. Observe that single phase-to-earth faults are the most common fault types in transformers. A sensitive earth-fault protection is therefore desirable.2. The only requirement is that the power transformer winding is connected to earth in the star point (in case of star-connected windings) or through a separate earthing transformer (in case of delta-connected windings).5.1 Application Breakdown of the insulation between a phase conductor and earth in an effectively or low impedance earthed power system results in a large fault current. A restricted earth-fault protection is the fastest and the most sensitive protection. as a differential protection. damaging the transformer tank. a power transformer winding can have and will detect faults such as: • • earth faults in the transformer winding when the network is earthed through an impedance earth faults in the transformer winding in solidly earthed network when the point of the fault is close to the winding star point.2 device number 87N IdN/I SYMBOL-AA V1 EN 3. A breakdown of the insulation between a transformer winding and the core or the tank may result in a large fault current which causes severe damage to the windings and the transformer core. low impedance IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification REFPDIF ANSI/IEEE C37. The restricted earth-fault protection is not affected. The low impedance restricted earth-fault protection REFPDIF is a winding protection function.5. A high gas pressure may develop. with the following power transformer related phenomena: • • • • • magnetizing inrush currents overexcitation magnetizing currents load tap changer external and internal phase faults which do not involve earth symmetrical overload conditions 115 Application manual . low impedance REFPDIF Function description Restricted earth-fault protection. Fast and sensitive detection of earth faults in a power transformer winding can be obtained in solidly earthed or low impedance earthed networks by the restricted earthfault protection. It protects the power transformer winding against faults involving earth.2 Restricted earth-fault protection.

REFDIF I3PW1CT1 IdN/I I3P Protected winding IEC09000109-4-en. earthed through zig-zag earthing transformer A common application is for low reactance earthed transformer where the earthing is through separate zig-zag earthing transformers.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Due to its features. The connection for this application is shown in figure 31.vsd IEC09000109-4-EN V1 EN Figure 30: Connection of the low impedance Restricted earth-fault function REFPDIF for a directly (solidly) earthed transformer winding Transformer winding. solidly earthed The most common application is on a solidly earthed transformer winding. The connection is shown in figure 30. The fault current is then limited to typical 800 to 2000 A for each transformer. Transformer winding. REFPDIF is often used as a main protection of the transformer winding for all faults involving earth. 116 Application manual .

117 Application manual . the neutral connection and the LV side. The connection of REFPDIF for this application is shown in figure 32. solidly earthed Autotransformers can be protected with the low impedance restricted earth-fault protection function REFPDIF. The complete transformer will then be protected including the HV side.vsd IEC09000110-4-EN V1 EN Figure 31: Connection of the low impedance Restricted earth-fault function REFPDIF for a zig-zag earthing transformer Autotransformer winding.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C REFDIF -1 I3PW1CT1 IdN/I I3P Protected winding W1 REFDIF -2 I3PW2CT1 Protected IdN/I winding W2 I3P Earthing transformer IEC09000110-4-en.

solidly earthed Reactors can be protected with restricted earth-fault protection.vsd IEC09000111-4-EN V1 EN Figure 32: Connection of restricted earth fault. The connection of REFPDIF for this application is shown in figure 33. 118 Application manual . low impedance function REFPDIF. low impedance function REFPDIF for an autotransformer. solidly earthed Reactor winding.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C REFDIF HV (W1) I3PW1CT1 I3PW2CT1 IdN/I LV (W2) I3P Auto transformer IEC09000111-4-en.

119 Application manual . one and a half breaker. double breaker and mesh corner arrangements have two sets of current transformers on the phase side. A typical connection for a star-delta transformer is shown in figure 34.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C REFDIF I3PW1CT1 IdN/I I3P Reactor IEC09000112-4-en. The second winding set is basically only applicable for autotransformers.vsd IEC09000112-4 V1 EN Figure 33: Connection of restricted earth-fault. low impedance function REFPDIF has inputs to allow two current inputs from each side of the transformer. The restricted earth-fault protection. low impedance function REFPDIF for a solidly earthed reactor Multi-breaker applications Multi-breaker arrangements including ring.

vsd IEC09000113-3 V1 EN Figure 34: Connection of Restricted earth fault. The earthing can. low impedance function REFPDIF in multi-breaker arrangements CT earthing direction To make the restricted earth-fault protection REFPDIF work. be freely selected for each of the involved current transformers.5. ToObject or FromObject. I3PW1CT2: Phase currents for winding1 second current transformer set for multibreaker arrangements. When not required configure input to "GRP-OFF".Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C REFDIF I3PW1CT1 Protected I3P winding IdN/I I3PW1CT2 IEC09000113-3-en. the main CTs are always supposed to be star connected. I3PW1CT1: Phase currents for winding 1 first current transformer set. However. Thus the IED always measures the primary currents on all sides and in the neutral of the power transformer with the same reference direction towards the power transformer windings. Used for autotransformers. The main CT's neutral (star) formation can be positioned in either way. 3. I3PW2CT1: Phase currents for winding 2 first current transformer set. therefore.2 Setting guidelines Setting and configuration Recommendation for analog inputs I3P: Neutral point current ( All analog inputs connected as 3Ph groups in ACT).2. as shown in figure 34. internally REFPDIF always uses reference directions towards the protected transformers. 120 Application manual .

0 but in multi-breaker arrangement the setting shall be CT primary rating/IBase. The stabilizing can then be high so an unnecessary high fault level can be required. TRIP: The trip output is activated when all operating criteria are fulfilled. be checked from the debug tool or connected as a signal to the disturbance recorder. It can be used to initiate disturbance recorder. The setting is normally 1. low impedance function REFPDIF are set via the local HMI or PCM600. Information available on local HMI and debug using Application Configuration Tool. A normal setting is 30% of power transformer-winding rated current for the solidly earthed winding. When not required. It can. for example. BLK2H: The output is activated when the function is blocked due to too high level of second harmonic. Used when protecting an autotransformer. The setting is in percent of the IBase value. Output can be used for information purpose normally during testing. for example. CTFactorPri1: A factor to allow a sensitive function also at multi-breaker arrangement where the rating in the bay is much higher than the rated current of the transformer winding. START: The start output indicates that Idiff is in the operate region of the characteristic. Normally the protected power transformer winding rated current is used but alternatively the current transformer primary rated current can be set. 121 Application manual . to block for a limited time the operation during special service conditions. Recommendation for output signals Refer to pre-configured configurations for details. Setting parameters The parameters for the restricted earth-fault protection. DIROK: The output is activated when the directional criteria has been fulfilled. BLOCK: The input will block the operation of the function.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C I3PW2CT2: Phase currents for winding 2 second current transformer set for multibreaker arrangements. Recommendation for Binary input signals Refer to the pre-configured configurations for details. It can. IBase: The IBase setting is the setting of the base (per unit) current on which all percentage settings are based. Output can be used for information purpose normally during testing. Operation: The operation of REFPDIF can be switched On/Off. Can be used. Information available on local HMI and debug using Application Configuration Tool. be checked from the debug tool or connected as a signal to the disturbance recorder. The neutral current must always be larger than half of this value. for example. configure input to "GRP-OFF". IdMin: The setting gives the minimum operation value.

0 %IB 0.10.10.2 device number 87 SYMBOL-CC V2 EN 122 Application manual .0 but in multi-breaker arrangement the setting shall be CT primary rating/IBase.0 - 0.1 1.1 1.0 . CTFactorSec1: See setting CTFactorPri1.10.0 - 0.0 - 0. CTFactorSec2: See setting CTFactorPri2.3 Table 42: Name Setting parameters REFPDIF Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IBase 1 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C CTFactorPri2: A factor to allow a sensitive function also at multi-breaker arrangement where the rating in the bay is much higher than the rated current of the transformer winding.3.1 Identification Function description 1Ph High impedance differential protection IEC 61850 identification HZPDIF IEC 60617 identification Id ANSI/IEEE C37.0 Maximum sensitivity in % of Ibase CTFactorPri1 1. Only difference is that CTFactorSec2 is related to W2 side.0 CT factor for MV side CT1 (CT1rated/ MVrated current) CTFactorSec2 1.99999 A 1 3000 Base current IdMin 4.0 . The setting is normally 1. Only difference is that CTFactorSec1 is related to W2 side.3 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF 3.0 .1 1.5.5. 3.1 1.10.5. The stabilizing can then be high so an unnecessary high fault level can be required.100.0 - 0.0 CT factor for MV side CT2 (CT2rated/ MVrated current) Table 43: Name ROA REFPDIF Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) 60 .90 Unit Deg Step 1 Default 60 Description Relay operate angle for zero sequence directional feature 3.0 CT factor for HV side CT2 (CT2rated/ HVrated current) CTFactorSec1 1.0 .2.0 CT factor for HV side CT1 (CT1rated/ HVrated current) CTFactorPri2 1.0 .1 10.

vsd IEC05000738 V2 EN Figure 35: Different applications of a 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF function The basics of the high impedance principle The high impedance differential protection principle has been used for many years and is well documented. The principle is based on the CT secondary current circulating between involved current transformers and not through the IED due to its high impedance.3. 3·Id Z< 3·Id Z< IEC05000738-2-en. available independent cores on CTs and so on.2 Application The 1Ph High impedance differential protection function HZPDIFcan be used as: • • • • • • Autotransformer differential protection Restricted earth fault protection T-feeder protection Tertiary (or secondary busbar) protection Tertiary connected reactor protection Generator differential protection The application will be dependent on the primary system arrangements and location of breakers.5.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. normally in the range of hundreds of ohms and sometimes above Kiloohm. 123 Application manual . no operation) for external faults even in the presence of heavy CT saturation. When an internal fault occurs the current cannot circulate and is forced through the differential circuit causing operation. The operating characteristic provides very good sensitivity and high speed operation. One main benefit offered by the principle is an absolute stability (that is.

vsd IEC05000164 V3 EN Figure 36: Example for the high impedance restricted earth fault protection application For a through fault one current transformer might saturate when the other CTs still will feed current. 124 Application manual . The calculations are made with the worst situations in mind and a minimum operating voltage UR is calculated according to equation 38 UR > IF max × ( Rct + Rl ) (Equation 38) EQUATION1531 V1 EN where: IFmax is the maximum through fault current at the secondary side of the CT Rct is the current transformer secondary resistance and Rl is the maximum loop resistance of the circuit at any CT. For such a case a voltage will be developed across the stabilising resistor.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C R Id Metrosil IEC05000164-2-en.

As the loop resistance is the value to the connection point from each CT. A higher resistance value will give a higher sensitivity and a lower value a lower sensitivity. 45 below show. So the parameters CTsecx and CTprimx of the relevant channel x of TRM and/or AIM shall be set equal to 1 A by PST in PCM600. Depending on the size of current transformer. The function has a recommended operating current range 40 mA to 1. To prevent the risk of flashover in the circuit. Minimum ohms can be difficult to adjust due to the small value compared to the total value. This. The CT inputs used for 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF function. Select a suitable value of the resistor based on the UR voltage calculated. The external unit with stabilizing resistor has a value of either 6800 ohms or 1800 ohms (depending on ordered alternative) with a shorting link to allow adjustment to the required value. is used to calculate the required value of current at the set U>Trip and SeriesResitor values. For an internal fault. Adjust as required based on tables 44. Note that very high peak voltages can appear. Check the sensitivity calculation below for reference. 45 or to values in between as required for the application.0A for 1 A inputs and 200 mA to 5A for 5A inputs. 125 Application manual . The tables 44. This will give lower setting values and also a better balanced scheme. shall be set to have ratio 1:1. The connection in to the control room can then be from the most central bay. The voltage limiter is a voltage dependent resistor (Metrosil). circulation is not possible. a voltage limiter must be included. the operating currents for different settings of operating voltages and selected resistances. Normally the voltage can be increased to higher values than the calculated minimum U>Trip with a minor change of total operating values as long as this is done by adjusting the resistor to a higher value. together with the selected and set value. it is advisable to do all the CT core summations in the switchgear to have shortest possible loops. The parameter CTStarPointx may be set to ToObject. relatively high voltages will be developed across the series resistor.1MRK 504 116-UEN C Section 3 IED application The minimum operating voltage has to be calculated (all loops) and the IED function is set higher than the highest achieved value (setting U>Trip). due to the high impedance.

020 A 2000 0. IP = n × ( IR + Ires + å lmag ) (Equation 39) EQUATION1747 V1 EN where: n is the CT ratio IP primary current at IED pickup. IR IED pickup current Ires is the current through the voltage limiter and ΣImag is the sum of the magnetizing currents from all CTs in the circuit (for example. The IED sensitivity is decided by the total current in the circuit according to equation 39. 3-5 for autotransformer differential protection).020 A -- -- -- -- 40 V 2000 0.100 A 200 V 6800 0.100 A 100 V 5000 0.020 A 3750 0.020 A 1500 0.040 A 2000 0.200 A 150 0.100 A 750 0. This must be checked after calculation of U>Trip.200 A 200 0.020 A 2500 0.020 A 1000 0. the sensitivity of the scheme IP can be calculated.400 A 100 V 1000 0.100 A 300 0.400 A The current transformer saturating voltage must be at least 2 · U>Trip to have sufficient operating margin.100 A 500 0.040 A 1000 0. 2 for reactor differential protection.200 A 250 0.040 A -- -- 60 V 3000 0.100 A 400 0.040 A 1500 0. 4 for restricted earth fault protection.100 A 150 V 6000 0.400 A 200 V 2000 0.400 A 150 V 1500 0.100 A 1000 0. When the R value has been selected and the U>Trip value has been set.200 A 100 0.200 A 375 0.040 A 600 0.100 A Table 45: Operating voltageU>Tri p 5 A channels: input with minimum operating down to 100 mA Stabilizing resistor R1 ohms Operating current level 5A Stabilizing resistor R1 ohms Operating current level 5A Stabilizing resistor R1 ohms Operating current level 5A 20 V 200 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 44: Operating voltageU>Tri p 1 A channels: input with minimum operating down to 20 mA Stabilizing resistor R ohms Operating current level 1A Stabilizing resistor R ohms Operating current level 1A Stabilizing resistor R ohms Operating current level 1A 20 V 1000 0.200 A -- -- 40 V 400 0.100 A 80 V 4000 0.029 A 5000 0.200 A 500 0.040 A 800 0.100 A 200 0.400 A 80 V 800 0.400 60 V 600 0. 126 Application manual .100 A 100 0.

Metrosil and resistor currents are resistive). If this value is exceeded. The voltage dependent resistor (Metrosil) characteristic is shown in figure 45.1MRK 504 116-UEN C Section 3 IED application It should be remembered that the vectorial sum of the currents must be used (IEDs. The current measurement is insensitive to DC component in fault current to allow the use of only the AC components of the fault current in the above calculations. 127 Application manual . Preferable the U>Trip2/ SeriesResistor should always be lower than 200 W to allow continuous activation during testing. Series resistor thermal capacity The series resistor is dimensioned for 200 W. testing should be done with a transient faults.

vsd IEC05000427 V2 EN Figure 37: The high impedance principle for one phase with two current transformer inputs 128 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Rl Rl UR Rct Rct R Rres I> Protected Object UR a) Through load situation UR b) Through fault situation UR c) Internal faults IEC05000427-2-en.

If required by national law or standard.5.3. enclose the plate with resistors with a protective cover or in a separate box. Connections for three-phase high impedance differential protection Generator. L1 (A) L2 (B) L3 (C) 8 7 SMAI2 1 CT 1200/1 Star/Wye Connected AI01 (I) 2 3 AI02 (I) 4 5 7 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 AI1 ^GRP2L2 AI2 AI3 ^GRP2N AI4 TYPE AIN 9 AI04 (I) 8 ^GRP2L1 ^GRP2L3 AI03 (I) 6 AI3P BLOCK 10 AI05 (I) AI06 (I) IED Protected Object N L3 (C) L2 (B) L1 (A) 4 N L3 (C) L2 (B) CT 1200/1 Star/Wye Connected 5 L1 (A) 2 X1 11 12 13 1 14 2 3 4 5 6 7 L2 (B) L3 (C) 1 3 4 R3 X 2 1 3 4 R2 X 2 1 3 R1 4 2 1 2 U 1 R6 2 U R5 R4 L1 (A) 2 U 1 3 6 3-Ph Plate with Metrosils and Resistors IEC07000193_2_en.3 Connection examples for high impedance differential protection WARNING! USE EXTREME CAUTION! Dangerously high voltages might be present on this equipment. reactor or busbar differential protection is a typical application for threephase high impedance differential protection. 129 Application manual . especially on the plate with resistors. Do any maintenance ONLY if the primary object protected with this equipment is de-energized. 2 Three-phase plate with setting resistors and metrosils.vsd IEC07000193 V2 EN Figure 38: CT connections for high impedance differential protection Pos Description 1 Scheme earthing point Note that it is of outmost importance to insure that only one earthing point exist in such scheme. Typical CT connections for threephase high impedance differential protection scheme are shown in figure 38.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3 Necessary connection for three-phase metrosil set. 10 Preprocessing block. 130 Application manual . 8 Transformer input module. Connections for 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF Restricted earth fault protection REFPDIFis a typical application for 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF. 7 How to connect three individual phase currents for high impedance scheme to three CT inputs in the IED. where the current inputs are located. 2 and 3 of HZPDIF in the configuration tool. for example instance 1. Shown connections are applicable for both types of three-phase plate. to digitally filter the connected analogue inputs. AI2 and AI3 shall be connected to three instances of 1Ph high impedance differential protection HZPDIF function blocks. • • • For main CTs with 1A secondary rating the following setting values shall be entered: CTprim = 1A and CTsec = 1A For main CTs with 5A secondary rating the following setting values shall be entered: CTprim = 5A and CTsec = 5A The parameter CTStarPoint shall be always left to the default value ToObject. For high impedance differential protection preprocessing function block in 3ms task shall be used. Shall be removed for installations with 650 and 670 series IEDs. Note that the CT ratio for high impedance differential protection application must be set as one. 5 Necessary connection for setting resistors. This star point is required for RADHA schemes only. Shown connections are applicable for both types of three-phase plate. Preprocessing block outputs AI1. 6 The factory made star point on a three-phase setting resistor set. 4 Position of optional test switch for secondary injection into the high impedance differential IED. Typical CT connections for high impedance based REFPDIF protection scheme are shown in figure 39. which connect these three current inputs to the first three input channels of the preprocessing function block (10). 9 Three connections made in the Signal Matrix.

6 How to connect REFPDIF high impedance scheme to one CT input in IED. 3 Necessary connection for the metrosil. 2 One-phase plate with stabilizing resistor and metrosil.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C L1 (A) L2 (B) L3 (C) 7 9 1 CT 1500/5 Star/Wye Connected AI01 (I) 2 3 SMAI2 AI02 (I) 4 BLOCK 5 6 AI03 (I) 6 7 AI04 (I) 8 9 AI05 (I) 10 11 Protected Object L1 (A) L2 (B) AI1 ^GRP2L2 AI2 ^GRP2L3 AI3 ^GRP2N AI4 TYPE AIN 8 AI06 (I) 12 L3 (C) AI3P ^GRP2L1 IED N 4 1 CT 1500/5 N 2 X1 4 1 5 2 3 3 4 R2 1 5 2 2 U R1 1 3 1-Ph Plate with Metrosil and Resistor IEC07000194_2_en. Shown connections are applicable for both types of one-phase plate. • • • For main CTs with 1A secondary rating the following setting values shall be entered: CTprim = 1A and CTsec = 1A For main CTs with 5A secondary rating the following setting values shall be entered: CTprim = 5A and CTsec = 5A The parameter CTStarPoint shall always be left to the default value ToObject 131 Application manual . Note that the CT ratio for high impedance differential protection application must be set as one. 5 Necessary connection for stabilizing resistor.vsd IEC07000194 V2 EN Figure 39: CT connections for restricted earth fault protection Pos Description 1 Scheme earthing point Note that it is of outmost importance to insure that only one earthing point exist in such scheme. Shown connections are applicable for both types of onephase plate. 4 Position of optional test switch for secondary injection into the high impedance differential IED. 7 Transformer input module where this current input is located.

Values can be 20-200 V dependent on the application. Preprocessing block output AI1 shall be connected to one instances of 1Ph high impedance differential protection function HZPDIF (for example. Calculate the value according to the examples for each application. SeriesResistor: Set the value of the stabilizing series resistor. from external check criteria. Signals from for example. Configuration The configuration is done in the Application Configuration tool. check if criteria are connected to the inputs as required for the application. This means for example. BLOCK input is used to block the function for example.4 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 8 Connection made in the Signal Matrix. 132 Application manual . The alarm level will be operative. A typical setting is 10% of U>Trip It can be used as scheme supervision stage. Setting guidelines The setting calculations are individual for each application. This ensures that the current will circulate and not go through the differential circuit at through faults.5. U>Alarm: Set the alarm level. from external check criteria. instance 1 of HZPDIF in the configuration tool). A typical setting is 2-3 seconds. which connects this current input to first input channel of the preprocessing function block (9). which has a task to digitally filter the connected analogue inputs. Adjust the resistor as close as possible to the calculated example. The value shall always be high impedance. for 1A circuits say bigger than 400 ohms (400 VA) and for 5 A circuits say bigger than 100 ohms (2500 VA). 9 Preprocessing block. Refer to the different application descriptions below. The level is selected with margin to the calculated required voltage to achieve stability. For high impedance differential protection preprocessing function block in 3ms task shall be used. U>Trip: Set the trip level according to the calculations in the examples for each application example. Measure the value achieved and set this value here. Settings of protection function Operation: The operation of the high impedance differential function can be switched On or Off. BLKTR input is used to block the function tripping for example.3.Section 3 IED application 3. tAlarm: Set the time for the alarm. The sensitivity can roughly be calculated as a divider from the calculated sensitivity of the differential level.

3·Id IEC05000739-2-en. voltages may be much higher than design limits might be induced. minimize the current. ring breaker. Another factor is that during internal faults.vsd IEC05000739 V2 EN Figure 40: The protection scheme utilizing the high impedance function for the T-feeder Normally this scheme is set to achieve a sensitivity of around 20 percent of the rated current so that a low value can be used on the resistor. thereby reducing the stability voltage limit. It is strongly recommended to use the highest tap of the CT whenever high impedance protection is used. owing to autotransformer action. The 1Ph high impedance differential HZPDIF function in the IED allows this to be done efficiently. 133 Application manual . It is often required to separate the zones so the zone up to the bushing is covered from one differential function and the transformer from another.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C T-feeder protection In many busbar arrangements such as one-and a half breaker. the voltage developed across the selected tap is limited by the non-linear resistor but in the unused taps. mesh corner. This helps in utilizing maximum CT capability. see figure 40. there will be a T-feeder from the current transformer at the breakers up to the current transformers in the transformer bushings.

E 5 P > ( 20 + 6. ignoring the current drawn by the non-linear resistor.6 ) = 156V (Equation 40) EQUATION1207 V1 EN Select a setting of U>Trip=200 V.2 = 0. twice the set operating voltage U>Trip.220 A EQUATION1209 V1 EN (Equation 42) where 200mA is the current drawn by the IED circuit and 50mA is the current drawn by each CT just at pickup The magnetizing current is taken from the magnetizing curve for the current transformer cores which should be available.5mm2(one way) gives 2 · 0. For the voltage dependent resistor current the top value of voltage 200 · √2 is used and the 134 Application manual .4 Ohms.8 ohm at 75° C<200 ft AWG10 (one way between the junction point and the farthest CT) to be limited to approx.2 ) × 20 = 524V (Equation 41) EQUATION1208 V1 EN that is. IP = 2000 1 (100 0° + 20 0° + 3 ×10 -60° ) ×10 -3 £ approx. 0. which gives an IED operating current of 100 mA.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting example Basic data: Current transformer ratio: 2000/1 A CT Class: 20 VA 5P20 Secondary resistance: 6.2 + 1. As this application requires to be so sensitive select SeriesResistor= 2000 ohm. Calculate the primary sensitivity at operating voltage.2 Ohms at 75deg C gives loop resistance 2 · 0. The value at U>Trip is taken. bigger than 2 · U>Trip Check from the table of selected resistances the required series stabilizing resistor value to use. Max fault current: Equal to switchgear rated fault current 40 kA Calculation: UR > 4000 2000 × ( 6.2 ohms Cable loop resistance: <100 m 2. The current transformer saturation voltage must be at least.

If a lower tap of the CT is used. Use the maximum value from the curve. but in the unused taps. voltages much higher than design limits might be induced. Then the RMS current is calculated by dividing with√2.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C top current used. The selection of the stabilizing resistor and the level of the magnetizing current (mostly dependent of the number of turns) are the most important factors. thereby reducing the stability voltage limit. The zone and connection of the 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF function is shown in figure 41. 3·Id IEC05000173-3-en. This helps in utilizing maximum CT capability. the voltage developed across the selected tap is limited by the nonlinear resistor. Autotransformer differential protection When Autotransformers are used it is possible to use the high impedance scheme covering the Autotransformer windings. It can clearly be seen that the sensitivity is not so much influenced by the selected voltage level so a sufficient margin should be used. minimize the current. however not a possible tertiary winding. 135 Application manual .vsd IEC05000173 V3 EN Figure 41: Application of the 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF function on an autotransformer Setting example It is strongly recommended to use the highest tap of the CT whenever high impedance protection is used. owing to auto-transformer action.

8 ohm at 75° C Max fault current: The maximum through fault current. considering knee point voltage to be about 70% of the accuracy limit voltage. The value at U>Trip is taken.8 Ohms Cable loop resistance: <100 m 2.8 + 1.6 ) = 77. ignoring the current drawn by the non-linear resistor. The magnetizing current is taken from the magnetizing curve for the current transformer cores which should be available. IP = 1200 1 × ( 40 0° + 20 0° + 3 × 20 -60° ) £ approx. bigger than 2 · U>Trip Check from the table of selected resistances the required series stabilizing resistor value to use.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Basic data: Transformer rated current Irated (on low voltage tap): 1150 A Current transformer ratio: 1200/1 A (Note: Must be the same at all locations) CT Class: 20 VA 5P20 Secondary resistance: 3. To calculate the sensitivity at operating voltage. For the voltage dependent resistor current the top value of voltage 100 · √2 is used and the 136 Application manual .108 A EQUATION1212 V1 EN (Equation 45) where: 100mA is the current drawn by the IED circuit 40mA is the current drawn by each CT just at pickup If a higher sensitivity is required the series resistor can be selected to 5000 ohm. refer to equation 45 which gives an acceptable value. Calculation: UR > 15 × 1150 1200 × ( 3.625V (Equation 43) EQUATION1210 V1 EN Select a setting of U>Trip=100 V The current transformer knee point voltage at 5% error can roughly be calculated from the rated values. E 5 P > ( 20 + 3. As this application requires to have good sensitivity. select SeriesResistor= 2500 ohm which gives a total IED current of 40 mA.5mm2(one way) gives 2 · 0. Use 15 · Irated for power transformer.6 ) × 20 = 472V (Equation 44) EQUATION1211 V1 EN that is.

minimize the current. The selection of the stabilizing resistor and the level of the magnetizing current (mostly dependent of the number of turns) are the most important factors.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C top current used. thereby reducing the stability voltage limit. This helps in utilizing maximum CT capability. For many transformers there can be a secondary system for local distribution and/ or shunt compensation. Use the maximum value from the curve. voltages much higher than design limits might be induced. 137 Application manual . Another factor is that during internal faults. Then the RMS current is calculated by dividing with √2. the voltage developed across the selected tap is limited by the non-linear resistor but in the unused taps. normally 10-33 kV level and with relatively few feeders. The 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF function can be used to protect the tertiary busbar. owing to autotransformer action.vsd IEC05000774 V3 EN Figure 42: Application of the high impedance differential function on tertiary busbar Setting example It is strongly recommended to use the highest tap of the CT whenever high impedance protection is used. 3·Id IEC05000774-3-en. It can clearly be seen that the sensitivity is not so much influenced by the selected voltage level so a sufficient margin should be used.

4 ohm at 75° C.1Ð00 + 0.015Ð . E 5 P > (10 + 5. select SeriesResistor=1000 ohm. greater than 2 · U>Trip. refer to equation 48 which gives an acceptable value. Note! Only one way as the system earthing is limiting the earth-fault current.9V 2000 (Equation 46) EQUATION1213 V2 EN Select a setting of U>Trip=100 V. To calculate the sensitivity at operating voltage. 28 kA.270 A 1 (Equation 48) EQUATION1215 V2 EN Where IR= 100mA is the current drawn by the IED circuit Imag = 15mA is the magnetizing current of the CT at the operating voltage U>Trip Ires = 5 mA is the current drawn by the non-linear resistor at the operating voltage U>Trip 138 Application manual . Max fault current: The maximum through fault current given by the transformer reactance for example.005Ð00 + 4. Check from the table of selected resistances the required series stabilizing resistor value to use.600 ) = approx.5 ) × 20 = 310V (Equation 47) EQUATION1214 V1 EN that is. If high earth-fault current exists use two way cable. The current transformer saturation voltage at 5% error can roughly be calculated from the rated values.(0. Since this application it is not required to be so sensitive.5mm2(one way) gives 1 · 0.42) = 82.5 + 0.5 ohms Cable loop resistance: <50 m 2. in fact in this example the sensitivity is about 13% of the nominal current of the CT: IP = 2000 . which gives an IED current of 100 mA.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Basic data: Current transformer ratio: 2000/1 A (Note: Must be the same at all locations) CT Class: 10VA 5P20 10VA PX Secondary resistance: 5. Calculation: UR > 28000 .(5.0.

vsd IEC05000176 V3 EN Figure 43: Application of the1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF function on an autotransformer 139 Application manual . The 1Ph High impedance differential protection function HZPDIF can be used to protect the tertiary reactor for phase as well as earth faults if the earthing is direct or low impedance.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The magnetizing current is taken from the magnetizing curve for the current transformer cores which should be available. Use the maximum value from the curve. Tertiary reactor protection For many transformers there can be a secondary system for local distribution and/ or shunt compensation. 3·Id IEC05000176-3-en. Then the RMS current is calculated by dividing with √2. For the voltage dependent resistor current the amplitude value of voltage 100 · √2 is used and the top current used. The value at U>Trip is taken.

select SeriesResistor = 200 ohm. greater than 2 · U>Trip.4 ) = 5. If high earth-fault current exists use two way cable. To calculate the sensitivity at operating voltage. Check from the table of selected resistances the required series stabilizing resistor value to use. Another factor is that during internal faults. The current transformer saturation voltage at 5% error can roughly be calculated from the rated values. A little lower sensitivity could be selected by using a lower resistance value. Calculation: UR > 800 1000 × ( 0. refer to equation 51. Since this application requires good sensitivity. Max fault current: The maximum through fault current is limited by the reactor reactance and the inrush will be the worst for a reactor for example. Basic data: Current transformer ratio: 100/5 A (Note: Must be the same at all locations) CT Class: 10 VA 5P20 Secondary resistance: 0.4 ohm at 75° C Note! Only one way as the system earthing is limiting the earth-fault current. æ 10 ö + 0. which gives an IED current of 100 mA.28V EQUATION1216 V1 EN (Equation 49) Select a setting of U>Trip=20 V. 800 A. voltages much higher than design limits might be induced. the voltage developed across the selected tap is limited by the non-linear resistor but in the unused taps. 140 Application manual . thereby reducing the stability voltage limit.26 + 0.26 ÷ × 20 × 5 = 66V è 25 ø E 5P > ç EQUATION1217 V1 EN (Equation 50) that is.5mm2 (one way) gives 1 · 0. This helps in utilizing maximum CT capability. minimize the current.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting example It is strongly recommended to use the highest tap of the CT whenever high impedance protection is used. which gives an acceptable value. owing to autotransformer action.26 ohms Cable loop resistance: <50 m 2.

Such faults are then only detected by REFPDIF function. Due to the difference of measuring principle. Then the RMS current is calculated by dividing with √2. The connection of a restricted earth fault IED is shown in figure 44. For the voltage dependent resistor current the top value of voltage 20 · √2 is used and the top current used. The mixed connection using the 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF function should be avoided and the low impedance scheme should be used instead.5 A EQUATION1218 V1 EN (Equation 51) The magnetizing current is taken from the magnetizing curve of the current transformer cores.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C IP = 100 5 × (100 0° + 5 0° + 2 × 100 -60° ) £ approx. It is connected across each directly or low ohmic earthed transformer winding in figure 44. The value at U>Trip is taken. Use the maximum value from the curve. The advantage with the restricted earth fault IEDs is their high sensitivity. The level for high impedance restricted earth fault function is dependent of the current transformers magnetizing currents. 141 Application manual . the detection of earth faults may be somewhat limited. Restricted earth fault protection REFPDIF For solidly earthed systems a Restricted earth fault protection REFPDIF is often provided as a complement to the normal transformer differential IED. It is quite common to connect the restricted earth fault IED in the same current circuit as the transformer differential IED. Restricted earth fault IEDs are also very quick due to the simple measuring principle and the measurement of one winding only. Sensitivities of 2-8% can be achieved whereas the normal differential IED will have sensitivities of 20-40%. which should be available.

the voltage developed across the selected tap is limited by the non-linear resistor but in the unused taps. owing to autotransformer action.5mm2 (one way) gives 2 · 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Id IEC05000177-2-en.vsd IEC05000177 V2 EN Figure 44: Application of HZPDIF function as a restricted earth fault IED for an YNd transformer Setting example It is strongly recommended to use the highest tap of the CT whenever high impedance protection is used. thereby reducing the stability voltage limit. Another factor is that during internal faults. use 15 · rated current of the transformer 142 Application manual . voltages much higher than design limits might be induced. This helps in utilizing maximum CT capability.4 ohm at 75° C Max fault current: The maximum through fault current is limited by the transformer reactance. Basic data: Transformer rated current on HV winding: 250 A Current transformer ratio: 300/1 A (Note: Must be the same at all locations) CT Class: 10 VA 5P20 Cable loop resistance: <50 m 2. minimize the current.

The current transformer saturation voltage at 5% error can roughly be calculated from the rated values. select SeriesResistor= 1000 ohm which gives a current of 20 mA. Then the RMS current is calculated by dividing with√2. which means that the function will in many cases operate also for short circuits or open current transformer secondary circuits. For the voltage dependent resistor current the top value of voltage 20 · √2 is used and the top current used.25V EQUATION1219 V1 EN (Equation 52) Select a setting of U>Trip=20 V. IP = 300 1 × ( 20 0° + 5 0° + 4 × 20 -60° ) £ approx. This can be either another IED.25. which is performed by an earth overcurrent function or neutral point voltage function. E 5 P > (10 + 0. greater than 2 · U>Trip Check from the table of selected resistances the required series stabilizing resistor value to use. As seen in the setting examples above the sensitivity of HZPDIF function is normally high. with the same HZPDIF function. Since this application requires high sensitivity. The value at U>Trip is taken. a check zone.2V EQUATION1220 V1 EN (Equation 53) that is. 143 Application manual .66 ) × 20 = 213.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Calculation: UR > 15 × 250 300 × ( 0.8 ) = 18. or be a check about the fault condition. To calculate the sensitivity at operating voltage. refer to equation 54 which is acceptable as it gives around 10% minimum operating current. Alarm level operation The 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF function has a separate alarm level.5 A EQUATION1221 V1 EN (Equation 54) The magnetizing current is taken from the magnetizing curve for the current transformer cores which should be available. which can be used to give alarm for problems with an involved current transformer circuit. The setting level is normally selected to be around 10% of the operating voltage U>Trip.66 + 0. Use the maximum value from the curve. However the stabilizing resistor can be selected to achieve sensitivity higher than normal load current and/or separate criteria can be added to the operation.

A time delay of a few seconds is used before the shorting and alarm are activated.500 V 1 10 Alarm voltage level in volts on CT secondary side tAlarm 0.60.000 Time delay to activate alarm U>Trip 5 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C For such cases where operation is not expected during normal service the alarm output should be used to activate an external shorting of the differential circuit avoiding continuous high voltage in the circuit.01–10 mA 3.000 s 0.5. like RXMVB types.3. RXMVB types.20000 ohm 1 250 Value of series resistor in Ohms 144 Application manual .900 V 1 100 Operate voltage level in volts on CT secondary side SeriesResistor 10 . Auxiliary relays with contacts that can withstand high voltage shall be used. IEC05000749 V1 EN Figure 45: Current voltage characteristics for the non-linear resistors. the average range of current is: 0.000 . Use auxiliary relays with contacts that can withstand high voltages for example.5 Table 46: Name Setting parameters HZPDIF Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On U>Alarm 2 .001 5. in the range 10-200 V.

System earthing The type of system earthing plays an important role when designing the protection system. quadrilateral characteristic (zone 1) ZMQPDIS Distance protection zone.1. consisting of a high number of multi-circuit and/or multi terminal lines of very different lengths.2 Application Sub-transmission networks are being extended and often become more and more complex.6 Impedance protection 3. Some hints with respect to distance protection are highlighted below. quadrilateral characteristic ZMQPDIS.1.6.6.1 Distance measuring zones. ZDRDIR 3.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN 21 S00346 V1 EN 21D Z<-> IEC09000167 V1 EN 3. 145 Application manual . quadrilateral characteristic (zone 2-5) ZMQAPDIS Directional impedance quadrilateral ZDRDIR IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37. the transformer neutrals are connected directly to earth without any impedance between the transformer neutral and earth. The distance protection function in the IED is designed to meet basic requirements for application on transmission and sub-transmission lines (solid earthed systems) although it also can be used on distribution levels.1 Identification Function description IEC 61850 identification Distance protection zone. ZMQAPDIS. These changes in the network will normally impose more stringent demands on the fault clearing equipment in order to maintain an unchanged or increased security level of the power system.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. Solidly earthed networks In solidly earthed systems.6.

vsd IEC05000215 V1 EN Figure 46: Solidly earthed network The earth-fault current is as high or even higher than the short-circuit current. Effectively earthed networks A network is defined as effectively earthed if the earth-fault factor fe is less than 1. 146 Application manual . however. The series impedances determine the magnitude of the fault current. have some marginal influence on the earth-fault current in networks with long transmission lines. The shunt admittance may. The earth-fault current at single phase-to-earth in phase L1 can be calculated as equation 55: 3I 0 = 3 × U L1 Z1 + Z 2 + Z 0 + 3Z f = U L1 Z1 + Z N + Z f (Equation 55) EQUATION1267 V3 EN Where: UL1 is the phase-to-earth voltage (kV) in the faulty phase before fault Z1 is the positive sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Z2 is the negative sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Z0 is the zero sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Zf is the fault impedance (Ω). The shunt admittance has very limited influence on the earth-fault current. distance protection has limited possibilities to detect high resistance faults and should therefore always be complemented with other protection function(s) that can carry out the fault clearance in those cases. However.4. The earth-fault factor is defined according to equation 56. The high zero-sequence current in solidly earthed networks makes it possible to use impedance measuring techniques to detect earth faults. This corresponds to about 80% of the nominal phase-to-phase voltage.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C xx05000215. often resistive ZN is the earth-return impedance defined as (Z0-Z1)/3 The voltage on the healthy phases is generally lower than 140% of the nominal phaseto-earth voltage.

Upn is the phase-to-earth fundamental frequency voltage before fault. High impedance earthed networks In high impedance networks. 147 Application manual . What is typical for this type of network is that the magnitude of the earth-fault current is very low compared to the short circuit current. in the same way as for solidlyearthed networks. The voltage on the healthy phases will get a magnitude of √3 times the phase voltage during the fault. This type of network is many times operated in radial. but can also be found operating meshed networks. Another definition for effectively earthed network is when the following relationships between the symmetrical components of the network impedances are valid. mostly a reactance in parallel with a high resistor. X 0 < 3 × X1 EQUATION2122 V1 EN (Equation 57) R0 £ R1 EQUATION2123 V1 EN (Equation 58) Where R0 is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach X0 is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach R1 is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach X1 is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach The magnitude of the earth-fault current in effectively earthed networks is high enough for impedance measuring elements to detect earth faults. distance protection has limited possibilities to detect high resistance faults and should therefore always be complemented with other protection function(s) that can carry out the fault clearance in this case. the neutral of the system transformers are connected to the earth through high impedance.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C fe = U max U pn (Equation 56) EQUATION1268 V3 EN Where: Umax is the highest fundamental frequency voltage on one of the healthy phases at single phaseto-earth fault. see equation 57 and equation 58. However.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The zero sequence voltage (3U0) will have the same magnitude in different places in the network due to low voltage drop distribution. they clear the line later when it is more convenient.vsd IEC05000216 V1 EN Figure 47: High impedance earthing network The operation of high impedance earthed networks is different compared to solid earthed networks where all major faults have to be cleared very fast. In this type of network. some system operators do not clear single phase-toearth faults immediately. The low magnitude of the earth-fault current might not give start of the zero-sequence measurement elements or the 148 Application manual . The magnitude of the total fault current can be calculated according to equation 59. it is mostly not possible to use distance protection for detection and clearance of earth faults. I R 2 + ( IL . To handle this type of phenomenon. In high impedance earthed networks. a separate function called Phase preference logic (PPLPHIZ) is needed in medium and subtransmission network. many network operators want to selectively clear one of the two earth faults. In case of cross-country faults.IC ) 3I 0 = 2 (Equation 59) EQUATION1271 V3 EN Where: 3I0 is the earth-fault current (A) IR is the current through the neutral point resistor (A) IL is the current through the neutral point reactor (A) IC is the total capacitive earth-fault current (A) The neutral point reactor is normally designed so that it can be tuned to a position where the reactive current balances the capacitive current from the network that is: wL = 1 3 ×w × C (Equation 60) EQUATION1272 V1 EN Ic IR Ic Ic IL en05000216.

the equation for the bus voltage UA at A side is: UA = IA ·p ·ZL + (IA+IB)· Rf (Equation 61) EQUATION1273-IEC-650 V1 EN If we divide UA by IA we get Z present to the IED at A side. When the line is heavily loaded. at the exporting end. For this reason a separate high sensitive earth-fault protection is necessary to carry out the fault clearance for single phase-toearth fault. This effect is very important to keep in mind when both planning the protection system and making the settings.vsd IEC09000247 V1 EN Figure 48: Influence of fault current infeed from remote line end The effect of fault current infeed from remote line end is one of the most driving factors for justify complementary protection to distance protection. ESA ZSA UA A IA p*ZL (1-p)*ZL IB UB B ZSB ESB ZL Z< Rf Z< IEC09000247-1-en.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C sensitivity will be too low for acceptance. the distance protection at the exporting end will have a tendency to overreach. which compensates the overreach tendency of zone 1. The fault current infeed will enlarge the fault impedance seen by the distance protection. 10-20 depending on the differences in source impedances at local and remote end. the IED has an adaptive built-in algorithm. Fault infeed from remote end All transmission and most all sub-transmission networks are operated meshed. No settings are required for this function. 149 Application manual . Typical for this type of network is that fault infeed from remote end will happen when fault occurs on the protected line. ZA = UA = p ·ZL + IA IA + IB ·Rf IA (Equation 62) EQUATION1274-IEC-650 V1 EN The infeed factor (IA+IB)/IA can be very high. With reference to figure 48. To handle this phenomenon.

for short lines. The use of the load encroachment feature is essential for long heavily loaded lines. The phenomenon is called load encroachment and it might occur when an external fault is cleared and high emergency load is transferred on the protected line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Load encroachment In some cases the load impedance might enter the zone characteristic without any fault on the protected line. The effect of load encroachment is illustrated to the left in figure 49 and figure 115. the major concern is to get sufficient fault resistance coverage. 150 Application manual . The entrance of the load impedance inside the characteristic is of course not allowed and the way to handle this with conventional distance protection is to consider this with the settings. for a given setting of the load angle ArgLd for Phase selection with load encroachment. without load encroachment function". So. See section "Load impedance limitation. the load encroachment function could preferably be switched off. The effect of load encroachment is illustrated to the left in figure 49. where there might be a conflict between the necessary emergency load transfer and necessary sensitivity of the distance protection. The function can also preferably be used on heavy loaded medium long lines. that is. especially for phase-to-earth faults at remote line end. the resistive blinder for the zone measurement can be expanded according to the figure 49 given higher fault resistance coverage without risk for unwanted operation due to load encroachment. quadrilateral characteristic function (FDPSPDIS). that is. This has the drawback that it will reduce the sensitivity of the protection. The IED has a built in function which shapes the characteristic according to the right figure of figure 49. The entrance of the load impedance inside the characteristic is of course not allowed and the way to handle this with conventional distance protection is to consider this with the settings. to have a security margin between the distance zone and the minimum load impedance. This is valid in both directions. the ability to detect resistive faults. to have a security margin between the distance zone and the minimum load impedance. the ability to detect resistive faults. The settings of the parameters for load encroachment are done in FDPSPDIS function. This has the drawback that it will reduce the sensitivity of the protection. For example. Load encroachment is not a major problem. that is. In some cases the load impedance might enter the zone characteristic without any fault on the protected line. The phenomenon is called load encroachment and it might occur when an external fault is cleared and high emergency load is transferred on the protected line. For short lines. that is. The load encroachment algorithm will increase the possibility to detect high fault resistances.

the underreaching zone 1 can not be used due to the voltage drop distribution throughout the line will be too low causing risk for overreaching.5-11 km 25-50 km The IED's ability to set resistive and reactive reach independent for positive and zero sequence fault loops and individual fault resistance settings for phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth fault together with load encroachment algorithm improves the possibility to detect high resistive faults without conflict with the load impedance. Long transmission line application For long transmission lines.vsd IEC09000248 V1 EN Figure 49: Load encroachment phenomena and shaped load encroachment characteristic defined in Phase selection with load encroachment function FDPSPDIS Short line application In short line applications. Table 47: Line category Definition of short and very short line Un 110 kV Un 500 kV Very short line 1. the major concern is to get sufficient fault resistance coverage. Load encroachment is normally no problem for short line applications. Load encroachment is not so common. It is well known that it is difficult 151 Application manual . The line length that can be recognized as a short line is not a fixed length.1-5. to avoid load encroachment.5 km 5-25 km Short line 5. it depends on system parameters such as voltage and source impedance. see table 47. that is. the margin to the load impedance. will normally be a major concern. For very short line applications.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X X Z1 Z1 Load impedance area in forward R direction ArgLd ArgLd ArgLd R ArgLd RLdRv RLdFw IEC09000248_1_en. see figure 49.

long lines have Source impedance ratio (SIR’s) less than 0. What can be recognized as long lines with respect to the performance of distance protection can generally be described as in table 48. Parallel lines introduce an error in the measurement due to the mutual coupling between the parallel lines.450 km Very long lines > 99 km > 450 km The IED's ability to set resistive and reactive reach independent for positive and zero sequence fault loops and individual fault resistance settings for phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth fault together with load encroachment algorithm improves the possibility to detect high resistive faults at the same time as the security is improved (risk for unwanted trip due to load encroachment is eliminated). see figure 50. Zm ZL ARGLd ARGLd R ARGLd ARGLd RLdRv RLdFw en05000220.vsd IEC05000220 V1 EN Figure 50: Characteristic for zone measurement for a long line Parallel line application with mutual coupling General Introduction of parallel lines in the network is increasing due to difficulties to get necessary area for new lines.99 km 350 km . Table 48: Definition of long and very long lines Line category Un 110 kV Un 500 kV Long lines 77 km . The lines need not be of the same voltage in order to 152 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C to achieve high sensitivity for phase-to-earth fault at remote line end of long lines when the line is heavy loaded.5.

by using: • • The possibility of different setting values that influence the earth-return compensation for different distance zones within the same group of setting parameters. The mutual coupling does influence the zero sequence impedance to the fault point but it does not normally cause voltage inversion. Most multi circuit lines have two parallel operating circuits. 3. This can be handled by the use of different setting groups for handling the cases when the parallel line is in operation and out of service and earthed at both ends. One example of class 3 networks could be the mutual coupling between a 400kV line and rail road overhead lines. This type of mutual coupling is not so common although it exists and is not treated any further in this manual. and some coupling exists even for lines that are separated by 100 meters or more. For each type of network class.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C experience mutual coupling. out of service. there are three different topologies. out of service and earthed in both ends. 2. Different groups of setting parameters for different operating conditions of a protected multi circuit line. The three most common operation modes are: 153 Application manual . The distance protection within the IED can compensate for the influence of a zero sequence mutual coupling on the measurement at single phase-to-earth faults in the following ways. Parallel line with common positive and zero sequence network Parallel circuits with common positive but isolated zero sequence network Parallel circuits with positive and zero sequence sources isolated. It can be shown from analytical calculations of line impedances that the mutual impedances for positive and negative sequence are very small (< 1-2%) of the self impedance and it is a practice to neglect them. Parallel line applications This type of networks is defined as those networks where the parallel transmission lines terminate at common nodes at both ends. the parallel line can be in service. The reach of the distance protection zone 1 will be different depending on the operation condition of the parallel line. From an application point of view there exists three types of network configurations (classes) that must be considered when making the settings for the protection function. The different network configuration classes are: 1.

parallel line in service The equivalent circuit of the lines can be simplified. we can derive the impedance Z at the relay point for normal lines without mutual coupling according to equation 63. see figure 52.vsd IEC09000250 V1 EN Figure 51: Class 1. Parallel line out of service and not earthed. Parallel line in service. Uph Z = Iph + 3I 0 × Z 0 .Z1 = Uph Iph + 3I 0 × KN 3 × Z1 (Equation 63) IECEQUATION1275 V1 EN Where: Uph is phase to earth voltage at the relay point Iph is phase current in the faulty phase 3I0 is earth fault current Z1 is positive sequence impedance Z0 is zero sequence impedance A B Z0m Z< Z< IEC09000250_1_en. 2. From symmetrical components. 154 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 1. Parallel line out of service and earthed. Let us analyze what happens when a fault occurs on the parallel line see figure 51. 3. Parallel line in service This type of application is very common and applies to all normal sub-transmission and transmission networks.

æ Z 0m ö Z 0 . that is. parallel.vsd IEC09000253 V1 EN Figure 52: Equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit of the double-circuit. If the currents have the same direction. If the current on the parallel line has negative sign compared to the current on the protected line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Z0 -Z0m A Z0m C Z0 -Z0m B IEC09000253_1_en. UA = p × Z1L ( Iph + KN × 3I0 + KNm × 3I0p ) IECEQUATION1278 V1 EN (Equation 66) 155 Application manual . the distance function will overreach. the voltage UA in the faulty phase at A side as in equation 66. Maximum overreach will occur if the fault current infeed from remote line end is weak. the current on the parallel line has an opposite direction compared to the current on the protected line.Z1L U ph = Z1L × ç I ph + 3I 0 × L × 3I 0 p ÷ 3 × Z1L 3 × Z1L ø è IECEQUATION1276 V2 EN (Equation 64) By dividing equation 64 by equation 63 and after some simplification we can write the impedance present to the relay at A side as: æ 3I 0 × K Nm ö Z = Z t ç1 + ÷ è I ph + 3I 0 × K N ø (Equation 65) EQUATION1277 V2 EN Where: KNm = Z0m/(3 · Z1L) The second part in the parentheses is the error introduced to the measurement of the line impedance. operating line with a single phase-to-earth fault at the remote busbar When mutual coupling is introduced. the distance protection will underreach. the voltage at the relay point A will be changed according to equation 64. If considering a single phase-to-earth fault at 'p' unit of the line length from A to B on the parallel line for the case when the fault current infeed from remote line end is zero.

X0L=0. Parallel line out of service and earthed A B Z0m Z< Z< IEC09000251_1_en. the protection is underreaching with approximately 20%.p ÷ø ú è ê Z = p × Z1L ê ú Iph + 3I 0 × KN ê ú ë û (Equation 69) EQUATION1379 V2 EN Calculation for a 400 kV line. The reduction of the reach is most pronounced with no current infeed in the IED closest to the fault. So this 15% reach reduction does not significantly affect the operation of a permissive underreaching scheme. solving it for 3I0p and substitution of the result into equation 66 gives that the voltage can be drawn as: æ è UA = p × Z1L ç Iph + KN × 3I0 + KNm × 3I0 × p ö 2-p ÷ ø (Equation 68) IECEQUATION1280 V1 EN If we finally divide equation 68 with equation 63 we can draw the impedance present to the IED as éæ 3I 0 × p ö ù ê ç Iph + KN × 3I 0 + KNm × ú 2 . gives with X1L=0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C One can also notice that the following relationship exists between the zero sequence currents: 3 I 0 × Z 0 L = 3I 0 p × Z 0 L ( 2 .vsd IEC09000251 V1 EN Figure 53: The parallel line is out of service and earthed 156 Application manual .303 Ω/km. zone 1 reach is set to 90% of the line reactance p=71% that is. it is proportionally increased at the opposite line end. But when the reach is reduced at one line end. The zero sequence mutual coupling can reduce the reach of distance protection on the protected circuit when the parallel line is in normal operation.p ) (Equation 67) EQUATION1279 V2 EN Simplification of equation 67. This reach reduction is normally less than 15%. where we for simplicity have excluded the resistance.88 Ω/km.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C When the parallel line is out of service and earthed at both line ends on the bus bar side of the line CTs so that zero sequence current can flow on the parallel line. 2 Z 0E 0 Z 0 . æ X 2 ö R0 E = R0 · ç1 + 2 0 m 2 ÷ è R0 + X 0 ø DOCUMENT11520-IMG3502 V1 EN (Equation 71) æ X 2 ö X 0 E = X 0 · ç1 . All expressions below are proposed for practical use.2 0 m 2 ÷ è R0 + X 0 ø DOCUMENT11520-IMG3503 V1 EN (Equation 72) 157 Application manual . Calculate the equivalent X0E and R0E zero sequence parameters according to equation 71 and equation 72 for each particular line section and use them for calculating the reach for the underreaching zone. It is recommended to use a separate setting group for this operation condition since it will reduce the reach considerably when the line is in operation. They consider only the zero sequence. the equivalent zero sequence circuit of the parallel lines will be according to figure 54. which must be considered when calculating the settings. mutual reactance X0m.Z0m I0 Z0m Z0 -Z0m B I0 C IEC09000252_1_en. mutual resistance R0m equals to zero.vsd IEC09000252 V1 EN Figure 54: Equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit for the double-circuit line that operates with one circuit disconnected and earthed at both ends Here the equivalent zero-sequence impedance is equal to Z0-Z0m in parallel with (Z0-Z0m)/Z0-Z0m+Z0m which is equal to equation 70. They assume the value of zero sequence. A Z0 .Z 0m = Z0 EQUATION2002 V2 EN (Equation 70) The influence on the distance measurement will be a considerable overreach.

X 0 × ( X 0 + 2 × X 1) EQUATION1285 V1 EN (Equation 74) 158 Application manual . Re( A ) = R 0 × (2 × R1 + R 0 + 3 × Rf ) . the equivalent zero sequence impedance is set according to the conditions when the parallel system is out of operation and earthed at both ends. This means that the reach of the underreaching distance protection zone is reduced if.Z0m I0 Z0m Z0 . If the real and imaginary components of the constant A are equal to equation 74 and equation 75.vsd IEC09000255 V1 EN Figure 56: Equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for a double-circuit line with one circuit disconnected and not earthed The reduction of the reach is equal to equation 73.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Parallel line out of service and not earthed A B Z0m Z< Z< IEC09000254_1_en. ( ( ) ) 1 2 × 2 × Z1 + Z 0 E + R f Zm0 3 KU = = 11 Z 0 × 2 × Z 1 + Z 0 + 3R f × 2 × Z1 + Z 0 + R f 3 ( EQUATION1284 V1 EN ) (Equation 73) This means that the reach is reduced in reactive and resistive directions. the zero sequence on that line can only flow through the line admittance to the earth.Z0m I0 C B IEC09000255_1_en. due to operating conditions. the equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for faults at the remote bus bar can be simplified to the circuit shown in figure 55 The line zero sequence mutual impedance does not influence the measurement of the distance protection in a faulty circuit. The line admittance is high which limits the zero-sequence current on the parallel line to very low values. A Z0 . In practice.vsd IEC09000254 V1 EN Figure 55: Parallel line is out of service and not earthed When the parallel line is out of service and not earthed.

( ) Re K U = 1 + ( ) é Re ( A ) ù + é Im ( A ) ù ë û ë û Re A × X m 0 2 2 2 (Equation 76) EQUATION1287 V2 EN The imaginary component of the same factor is equal to equation 77.vsd IEC09000160 V2 EN Figure 57: Example of tapped line with Auto transformer 159 Application manual . ( ) Im K U = ( ) é Re ( A ) ù + é Im ( A ) ù ë û ë û Im A × X m 0 2 2 2 (Equation 77) EQUATION1288 V2 EN Ensure that the underreaching zones from both line ends will overlap a sufficient amount (at least 10%) in the middle of the protected circuit.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Im( A ) = X 0 × (2 × R1 + R0 + 3 × R1 ) + R0 × (2 × X 1 + X 0 ) (Equation 75) EQUATION1286 V1 EN The real component of the KU factor is equal to equation 76. Tapped line application A IA T Z< IB F B Z< IC -IB Z< C IEC09000160-2-en.

it might be necessary to accept zone 2 trip in one end or sequential trip in one end. Another complication that might occur depending on the topology is that the current from one end can have a reverse direction for fault on the protected line. for faults at T the current from B might go in reverse direction from B to C depending on the system parameters (see the dotted line in figure 57). depending on the source impedance behind the IEDs. IA and IC is fault current from A respective C station for fault between T and B. For example. that is increased measured impedance due to fault current infeed. U2/U1 Transformation ratio for transformation of impedance at U1 side of the transformer to the measuring side U2 (it is assumed that current and voltage distance function is taken from U2 side of the transformer). given that the distance protection in B to T will measure wrong direction. the impedance on the high voltage side U1 has to be transferred to the measuring voltage level by the transformer ratio.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C This application gives rise to similar problem that was highlighted in section "Fault infeed from remote end" . the measured impedance from the T point to the fault will be increased by a factor defined as the sum of the currents from T point to the fault divided by the IED current. For example. In three-end application. 160 Application manual . Generally for this type of application it is difficult to select settings of zone 1 that both gives overlapping of the zones with enough sensitivity without interference with other zone 1 settings. for faults between the T point and B station the measured impedance at A and C will be ZA =ZAT + IA + IC ·ZTF IA (Equation 78) DOCUMENT11524-IMG3509 V2 EN ZC = ZTrf + ( ZCT + U2 IA + IC ·ZTF) ·( )2 U1 IC (Equation 79) DOCUMENT11524-IMG3510 V2 EN Where: ZAT and ZCT is the line impedance from the A respective C station to the T point. the impedances of the protected object and the fault location. Careful fault calculations are necessary to determine suitable settings and selection of proper scheme communication. that is. without selectivity conflicts. ZTF is the line impedance from the T point to the fault (F). ZTrf Transformer impedance For this example with a fault between T and B. For the IED at C.

quadrilateral characteristic (ZMQPDIS) are done in primary values. Inaccuracies in the line zero-sequence impedance data. 161 Application manual . 3. the setting of fault resistance for both phase-to-earth RFPE and phase-tophase RFPP should be as high as possible without interfering with the load impedance in order to obtain reliable fault detection. resistance of a tower construction.3 Setting guidelines General The settings for Distance measuring zones. because normally more than 70% of the faults on transmission lines are single phase-to-earth faults. In practice. The arc resistance can be calculated according to Warrington's formula: Rarc = 28707 × L I1. The following basics must be considered. Zero-sequence mutual coupling from parallel lines. particularly under transient conditions. when doing the setting calculations: • • • • • • Errors introduced by current and voltage instrument transformers.4 EQUATION1456 V1 EN (Equation 80) where: L represents the length of the arc (in meters). the fault resistance is composed of three parts: arc resistance. The instrument transformer ratio that has been set for the analog input card is used to automatically convert the measured secondary input signals to primary values used in ZMQPDIS.6. Consider approximately three times arc foot spacing for the zone 2 and wind speed of approximately 50 km/h I is the actual fault current in A. The phase impedance of non transposed lines is not identical for all fault loops. The effect of infeed between the IED and the fault location. This equation applies for the distance protection zone 1. and tower-footing resistance. The effect of a load transfer between the IEDs of the protected fault resistance is considerable. including the influence of different Z0/Z1 ratios of the various sources.1. The difference between the impedances for different phase-to-earth loops can be as large as 5-10% of the total line impedance. the effect must be recognized. depending on application.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Fault resistance The performance of distance protection for single phase-to-earth faults is very important. and their effect on the calculated value of the earth-return compensation factor. At these faults.

In case of parallel lines. The zone 2 reach can be even higher if the fault infeed from adjacent lines at remote end is considerable higher than the fault current at the IED location. plus the first zone reach of the shortest adjacent line. The impedance corresponding to the protected line.90% of the protected line. If a fault occurs at point F see figure 58. The requirement that the zone 2 shall not reach more than 80% of the shortest adjacent line at remote end is highlighted in the example below. plus the impedance of the maximum number of transformers operating in parallel on the bus at the remote end of the protected line. The zone 2 must not be reduced below 120% of the protected line section. consider the influence of the mutual coupling according to section "Parallel line application with mutual coupling" and select the case(s) that are valid in the particular application. By proper setting it is possible to compensate for the cases when the parallel line is in operation. The whole line must be covered under all conditions. The setting of earth-fault reach should be selected to be <95% also when parallel line is out of service and earthed at both ends (worst case). This requires however analysis by means of fault calculations. If any of the above gives a zone 2 reach less than 120%. Considering the different errors that might influence the measurement in the same way as for zone 1. the time delay of zone 2 must be increased by approximately 200ms to avoid unwanted operation in cases when the telecommunication for the short adjacent line at remote end is down during faults. Setting of overreaching zone The first overreaching zone (normally zone 2) must detect faults on the whole protected line. The setting shall generally not exceed 80% of the following impedances: • • The impedance corresponding to the protected line. the IED at point A senses the impedance: Z AF = Z AC + EQUATION302 V3 EN æ IB ö IA + IB × Z CF = Z AC + ç 1 + ÷ × Z CF IA è IA ø (Equation 81) 162 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting of zone 1 The different errors mentioned earlier usually require a limitation of the underreaching zone (normally zone 1) to 75 . it is necessary to increase the reach of the overreaching zone to at least 120% of the protected line. Larger overreach than the mentioned 80% can often be acceptable due to fault current infeed from other lines. out of service and not earthed and out of service and earthed in both ends.

It is necessary to secure. Consider the possible enlarging factor that might exist due to fault infeed from adjacent lines. the zone reach can be set to 85% of the protected line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Z AC A Z CB F IA C B Z CF I A+ I B IB Z< IEC09000256_1_en. weak-end infeed logic. that it always covers the overreaching zone. and so on. influence of mutual impedance has to be taken into account. The same applies to the backup protection of the bus bar or power transformers. However. Setting of zones for parallel line application Parallel line in service – Setting of zone 1 With reference to section "Parallel line applications". weak-end infeed. In many applications it might be necessary to consider the enlarging factor due to fault current infeed from adjacent lines in the reverse direction in order to obtain certain sensitivity. Equation 82 can be used to calculate the reach in reverse direction when the zone is used for blocking scheme. The greatest reduction of a reach occurs in cases when both parallel circuits are in service with a single phase-to-earth fault located at the end of a 163 Application manual . used at the remote line IED for the telecommunication purposes. Zrev ³ 1. zones 2 and 3) must overreach the protected circuit in all cases. Parallel line in service – setting of zone 2 Overreaching zones (in general.2 × ZL-Z2rem EQUATION1525 V4 EN (Equation 82) Where: ZL is the protected line impedance Z2rem is zone 2 setting at remote end of protected line.vsd IEC09000256 V1 EN Figure 58: Setting of overreaching zone Setting of reverse zone The reverse zone is applicable for purposes of scheme communication logic. current reversal logic. and so on.

The reach is reduced for a factor: K 0 = 1- Z 0m 2 × Z1 + Z 0 + Rf (Equation 85) EQUATION1426 V1 EN If the denominator in equation 85 is called B and Z0m is simplified to X0m. The equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit for this case is equal to the one in figure 52 in section "Parallel line in service". then the real and imaginary part of the reach reduction factor for the overreaching zones can be written as: ( ) Re K 0 = 1 - X 0m × Re ( B ) Re ( B ) + Im ( B ) 2 2 (Equation 86) EQUATION1427 V2 EN ( ) Im K 0 = X 0m × Im ( B ) Re ( B ) + Im ( B ) 2 2 (Equation 87) EQUATION1428 V2 EN Parallel line is out of service and earthed in both ends Apply the same measures as in the case with a single set of setting parameters. Set the values of the corresponding zone (zero-sequence resistance and reactance) equal to: 2 Xm0 æ ö -÷ R 0E = R 0 × ç 1 + ------------------------2 2ø è R0 + X0 EQUATION561 V1 EN (Equation 88) 164 Application manual . This means that an underreaching zone must not overreach the end of a protected circuit for the single phase-to-earth faults. The components of the zero sequence impedance for the overreaching zones must be equal to at least: R0E = R0 + R m0 (Equation 83) EQUATION553 V1 EN X 0E = X 0 + Xm0 (Equation 84) EQUATION554 V1 EN Check the reduction of a reach for the overreaching zones due to the effect of the zero sequence mutual coupling.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C protected line.

To minimize the risk for overreaching.5 × X1 IECEQUATION2305 V1 EN (Equation 92) The fault resistance for phase-to-phase faults is normally quite low. Check the maximum permissible resistive reach for any zone to ensure 165 Application manual . The final reach in resistive direction for phase-to-earth fault loop measurement automatically follows the values of the line-positive and zero-sequence resistance. without load encroachment function The following instructions are valid when Phase selection with load encroachment. the setting of the load resistance RLdFw and RLdRv in FDPSPDIS must be set to max value (3000). quadrilateral characteristic function FDPSPDIS is not activated. R= 1 3 ( 2 × R1 + R0 ) + RFPE (Equation 90) IECEQUATION2303 V1 EN j loop = arctan é 2 × X1 + X0 ù êë 2 × R1 + R0 úû EQUATION2304 V1 EN (Equation 91) Setting of the resistive reach for the underreaching zone 1 should follow the condition to minimize the risk for overreaching: RFPE £ 4.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 2 X m0 ö æ X 0E = X 0 × ç 1 – ------------------------2 2÷ è R0 + X0 ø (Equation 89) EQUATION562 V1 EN Setting of reach in resistive direction Set the resistive reach R1 independently for each zone. Set separately the expected fault resistance for phase-to-phase faults RFPP and for the phase-to-earth faults RFPE for each zone. If FDPSPDISis to be used for all or some of the measuring zones. For each distance zone. compared to the fault resistance for phase-to-earth faults. limit the setting of the zone 1 reach in resistive direction for phase-to-phase loop measurement to: RFPP £ 3 × X1 IECEQUATION2306 V1 EN (Equation 93) Load impedance limitation. the load limitation for those zones according to this chapter can be omitted. set all remaining reach setting parameters independently of each other. and at the end of the protected zone is equal to equation 90. To deactivate the function.

For the case when the loop characteristic angle is less than three times the load-impedance angle. more accurate calculations are necessary according to equation 97. consider both: phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth fault operating characteristics. the set resistive reach of any distance protection zone must be less than 80% of the minimum load impedance. The load impedance [Ω/phase] is a function of the minimum operation voltage and the maximum load current: Umin Z load = --------------------3 × Imax (Equation 95) EQUATION574 V1 EN Minimum voltage Umin and maximum current Imax are related to the same operating conditions. RFPE £ 0. 166 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C that there is a sufficient setting margin between the boundary and the minimum load impedance. The minimum load impedance (Ω/phase) is calculated as: 2 U Z loadmin = ------S (Equation 94) EQUATION571 V1 EN Where: U is the minimum phase-to-phase voltage in kV S is the maximum apparent power in MVA. As a safety margin is required to avoid load encroachment under three-phase conditions and to guarantee correct healthy phase IED operation under combined heavy three-phase load and earth faults. Minimum load impedance occurs normally under emergency conditions.8 × Z load EQUATION792 V1 EN (Equation 96) This equation is applicable only when the loop characteristic angle for the single phase-to-earth faults is more than three times as large as the maximum expected loadimpedance angle. To avoid load encroachment for the phase-to-earth measuring elements.

related to the maximum load power.6 × Z load min IECEQUATION2307 V1 EN R1 × éê cos J .6 × Zload (Equation 98) EQUATION579 V2 EN RFP Equation 98 is applicable only when the loop characteristic angle for the phase-tophase faults is more than three times as large as the maximum expected loadimpedance angle. refer to the description of Power swing detection function ZMRPSB.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C é êë RFPE £ 0. the set resistive reach of any distance protection zone must be less than 160% of the minimum load impedance. quadrilateral characteristic (ZMQPDIS) can be blocked if the magnitude of the currents is below the set value of the parameter IMinOpPP and IMinOpPE. More accurate calculations are necessary according to equation 99. quadrilateral characteristic function activated The parameters for shaping of the load encroachment characteristic are found in the description of Phase selection with load encroachment. The value has been proven in 167 Application manual . The default setting of IMinOpPP and IMinOpPE is 20% of IBase where IBase is the chosen current for the analogue input channels.8 × Z load min × cos ¶ - 2 × R1 + R 0 2 × X1+ X 0 × sin ¶ ù úû (Equation 97) EQUATION578 V3 EN Where: ϑ is a maximum load-impedance angle. RFPP £ 1.× sin J ùú X1 ë û (Equation 99) All this is applicable for all measuring zones when no Power swing detection function ZMRPSB is activated in the IED. with Phase selection with load encroachment. Load impedance limitation. RFPP £ 1. To avoid load encroachment for the phase-to-phase measuring elements. quadrilateral characteristic function (FDPSPDIS). Use an additional safety margin of approximately 20% in cases when a ZMRPSB function is activated in the IED. Setting of minimum operating currents The operation of Distance protection zone.

.2 × U 1L1 M I L1 < ArgNeg Re s (Equation 100) EQUATION725 V2 EN For the L1-L2 element. Equation 100 and equation 101 are used to classify that the fault is in forward direction for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault. It should not be changed unless system studies have shown the necessity. by default set to 115 degrees.8 × U 1L1 L 2 + 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C practice to be suitable in most of the applications.ArgDir < arg 0. U1L1 is positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1 U1L1M is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1 IL1 is phase current in phase L1 U1L1L2 is voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) U1L1L2M is memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) IL1L2 is current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees respectively (as shown in figure 59). see figure 59.2 × U 1L1 L 2 M I L1 L 2 < ArgNeg Re s (Equation 101) EQUATION726 V2 EN where: ArgDir is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic.8 × U 1L1 + 0. when the IED serves as a remote back-up protection on series of very long transmission lines. the equation in forward direction is according to. 168 Application manual . The default setting of IMinOpIN is 5% of IBase. The minimum operating fault current is automatically reduced to 75% of its set value. by default set to 15 (= -15 degrees) and ArgNegRes is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic. if the distance protection zone has been set for the operation in reverse direction. This happens especially in cases. Setting IMinOpIN blocks the phase-to-earth loop if 3I0<IMinOpIN. Directional impedance element for quadrilateral characteristics The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance quadrilateral function ZDRDIR. However. there might be applications where it is necessary to increase the sensitivity by reducing the minimum operating current down to 10% of IBase.ArgDir < arg 0. .

The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is restored. the U1L1M memory voltage. After 100ms the following occurs: • If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current (between 10 and 30% of the set IED rated current IBase).vsd IEC05000722 V1 EN Figure 59: Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault in Directional impedance quadrilateral function ZDRDIR The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by 180 degrees. The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive sequence voltage exceeds 5% of the set base voltage UBase. 169 Application manual . the condition seals in. So the directional element can use it for all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults. based on the same positive sequence voltage. ensures correct directional discrimination. STDIR= STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+ +STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+ +STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048 X ArgNegRes ArgDir R en05000722.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ZDRDIR gives binary coded directional information per measuring loop on the output STDIRCND. For close-in three-phase faults.

Ph-Ph Table continues on next page 170 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • If the fault has caused tripping.9000. rated current UBase 0.4 Setting parameters Signals and settings for ZMQPDIS are valid for zone 1 while signals and settings for ZMQAPDIS are valid for zone 2 .05 .00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.1. Distance protection zone 1 can also have a time delay.01 15. the measuring element in the reverse direction remains in operation. Ph-Ph tPP 0.00 ohm/p 0.00 ohm/p 0. The tripping function of each particular zone can be inhibited by setting the corresponding Operation parameter to Off.10 . resistance for zone characteristic angle X0 0.00 Zero sequence reactance reach R0 0.00 ohm/l 0. i.01 100.00 Zero seq.6. to further increase the total flexibility of a distance protection. Time delays for all zones can be set in a range of 0 to 60 seconds.99999 A 1 3000 Base current.3000. Different time delays are possible for the phase-to-earthtPE and for the phase-to-phase tPP measuring loops in each distance protection zone separately.00 ohm/p 0.5 Table 49: ZMQPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off / On IBase 1 . Ph-E OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops Timer tPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.00 Positive seq. if so required for selectivity reasons. 3.01 5.1000.01 100. resistance for zone characteristic angle RFPP 0. If the fault was detected in the reverse direction.60.000 . Ph-Ph RFPE 0. the memory resets until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value. i. the trip endures.2000.e. If the current decreases below the minimum operating value.01 30.05 400.01 .10 .01 30.00 ohm/p 0.001 0.10 .000 Time delay of trip.00 ohm/l 0.e. Setting of timers for distance protection zones The required time delays for different distance protection zones are independent of each other .00 kV 0.00 Positive sequence reactance reach R1 0.9000.00 Base voltage.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.000 s 0.3000.01 .3000. rated voltage OperationDir Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1 0.10 .

01 15.10 .05 400. rated current UBase 0.01 100.10 . Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops Timer tPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.00 ohm/p 0.01 . i.00 ohm/p 0.001 0. i.10 .000 Time delay of trip.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpIN 5 .60.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.10 .1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 .00 ohm/l 0.e.01 5. Ph-E tPE 0.00 Positive seq.60.01 120.00 ohm/p 0.3000.05 .3000. Ph-Ph tPP 0.00 Zero sequence reactance reach R0 0. Ph-E tPE 0. Ph-E OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops Timer tPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.01 40.01 .1000. Ph-E IMinOpPP 10 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops Timer tPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.e.00 Base voltage. Ph-E IMinOpPP 10 .00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 .000 Time delay of trip.000 s 0.000 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach R1 0.000 Time delay of trip.9000.60.000 s 0.00 Zero seq.001 0.99999 A 1 3000 Base current.00 kV 0.001 0.1000 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for Phase-Earth loops Table 50: ZMQAPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off / On IBase 1 .9000. resistance for zone characteristic angle RFPP 0.3000.000 .00 ohm/l 0.000 s 0.2000. rated voltage OperationDir Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1 0.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops 171 Application manual .01 30.00 ohm/p 0.000 . Ph-Ph RFPE 0. resistance for zone characteristic angle X0 0.

30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 5 .1 Application Introduction Sub transmission networks are being extended and often become more and more complex.99999 A 1 3000 Base setting for current level UBase 0.6. quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines (zone 2-5) ZMCAPDIS 21 S00346 V1 EN Directional impedance quadrilateral. 172 Application manual . ZMCAPDIS.6.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN Distance measuring zone.2 Distance measuring zone.45 Deg 1 15 Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for forward direction 3. quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines (zone 1) IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMCPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. These changes in the network will normally impose more stringent demands on the fault clearing equipment in order to maintain an unchanged or increased security level of the power system. including series compensation ZDSRDIR 21D Z<-> IEC09000167 V1 EN 3. The distance protection function is designed to meet basic requirements for application on transmission and sub transmission lines (solid earthed systems) although it also can be used on distribution levels.30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops ArgNegRes 90 .00 Base setting for voltage level IMinOpPP 5 .Section 3 IED application Table 51: Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ZDRDIR Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IBase 1 .2000.00 kV 0.2.05 .175 Deg 1 115 Angle of blinder in second quadrant for forward direction ArgDir 5 .05 400. consisting of a high number of multi-circuit and/or multi terminal lines of very different lengths. quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines ZMCPDIS. ZDSRDIR Function description Distance measuring zone.

This corresponds to about 80% of the nominal phase-to-phase voltage. In the following sections. The earth fault current at single phase -to-earth in phase L1 can be calculated as equation 102: 3I 0 = 3 × U L1 Z1 + Z 2 + Z 0 + 3Z f = U L1 Z1 + Z N + Z f (Equation 102) EQUATION1267 V3 EN Where: UL1 is the phase-to-earth voltage (kV) in the faulty phase before fault Z1 is the positive sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Z2 is the negative sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Z0 is the zero sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Zf is the fault impedance (Ω). some hints with respect to distance protection are highlighted. xx05000215. The shunt admittance may. however. often resistive ZN is the earth return impedance defined as (Z0-Z1)/3 The voltage on the healthy phases is generally lower than 140% of the nominal phaseto-earth voltage. The shunt admittance has very limited influence on the earth fault current. have some marginal influence on the earth fault current in networks with long transmission lines.vsd IEC05000215 V1 EN Figure 60: Solidly earthed network The earth fault current is as high or even higher than the short-circuit current. The series impedances determine the magnitude of the fault current. 173 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C System earthing The type of system earthing plays an important roll when designing the protection system. Solid earthed networks In solid earthed systems the transformer neutrals are connected solidly to earth without any impedance between the transformer neutral and earth.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The high zero sequence current in solid earthed networks makes it possible to use impedance measuring technique to detect earth-fault. distance protection has limited possibilities to detect high resistance faults and must. always be complemented with other protection function(s) that can carry out the fault clearance in those cases. therefore. X 0 = 3 × X1 EQUATION1269 V3 EN (Equation 104) R0 £ R1 EQUATION1270 V3 EN (Equation 105) The magnitude of the earth fault current in effectively earthed networks is high enough for impedance measuring element to detect earth-fault. Effectively earthed networks A network is defined as effectively earthed if the earth-fault factor fe is less than 1. The earth-fault factor is defined according to equation 56. distance protection has limited possibilities to detect high resistance faults and must. However. The fault infeed may enlarge the fault impedance seen by the distance protection. With reference to figure 61. in the same way as for solid earthed networks. This effect is very important to keep in mind when both planning the protection system and making the settings. we can draw the equation for the bus voltage Va at left side as: 174 Application manual . as shown in equation 104 and equation 105. However. always be complemented with other protection function(s) that can carry out the fault clearance in this case. Fault infeed from remote end All transmission and most all sub transmission networks are operated meshed. therefore. fe = U max U pn (Equation 103) EQUATION1268 V3 EN Where: Umax is the highest fundamental frequency voltage on one of the healthy phases at single phaseto-earth fault. Upn is the phase-to-earth fundamental frequency voltage before fault. Another definition for effectively earthed network is when the following relationships between the symmetrical components of the network impedances are valid. Typical for this type of network is that we will have fault infeed from remote end when fault occurs on the protected line.4.

Load encroachment Sometimes the load impedance might enter the zone characteristic without any fault on the protected line. This is valid in both directions. EsA ZSA VA A IA p*ZL (1-p)*ZL IB VA B ZSB EsB ZL Z< Rf Z< en05000217. especially for line to earth faults at remote end. 10-20 depending on the differences in source impedances at local and remote end.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C VA = IA × p × ZL + ( IA + IB ) × Rf (Equation 106) EQUATION1273 V1 EN If we divide Va by IA we get Z present to the IED at A side ZA = Va = p × ZL + IA IA + IB IA × Rf (Equation 107) EQUATION1274 V2 EN The infeed factor (IA+IB)/IA can be very high. to have a security margin between the distance zone and the minimum load impedance. The IED has a built in function which shapes the characteristic according to the right figure 62. the ability to detect resistive faults. The phenomenon is called load encroachment and it might occur when an external fault is cleared and high emergency load is transferred on the protected line. for a given setting of the load angle ARGLd for the load encroachment function. For example. 175 Application manual .vsd IEC05000217 V1 EN Figure 61: Influence of fault infeed from remote end The effect of fault current infeed from remote end is one of the most driving factors to justify complementary protection to distance protection. This has the drawback that it will reduce the sensitivity of the protection that is. The load encroachment algorithm increases the possibility to detect high fault resistances. the resistive blinder for the zone measurement can be expanded according to the right in figure 62 given higher fault resistance coverage without risk for unwanted operation due to load encroachment. The entrance of the load impedance inside the characteristic is not allowed and the way to handle this with conventional distance protection is to consider this with the settings that is. The effect of load encroachment is illustrated to the left in figure 62.

It is difficult to achieve high sensitivity for line to earth-fault at remote end of a long lines when the line is heavy loaded. will normally be a major concern. For short lines the major concern is to get sufficient fault resistance coverage and load encroachment is not a major problem.vsd IEC05000495 V1 EN Figure 62: Load encroachment phenomena and shaped load encroachment characteristic Long transmission line application For long transmission lines the margin to the load impedance that is.450 km Very long lines > 99 km > 450 km The possibility in IED to set resistive and reactive reach independent for positive and zero sequence fault loops and individual fault resistance settings for phase-tophase and phase-to-earth fault together with load encroachment algorithm 176 Application manual .99 km 350 km . So. Table 52: Line category Definition of long lines Un 110 kV Un 500 kV Long lines 77 km . where there might be a conflict between the necessary emergency load transfer and necessary sensitivity of the distance protection.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The use of the load encroachment feature is essential for long heavy loaded lines. long lines have SIR’s less than 0. for short lines. Definition of long lines with respect to the performance of distance protection can generally be described as in table 52. quadrilateral characteristic (FDPSPDIS) function. to avoid load encroachment. the load encroachment function could preferable be switched off. The function can also preferably be used on heavy loaded medium long lines. The settings of the parameters for load encroachment are done in the Phase selection with load enchroachment. X Zm Zm ZL Load impedance area in forward R direction ARGLd ARGLd R ARGLd ARGLd RLdRv RLdFw en05000495.5.

and some coupling exists even for lines that are separated by 100 meters or more. Parallel lines introduce an error in the measurement due to the mutual coupling between the parallel lines.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C improves the possibility to detect high resistive faults at the same time as the security is improved (risk for unwanted trip due to load encroachment is eliminated). It can be shown from analytical calculations of line impedances that the mutual impedances for positive and negative sequence are very small (< 1-2%) of the self impedance and it is practice to neglect them. Zm ZL ARGLd ARGLd R ARGLd ARGLd RLdRv RLdFw en05000220. as shown in figure 63.vsd IEC05000220 V1 EN Figure 63: Characteristic for zone measurement for long line with load encroachment activated Parallel line application with mutual coupling General Introduction of parallel lines in the network is increasing due to difficulties to get necessary area for new lines. The lines need not be of the same voltage to experience mutual coupling. The reason to the introduced error in measuring due to mutual coupling is the zero sequence voltage inversion that occurs. From an application point of view there exists three types of network configurations (classes) that must be considered when making the settings for the protection function. Those are: • • • Parallel line with common positive and zero sequence network Parallel circuits with common positive but isolated zero-sequence network Parallel circuits with positive and zero sequence sources isolated 177 Application manual .

Here is the description of what happens when a fault occurs on the parallel line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C One example of class3 networks could be the mutual coupling between a 400 kV line and rail road overhead lines. From symmetrical components. For each type of network class we can have three different topologies. by using: • • The possibility of different setting values that influence the earth-return compensation for different distance zones within the same group of setting parameters. out of service. 178 Application manual . Different groups of setting parameters for different operating conditions of a protected multi circuit line. The reach of the distance protection zone1 will be different depending on the operation condition of the parallel line. the parallel line can be in service. Most multi circuit lines have two parallel operating circuits. We consider the three most common operation modes: • • • parallel line in service parallel line out of service and earthed parallel line out of service and not earthed Parallel line in service This type of application is very common and applies to all normal sub-transmission and transmission networks. The application guide mentioned below recommends in more detail the setting practice for this particular type of line. it is possible to derive the impedance Z at the IED point for normal lines without mutual coupling according to equation 108. This type of mutual coupling is not so common although it exists and is not treated any further in this manual. Parallel line applications This type of networks are defined as those networks where the parallel transmission lines terminate at common nodes at both ends. as shown in figure 64. The distance protection within the IED can compensate for the influence of a zerosequence mutual coupling on the measurement at single phase-to-earth faults in the following ways. It is therefore recommended to use the different setting groups to handle the cases when the parallel line is in operation and out of service and earthed at both ends. out of service and earthed in both ends. The basic principles also apply to other multi circuit lines.

parallel.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Vph Z = Iph + 3I 0 × Z 0 . according to equation 109.Z0m B 99000038. 179 Application manual .Z0m Z0m C Z0 . operating line with a single phase-to-earth-fault at the remote busbar When mutual coupling is introduced.vsd IEC99000038 V1 EN Figure 65: Equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit of the double-circuit. the voltage at the IED point A is changed. A Z0 . parallel line in service The equivalent circuit of the lines can be simplified.vsd IEC05000221 V1 EN Figure 64: Class 1.Z1 = Vph Iph + 3I 0 × KN 3 × Z1 (Equation 108) EQUATION1275 V2 EN Where: Vph is phase-to-earth voltage at the IED point Iph is phase current in the faulty phase 3I0 is earth-fault current Z1 is positive sequence impedance Z0 is zero sequence impedance A B Z0m Z< Z< en05000221. as shown in figure 65.

If we consider a single phase-to-earth fault at "p" unit of the line length from A to B on the parallel line for the case when the fault infeed from remote end is zero. Maximum overreach occurs if the fault infeed from remote end is weak. the distance protection underreaches. If the currents have the same direction.p ) EQUATION1279 V2 EN (Equation 112) Simplification of equation 112. If the current on the parallel line has negative sign compared to the current on the protected line that is.p ø è EQUATION1280 V1 EN (Equation 113) 180 Application manual . we can draw the voltage V in the faulty phase at A side as in equation 111. VA = p × Z1L ( Iph + KN × 3I0 + KNm × 3I0p ) EQUATION1278 V3 EN (Equation 111) Notice that the following relationship exists between the zero sequence currents: 3 I 0 × Z 0 L = 3I 0 p × Z 0 L ( 2 . the distance function overreaches. solving it for 3I0p and substitution of the result into equation 111 gives that the voltage can be drawn as: æ 3I 0 × p ö VA = p × Z 1L ç Iph + KN × 3I 0 + KNm × ÷ 2. the current on the parallel line has an opposite direction compared to the current on the protected line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C æ Z 0m ö Z 0 .Z1L V ph = Z1L × ç I ph + 3I 0 × L × 3I 0 p ÷ 3 × Z1L 3 × Z1L ø è (Equation 109) EQUATION1276 V3 EN By dividing equation 109 by equation 108 and after some simplification we can write the impedance present to the IED at A side as: æ 3I 0 × K Nm ö Z = Z t ç1 + ÷ è I ph + 3I 0 × K N ø (Equation 110) EQUATION1277 V2 EN Where: KNm = Z0m/(3 · Z1L) The second part in the parentheses is the error introduced to the measurement of the line impedance.

Parallel line out of service and earthed A B Z0m Z< Z< en05000222. 181 Application manual . the protection is underreaching with approximately 20%. the equivalent zero sequence circuit of the parallel lines will be according to figure 66.303 Ω/km.vsd DOCUMENT11520-IMG867 V1 EN Figure 66: The parallel line is out of service and earthed When the parallel line is out of service and earthed at both ends on the bus bar side of the line CT so that zero sequence current can flow on the parallel line. gives with X1L=0. where we for simplicity have excluded the resistance. But when the reach is reduced at one line end.p ÷ø ú è ê Z = p × Z1L ê ú Iph + 3I 0 × KN ê ú ë û (Equation 114) EQUATION1379 V2 EN Calculation for a 400 kV line. X0L=0. The zero-sequence mutual coupling can reduce the reach of distance protection on the protected circuit when the parallel line is in normal operation.88 Ω/km. So this 15% reach reduction does not significantly affect the operation of a permissive underreach scheme. it is proportionally increased at the opposite line end. zone 1 reach is set to 90% of the line reactance p=71% that is. This reach reduction is normally less than 15%. The reduction of the reach is most pronounced with no infeed in the line IED closest to the fault.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C If we finally divide equation 113 with equation 108 we can draw the impedance present to the IED as éæ 3I 0 × p ö ù ê ç Iph + KN × 3I 0 + KNm × ú 2 .

since it reduces the reach considerably when the line is in operation. It is recommended to use a separate setting group for this operation condition. mutual reactance X0m.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Z 0 Zm0 I0 A Zm0 I0 C Z 0 Zm0 B 99000039. All expressions below are proposed for practical use. 2 Z 0E 0 Z 0 . They consider only the zero-sequence. mutual resistance R0m equals to zero. They assume the value of zero sequence.Z 0m = Z0 EQUATION2002 V2 EN (Equation 115) The influence on the distance measurement can be a considerable overreach. which must be considered when calculating the settings.2 0 m 2 ÷ è R0 + X 0 ø DOCUMENT11520-IMG3503 V1 EN (Equation 117) 182 Application manual .vsd DOCUMENT11520-IMG7100 V1 EN Figure 67: Equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for the double-circuit line that operates with one circuit disconnected and earthed at both ends Here the equivalent zero sequence impedance is equal to Z0-Z0m in parallel with (Z0-Z0m)/Z0-Z0m+Z0m which is equal to equation 115. æ X 2 ö R0 E = R0 · ç1 + 2 0 m 2 ÷ è R0 + X 0 ø DOCUMENT11520-IMG3502 V1 EN (Equation 116) æ X 2 ö X 0 E = X 0 · ç1 . Calculate the equivalent X0E and R0E zero-sequence parameters according to equation 116 and equation 117 for each particular line section and use them for calculating the reach for the underreaching zone.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Parallel line out of service and not earthed A B Z0m Z< Z< en05000223. In practice.vsd IEC99000040 V1 EN Figure 69: Equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for a double-circuit line with one circuit disconnected and not earthed The reduction of the reach is equal to equation 118. The line zero-sequence mutual impedance does not influence the measurement of the distance protection in a faulty circuit. This means that the reach of the underreaching distance protection zone is reduced if. If the real and imaginary components of the constant A are equal to equation 119 and equation 120.vsd IEC05000223 V1 EN Figure 68: Parallel line is out of service and not earthed When the parallel line is out of service and not earthed. the zero sequence on that line can only flow through the line admittance to the earth. the equivalent zero sequence impedance is set according to the conditions when the parallel system is out of operation and earthed at both ends. due to operating conditions. ( ( ) ) 1 2 × 2 × Z1 + Z 0 E + R f Zm0 3 KU = = 11 Z 0 × 2 × Z 1 + Z 0 + 3R f × 2 × Z1 + Z 0 + R f 3 EQUATION1284 V1 EN ( ) (Equation 118) This means that the reach is reduced in reactive and resistive directions. The line admittance is high which limits the zero sequence current on the parallel line to very low values. 183 Application manual . the equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit for faults at the remote bus bar can be simplified to the circuit shown in figure 68. I0 A Z0 Z0m Z0m I0 C Z0 Z0m B 99000040.

( ) Im K U = ( ) é Re ( A ) ù + é Im ( A ) ù ë û ë û Im A × X m 0 2 2 EQUATION1288 V2 EN 2 (Equation 122) Ensure that the underreaching zones from both line ends will overlap a sufficient amount (at least 10%) in the middle of the protected circuit.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Re( A ) = R 0 × (2 × R1 + R 0 + 3 × Rf ) . ( ) Re K U = 1 + ( ) é Re ( A ) ù + é Im ( A ) ù ë û ë û Re A × X m 0 2 2 2 (Equation 121) EQUATION1287 V2 EN The imaginary component of the same factor is equal to equation 122. Tapped line application 184 Application manual .X 0 × ( X 0 + 2 × X 1) (Equation 119) EQUATION1285 V1 EN Im( A ) = X 0 × (2 × R1 + R0 + 3 × R1 ) + R0 × (2 × X 1 + X 0 ) (Equation 120) EQUATION1286 V1 EN The real component of the KU factor is equal to equation 121.

For example. For this example with a fault between T and B. increased measured impedance due to fault current infeed.vsd DOCUMENT11524-IMG869 V1 EN Figure 70: Example of tapped line with Auto transformer This application gives rise to similar problem that was highlighted in section "Fault infeed from remote end" that is. for faults between the T point and B station the measured impedance at A and C is as follows: ZA =ZAT + IA + IC ·ZTF IA (Equation 123) DOCUMENT11524-IMG3509 V2 EN ZC = ZTrf + ( ZCT + U2 IA + IC ·ZTF) ·( )2 U1 IC (Equation 124) DOCUMENT11524-IMG3510 V2 EN Where: ZAT and ZCT is the line impedance from the B respective C station to the T point. the measured impedance from the T point to the fault can be increased by a factor defined as the sum of the currents 185 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C A IA IB B T Z< Z< IC -IB Z< C en05000224. IA and IC is fault current from A respective C station for fault between T and B. U2/U1 Transformation ratio for transformation of impedance at U1 side of the transformer to the measuring side U2 (it is assumed that current and voltage distance function is taken from U2 side of the transformer).

Generally for this type of application it is difficult to select settings of zone1 that both gives overlapping of the zones with enough sensitivity without interference with other zone1 settings that is. the impedances of the protected object and the fault location. Careful fault calculations are necessary to determine suitable settings and selection of proper scheme communication. depending on the source impedance behind the IEDs. it might be necessary to accept zone2 trip in one end or sequential trip in one end. given that the distance protection in B to T will measure wrong direction. In practice. The generated reactive power provided by the capacitor is continuously proportional to the square of the current flowing at the same time through the compensated line and series 186 Application manual . The principle is based on compensation of distributed line reactance by insertion of series capacitor (SC). Consider approximately three-times arc foot spacing for the zone 2 and wind speed of approximately 50 km/h I is the actual fault current in A. This equation applies for the distance protection zone 1.4 EQUATION1456 V1 EN (Equation 125) where: L represents the length of the arc (in meters). In three-end application. and tower-footing resistance. for faults at T the current from B might go in reverse direction from B to C depending on the system parameters (as shown in the dotted line in figure 70). resistance of a tower construction. At these faults. because normally more than 70% of the faults on transmission lines are single phase-to-earth faults. the impedance on the high voltage side U1 has to be transferred to the measuring voltage level by the transformer ratio. Series compensation in power systems The main purpose of series compensation in power systems is virtual reduction of line reactance in order to enhance the power system stability and increase loadability of transmission corridors. Fault resistance The performance of distance protection for single phase-to-earth faults is very important. without selectivity conflicts. Another complication that might occur depending on the topology is that the current from one end can have a reverse direction for fault on the protected line. For the IED at C.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C from T point to the fault divided by the IED current. the setting of fault resistance for both phase-to-earth (RFPE) and phaseto-phase (RFPP) must be as high as possible without interfering with the load impedance to obtain reliable fault detection. For example. the fault resistance is composed of three parts: arc resistance. The arc resistance can be calculated according to Warrington's formula: Rarc = 28707 × L I1.

as shown in figure 71.vsd IEC06000585 V1 EN Figure 71: A simple radial power system 187 Application manual . This means that the series capacitor has a self-regulating effect. instantaneous and continuous. the contribution of the series capacitor increases and therefore the system voltage at the receiving line end can be regulated. The effect of series compensation is in this particular case obvious and self explanatory. the voltage drop on the series capacitor is lower. KC = XC X Line (Equation 126) EQUATION1895 V1 EN A typical 500 km long 500 kV line is considered with source impedance Z SA1 = 0 (Equation 127) EQUATION1896 V1 EN A EA ~ B Z SA1 Power line Load Seires capacitor en06000585. When the loading increases and the voltage drop become larger. When the system loading increases. The response of SCs is automatic. Figure 72 presents the voltage dependence at receiving bus B (as shown in figure 71) on line loading and compensation degree KC. Series compensation also extends the region of voltage stability by reducing the reactance of the line and consequently the SC is valuable for prevention of voltage collapse. The main benefits of incorporating series capacitors in transmission lines are: • • • • • • Steady state voltage regulation and raise of voltage collapse limit Increase power transfer capability by raising the transient stability limit Improved reactive power balance Increase in power transfer capacity Active load sharing between parallel circuits and loss reduction Reduced costs of power transmission due to decreased investment costs for new power lines Steady state voltage regulation and increase of voltage collapse limit A series capacitor is capable of compensating the voltage drop of the series inductance in a transmission line. which is defined according to equation 126.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C capacitor. During low loading. the reactive power generated by series capacitors increases as well. the system voltage drop is lower and at the same time.

50 and 70% of compensation Increased power transfer capability by raising the first swing stability limit Consider the simple one-machine and infinite bus system shown in figure 73. the system cannot get back to equilibrium and the synchronism is lost. After reclosing of the system. 188 Application manual . the mechanical input power to the generator (PMech) is equal to the electrical output power from the generator (PE ) and the generator angle is d0. 30.vsd IEC06000587 V1 EN Figure 73: One machine and infinite bus system The equal-areas criterion is used to show the effectiveness of a series capacitor for improvement of first swing transient stability (as shown in figure 74). the electrical output of the generator reduces to zero. This means that the speed of the generator increases and the angle difference between the generator and the infinite bus increases during the fault.vsd IEC06000586 V1 EN Figure 72: Voltage profile for a simple radial power line with 0. once without SC and once with series compensation. The first swing stability and the stability margin can be evaluated by studying the different areas in figure 74 for the same system. the angle difference has increased to δC. A PMech EA ~ ZSA1 B -jXC System +jXLine en06000587. At the time of fault clearing. If a 3phase fault occurs at a point near the machine. The areas under the corresponding P – δ curves correspond to energy and the system remains stable if the accelerating energy that the generator picks up during the fault is lower than the decelerating energy that is transferred across the transmission line during the first system swing upon fault clearing. the transmitted power exceeds the mechanical input power and the generator deaccelerates. The generator decelerates as long as equal area condition AACC=ADEC has not been fulfilled. The critical condition for post-fault system stability is that the angular displacement after fault clearing and during the deceleration does not exceed its critical limit δCR. because if it does. In steady state.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 500 U limit P70 P0 200 P50 300 P30 U[kV] 400 100 0 200 400 600 800 1000 P[MW] 1200 1400 1600 1800 en06000586.

It is thus a self-regulating device. The stability margin is given by the difference between the available decelerating energy (area between the P (δ) and PMech and the angular difference between δC and δCR ) and the accelerating energy. Notice that a substantial increase in the stability margin is obtained by installing a series capacitor.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C P [ pu ] with SC P [ pu ] without SC A SM A DEC A DEC PMech A SM P Mech AACC 0 AACC C EA CR 0 C EA CR en06000588. The series compensation can improve the situation in two ways. which improves voltage regulation and reduces the need for other means of voltage control for example. shunt compensation. The reactive power balance of a series compensated line is shown in figure 75 as an example for 500 km long 500 kV transmission line with 50% compensation degree. It is represented in figure 74 by the area ASM. Improve reactive power balance A series capacitor increases its output of reactive power instantaneously. it can decrease the initial angle difference δ0 corresponding to a certain power transfer and it also shifts the P – δ curve upwards.vsd IEC06000588 V1 EN Figure 74: Equal area criterion and first swing stability without and with series compensation This means that the system is stable if AACC ≤ (ADEC + ASM). 189 Application manual . continuously and automatically with increasing line load.

) 400 600 Transmission Line 800 500 kV 500 km (T. The power transfer on the transmission line is given by the equation 128: P= U A × U B × sin (d ) X Line . 190 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Q (Mvar) 600 (S.L.) Series Compensation k = 50 % 1000 en06000589.K C ) (Equation 128) EQUATION1897 V1 EN The compensation degree Kc is defined as equation 126 UA A PA QA B -jX C UA +jXL UB DU UB PB QB d en06000590. + S.) 400 Capacitive 200 500 200 Inductive 1000 1500 Power flow (MW) (T.vsd IEC06000590 V1 EN Figure 76: Transmission line with series capacitor The effect on the power transfer when considering a constant angle difference (δ) between the line ends is illustrated in figure 77. Transmission capability increases of more than two times can be obtained in practice.C.X C = U A × U B × sin ( d ) X Line × (1 .L.vsd IEC06000589 V1 EN Figure 75: Self-regulating effect of reactive power balance Increase in power transfer The increase in power transfer capability as a function of the degree of compensation for a transmission line can be explained by studying the circuit shown in figure 76. Practical compensation degree runs from 20 to 70 percent.C.

vsd IEC06000593 V1 EN Figure 78: Two parallel lines with series capacitor for optimized load sharing and loss reduction To minimize the losses.X C X L2 EQUATION1899 V1 EN = RL1 RL 2 (Equation 129) Reduced costs of power transmission due to decreased investment costs for new power line As shown in figure 77 the line loading can easily be increased 1.3 0. as shown in figure 78. the series capacitor must be installed in the transmission line with the lower resistance.6 0. A properly designed series compensation system can considerably reduce the total transmission system losses. The cost of series compensation is small compared to the cost of a transmission line. while the losses are determined by the resistance.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Multiple of power over a non-compensated line Powe r tra nsfe r with co ns ta nt a ng le diffe re nce 3.2 0. -jXC RL1 jXL1 Line 1 jXL2 R L2 Line 2 en06000593.7 Degree of compensation en06000592.5 Inc re a se in powe r tra ns fe r 3 2. The size of the series capacitor that minimizes the total losses is given the following expression: X L1 . When evaluating the cost of a 191 Application manual . Thus.5 2 1.4 0.5-2 times by series compensation. The compensation of transmission lines with sufficient thermal capacity can relieve the possible overloading of other parallel lines.5 D e gre e of se rie s c ompe nsa tio n [%] 0.5 1 0 0.vsd IEC06000592 V1 EN Figure 77: Increase in power transfer over a transmission line depending on degree of series compensation Active load sharing between parallel circuits and loss reduction A series capacitor can be used to control the distribution of active power between parallel transmission circuits. This distribution is governed by the reactance.1 0. the required number of transmission lines needed for a certain power transfer can be significantly reduced.

A TSSC typically consists of a few segments in series that can be inserted independently of each other in order to achieve different total series capacitor reactance.vsd IEC06000594 V1 EN Figure 79: Series compensation is an important alternative to new transmission lines Advancements in series compensation using thyristor switching technology A thyristor switched series capacitor (TSSC) can be used for power flow control. the same increase in power transmission for up to 90% reduced costs In many cases. the only practical way to increase the transmission capacity of a corridor Series compensation shortens the lead times Environmental impact • • • EA ~ ~ Series compensation EB New transmission line en06000594. as shown in figure 80. -jXC -jX C Fw Rv -jXC Fw Rv Fw Rv en06000595. This is performed by changing the reactance of the transmission circuit in discrete steps. adjacent lines should be considered.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C transmission system upgrade also the cost of secondary equipment such as eventual upgrading of line protections on the compensated as well as.vsd IEC06000595 V1 EN Figure 80: Thyristor switched series capacitor 192 Application manual . The main advantages of series compensation against the new transmission line within the same corridor are: • Significantly reduced investment costs.

1 0. The capacitor bank for each phase is mounted on a platform providing full insulation towards earth.16 0. 193 Application manual .18 0.06 0. The capacitor bank may have a value of for example.06 0.02 0.vsd IEC06000597 V1 EN Figure 82: TCSC wave forms presented in capacitive boost mode for a typical 50Hz system The apparent impedance of the TCSC (the impedance seen by the power system) can typically be increased to up to 3 times the physical impedance of the capacitor.30 Ω/phase and a rated continuous current of 1500.16 0..08 0.16 0.02 0 -5 UC 0 -20 -40 en06000597.04 0.2 0 0.12 0.12 0.2 0 0.08 0..08 0.14 0.1 0.1 0. 10.04 0.04 0.12 0.02 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C -jXC IL + - UC jXL IV FW Rv en06000596.2 0 -50 0 XC 0.3000 A.06 0.14 0.04 0.. This is achieved by adding current through the capacitor via the parallel thyristor valve path see figure 81.16 0.2 0 0. 2 IL 0 -2 5 IV 50 0.02 0. The inductor is an air-core reactor with a few mH inductance.vsd IEC06000596 V1 EN Figure 81: Thyristor controlled series capacitor IL Line current IV Current through the thyristor UC Voltage over the series capacitor XC Rated reactance of the series capacitor A thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) allows continuous control of the series capacitor reactance.14 0. The wave forms of a TCSC in capacitive boost mode are shown in figure 82. The thyristor valve contains a string of series connected high power thyristors with a maximum total blocking voltage in the range of hundreds of kV.08 0.18 0. The main circuit of the TCSC consists of a capacitor bank and a thyristor controlled inductive branch connected in parallel.14 0.1 0..06 0.18 0.12 0.18 0.

Both operation in capacitive boost mode and valve bypass mode can be used for damping of power swings.6 2. overload 10s overload -0. phase comparison protection.4 0.2 Continuous 0 30 min. It is supposed that modern communication and state of the art computer technologies provides good basis for the required solution.2 E -0.4 A 1. Imperatriz TCSC. Different physical phenomena.8 2. The most important challenges. Operating range 3. non conventional solution of certain operation and stability problems.2 B D C 3 2. 194 Application manual .vsd IEC06000598 V1 EN Figure 83: Operating range of a TCSC installed for damping of power oscillations (example) During continuous valve bypass the TCSC represents an inductive impedance of about 20% of the capacitor impedance. which influence conventional principles of IED protection.6 1. like distance protection.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C see figure 83.8 1.2 1 0.6 0.2 Continuous 2 10s 30 min Xtcsc/Xc (pu) 1.8 0. which influence the operation of different protection functions in the greatest extent. are described in this chapter. when deciding for a particular. This applies also to protection issues in series compensated networks. Some other issues. like influence of controlled thyristors in series capacitor banks are getting increased importance. although not as high as they would deserve. The utilization of valve bypass increases the dynamic range of the TCSC and improves the TCSC effectiveness in power oscillation damping.4 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 G F 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000 Bypass mode Series5 Line current (Arms) en06000598. are well known and accordingly considered in IED design. Challenges in protection of series compensated and adjacent power lines System planning does not consider any more possible protection issues and difficulties.4 2. This high apparent reactance will mainly be used for damping of power oscillations.

The fault current IF (see figure 85) is increased due to the series capacitor. The situation changes with series capacitor included in circuit between the IED point and the fault position.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Voltage and current inversion Series capacitors influence the magnitude and the direction of fault currents in series compensated networks. The reactive voltage drop D UL on XL1 line impedance leads the current by 90 degrees.X C ) EQUATION1901 V1 EN (Equation 130) 195 Application manual . Figure 85 presents the corresponding phasor diagrams for the cases with bypassed and fully inserted series capacitor. The voltage measurement is supposed to be on the bus side. Voltage distribution on faulty lossless serial compensated line from fault point F to the bus is linearly dependent on distance from the bus. so that series capacitor appears between the IED point and fault on the protected line. which have their operation based on properties of measured voltage and current phasors. The resulting voltage UM in IED point is this way proportional to sum of voltage drops on partial impedances between the IED point and the fault position F. Note that line impedance XL1 could be divided into two parts: one between the IED point and the capacitor and one between the capacitor and the fault position. if there is no capacitor included in scheme (as shown in figure 85). They consequently influence phase angles of voltages measured in different points of series compensated networks and this performances of different protection functions. as presented by U M = I F × j ( X L1 . generally decreases total impedance between the sources and the fault. Voltage inversion Figure 84 presents a part of series compensated line with reactance XL1 between the IED point and the fault in point F of series compensated line. Voltage drop DUC on series capacitor lags the fault current by 90 degrees. Voltage UM measured at the bus is equal to voltage drop D UL on the faulty line and lags the current IF by 90 electrical degrees.

vsd IEC06000606 V1 EN Figure 85: Phasor diagrams of currents and voltages for the bypassed and inserted series capacitor during voltage inversion It is obvious that voltage UM will lead the fault current IF as long as XL1> XC. This situation corresponds. from the directionality point of view. The most known effect has voltage 196 Application manual . to fault conditions on line without series capacitor. Its consequences on operation of different protections in series compensated networks depend on their operating principle. It is a common practice to call this phenomenon voltage inversion.vsd IEC06000605 V1 EN US xUS US Voltage inversion on series compensated line xUS Figure 84: With inserted capacitor U’M=xU L x UL With bypassed capacitor UM IF x UC IF en06000606.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C With bypassed capacitor Source voltage With inserted capacitor Pre -fault voltage U’ M Fault voltage UM U Source XL1 XS ~ F XC IF Z< en06000605. Voltage UM in IED point will lag the fault current IF in case when: X L1 < X C < X S + X L1 EQUATION1902 V1 EN (Equation 131) Where XS is the source impedance behind the IED The IED point voltage inverses its direction due to presence of series capacitor and its dimension.

The resultant reactance is of capacitive nature in the second case.X C + X L1 > 0 X S .vsd IEC06000607 V1 EN Figure 86: Current inversion on series compensated line The relative phase position of fault current IF compared to the source voltage US depends in general on the character of the resultant reactance between the source and the fault position. Current inversion Figure 86 presents part of a series compensated line with corresponding equivalent voltage source. when the capacitor is bypassed either by spark gap or by the bypass switch. Fault current will for this reason lead the source voltage by 90 electrical degrees.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C inversion on directional measurement of distance IEDs (see chapter "Distance protection" for more details). Source voltage With inserted capacitor U UM Pre -fault voltage With bypassed capacitor U’ M Fault voltage Source XL1 XS ~ XC IF Z< F en06000607. as shown in phasor diagram in figure 87. because it appears again for faults on the bus side of IED point. The allocation of VTs to the line side does not eliminate the phenomenon. The system conditions are in such case presented by equation 133 197 Application manual . The resultant reactance is in this case of inductive nature and the fault currents lags source voltage by 90 electrical degrees. which must for this reason comprise special measures against this phenomenon. Series capacitor may change the situation. There will be no voltage inversion phenomena for reverse faults in system with VTs located on the bus side of series capacitor. It is generally anticipated that fault current IF flows on noncompensated lines from power source towards the fault F on the protected line. Two possibilities appear: X S .X C + X L1 < 0 EQUATION1935 V1 EN (Equation 132) The first case corresponds also to conditions on non compensated lines and in cases. which means that reactive current will flow from series compensated line to the system.

Directional comparison protections. which are not common in non-compensated systems.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X C > X S + X L1 (Equation 133) US HUS With inserted capacitor IF IF HUL U’M=HU L With bypassed capacitor HUC UM HUS US EQUATION1936 V1 EN en06000608. Figure 88 presents a simplified picture of a series compensated network with basic 198 Application manual . which cannot be used for the protection of series compensated lines with possible current inversion.vsd IEC06000608 V1 EN Figure 87: Phasor diagrams of currents and voltages for the bypassed and inserted series capacitor during current inversion It is a common practice to call this phenomenon current inversion. XL1 = 0 for faults just behind the capacitor when located at line IED and only the source impedance prevents current inversion. delayed operation of spark gaps as well as. Current inversion has been considered for many years only a theoretical possibility due to relatively low values of source impedances (big power plants) compared to the capacitor reactance. Current inversion in zero sequence systems with low zero sequence source impedance (a number of power transformers connected in parallel) must be considered as practical possibility in many modern networks. Equation 133 shows also big dependence of possible current inversion on series compensated lines on location of series capacitors. The most known effect has current inversion on operation of distance IEDs (as shown in section "Distance protection" for more details). based on residual (zero sequence) and negative sequence currents should be considered in studies as well. These oscillations have frequencies lower than the rated system frequency and may cause delayed increase of fault currents. The most obvious difference is generally seen in fault currents. delayed operation of protective IEDs. Low frequency transients Series capacitors introduce in power systems oscillations in currents and voltages. The current inversion phenomenon should not be studied only for the purposes of protection devices measuring phase currents. The possibility for current inversion in modern networks is increasing and must be studied carefully during system preparatory studies. Its consequences on operation of different protections in series compensated networks depend on their operating principle.

t × LL iL = × sin (w × t + l . We study the basic performances for the same network with and without series capacitor.vsd IEC06000609 V1 EN Figure 88: Simplified equivalent scheme of SC network during fault conditions We consider the instantaneous value of generator voltage following the sine wave according to equation 134 eG = EG × sin (w × t + l ) (Equation 134) EQUATION1904 V1 EN The basic loop differential equation describing the circuit in figure 88 without series capacitor is presented by equation 135 LL × diL + RL × iL = EG × sin (w × t + l ) dt (Equation 135) EQUATION1905 V1 EN The solution over line current is presented by group of equations 136 R L EG EG é ù . which magnitude depends on the fault incident angle decays with the circuit time constant LL RL [ s ] EQUATION1907 V1 EN (Equation 137) 199 Application manual .j ) ú × e Z Z ë û Z = RL 2 + (w × LL ) 2 æ w × LL ö j = atg ç ÷ è RL ø EQUATION1906 V1 EN (Equation 136) The line fault current consists of two components: • • The steady-state component which magnitude depends on generator voltage and absolute value of impedance included in the circuit The transient DC component.j ) + ê I L ( t = 0) × sin ( l .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C line parameters during fault conditions. i L(t) eG (t) RL -jXC jXL ~ F en06000609. Possible effects of spark gap flashing or MOV conducting are neglected. The time dependence of fault currents and the difference between them are of interest.

which diminishes completely in approximately 120ms. which in fact increases the magnitude of the fault current The transient part consists of the damped oscillation. The fault current consists also here from the steady-state part and the transient part.G ê 2 Z SC 1 ê ú K2 = b × LL ê EG × RL ú ê . but comprises at the beginning only a transient DC component.j ) E × w × LL R é ù × cos ( l .j ) ú ë û SC a= b= RL 2 × LL 1 LL × C L EQUATION1909 V1 EN - RL2 4 × L2L (Equation 139) The transient part has an angular frequency b and is damped out with the timeconstant α. d 2il di 1 LL × 2 + RL × L + iL (t ) = EG × w × cos (w × t + l ) dt dt C L (Equation 138) EQUATION1908 V1 EN The solution over line current is in this case presented by group of equations 139.j ) + [ K1 × cos ( b × t ) + K 2 × sin ( b × t )] × e -a ×t æ 1 ö = RL + ç w × LL ÷ w × CL ø è 2 2 K1 = I L ( t = 0) - EG Z SC × sin ( l .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The basic loop differential equation describing the circuit in figure 88 with series capacitor is presented by equation 138. The difference with non-compensated conditions is that • • The total loop impedance decreases for the negative reactance of the series capacitor.L × I L ( t = 0) . The final magnitude of the fault current on compensated line is higher due to the decreased apparent impedance of a line (60% 200 Application manual . The short circuit current on a non-compensated line is lower in magnitude. which has an angular frequency b and is dying out with a time constant a iL = Z SC EG Z SC × sin (w × t + l .ú EG × sin ( l ) . The difference in performance of fault currents for a three-phase short circuit at the end of a typical 500 km long 500 kV line is presented in figure 89.2 × Z × sin ( l .U C ( t = 0) .j ) .

The increase of fault current immediately after the fault incidence (on figure 89 at approximately 21ms) is much slower than on non-compensated line. .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C compensation degree has been considered for a particular case). but the low frequency oscillation is also obvious.16 0. Figure 90 shows schematically the possible locations of instrument transformers related to the position of line-end series capacitor. 10 I[pu] 5 0 0. which need for their operation information on voltage in IED point.18 0.12 0.vsd IEC06000611 V1 EN Figure 90: Possible positions of instrument transformers relative to line end series capacitor Bus side instrument transformers 201 Application manual .04 0. It is on the other hand necessary to point out the particular dependence of those protection schemes. This occurs due to the energy stored in capacitor before the fault. Protection schemes with their operating principle depending on current measurement only.1 0.06 0.14 0. like line current differential protection are relatively independent on CT location.08 0.02 0.jX C CT 1 VT1 CT 2 VT 2 en06000611.vsd IEC06000610 V1 EN Figure 89: Short circuit currents for the fault at the end of 500 km long 500 kV line without and with SC Location of instrument transformers Location of instrument transformers relative to the line end series capacitors plays an important role regarding the dependability and security of a complete protection scheme.2 5 10 t[ms ] en06000610.

It is for this reason absolutely necessary to study the possible effect on operation of zero sequence directional earth-fault overcurrent protection before its installation. 202 Application manual . The advantage of such installation is that the protection zone covers also the series capacitor as a part of protected power line. Distance IEDs are exposed especially to voltage inversion for close-in reverse faults. Distance protection zone 1 may be active in most applications. More common are installations with line side VT2 and bus side CT1. They appear as de facto installations also in switchyards with double-bus double-breaker and 1½ breaker arrangement. Line side instrument transformers CT2 and VT2 on figure 90 represent the case with line side instrument transformers. In such case it is recommended to use the VTs for each particular protection function to best suit its specific characteristics and expectations on dependability and security. The advantage of such schemes is that the unit protections cover also for shunt faults in series capacitors and at the same time the voltage inversion does not appear for faults on the protected line. Apparent impedances and MOV influence Series capacitors reduce due to their character the apparent impedance measured by distance IEDs on protected power lines. The protective devices will not be exposed to voltage and current inversion for faults on the protected line. The effect of negative apparent reactance must be studied seriously in case of reverse directed distance protection zones used by distance IEDs for teleprotection schemes. which decreases the required dependability. In addition to this may series capacitor cause negative apparent impedance to distance IEDs on protected and adjacent lines as well for close-in line faults (see also figure 92 LOC=0%). The protection devices are in this case exposed to possible voltage and current inversion for line faults. so that line protection will detect and cleared also parallel faults on series capacitor.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C CT1 and VT1 on figure 90 represent the case with bus side instrument transformers. which requires special design of distance measuring elements to cope with such phenomena. Figure 91 presents typical locations of capacitor banks on power lines together with corresponding compensation degrees. which is not the case when the bus side instrument transformers are used. Distance IED near the feeding bus will see in different cases fault on remote end bus depending on type of overvoltage protection used on capacitor bank (spark gap or MOV) and SC location on protected power line. Many installations with line-end series capacitors have available voltage instrument transformers on both sides. which decreases the security. which increases the dependability. Series capacitors located between the voltage instruments transformers and the buses reduce the apparent zero sequence source impedance and may cause voltage as well as current inversion in zero sequence equivalent networks for line faults. The line side VT can for example be used by the distance protection and the bus side VT by the directional residual OC earth fault protection. Dual side instrument transformers Installations with line side CT2 and bus side VT1 are not very common.

because they either flash over or not. 66% LOC = 100% jX KC = 50% LOC = 50% jX KC = 80% LOC = 0% jX KC = 0% R R en06000613.vsd IEC06000613 V1 EN Figure 92: Apparent impedances seen by distance IED for different SC locations and spark gaps used for overvoltage protection 203 Application manual . The apparent impedance corresponds to the impedance of non-compensated line. as shown in figure 92 case KC = 0%.vsd IEC06000612 V1 EN Figure 91: Typical locations of capacitor banks on series compensated line Implementation of spark gaps for capacitor overvoltage protection makes the picture relatively simple. jX jX R R KC = 2 x 33% R KC = 80% LOC = 33%.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 0% EA 50 % 33 % 66 % 100 % ~ K C = 80% 33% 50 % 33 % 80 % Z< en06000612.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C M OV iM iL iC -jXC uC MOV protected series capacitor 20 100 10 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 40 50 60 50 10 20 0 60 100 Line current as a function of time Capacitor voltage as a function of time 20 20 10 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 60 10 20 30 40 50 60 10 10 20 20 Capacitor current as a function of time MOV current as a function of time en06000614. The remote end compensation has the same effect. The voltage inversion occurs in cases when the capacitor reactance between the IED point and fault appears bigger than the corresponding line reactance. if no special measures have been introduced in its design. The situation differs when metal oxide varistors (MOV) are used for capacitor overvoltage protection. 80% compensation at local end.L “A Linearized Model for MOV-Protected series capacitors” Paper 86SM357– 8 IEEE/PES summer meeting in Mexico City July 1986) have resulted in 204 Application manual . A voltage inversion occurs in IED point and the distance IED will see wrong direction towards the fault. for the difference of spark gaps. when the spark gap does not flash over. D. Here it is necessary to distinguish between two typical cases: • • Series capacitor only reduces the apparent impedance. see figure 93. only when the instantaneous voltage drop over the capacitor becomes higher than the protective voltage level in each half-cycle separately. but it does not cause wrong directional measurement. Such cases are presented in figure 92 for 50% compensation at 50% of line length and 33% compensation located on 33% and 66% of line length. as presented for typical cases in figure 92. MOVs conduct current. Goldsworthy. Extensive studies at Bonneville Power Administration in USA ( ref. Figure 23.vsd IEC06000614 V1 EN Figure 93: MOV protected capacitor with examples of capacitor voltage and corresponding currents The impedance apparent to distance IED is always reduced for the amount of capacitive reactance included between the fault and IED point.

The later is defined by equation 140. Their value depends on complete line (fault) current and protection factor kp. divaded by √2 jX UMOV =2 I Kp × In R R = 10 R en06000615. • Series capacitor prevails the scheme as long as the line current remains lower or equal to its protective current level (I £ kp · INC). for phase to earth fault measurement as well as for phase to phase measurement.vsd IEC06000615 V1 EN Figure 94: Equivalent impedance of MOV protected capacitor in dependence of protection factor KP Figure 94 presents three typical cases for series capacitor located at line end (case LOC=0% in figure 92). which corresponds to approximately 36% of capacitor reactance when the line current equals two times the protective current level (I £ 2· kp· INC). Line apparent impedance is in this case reduced for the complete reactance of a series capacitor. kp = U MOV U NC (Equation 140) EQUATION1910 V1 EN Where is the rated voltage in RMS of the series capacitor I Kp × In £1 I Kp × In jX UNC jX is the maximum instantaneous voltage expected between the capacitor immediately before the MOV has conducted or during operation of the MOV. This information has high importance for setting of distance protection IED reach in resistive direction. • Series capacitor becomes nearly completely bridged by MOV when the line current becomes higher than 10-times the protective current level (I £ 10· kp· INC). 205 Application manual . • 50% of capacitor reactance appears in series with resistance.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C construction of a non-linear equivalent circuit with series connected capacitor and resistor.

X C ) + I B × jX LB (Equation 141) EQUATION1911 V1 EN Further development of equation 141 gives the following expressions: é æ ë è U B = jI B × ê X LB + ç 1 + ù ÷ × ( X LF . Line impedance XLF between D bus and the fault becomes equal to zero. especially if on one hand the compensated line is very 206 Application manual . bigger the apparent series capacitor in a complete series compensated network.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Impact of series compensation on protective IED of adjacent lines Voltage inversion is not characteristic for the buses and IED points closest to the series compensated line only.X C ) ú IB ø û IA ö (Equation 142) EQUATION1912 V1 EN X C (U B = 0 ) = EQUATION1913 V1 EN X LB + X LF I 1+ A IB (Equation 143) Equation 142 indicates the fact that the infeed current IA increases the apparent value of capacitive reactance in system: bigger the infeed of fault current. EA ~ ZSA UA IA UD ZLA A -jX C IF EB ~ ZSB UB F ZLF IB ZLB B D en06000616. It is also obvious that the position of series capacitor on compensated line influences in great extent the deepness of voltage inversion in adjacent system. It can spread also deeper into the network and this way influences the selection of protection devices (mostly distance IEDs) on remote ends of lines adjacent to the series compensated circuit.vsd IEC06000616 V1 EN Figure 95: Voltage inversion in series compensated network due to fault current infeed Voltage at the B bus (as shown in figure 95) is calculated for the loss-less system according to the equation below. U B = U D + I B × jX LB = ( I A + I B ) × j ( X LF . It is possible to say that equation 143 indicates the deepness of the network to which it will feel the influence of series compensation through the effect of voltage inversion. and sometimes even deeper in the network. if the capacitor is installed near the bus and the fault appears just behind the capacitor. This may cause the phenomenon of voltage inversion to be expanded very deep into the adjacent network.

Series compensated and adjacent lines are often the more important links in a transmission networks and delayed fault clearance is undesirable. It requires to correctly estimate their influence on performances of (especially) existing distance IEDs. It is possible that the costs for number of protective devices. Extensive system studies are necessary before final decision is made on implementation and location of series capacitors in network. At the same time this kind of investigation must consider also the maximum sensitivity and possible resistive reach of distance protection devices. Restraining quantity is the system voltage Polarizing quantity shapes the characteristics in different way and is not discussed here. influences the future position of series capacitors in power network. Distance IEDs comprise in their replica impedance only the replicas of line inductance and resistance. and introduction of permanent memory voltage in directional measurement. which apparently decreases the line reactance. Possibilities for voltage inversion at remote buses should not be studied for short circuits with zero fault resistance only. The most common is distance protection in Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip mode (POTT). especially when it comes to directional measurement and transient overreach. and the adjacent lines are. which on the other hand simplifies the problem.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C long with high degree of compensation. is the most used protection principle on series compensated and adjacent lines worldwide. for which spark gaps or MOVs on series capacitors will not conduct at all. This makes it necessary to install distance protection in combination with telecommunication. which may help eliminating the basic reason for wrong measurement. but they do not comprise any replica of series capacitor on the protected line and its protection circuits (spark gap and or MOV). relatively short. on the other hand. It has at the same time caused a lot of challenges to protection society. Different kinds of steady-state network simulations are in such cases unavoidable. Distance protection Distance protection due to its basic characteristics. Quantity 1= Operating quantity .Restraing quantity Quantity 2= Polarizing quantity. which should be replaced by more appropriate ones due to the effect of applied series compensation. Application of MOVs as non-linear elements for capacitor overvoltage protection makes simple calculations often impossible. Distance IED in fact does not measure impedance or quotient between line current and voltage. This way they form wrong picture of the protected line and all “solutions” related to distance protection of series compensated and adjacent lines are concentrated on finding some parallel ways. It is necessary to consider cases with higher fault resistances. Typically Operating quantity is the replica impedance drop. 207 Application manual . The most known of them are decrease of the reach due to presence of series capacitor.

In order to obtain section selectivity. inclusive line and source impedance reactance. as shown in the dashed line in figure 96. Distance protection Zone 1 is often set to X Z 1 = K S × ( X 11 + X 12 . Here it should be noted separately that compensation degree KC in figure 97 relates to total system reactance. presented graphically in figure 97. but must always cover with certain margin the remote end bus. Zone 2 A A B -j X C Zone 1 A X 12 X 11 G Zone 1 B DA DB Zone 2 B en06000618. under all system conditions. the reach with these settings can be less than 50% of protected line dependent on compensation degree and there will be a section.X C ) EQUATION1914 V1 EN (Equation 144) Here KS is a safety factor. cover the same fault. G in figure 96.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Underreaching and overreaching schemes It is a basic rule that the underreaching distance protection zone should under no circumstances overreach for the fault at the remote end bus. but it is still necessary to consider the safety factor KS .vsd IEC06000618 V1 EN Figure 96: Underreaching (Zone 1) and overreaching (Zone 2) on series compensated line The underreaching zone will have reduced reach in cases of bypassed series capacitor. and the overreaching zone should always. which covers for possible overreaching due to low frequency (sub-harmonic) oscillations. If the capacitor is out of service or bypassed. The same setting applies regardless MOV or spark gaps are used for capacitor overvoltage protection. The overreaching zone (Zone 2) can this way cover bigger portion of the protected line. It is possible to remove XC from the equation in cases of VTs installed in line side. of the power line where no tripping occurs from either end. the first distance (underreaching) protection zone must be set to a reach less than the reactance of the compensated line in accordance with figure 96. 208 Application manual . Equation 144 is applicable for the case when the VTs are located on the bus side of series capacitor.

Section 3 IED application KS 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 1. The first underreaching zone can be kept in the total protection but it only has the feature of a back-up protection for close up faults. the negative voltage drop on XC is amplified and a 209 Application manual . Distance protections of adjacent power lines shown in figure 99 are influenced by this negative impedance. Permissive overreaching distance protection or some kind of directional or unit protection must be used.vsd IEC06000620 V1 EN Figure 98: Permissive overreach distance protection scheme Negative IED impedance. The resultant IED impedance seen from the DB IED location to the fault may become negative (voltage inversion) until the spark gap has flashed.6 0. A B . The overreach is usually of the same order as the permissive zone.jX C Permissive Zone A X 12 X 11 Permissive Zone DA B DB en06000620. Figure 98 shows the permissive zones. The overreach must be of an order so it overreaches when the capacitor is bypassed or out of service. When the capacitor is in operation the permissive zone will have a very high degree of overreach which can be considered as a disadvantage from a security point of view.4 0. If the intermediate infeed of short circuit power by other lines is taken into consideration.0 0. positive fault current (voltage inversion) Assume in equation 145 X 11 < X C < X S + X 11 EQUATION1898 V1 EN (Equation 145) and in figure 99 a three phase fault occurs beyond the capacitor.vsd IEC06000619 V1 EN Figure 97: Underreaching safety factor KS in dependence on system compensation degree KC For that reason permissive underreaching schemes can hardly be used as a main protection.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 KC[%] en06000619.8 0.

some directional comparison must also be added to the protection of all adjacent power lines.X 11 ) (Equation 149) EQUATION1918 V1 EN A1 B jX 1 IA1 A2 jX11 jX 2 IA2 A3 IF jX 3 DA1 -jX C F IA3 DB DA2 DA3 en06000621. Impedances seen by distance IEDs on adjacent power lines are presented by equations 146 to 149.vsd IEC06000621 V1 EN Figure 99: Distance IED on adjacent power lines are influenced by the negative impedance Normally the first zone of this protection must be delayed until the gap flashing has taken place. but careful studies must be made for each individual case.X 11 ) I A1 (Equation 147) EQUATION1916 V1 EN X DA 2 = X A 2 - IF I A2 × ( X C . If the delay is not acceptable. Special attention should be paid to selection of distance protection on shorter adjacent power lines in cases of series capacitors located at the line end. a good protection system must be able to operate correctly both before and after gap flashing occurs. I = I1 + I 2 + I 3 (Equation 146) EQUATION1915 V1 EN X DA1 = X A1 - IF × ( X C . The rationale described applies to both conventional spark gap and MOV protected capacitors. In such case the reactance of a short adjacent line may be lower than the capacitor 210 Application manual . if no precaution is taken.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C protection far away from the faulty line can maloperate by its instantaneous operating distance zone. Distance protection can be used.X 11 ) (Equation 148) EQUATION1917 V1 EN X DA 3 = X A 3 - IF I A3 × ( X C . As stated above.

vsd IEC06000625 V1 EN Figure 100: Cross-polarized quadrilateral characteristic en06000584_small. As soon as the spark gap has flashed the situation for protection will be as for an ordinary fault. the fault current will have the same direction as when the capacitor is bypassed. jX jX X 12 X12 R RV X FW X11 X 11 R ZS X RV R R FW XC ZS XC en06000625. and sometimes the fault current will be of such a magnitude that there will not be any flashover and the negative impedance will be sustained. a good protection system should be able to operate correctly before and after gap flashing occurs. If equation 150 X 11 < X C < X S + X 11 (Equation 150) EQUATION1898 V1 EN in figure 100.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C reactance and voltage inversion phenomenon may occur also on remote end of adjacent lines. if there is a memory circuit designed so it covers the negative impedance. So. It usually takes a bit of a time before the spark gap flashes. the negative impedance occurs when 3 × X C > 2 × X 1 _ 11 + X 0 _ 11 EQUATION1919 V1 EN (Equation 151) Cross-polarized distance protection (either with mho or quadrilateral characteristic) will normally handle earth-faults satisfactory if the negative impedance occurs 211 Application manual . However. the directional measurement is correct but the impedance measured is negative and if the characteristic crosses the origin shown in figure 100 the IED cannot operate. However.vsd IEC06000584-SMALL V1 EN Figure 101: Quadrilateral characteristic with separate impedance and directional measurement If the distance protection is equipped with an earth-fault measuring unit. Distance protection of such line must have built-in functionality which applies normally to protection of series compensated lines. a three phase fault can be successfully cleared by the distance protection.

In practice. parallel operating series compensated lines Two parallel power lines running in electrically close vicinity to each other and ending at the same busbar at both ends (as shown in figure 102) causes some challenges for distance protection because of the mutual impedance in the zero sequence system. The current reversal phenomenon also raises problems from the protection point of view. However. if such conditions can occur. Distance IEDs with separate impedance and directional measurement offer additional setting and operational flexibility when it comes to measurement of negative apparent impedance (as shown in figure 101). The operating area for negative impedance depends upon the magnitude of the source impedance and calculations must be made on a case by case basis. The problems described here are accentuated with a three phase or phase-to-phase fault. The negative fault current will cause a high voltage on the network. Therefore. depending upon the setting of the MOV. The condition for a negative current in case of an earth fault can be written as follows: 3 × X C > 2 × X 1_ L1 + X 0 _ L1 + 2 × X 0 _ S + X 1_ S EQUATION1920 V1 EN (Equation 153) All designations relates to figure 86. if a problem with negative fault current exists. particularly when the power lines are short and when permissive overreach schemes are used. because the fault current is less than the setting value of the spark gap. the resultant reactance becomes negative and the fault current will have an opposite direction compared with fault current in a power line without a capacitor (current inversion). The directional element gives the wrong direction. A distance protection cannot operate for negative fault current. Negative IED impedance. The negative direction of the fault current will persist until the spark gap has flashed. negative fault current seldom occurs. 212 Application manual . but the negative fault current can also exist for a single-phase fault. In normal network configurations the gaps will flash in this case.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C inside the characteristic. Sometimes there will be no flashover at all. Double circuit. as shown in figure 100. the fault current will have a resistive component. negative fault current (current inversion) If equation 152 XC > X S + X l1 EQUATION2036 V1 EN (Equation 152) in figure 86 and a fault occurs behind the capacitor. distance protection is not a suitable solution. The situation will be the same even if a MOV is used. A good protection system must be able to cope with both positive and negative direction of the fault current.

The reach of underreaching distance protection zone 1 for phase-to-earth measuring loops must further be decreased for such operating conditions.vsd IEC06000627 V1 EN Figure 102: Double circuit. parallel operating line Zero sequence mutual impedance Zm0 cannot significantly influence the operation of distance protection as long as both circuits are operating in parallel and all precautions related to settings of distance protection on series compensated line have been considered. 213 Application manual . All such operating conditions must carefully be studied in advance and simulated by dynamic simulations in order to fine tune settings of distance IEDs.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C A -jXC ZAC Zm0AC ZAC B ZCB Zm0CB -jXC ZCB en06000627. If the fault occurs in point F of the parallel operating circuits. where this signal will be received as a carrier receive signal CRBB. as presented in figure 104. when one circuit has already been disconnected in one phase and runs non-symmetrical during dead time of single pole autoreclosing cycle. Influence of disconnected parallel circuit. It presents a zero sequence equivalent circuit for a fault at B bus of a double circuit line with one circuit disconnected and earthed at both IEDs. see figure 103.vsd IEC06000628 V1 EN Figure 103: Zero sequence equivalent circuit of a series compensated double circuit line with one circuit disconnected and earthed at both IEDs Zero sequence mutual impedance may disturb also correct operation of distance protection for external evolving faults. on operation of distance protection on operating circuit is known. than also one distance IED (operating in POTT teleprotection scheme) on parallel. which is earthed at both ends. Series compensation additionally exaggerates the effect of zero sequence mutual impedance between two circuits. healthy circuit will send a carrier signal CSAB to the remote line end. A j(X0L -Xm0) -jXC B jXm0 j(X0L -Xm0) -jXC en06000628. The effect of zero sequence mutual impedance on possible overreaching of distance IEDs at A bus is increased compared to non compensated operation. because series capacitor does not compensate for this reactance.

To avoid the unwanted tripping. Distance IED RBB will suddenly detect fault in forward direction and. they can only be used for phase-to-earth and phase-tophase faults. 3. trip its related circuit breaker. if CRBB signal is still present due to long reset time of IED RAB and especially telecommunication equipment. 214 Application manual .vsd IEC06000629 V1 EN Figure 104: Current reversal phenomenon on parallel operating circuits It is possible to expect faster IED operation and breaker opening at the bus closer to fault. since it increases the magnitude of fault current in healthy circuit after the opening of first circuit breaker.6. The disadvantage is that a local communication is needed between two protection devices in the neighboring bays of the same substation. Another method employed is to temporarily block the signals received at the healthy line as soon as the parallel faulty line protection initiates tripping. since all conditions for POTT have been fulfilled. For three-phase faults an additional protection must be provided. However. Current reversal difficulties will be accentuated because the ratio of mutual impedance against self-impedance will be much higher than for a non-compensated line.2 Setting guidelines General The settings for the distance protection function are done in primary values. some manufacturers provide a feature in their distance protection which detects that the fault current has changed in direction and temporarily blocks distance protection. The instrument transformer ratio that has been set for the analog input card is used to automatically convert the measured secondary input signals to primary values used in the distance protection function. The second mentioned method has an advantage in that not the whole protection is blocked for the short period. schemes based on negative sequence quantities offer the advantage that they are insensitive to mutual coupling. The so called current reversal phenomenon may cause unwanted operation of protection on healthy circuit and this way endangers even more the complete system stability. When the capacitors are in service. If non-unit protection is to be used in a directional comparison mode. Zero sequence mutual impedance will additionally influence this process. Distance protection used on series compensated lines must have a high overreach to cover the whole transmission line also when the capacitors are bypassed or out of service. which will reverse the current direction in healthy circuit.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C RAA IFC1 IFC1 RBA RAA IFC1 F RAB IFC2 RBB CSAB RBA F CRBB RAB CSAB IFC2 RBB CRBB en06000629. the overreach will increase tremendously and the whole system will be very sensitive for false teleprotection signals.2.

The zone2 must not be reduced 215 Application manual . depending on application. If the requirements in the bullet—listed paragraphs above gives a zone2 reach less than 120%. The phase impedance of non transposed lines is not identical for all fault loops. when doing the setting calculations: • • • • • • Errors introduced by current and voltage instrument transformers. Setting of zone1 The different errors mentioned earlier usually require a limitation of the underreaching zone (normally zone 1) to 75 . Considering the different errors that might influence the measurement in the same way as for zone1. including the influence of different Z0/Z1 ratios of the various sources. particularly under transient conditions. out of service and not earthed and out of service and earthed in both ends. The effect of infeed between the IED and the fault location. and their effect on the calculated value of the earth-return compensation factor. We recommend to compensate setting for the cases when the parallel line is in operation. the time delay of zone2 must be increased by approximately 200ms to avoid unwanted operation in cases when the telecommunication for the short adjacent line at remote end is down during faults.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The following basics should be considered. the effect must be recognized. it is necessary to increase the reach of the overreaching zone to at least 120% of the protected line. Setting of overreaching zone The first overreaching zone (normally zone2) must detect faults on the whole protected line. The impedance corresponding to the protected line. Inaccuracies in the line zero-sequence impedance data. plus the impedance of the maximum number of transformers operating in parallel on the bus at the remote end of the protected line. Zero-sequence mutual coupling from parallel lines. The difference between the impedances for different phase-to-earth loops can be as large as 5-10% of the total line impedance. consider the influence of the mutual coupling according to section "Parallel line application with mutual coupling" and select the case(s) that are valid in your application. The zone2 reach can be even higher if the fault infeed from adjacent lines at remote end are considerable higher than the fault current at the IED location.90% of the protected line. The setting of earth fault reach should be selected to be <85% also when parallel line is out of service and earthed at both ends (worst case). In case of parallel lines. The effect of a load transfer between the IEDs of the protected fault resistance is considerable. The setting must not exceed 80% of the following impedances: • • The impedance corresponding to the protected line. plus the first zone reach of the shortest adjacent line.

weak-end infeed and so on.2 × ZL-Z2rem EQUATION1525 V4 EN (Equation 155) Where: ZL is the protected line impedance Z2rem is zone2 setting at remote end of protected line. also for the explanation of all abbreviations used). The same applies to the backup protection of the bus bar or power transformers. If a fault occurs at point F (as shown in figure 105. that it always covers the overreaching zone. Consider the possible enlarging factor that might exist due to fault infeed from adjacent lines. 216 Application manual . current reversal logic.vsd IEC05000457 V1 EN Figure 105: Setting of reverse zone The reverse zone is applicable for purposes of scheme communication logic.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C below 120% of the protected line section. used at the remote line IED for the telecommunication purposes. and so on. weak-end-infeed logic. Zrev ³ 1. The requirement that the zone 2 shall not reach more than 80% of the shortest adjacent line at remote end is highlighted with a simple example below. the IED at point A senses the impedance: Z AF = Z AC + æ IB ö IA + IB × Z CF = Z AC + ç 1 + ÷ × Z CF IA è IA ø (Equation 154) EQUATION302 V3 EN Z AC A IA Z CD C Z CF B I A+ IB Z< IB en05000457. The whole line must be covered under all conditions. It is necessary to secure. Equation 155 can be used to calculate the reach in reverse direction when the zone is used for blocking scheme.

shall be used in all IEDs with conventional distance protection (ZMCPDIS. this is however small and can mostly not be used to prevent tripping of a healthy adjacent line. Series compensated and adjacent lines Directional control The directional function (ZDSRDIR) which is able to cope with the condition at voltage reversal. Zone 1 can only be set with a percentage reach to the artificial fault according to the curve in 106 217 Application manual . Different settings of the reach for the zone (ZMCPDIS) characteristic in forward and reverse direction makes it possible to optimize the settings in order to maximize dependability and security for independent zone1. The directional function is controlled by faulty phase criteria. This function is necessary in the protection on compensated lines as well as all non-compensated lines connected to this busbar (adjacent lines).ZMCAPDIS). Setting of the corresponding reach of the impedance measuring elements is separate for reactive and resistive reach and independent of each other for phase-to-earth and for phaseto-phase measurement. An independent tripping zone 1 facing a bus which can be exposed to voltage reversal have to be set with reduced reach with respect to this false fault. It is also necessary to consider the minimum load impedance limiting conditions: Setting of zone 1 A voltage reversal can cause an artificial internal fault (voltage zero) on faulty line as well as on the adjacent lines. All protections that can be exposed to voltage reversal must have the special directional function. including the protections on busbar where the voltage can be reversed by series compensated lines not terminated to this busbar. This artificial fault always have a resistive component. the zone 1 in this station must be blocked. Due to the sub-harmonic oscillation swinging caused by the series capacitor at fault conditions the reach of the under-reaching zone 1 must be further reduced. These criteria must identify all forward and reverse faults that can cause voltage reversal.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C In some applications it might be necessary to consider the enlarging factor due to fault current infeed from adjacent lines in the reverse direction to obtain certain sensitivity. When the fault can move and pass the bus. Protection further out in the net must be set with respect to this apparent fault as the protection at the bus.

218 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C % p 100 80 60 40 20 0 C 20 40 60 80 100 % 99000202. Different settings of the reach for the ph-ph faults and ph-E loops makes it possible to minimise the necessary decrease of the reach for different types of faults. The highest degree of compensation will occur at three phase fault and therefore the calculation need only to be performed for three phase faults. The degree of compensation C in figure 106 has to be interpreted as the relation between series capacitor reactance XC and the total positive sequence reactance X1 to the driving source to the fault. If only the line reactance is used the degree of compensation will be too high and the zone 1 reach unnecessary reduced. It is for this reason possible to calculate a compensation degree separately for the phase-tophase and three-phase faults on one side and for the single phase-to-earth fault loops on the other side. The compensation degree in earth return path is different than in phases.vsd IEC99000202 V1 EN Figure 106: Reduced reach due to the expected sub-harmonic oscillations at different degrees of compensation æX ö c = degree of compensation çç c ÷÷ è Xl ø EQUATION1894 V1 EN (Equation 156) Xc is the reactance of the series capacitor p is the maximum allowable reach for an under-reaching zone with respect to the subharmonic swinging related to the resulting fundamental frequency reactance the zone is not allowed to over-reach.

vsd IEC07000063 V1 EN Figure 107: Simplified single line diagram of series capacitor located at XLLOC ohm from A station 219 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Reactive Reach Compensated lines with the capacitor into the zone 1 reach : A XC B XLLOC XL en07000063.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C jX X12 R RV X FW X11 R R FW X RV ZZSS XC en06000584.vsd IEC06000584 V1 EN Figure 108: Measured impedance at voltage inversion Forward direction: Where XLLoc equals line reactance up to the series capacitor(in the picture approximate 33% of XLine) X1 is set to (XLindex-XC) · p/100. p is defined according to figure 106 1. For protection on non compensated lines facing series capacitor on next line. The setting is thus: 220 Application manual . The setting is thus: X1 is set to (XLine-XC) · p/100. When the calculation of XFw gives a negative value the zone 1 must be permanently blocked.2 is safety factor for fast operation of Zone 1 Compensated line with the series capacitor not into the reach of zone 1.

Overreaching zone 2 In series compensated network where independent tripping zones will have reduced reach due to the negative reactance in the capacitor and the sub-harmonic swinging the tripping will to a high degree be achieved by the communication scheme. 221 Application manual . The increased reach related to the one used in non compensated system is recommended for all protections in the vicinity of series capacitors to compensate for delay in the operation caused by the sub harmonic swinging. • K equals side infeed factor at next busbar. for phase to earth. for phase-to-phase measurement.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • X1 is set to (XLine-XC · K) · p/100.5 appears due to speed requirements and possible under reaching caused by the sub harmonic oscillations. Settings of the resistive reaches are limited according to the minimum load impedance. special notice has to be taken during settings calculations due to the ZnO because 50% of capacitor reactance appears in series with resistance. are set to: • X1 >= 1.5 · XLine The safety factor of 1. it becomes essential to provide over-reaching schemes like permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT) or blocking scheme can be used. Fault resistance The resistive reach is. Thus it is of great importance that the zone 2 can detect faults on the whole line both with the series capacitor in operation and when the capacitor is bridged (short circuited). restricted by the set reactive reach and the load impedance and same conditions apply as for a non-compensated network. for all lines affected by the series capacito. for all affected applications. The X1Fw.fault measurement as well as. This information has high importance for setting of distance protection IED reach in resistive direction. With the reduced reach of the under-reaching zones not providing effective protection for all faults along the length of the line. It is supposed also in this case that the reactive reach for phase-to-phase and for phase-to-earth faults is the same. which corresponds to approximately 36% of capacitor reactance when the line current equals two times the protective current level. However. When the calculation of XFw gives a negative value the zone 1 must be permanently blocked.

The reach is reduced for a factor: K 0 = 1- Z 0m 2 × Z1 + Z 0 + Rf EQUATION1426 V1 EN (Equation 159) If the denominator in equation 159 is called B and Z0m is simplified to X0m. zones 2 and 3) must overreach the protected circuit in all cases. Setting of zones for parallel line application Parallel line in service – Setting of zone1 With reference to section "Parallel line application with mutual coupling". the zone reach can be set to 85% of protected line. The equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for this case is equal to the one in figure 65 in section "Parallel line in service". then the real and imaginary part of the reach reduction factor for the overreaching zones can be written as: 222 Application manual . The maximum reach for the protection in the opposite IED can be achieved with the series capacitor in operation. for example) are used they must be set according to the influence of the series capacitor. The reactive reach can be set according to the following formula: X1=1.3·X12Rem-0. Parallel line in service – setting of zone2 Overreaching zones (in general.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Reverse zone The reverse zone that is normally used in the communication schemes for functions like fault current reversal logic.5(X1L-XC) Settings of the resistive reaches are according to the minimum load impedance: Optional higher distance protection zones When some additional distance protection zones (zone 4. weak-in-feed logic or issuing carrier send in blocking scheme must detect all faults in the reverse direction which is detected in the opposite IED by the overreaching zone 2. The components of the zero-sequence impedance for the overreaching zones must be equal to at least: R0E = R0 + R m0 (Equation 157) EQUATION553 V1 EN X 0E = X 0 + Xm0 (Equation 158) EQUATION554 V1 EN Check the reduction of a reach for the overreaching zones due to the effect of the zero sequence mutual coupling. The greatest reduction of a reach occurs in cases when both parallel circuits are in service with a single phase-to-earth fault located at the end of a protected line.

The final reach in resistive direction for phase-to-earth fault loop measurement automatically follows the values of the line-positive and zero-sequence resistance. This means that an underreaching zone must not overreach the end of a protected circuit for the single phase-to-earth-faults. and separately for phase-tophase (R1PP).( 2 × R1PE + R0PE ) + RFPE 3 (Equation 164) EQUATION567 V1 EN é ù ë û + X0 ú j loop = arctan êê 22××X1PE R1PE + R0 ú EQUATION1457 V1 EN (Equation 165) 223 Application manual . Set all remaining reach setting parameters independently of each other for each distance zone. and at the end of the protected zone is equal to equation 164.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ( ) Re K 0 = 1 - X 0m × Re ( B ) Re ( B ) + Im ( B ) 2 2 (Equation 160) EQUATION1427 V2 EN ( ) Im K 0 = X 0m × Im ( B ) Re ( B ) + Im ( B ) 2 2 (Equation 161) EQUATION1428 V2 EN Parallel line is out of service and earthed in both ends Apply the same measures as in the case with a single set of setting parameters. and phase-to-earth loop (R1PE) measurement. Set separately the expected fault resistance for phase-to-phase faults (R1PP) and for the phase-to-earth faults (RFPE) for each zone. 1 R = --. Set the values of the corresponding zone (zerosequence resistance and reactance) equal to: 2 Xm0 æ ö -÷ R 0E = R 0 × ç 1 + ------------------------2 2 è R0 + X0 ø (Equation 162) EQUATION561 V1 EN 2 X 0E X m0 ö æ -÷ = X 0 × ç 1 – ------------------------2 2 è R0 + X0 ø (Equation 163) EQUATION562 V1 EN Setting of reach in resistive direction Set the resistive reach independently for each zone.

compared to the fault resistance for phase-to-earth faults.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting of the resistive reach for the underreaching zone1 must follow the following condition: RFPE £ 4. Limit the setting of the zone1 reach in resistive direction for phase-to-phase loop measurement to: RFPP £ 3 × X 1 (Equation 167) EQUATION570 V2 EN Load impedance limitation.5 × X 1 (Equation 166) EQUATION569 V2 EN The fault resistance for phase-to-phase faults is normally quite low. without load encroachment function The following instructions is valid when the load encroachment function is not activated. the load limitation for those zones according to this chapter can be omitted. If the load encroachment function is to be used for all or some of the measuring zones. which is done by setting the parameter Rld for the Phase Selector to its upper limit. Minimum load impedance occurs normally under emergency conditions. Check the maximum permissible resistive reach for any zone to ensure that there is a sufficient setting margin between the IED boundary and the minimum load impedance. The minimum load impedance (Ω/phase) is calculated as: 2 U Z loadmin = ------S (Equation 168) EQUATION571 V1 EN Where: U is the minimum phase-to-phase voltage in kV S is the maximum apparent power in MVA. Because a safety margin is required to avoid load encroachment under three-phase conditions and to guarantee correct healthy phase IED operation under combined heavy three-phase load and earth 224 Application manual . The load impedance [Ω/phase] is a function of the minimum operation voltage and the maximum load current: Umin Z load = --------------------3 × Imax EQUATION574 V1 EN (Equation 169) Minimum voltage Umin and maximum current Imax are related to the same operating conditions.

6 × Z loadmin × cosJ – --------------. More accurate calculations are necessary according to equation 173.8 × Z load (Equation 170) EQUATION792 V1 EN This equation is applicable only when the loop characteristic angle for the single phase-to-earth faults is more than three times as large as the maximum expected loadimpedance angle.8 × Z load min × cos ¶ - 2 × R1 + R 0 2 × X1+ X 0 × sin ¶ ù úû (Equation 171) EQUATION578 V3 EN Where: ϑ is a maximum load-impedance angle. Use an additional safety margin of approximately 20% in cases when a power swing detection element is in the 225 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C faults. RFPE £ 0. the set resistive reach of any distance protection zone must be less than 160% of the minimum load impedance.6 × Zload (Equation 172) EQUATION579 V2 EN RFP Equation 172 is applicable only when the loop characteristic angle for the phase-tophase faults is more than three times as large as the maximum expected loadimpedance angle.× sinJ X1PP EQUATION580 V1 EN (Equation 173) All this is applicable for all measuring zones when no power swing detection element is in the protection scheme. More accurate calculations are necessary according to the equation below: é êë RFPE £ 0. R1PP RFPP £ 1. RFPP £ 1. consider both: phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth fault operating characteristics. the set resistive reach of any distance protection zone must be less than 80% of the minimum load impedance. To avoid load encroachment for the phase-to-phase measuring elements. related to the minimum load impedance conditions. To avoid load encroachment for the phase-to-earth measuring elements.

This happens especially in cases. Setting of timers for distance protection zones The required time delays for different distance-protection zones are independent of each other. if so required for selectivity reasons.5 226 Application manual . The value has been proven in practice to be suitable in most of the applications. One can set the time delays for all zones (basic and optional) in a range of 0 to 60 seconds. the parameter RLdFw and the corresponding load angle ArgLd must be set according to the minimum load impedance. when the IED serves as a remote back-up protection on series of very long transmission lines.6. Distance protection zone1 can also have a time delay. Load impedance limitation.3 Setting parameters Settings for ZMCPDIS are valid for zone 1. there is an additional criteria IMinOpIN that will block the phase-earth loop if the 3I0<IMinOpIN. If the load current compensation is activated. The default setting of IMinOpPP and IMinOpPE is 20% of IBase where IBase is the chosen base current for the analog input channels. to further increase the total flexibility of a distance protection. The tripping function of each particular zone can be inhibited by setting the corresponding Operation parameter to Off. with load encroachment function activated The parameters for load encroachment shaping of the characteristic are found in the description of the phase selection with load encroachment function. refer to the description of Power swing detection (ZMRPSB) function. Different time delays are possible for the ph-E (tPE) and for the ph-ph (tPP) measuring loops in each distance protection zone separately. while settings for ZMCAPDIS are valid for zone 2 . However. section "Setting guidelines". Setting of minimum operating currents The operation of the distance function can be blocked if the magnitude of the currents is below the set value of the parameter IMinOpPP and IMinOpPE. 3. there might be applications where it is necessary to increase the sensitivity by reducing the minimum operating current down to 10% of IED base current.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C protection scheme.2. If the characteristic for the impedance measurement is shaped with the load encroachment algorithm. The minimum operating fault current is automatically reduced to 75% of its set value. The default setting of IMinOpIN is 5% of the IED base current IBase. if the distance protection zone has been set for the operation in reverse direction.

9000.00 Positive sequence reactance reach. forward X1RvPE 0. Ph-E IMinOpPP 10 .001 0.01 .e.01 5.00 Fault resistance reach.000 s 0.00 ohm/p 0.10 .1000. Ph-Ph.01 100. i. resistance for zone characteristic angle.00 kV 0. Ph-Ph.3000.00 Fault resistance reach.9000. reverse RFRvPP 0. resistance for characteristic angle. resistance for characteristic angle.000 . PhPh. rated current UBase 0.01 .00 ohm/p 0.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.3000. Ph-E tPE 0.01 30.00 Base voltage. reverse Timer tPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.000 Time delay of trip.00 ohm/p 0.60.00 Positive seq.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.00 ohm/p 0.3000.10 . rated voltage OperationDir Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops X1FwPP 0.01 100. forward R1PP 0.01 100.000 Time delay of trip.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.10 .00 Fault resistance reach. Ph-E R0PE 0.00 ohm/p 0.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpIN 5 .01 30.00 ohm/l 0. Ph-Ph RFFwPP 0.e.00 Positive seq. PhE.000 s 0.2000.10 .10 . Ph-E X0PE 0.10 .3000.01 47.00 ohm/p 0. reverse Timer tPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.9000. PhPh.00 ohm/l 0.01 5.1000 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for Phase-Earth loops 227 Application manual .10 .01 30.001 0.1000. Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops X1FwPE 0.00 ohm/l 0.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 .00 ohm/p 0.10 . Ph-E RFFwPE 0.01 .00 ohm/p 0. forward R1PE 0.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.3000.99999 A 1 3000 Base current. Ph-E.00 Positive sequence reactance reach. i.05 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 53: ZMCPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off / On IBase 1 .000 .00 Zero seq. reverse RFRvPE 0. Ph-E. Ph-Ph tPP 0.3000.10 .00 Fault resistance reach.01 30.01 30.60.05 400. PhE. forward X1RvPP 0.3000.

PhPh. resistance for characteristic angle. reverse Timer tPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer. Ph-E.9000. reverse RFRvPE 0. i. Ph-E tPE 0. Ph-E RFFwPE 0.00 ohm/p 0.00 ohm/l 0.9000.e.00 Zero seq.01 5.00 ohm/p 0.00 Fault resistance reach.00 ohm/p 0.01 .01 .10 .00 ohm/p 0.00 ohm/l 0.01 30. resistance for zone characteristic angle.3000.001 0.00 Fault resistance reach.2000. forward X1RvPP 0.60.01 100. Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops X1FwPE 0.01 30.3000. reverse Timer tPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.01 30.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.05 .1000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.01 .00 ohm/p 0.10 .00 kV 0. PhPh.10 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach. PhE.00 Fault resistance reach. forward R1PE 0.1000.000 s 0.00 Base voltage. forward X1RvPE 0.3000.60.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.3000.00 ohm/p 0.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops 228 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 54: ZMCAPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off / On IBase 1 .9000. Ph-E.01 5.10 .00 Positive seq.000 Time delay of trip. Ph-Ph tPP 0. Ph-E R0PE 0. rated voltage OperationDir Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops X1FwPP 0.000 Time delay of trip.10 .01 30.000 s 0.99999 A 1 3000 Base current. reverse RFRvPP 0.00 Fault resistance reach. resistance for characteristic angle.000 . Ph-Ph.000 .1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 . Ph-E IMinOpPP 10 . Ph-Ph RFFwPP 0.10 . PhE.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.00 ohm/l 0.01 47.01 100.e. forward R1PP 0.3000.10 . Ph-Ph. Ph-E X0PE 0. i.10 .01 30.05 400. rated current UBase 0.3000.001 0.00 Positive seq.3000.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.10 .00 ohm/p 0.

1000.01 7.05 400. forward X1RvPP 0.00 Zero sequence reactance reach. Ph-E.50 .00 Reverse resistive reach within the load impedance area ArgLd 5 .01 100.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 55: ZDSRDIR Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description OperationSC NoSeriesComp SeriesComp - - SeriesComp Special directional criteria for voltage reversal IBase 1 .00 Zero sequence reactance reach.01 30.01 7.00 ohm/p 0.00 Fault resistance reach.00 ohm/l 0.00 ohm/p 0. Ph-E.01 40. Ph-E. forward R1PP 0.3000. reverse 229 Application manual . forward R0PE 0.00 Forward resistive reach within the load impedance area RLdRv 1.9000.50 .01 80.3000.01 40.00 ohm/p 0.00 ohm/l 0.100 %IPh 1 20 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth measuring loops INBlockPP 10 .99999 A 1 3000 Base setting for current level UBase 0.00 ohm/l 0.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.9000.00 Positive sequence reactance reach. Ph-Ph. Ph-E RFFwPE 1. resistance for characteristic angle.3000.01 40.3000.00 Base setting for voltage level IMinOpPE 5 .01 100. reverse RFRvPP 0.00 .00 Positive seq.50 .01 40.00 . Ph-E X0FwPE 0. Ph-Ph.00 ohm/p 0. resistance for characteristic angle.00 ohm/p 0.50 . Ph-E. reverse RFRvPE 1.00 ohm/l 0. forward R1PE 0.00 Positive seq.9000.00 ohm/p 0. reverse X1FwPE 0.3000.1000.45 Deg 1 15 Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for forward direction INReleasePE 10 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach.2000. PhE.50 .00 ohm/p 0.100 %IPh 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loops OperationLdCh Off On - - On Operation of load discrimination characteristic RLdFw 1.00 . PhPh. forward X1RvPE 0.10 .00 ohm/p 0.3000.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.3000. Ph-Ph RFFwPP 0.70 Deg 1 30 Load angle determining the load impedance area X1FwPP 0.00 .50 .50 . reverse X0RvPE 0.175 Deg 1 130 Angle of blinder in second quadrant for forward direction ArgDir 5 .30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpPP 5 . PhE.00 ohm/p 0.50 .00 Fault resistance reach.05 . resistance for zone characteristic angle.10 .01 120.01 120.00 ohm/p 0.3000.9000.00 ohm/p 0.50 .01 80.00 Fault resistance reach.00 kV 0.01 30. PhPh.30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops ArgNegRes 90 .00 Zero seq.01 20.00 Fault resistance reach.3000.

compare them with the set values.3 Phase selection. A current-based phase selection is also included. the function has a built in algorithm for load encroachment. quadrilateral characteristic with fixed angle FDPSPDIS 3. 3. which gives the possibility to enlarge the resistive setting of both the Phase selection with load encroachment and the measuring zones without interfering with the load. The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may in some cases be in opposite to the wanted fault resistance coverage. Therefore. The extensive output signals from FDPSPDIS give also important information about faulty phase(s). The measuring elements continuously measure three phase currents and the residual current and.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.3 Setting guidelines The following setting guideline consider normal overhead lines applications where φloop and φline is greater than 60°.6.2 device number 21 Z<phs SYMBOL-DD V1 EN 3. quadrilateral characteristic IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification FDPSPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. 230 Application manual .1 Identification Function description Phase selection with load encroachment. the phase selection outputs STCNDZ or STCNDLE must be connected to input on ZMQPDIS.3. In order to get operation from distance zones .3. Load encroachment characteristics The phase selector must at least cover the overreaching zone 2 in order to achieve correct phase selection for utilizing single-phase autoreclosing for faults on the entire line.6.6. The ability to accurately and reliably classify the different types of fault. It is not necessary to cover all distance protection zones.3. which can be used for fault analysis. Phase selection with load encroachment function FDPSPDIS is designed to accurately select the proper fault loop in the distance measuring function depending on the fault type. so that single pole tripping and autoreclosing can be used plays an important role in this matter. distance measuring block.6.2 Application The operation of transmission networks today is in many cases close to the stability limit. A safety margin of at least 10% is recommended.

arctan j = EQUATION2115 V1 EN X1L + XN R1L + RN (Equation 174) In some applications. Index PHS in images and equations reference settings for Phase selection with load encroachment function FDPSPDIS and index Zm reference settings for Distance protection function (ZMQPDIS). In these applications. Phase-to-earth fault in forward direction With reference to figure 109. the settings of fault resistance coverage in forward and reverse direction. the following equations for the setting calculations can be obtained. the angle for the loop impedance φ for phase-to-earth fault is defined according to equation 174. the angle of the loop might be less than 60°. 231 Application manual . RFFwPE and RFRvPE for phase-to-earth faults and RFFwPP and RFRvPP for phase-to-phase faults have to be increased to avoid that FDPSPDIS characteristic shall cut off some part of the zone characteristic. The necessary increased setting of the fault resistance coverage can be derived from trigonometric evaluation of the basic characteristic for respectively fault type. for instance cable lines.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C For normal overhead lines.

232 Application manual . Equation 175 and equation 176 gives the minimum recommended reactive reach. mostly zone 2.vsd IEC09000043 V1 EN Figure 109: Relation between distance protection ZMQPDIS and FDPSPDIS for phase-to-earth fault φloop>60° (setting parameters in italic) 1 FDPSPDIS (red line) 2 ZMQPDIS 3 RFltRevPGPHS 4 (X1PHS+XN)/tan(60°) 5 RFltFwdPGPHS 6 RFPGZM 7 X1PHS+XN 8 φloop 9 X1ZM+XN Reactive reach The reactive reach in forward direction must as minimum be set to cover the measuring zone used in the Teleprotection schemes.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X ( W / loop) 3 5 4 1 6 6 2 7 60° 8 60° R ( W / loop) 8 7 6 6 4 3 5 IEC09000043_1_en.

Equation 177 gives the minimum recommended resistive reach. No additional setting is required. Consider the longest overreaching zone if correct fault selection is important in the application.2° in the case where φloop<60° to avoid that FDPSPDIS characteristic shall cut off some part of the zone measurement characteristic.2 × RFPE ZmRv EQUATION1316 V1 EN (Equation 178) 233 Application manual . RFFwPEmin ³ 1.1× RFPEzm EQUATION1312 V2 EN (Equation 177) where: RFPEZm is the setting RFPE for the longest overreaching zone to be covered by FDPSPDIS .44 is a safety margin X0Zm is the zero-sequence reactive reach for the zone to be covered by FDPSPDIS The reactive reach in reverse direction is automatically set to the same reach as for forward direction.44 × X0 Zm (Equation 176) EQUATION1310 V1 EN where: X1Zm is the reactive reach for the zone to be covered by FDPSPDIS. The security margin has to be increased to at least 1. RFRvPE min ³ 1.44 × X1Zm (Equation 175) EQUATION1309 V1 EN X0 PHS ³ 1. In blocking schemes it must be set longer than the overreaching zone at remote end that is used in the communication scheme. Fault resistance reach The resistive reach must cover RFPE for the overreaching zone to be covered.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X1PHS ³ 1. and the constant 1. Phase-to-earth fault in reverse direction Reactive reach The reactive reach in reverse direction is the same as for forward so no additional setting is required. In equation 178 the index ZmRv references the specific zone to be coordinated to. mostly zone 2. Resistive reach The resistive reach in reverse direction must be set longer than the longest reverse zones.

see figure 110. 234 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Phase-to-phase fault in forward direction Reactive reach The reach in reactive direction is determined by phase-to-earth reach setting X1. the reach is automatically calculated based on setting X1. The minimum recommended reach can be calculated according to equation 179. The proposed margin of 25% will cater for the risk of cut off of the zone measuring characteristic that might occur at three-phase fault when FDPSPDIS characteristic angle is changed from 60 degrees to 90 degrees (rotated 30° anti-clock wise). Equation 179 modified is applicable also for the RFRvPP as follows: RFRvPPmin ³ 1. RFFwPP ³ 1. The reach will be X1/tan(60°) =X1/√(3). No extra setting is required.25 × RFPP zm where: RFPPZm is the setting of the longest reach of the overreaching zones that must be covered by FDPSPDIS . Resistive reach In the same way as for phase-to-earth fault.25 × RFPPzmRv EQUATION2264 V1 EN Equation 179 is also valid for three-phase fault. must cover RFPPZm with at least 25% margin. Fault resistance reach The fault resistance reaches in forward direction RFFwPP. RFPPZm is the setting of fault resistance for phase-tophase fault for the longest overreaching zone to be covered by FDPSPDIS.

5 · RFPPZm 7 X1PHS 8 X1Zm 235 Application manual .5 · RFRvPP PHS 4 X1PHS tan ( 60° ) 5 0.5 · RFFwPPPHS 6 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X ( W / phase) 3 5 4 1 6 6 2 7 8 60° 6 6 60° R (W / phase) 8 7 6 6 4 3 5 IEC09000257_1_en.vsd IEC09000257 V1 EN Figure 110: Relation between distance protection (ZMQPDIS) and FDPSPDIScharacteristic for phase-to-phase fault for φline>60° (setting parameters in italic) 1 FDPSPDIS (red line) 2 ZMQPDIS 3 0.

Set the parameter to the maximum possible load angle at maximum active load. The blinder in forward direction. RLdFw. 236 Application manual .8 is a security factor to ensure that the setting of RLdFw can be lesser than the calculated minimal resistive load. X RLdFw ArgLd ArgLd ArgLd RLdRv R ArgLd IEC09000050-1-en. can be calculated according to equation 180. but use maximum importing power that might occur instead of maximum exporting power and the relevant Umin voltage for this condition. as shown in figure 111. A value bigger than 20° must be used.8 × U min P exp max where: Pexp max is the maximum exporting active power Umin is the minimum voltage for which the Pexp max occurs 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Resistive reach with load encroachment characteristic The procedure for calculating the settings for the load encroachment consist basically to define the load angle ArgLd. 2 RLdFw = 0. The resistive boundary RLdRv for load encroachment characteristic in reverse direction can be calculated in the same way as RLdFw. Minimum operate currents FDPSPDIShas two current setting parameters which blocks the respective phase-toearth loop and phase-to-phase loop if the RMS value of the phase current (ILn) and phase difference current (ILmILn) is below the settable threshold.vsd IEC09000050 V1 EN Figure 111: Load encroachment characteristic The load angle ArgLd is the same in forward and reverse direction. the blinder RLdFw in forward direction and blinder RLdRv in reverse direction. so it could be suitable to begin to calculate the setting for that parameter.

100 %IPh 1 20 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth measuring loops RLdFw 1.99999 A 1 3000 Base current. It is recommended to set INBlockPP to double value of INReleasePE.00 Positive sequence reactance reach X0 0.9000.2500 %IB 1 20 Start value for trip from 3I0 over-current element Table continues on next page 237 Application manual .50 .00 .3000.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The threshold to activate the phase selector for phase-to-earth (IMinOpPE) is set to securely detect a single phase-to-earth fault at the furthest reach of the phase selection.00 Fault resistance reach.00 ohm/l 0. 3.05 . forward RFRvPP 0.01 400.00 ohm/l 0.00 ohm/p 0.2500 %IB 1 120 Start value for phase over-current element IN> 10 .3.01 120.3000.500 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 5 . Ph-E. The threshold for opening the measuring loop for phase-to-earth fault (INReleasePE) is set securely detect single line-to-earth fault at remote end on the protected line. forward RFRvPE 1.00 .00 ohm/l 0.00 Forward resistive reach within the load impedance area RLdRv 1.3000.50 .9000.01 40.500 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops Table 57: Name FDPSPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description OperationZ< Off On - - On Operation of impedance based measurement OperationI> Off On - - Off Operation of current based measurement IPh> 10 .00 ohm/l 0.00 . Ph-E.e. i.3000.00 Zero sequence reactance reach RFFwPP 0.00 Fault resistance reach.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.70 Deg 1 30 Load angle determining the load impedance area X1 0.3000.00 Reverse resistive reach within the load impedance area ArgLd 5 .6.2000.50 . reverse RFFwPE 1. i.9000.00 kV 0. reverse IMinOpPP 5 .01 30.100 %IPh 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loops INReleasePE 10 .01 80.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Base voltage.01 80. rated voltage INBlockPP 10 .00 Fault resistance reach.00 ohm/p 0. Ph-Ph. Ph-Ph. It is recommended to set IMinOpPP to double value of IMinOpPE.50 .00 ohm/p 0.4 Setting parameters Table 56: FDPSPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IBase 1 .00 .01 100.e. rated current UBase 0.

6. mho characteristic IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMHPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN 3.60.000 Time delay to trip.000 s 0.000 .4 Full-scheme distance measuring. Full-scheme distance measuring.6. Mho characteristic ZMHPDIS Function description Full-scheme distance protection. System earthing The type of system earthing plays an important role when designing the protection system.001 3.000 Time delay to trip. 238 Application manual . In the following some hints with respect to distance protection are highlighted.001 3. Ph-E tPE 0.000 . Ph-Ph TimerPE Off On - - Off Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer. consisting of a high number of multi-circuit and/or multi terminal lines of very different lengths. Solid earthed networks In solid earthed systems the transformer neutrals are connected solidly to earth without any impedance between the transformer neutral and earth.60. Ph-E 3.1 Application Introduction Transmission and sub-transmission networks are being extended and often become more and more complex. These changes in the network will normally impose more stringent demands on the fault clearing equipment in order to maintain an unchanged or increased security level of the power system.4.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description TimerPP Off On - - Off Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer. Ph-Ph tPP 0.000 s 0. mho characteristic function (ZMHPDIS) in the IED is designed to meet basic requirements for application on transmission and subtransmission lines (solid earthed systems) although it also can be used on distribution levels.

The shunt admittance has very limited influence on the earth-fault current. The series impedances determine the magnitude of the earth-fault current. This corresponds to about 80% of the nominal phase-to-phase voltage. distance protection has limited possibilities to detect high resistance faults and should therefore always be complemented with other protection function(s) that can carry out the fault clearance in those cases. The earth-fault current at single phase-to-earth in phase L1 can be calculated as equation 181: 3I 0 = 3 × U L1 Z1 + Z 2 + Z 0 + 3Z f = U L1 Z1 + Z N + Z f (Equation 181) EQUATION1267 V3 EN Where: UL1 is the phase to earth voltage (kV) in the faulty phase before fault Z1 is the positive sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Z2 is the negative sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Z0 is the zero sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Zf is the fault impedance (Ω). 239 Application manual . The earth-fault factor is defined according to equation 56.vsd IEC05000215 V1 EN Figure 112: Solidly earthed network The earth-fault current is as high as or even higher than the short-circuit current. often resistive ZN is the earth return impedance defined as (Z0-Z1)/3 The voltage on the healthy phases is generally lower than 140% of the nominal phaseto-earth voltage. The high zero-sequence current in solid earthed networks makes it possible to use impedance measuring technique to detect earth fault. Effectively earthed networks A network is defined as effectively earthed if the earth-fault factor fe is less than 1. The shunt admittance may. have some marginal influence on the earth-fault current in networks with long transmission lines.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C xx05000215. However. however.4.

The zero-sequence voltage (3U0) will have the same magnitude in different places in the network due to low voltage drop distribution. This type of network is many times operated in radial. Another definition for effectively earthed network is when the following relationships between the symmetrical components of the network impedances are valid. distance protection has limited possibilities to detect high resistance faults and should therefore always be complemented with other protection function(s) that can carry out the fault clearance in this case. X 0 = 3 × X1 (Equation 183) EQUATION1269 V3 EN R0 £ R1 (Equation 184) EQUATION1270 V3 EN The magnitude of the earth-fault current in effectively earthed networks is high enough for impedance measuring element to detect earth fault. 3I 0 = I R 2 + ( IL . mostly a reactance in parallel with a high resistor. Upn is the phase-to-earth fundamental frequency voltage before fault. but can also be found operating meshed networks.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C fe = U max U pn (Equation 182) EQUATION1268 V3 EN Where: Umax is the highest fundamental frequency voltage on one of the healthy phases at single phaseto-earth fault. The magnitude of the total fault current can be calculated according to equation 185. The voltage on the healthy phases will get a magnitude of √3 times the phase voltage during the fault. see equation 183 and equation 184. However. in the same way as for solid earthed networks. What is typical for this type of network is that the magnitude of the earth-fault current is very low compared to the short-circuit current. High impedance earthed networks In high impedance networks the neutral of the system transformers are connected to the earth through high impedance.IC ) EQUATION1271 V3 EN 2 (Equation 185) 240 Application manual .

Fault infeed from remote end All transmission and most all sub-transmission networks are operated meshed. The low magnitude of the earth-fault current might not give start of the zero-sequence measurement element or the sensitivity will be too low for acceptance. many network operators want to selectively clear one of the two earth faults. some system operators do not clear single phase-toearth faults immediately. In case of cross-country faults. it is mostly not possible to use distance protection for detection and clearance of earth faults. Typical for this type of network is that we will have fault infeed from remote end when fault occurs on the protected line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C where 3I0 is the earth-fault current (A) IR is the current through the neutral point resistor (A) IL is the current through the neutral point reactor (A) IC is the total capacitive earth-fault current (A) The neutral point reactor is normally designed so that it can be tuned to a position where the inductive current balances the capacitive current from the network that is: wL = 1 3 ×w × C (Equation 186) EQUATION1272 V1 EN Ic IR Ic Ic IL en05000216. which is not common to be used in transmission applications. In this type of network. For this reason a separate high sensitive earth-fault protection is necessary to carry out the fault clearance for single phase-toearth fault. To handle this type phenomena Phase preference logic function (PPLPHIZ) is needed. In high impedance earthed networks. The fault infeed will enlarge the fault 241 Application manual .vsd IEC05000216 V1 EN Figure 113: High impedance earthing network The operation of high impedance earthed networks is different compared to solid earthed networks where all major faults have to be cleared very fast. they clear the line later when it is more convenient.

we can draw the equation for the bus voltage VA at left side as: VA = IA × p × ZL + ( IA + IB ) × Rf (Equation 187) EQUATION1273 V1 EN If we divide VA by IA we get Z present to the IED at A side ZA = Va IA = p × ZL + IA + IB IA × Rf (Equation 188) EQUATION1274 V2 EN The infeed factor (IA+IB)/IA can be very high. The entrance of the load impedance inside the characteristic is of course not allowed and the way to handle this with conventional distance protection is to consider this with the settings. 10-20 depending on the differences in source impedances at local and remote end. Load encroachment In some cases the load impedance might enter the zone characteristic without any fault on the protected line. to have a security margin between the distance zone and the minimum load impedance.vsd IEC05000217 V1 EN Figure 114: Influence of fault current infeed from remote end. 242 Application manual . The phenomenon is called load encroachment and it might occur when an external fault is cleared and high emergency load is transferred on the protected line. EsA ZSA VA A IA p*ZL (1-p)*ZL IB VA B ZSB EsB ZL Z< Rf Z< en05000217. the ability to detect resistive faults. The effect of fault current infeed from remote end is one of the most driving factors for justify complementary protection to distance protection. The effect of load encroachment for the mho circle is illustrated to the left in figure 115. With reference to figure 114. that is. that is. This has the drawback that it will reduce the sensitivity of the protection. This effect is very important to keep in mind when both planning the protection system and making the settings.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C impedance seen by the distance protection.

243 Application manual . The part of the load encroachment sector that comes inside the mho circle will not cause a trip if FMPSPDIS is activated for the zone measurement. for a given setting of the load angle ArgLd (see figure 116) for the Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho function (FMPSPDIS). This is valid in both directions. especially for phase-to-earth faults at remote line end. the zone reach can be expanded according to the diagram on the right in figure 115 given higher fault resistance coverage without risk for unwanted operation due to load encroachment. For example. The load encroachment algorithm will increase the possibility to detect high fault resistances.vsd IEC06000403 V1 EN Figure 115: Load encroachment phenomena and shaped load encroachment characteristic The Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho (FMPSPDIS) function shapes the characteristic according to the diagram on the right in figure 115.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C jX jX Load Load Load Load R Load Load Load Load R No operation en06000403.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X RLdFw ArgLd ArgLd ArgLd RLdRv R ArgLd IEC09000127-1-en. Load encroachment is not so common. The function can also preferably be used on heavy loaded medium long lines. the load encroachment function could preferably be switched off. The length classification is defined by the ratio of the source impedance at the protected line’s terminal to the protected line’s impedance (SIR). The operation of load encroachment function is always activated. Short line application The definition of short. So. In short line applications. For short lines the major concern is to get sufficient fault resistance coverage and load encroachment is not a major problem. The line length that can be 244 Application manual .vsd IEC09000127 V1 EN Figure 116: Load encroachment of Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho function FMPSPDIS characteristic The use of the load encroachment feature is essential for long heavy loaded lines. To deactivate the function.5 and less than 4.113-1999. Medium lines are those with SIR’s greater than 0. setting LoadEnchMode should be set off or the setting of RLdFw and RLdRv must be set to a value much higher than the maximal load impedance. medium and long lines is found in IEEE Std C37. the major concern is to get sufficient fault resistance coverage. SIR’s of about 4 or greater generally define a short line. The main settings of the parameters for load encroachment are done in Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho function FMPSPDIS. for short lines. where there might be a conflict between the necessary emergency load transfer and necessary sensitivity of the distance protection.

5 km 5-25 km Short line 5-11 km 25-50 km The use of load encroachment algorithm in Full-scheme distance protection.450 km Very long lines > 99 km > 450 km The possibility to use the binary information from the load encroachment algorithm improves the possibility to detect high resistive faults at the same time as the security is improved (risk for unwanted trip due to load encroachment is eliminated). Table 58: Line category Definition of short and very short line Un 110 kV Un 500 kV Very short line 1. This will increase the possibility to detect resistive close-in faults.1-5.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C recognized as a short line is not a fixed length. It is recommended to use at least one of the load discrimination functions for long heavy loaded transmission lines.99 km 350 km . Parallel line application with mutual coupling 245 Application manual . it depends on system parameters such as voltage and source impedance. Long transmission line application For long transmission lines the load encroachment will normally be a major concern. What can be recognized as long lines with respect to the performance of distance protection is noted in table 59. Table 59: Line category Definition of long lines Un 110 kV Un 500 kV Long lines 77 km . For very short line applications the underreaching zone 1 can not be used due to that the voltage drop distribution through out the line will be too low causing risk for overreaching. The possibility to also use the blinder together with the load encroachment algorithm will considerably increase the security but might also lower the dependability since the blinder might cut off a larger part of the operating area of the circle (see to the right of figure 115). Load encroachment is normally no problems for short line applications so the load encroachment function could be switched off meaning LoadEnchMode = Off. see table 47. It is well known that it is difficult to achieve high sensitivity for phase-toearth fault at remote end of a long line when the line is heavily loaded. mho characteristic function (ZMHPDIS) improves the possibility to detect high resistive faults without conflict with the load impedance (see to the right of figure 115).

and some coupling exists even for lines that are separated by 100 meters or more. Five zone distance protection. It can be shown from analytical calculations of line impedances that the mutual impedances for positive and negative sequence are very small (< 1-2% of the self impedance) and it is a practice to neglect them. For each type of network class we can have three different topologies. Parallel lines introduce an error in the measurement due to the mutual coupling between the lines. mho characteristic function (ZMHPDIS) can compensate for the influence of a zero sequence mutual coupling on the measurement at single phase-to-earth faults in the following ways. Those are: 1. 3. Parallel line with common positive and zero sequence network Parallel circuits with common positive but isolated zero sequence network Parallel circuits with positive and zero sequence sources isolated. by using: • • The possibility of different setting values that influence the earth-return compensation for different distance zones within the same group of setting parameters. out of service and earthed in both ends. 246 Application manual . The lines need not to be of the same voltage in order to experience mutual coupling. the parallel line can be in service. Different groups of setting parameters for different operating conditions of a protected multi circuit line. One example of class3 networks could be the mutual coupling between a 400 kV line and rail road overhead lines. out of service. The application guide mentioned below recommends in more detail the setting practice for this particular type of line. This type of mutual coupling is not so common although it exists and is not treated any further in this manual. The basic principles also apply to other multi circuit lines. The reach of the distance protection zone 1 will be different depending on the operation condition of the parallel line. 2. Most multi circuit lines have two parallel operating circuits.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C General Introduction of parallel lines in the network is increasing due to difficulties to get necessary area for new lines. It is therefore recommended to use the different setting groups to handle the cases when the parallel line is in operation and out of service and earthed at both ends. The reason to the introduced error in measuring due to mutual coupling is the zero sequence voltage inversion that occurs. From an application point of view there exists three types of network configurations (classes) that must be considered when making the settings for the protection function.

vsd IEC05000221 V1 EN Figure 117: Class 1. gives with X1L=0. A B Z0m Z< Z< en05000221. where the resistance is excluded.vsd IEC99000038 V1 EN Figure 118: Equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit of the double-circuit. Parallel line in service This type of application is very common and applies to all normal sub-transmission and transmission networks.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Parallel line applications In this type of networks. 2. The equivalent circuit of the lines can be simplified. parallel line out of service and not earthed. the current on the parallel line has an opposite direction compare to the current on the protected line.Z0m B 99000038. parallel line in service. parallel line in service. Let us analyze what happens when a fault occurs on the parallel line see figure 117. see figure 118. that is. the distance protection will underreach. X0L=0. the protection is underreaching with approximately 20%.88 Ω/km. 3.Z0m Z0m C Z0 . We consider the three most common operation modes: 1. zone 1 reach is set to 90% of the line reactance p=71%. A Z0 .303 Ω/km. parallel. If the current on the parallel line have negative sign compared to the current on the protected line. Calculation for a 400 kV line. that is. operating line with a single phase-to-earth fault at the remote busbar. the parallel transmission lines terminate at common nodes at both ends. 247 Application manual . the distance function will overreach. parallel line out of service and earthed in both ends. If the currents have the same direction.

vsd IEC99000039 V1 EN Figure 120: Equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for the double-circuit line that operates with one circuit disconnected and earthed at both ends Here the equivalent zero-sequence impedance is equal to Z0-Z0m in parallel with (Z0-Z0m)/Z0-Z0m+Z0m. which is equal to equation 189. 2 Z 0E 0 Z 0 .vsd DOCUMENT11520-IMG867 V1 EN Figure 119: The parallel line is out of service and earthed When the parallel line is out of service and earthed at both ends on the bus bar side of the line CT so that zero sequence current can flow on the parallel line. it is proportionally increased at the opposite line end. It is a recommendation to use a 248 Application manual . The reduction of the reach is most pronounced with no infeed in the line terminal closest to the fault. But when the reach is reduced at one line end. This reach reduction is normally less than 15%.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The zero sequence mutual coupling can reduce the reach of distance protection on the protected circuit when the parallel line is in normal operation. Parallel line out of service and earthed A B Z0m Z< Z< en05000222. So this 15% reach reduction does not significantly affect the operation of a permissive underreach scheme. the equivalent zero sequence circuit of the parallel lines will be according to figure 119.Z 0m = Z0 EQUATION2002 V2 EN (Equation 189) The influence on the distance measurement will be a considerable overreach. which must be considered when calculating the settings. Z0 Z0m I0 A Z0m I0 C Z0 Z0m B 99000039.

This means that the reach of the underreaching distance protection zone is reduced if. A I0 Z0 Z0m Z0m B I0 C Z0 Z0m 99000040. When the parallel line is out of service and not earthed. 249 Application manual . the equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit for faults at the remote bus bar can be simplified to the circuit shown in figure 121 The line zero sequence mutual impedance does not influence the measurement of the distance protection in a faulty circuit. the zero sequence on that line can only flow through the line admittance to the earth. due to operating conditions. The reduction of the reach is equal to equation 190.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C separate setting group for this operation condition since it will reduce the reach considerable when the line is in operation. The line admittance is high which limits the zero sequence current on the parallel line to very low values. the equivalent zero sequence impedance is set according to the conditions when the parallel system is out of operation and earthed at both ends. Parallel line out of service and not earthed A B Z0m Z< Z< en05000223.vsd IEC05000223 V1 EN Figure 121: Parallel line is out of service and not earthed.vsd IEC99000040 V1 EN Figure 122: Equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit for a double-circuit line with one circuit disconnected and not earthed. In practice.

increased measured impedance due to fault current infeed. For example.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 1 × (2 × Z1 + Z0 E + R f Z 0m2 3 KU = = 11 Z0 × (2 × Z1 + Z0 + 3R f × (2 × Z1 + Z0 ) + R f 3 (Equation 190) EQUATION2008 V1 EN This means that the reach is reduced in reactive and resistive directions. that is.vsd IEC09000160 V2 EN Figure 123: Example of tapped line with Auto transformer This application gives rise to similar problem that was highlighted in section "Fault infeed from remote end". Ensure that the underreaching zones from both line ends will overlap a sufficient amount (at least 10%) in the middle of the protected circuit. for faults between the T point and B station the measured impedance at A and C will be Z A = Z AT + EQUATION2302 V1 EN IA + IC IA × Z TF (Equation 191) 250 Application manual . Tapped line application IA A T Z< IB F B Z< IC -IB Z< C IEC09000160-2-en.

it might be necessary to accept zone 2 trip in one end or sequential trip in one end. For example. without selectivity conflicts. For this example with a fault between T and B. the impedance on the high voltage side U1 has to be transferred to the measuring voltage level by the transformer ratio. Another complication that might occur depending on the topology is that the current from one end can have a reverse direction for fault on the protected line. for faults at T the current from B might go in reverse direction from B to C depending on the system parameters (see the dotted line in figure 123).2 Setting guidelines General The settings for Full-scheme distance protection. depending on the source impedance behind the IEDs.6. In three-end application.4. The following basics should be considered. that is. U2/U1 Transformation ratio for transformation of impedance at U1 side of the transformer to the measuring side U2 (it is assumed that current and voltage distance function is taken from U2 side of the transformer). 3. depending on application. given that the distance protection in B to T will measure wrong direction. the measured impedance from the T point to the fault will be increased by a factor defined as the sum of the currents from T point to the fault divided by the IED current. Generally for this type of application it is difficult to select settings of zone 1 that both gives overlapping of the zones with enough sensitivity without interference with other zone 1 settings.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C I +I æ ö æ U2 ö ZC = Z Trf + ç ZCT + A C × Z TF ÷ × ç ÷ IC è ø è U1 ø 2 (Equation 192) IECEQUATION1750 V1 EN where ZAT and ZCT is the line impedance from the A respective C station to the T point. For the IED at C. the impedances of the protected object and the fault location. IA and IC is fault current from A respective C station for fault between T and B. Careful fault calculations are necessary to determine suitable settings and selection of proper scheme communication. mho characteristic function (ZMHPDIS) are done in primary values. The instrument transformer ratio that has been set for the analog input card is used to automatically convert the measured secondary input signals to primary values used in ZMHPDIS. when doing the setting calculations: 251 Application manual .

Zero-sequence mutual coupling from parallel lines. out of service and not earthed and out of service and earthed in both ends. Inaccuracies in the line zero-sequence impedance data. out of service and not earthed and out of service and earthed in both ends. When Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) is used together with Fullscheme distance protection. Considering the different errors that might influence the 252 Application manual . consider the influence of the mutual coupling according to section "Parallel line application with mutual coupling" and select the case(s) that are valid in your application.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • • • • Errors introduced by current and voltage instrument transformers. the fault resistance is considerable and the effect must be recognized. The setting of earth-fault reach should be selected to be <95% also when parallel line is out of service and earthed at both ends (worst case). including the influence of different Z0/Z1 ratios of the various sources. In case of parallel lines. We recommend to compensating the setting for the cases when the parallel line is in operation. Use different setting groups for the cases when the parallel line is in operation. Setting of overreaching zone The first overreaching zone (normally zone 2) must detect faults on the whole protected line.90% of the protected line. This alternative is intended for use together with Distance protection zone. mho characteristic (ZMHPDIS) the following settings for parameter DirEvalType in ZDMRDIR is vital: • • • alternative Comparator is strongly recommended alternative Imp/Comp should generally not be used alternative Impedance should not be used. quadrilateral characteristic (ZMQPDIS) Setting of zone 1 The different errors mentioned earlier usually require a limitation of the underreaching zone (normally zone 1) to 75 . The phase impedance of non transposed lines is not identical for all fault loops. The setting values of all parameters that belong to ZMHPDIS must correspond to the parameters of the protected line and be coordinated to the selectivity plan for the network. The effect of a load transfer between the terminals of the protected line. In this way it is possible to optimize the settings for each system condition. particularly under transient conditions. The effect of infeed between the IED and the fault location. and their effect on the calculated value of the earth-return compensation factor. The difference between the impedances for different phase-to-earth loops can be as large as 5-10% of the total line impedance.

also for the explanation of all abbreviations used). The same applies to the backup protection of the bus bar or power transformers. that it 253 Application manual . the time delay of zone 2 must be increased by approximately 200ms to avoid unwanted operation in cases when the telecommunication for the short adjacent line at remote end is down during faults. The whole line must be covered under all conditions. current reversal logic. plus the first zone reach of the shortest adjacent line. weak-end infeed logic. The zone 2 reach can be even higher if the fault infeed from adjacent lines at remote end is considerable higher than the fault current at the IED location. the IED at point A senses the impedance: Z AF = Z AC + æ IB ö IA + IB × Z CF = Z AC + ç 1 + ÷ × Z CF IA è IA ø (Equation 193) EQUATION302 V3 EN Z AC A Z CB F IA C Z CF B I A+ I B Z< IB IEC09000256_1_en. The requirement that the zone 2 shall not reach more than 80% of the shortest adjacent line at remote end is highlighted in the example below. and so on. If the requirements in the bullet list above gives a zone 2 reach that gives nonselectivity between the overreaching zone and the shortest outgoing line at the remote end. The impedance corresponding to the protected line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C measurement in the same way as for zone 1. If a fault occurs at point F (see figure 124. plus the impedance of the maximum number of transformers operating in parallel on the bus at the remote end of the protected line. it is necessary to increase the reach of the overreaching zone to at least 120% of the protected line. The setting shall generally not exceed 80% of the following impedances: • • The impedance corresponding to the protected line. The zone 2 must not be reduced below 120% of the protected line section. It is necessary to secure.vsd IEC09000256 V1 EN Figure 124: Setting of overreaching zone Setting of reverse zone The reverse zone is applicable for purposes of scheme communication logic.

zones 2 and 3) must overreach the protected circuit in all cases.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C always covers the overreaching zone. the zone reach can be set to 85% of protected line. Zrev ³ 1. The greatest reduction of a reach occurs in cases when both parallel circuits are in service with a single phase-to-earth fault located at the end of a protected line.2 × ZL-Z2rem EQUATION1525 V4 EN (Equation 194) Where: ZL is the protected line impedance Z2rem is zone 2 setting at remote end of protected line. used at the remote line terminal for the telecommunication purposes. The reach is reduced for a factor: 254 Application manual . Parallel line in service – Setting of zone 2 Overreaching zones (in general. The equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for this case is equal to the one in figure 118 in section "Parallel line application with mutual coupling". The components of the zero-sequence impedance for the overreaching zones must be equal to at least: R0 E = R0 + R0m EQUATION2009 V1 EN (Equation 195) X 0 E = X 0 + X 0m EQUATION2010 V1 EN (Equation 196) Check the reduction of a reach for the overreaching zones due to the effect of the zero-sequence mutual coupling. and so on. weak-end infeed. Equation 194 can be used to calculate the reach in reverse direction when the zone is used for blocking scheme. Consider the possible enlarging factor that might exist due to fault infeed from adjacent lines. In some applications it might be necessary to consider the enlarging factor due to fault current infeed from adjacent lines in the reverse direction in order to obtain certain sensitivity. Setting of zones for parallel line application Parallel line in service – Setting of zone 1 With reference to section "Parallel line application with mutual coupling".

enlarge the zone reach due to the reduction by mutual coupling. 255 Application manual . the load limitation for those zones according to this chapter can be omitted. Parallel line is out of service and earthed in both ends Apply the same measures as in the case with a single set of setting parameters.The load encroachment function will not be activated if RLdFw and RLdRv is set to a value higher than expected minimal load impedance. This means that an underreaching zone must not overreach the end of a protected circuit for the single phase-to-earth faults. The equivalent impedance will be according to equation 189. Load impedance limitation. The minimum load impedance (Ω/phase) is calculated as: 2 U Z loadmin = ------S EQUATION571 V1 EN (Equation 198) Where: U is the minimum phase-to-phase voltage in kV S is the maximum apparent power in MVA. If the load encroachment or blinder function is to be used for all or some of the measuring zones. Check the maximum permissible resistive reach for any zone to ensure that there is a sufficient setting margin between the relay boundary and the minimum load impedance. The load impedance [Ω/phase] is a function of the minimum operation voltage and the maximum load current: Umin Z load = --------------------3 × Imax EQUATION574 V1 EN (Equation 199) Minimum voltage Umin and maximum current Imax are related to the same operating conditions. without load encroachment function The following instruction is valid when the load encroachment function or blinder function is not activated (BlinderMode=Off).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C K 0 = 1- Z 0m 2 × Z1 + Z 0 + Rf (Equation 197) EQUATION1426 V1 EN If needed. Consider also the influence on the zone reach due to fault current infeed from adjacent lines. Minimum load impedance occurs normally under emergency conditions.

The formula to avoid load encroachment for the phaseto-phase measuring elements will thus be according to equation 201.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C To avoid load encroachment for the phase-to-earth measuring elements. the set impedance reach of any distance protection zone must be less than 80% of the minimum load impedance.cos( b )) (Equation 200) EQUATION1604 V1 EN where: Zload = magnitude of minimum load impedance jPE = 180°-2·g =180°–2(ArgPE-QLoad) The formula is derived by trigonometric analyze of the figure 125. the following formula can be used: ZPE £ 1. The length of the vector from the origin O to the point F on the circle is defined by the law of cosine.vsd IEC06000406 V1 EN Figure 125: Definition of the setting condition to avoid load encroachment for earth-fault loop The maximum setting for phase-to-phase fault can be defined by trigonometric analyze of the same figure 125. jX ZPE/2 rc (Ref) φ F ? ArgLd ß Load O oa |Zl d|/ Ohm/phase 2 |Zl R oa d| en06000406. Use an extra margin of 20% to give sufficient distance between the calculated minimum load impedance and relay boundary. The result gives the maximum diameter (RFPE) for which the load impedance touch the circle with the given load condition. 256 Application manual .6 × Z Load 2(1 . For setting of the earth-fault loop.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ZPP £ 1. However. The setting is by default set to Non-Directional. there might be applications where it is necessary to increase the sensitivity by reducing the minimum operate current down to 10% of IBase. When forward or reverse operation is selected. one can select if the offset mho shall be NonDirectional. The Reverse mode might be use in comparison schemes where it is necessary to absolute discriminate between forward and reverse fault. The values have been proven in practice to be suitable in most of the applications. Forward or Reverse by setting the parameter OfffsetMhoDir. The minimum operate fault current is automatically reduced to 75% of its set value. Setting of directional mode Setting of the directional mode is by default set to forward by setting the parameter DirMode to Forward. then the operation characteristic will be cut off by the directional lines used for the mho characteristic. Load impedance limitation. switch onto fault application and so on.6 × Z Load 2 × (1 . Setting of minimum operate currents The operation of the distance function will be blocked if the magnitude of the currents is below the set value of the parameter IMinOpPP and IMinOpPE. 257 Application manual . with load encroachment function activated The parameters for load encroachment shaping of the characteristic are found in the description of Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho (FMPSPDIS).cos(j PP)) EQUATION1605 V1 EN (Equation 201) where: jPP = 180°–2·(ArgPP-QLoad) All this is applicable for all measuring zones when no power swing detection element or blinder is activated for the protection zones. if the distance protection zone has been set for the operation in reverse direction. The selection of Offset mho can be used for sending block signal in blocking teleprotection scheme. refer to section "Load encroachment characteristics". refer to the description of the power swing detection function. Setting of direction for offset mho If offset mho has been selected. The default setting of IMinOpPP and IMinOpPE is 20% of IBase where IBase is the chosen base current for the analog input channels. Use an additional safety margin of approximately 20% in cases when a power swing detection element is in the protection scheme.

005 .180 Deg 1 -15 Angle for earth return compensation factor KN ZRevPE 0.001 30.000 ohm/p 0.000 .6. to further increase the total flexibility of a distance protection.00 . One can set the time delays for all zones in a range of 0 to 60 seconds.001 30.001 0. Zone timer logic improves the operating time in such conditions. The zone timer logic can be set using the parameter ZnTimerSel.000 s 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting of timers for distance protection zones The required time delays for different distance protection zones are independent of each other. In the case of evolving faults or momentary current transformer saturation conditions.000 Delay time for operation of phase to earth elements IMinOpPE 10 .05 400.01 0. 3. The tripping function of each particular zone can be inhibited by setting the corresponding Operation parameter to Off.3000. The triggering signal of phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers can be selected using ZnTimerSel.3000.000 Reverse reach of the phase to earth loop(magnitude) tPE 0.00 - 0. if so required for selectivity reasons.2000.80 Magnitud of earth return compensation factor KN KNAng -180 .00 kV 0.005 .90 Deg 1 80 Angle for positive sequence line impedance for Phase-Earth loop KN 0.4.99999 A 1 3000 Base current UBase 0.30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operation phase to earth current Table continues on next page 258 Application manual .000 Positive sequence impedance setting for Phase-Earth loop ZAngPE 10 .00 Base voltage DirMode Off Offset Forward Reverse - - Forward Direction mode LoadEncMode Off On - - Off Load encroachment mode Off/On ReachMode Overreach Underreach - - Overreach Reach mode Over/Underreach OpModePE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops ZPE 0. Different time delays are possible for the phase-to-earth tPE and for the phase-tophase tPP measuring loops in each distance protection zone separately.05 .3. the pick up of the zones may get delayed. Distance protection zone 1 can also have a time delay.3 Setting parameters Table 60: ZMHPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off/On IBase 1 .000 ohm/p 0.60.

2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN Fullscheme distance protection.3000.000 ohm/p 0. 259 Application manual . quadrilateral for earth faults (zone 2-5) ZMMAPDIS 21 S00346 V1 EN 3.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description OpModePP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops ZPP 0.000 .6.60.001 0.90 Deg 1 85 Angle for positive sequence line impedance for Phase-Phase elements ZRevPP 0.3000.5 Full-scheme distance protection.005 .30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operation phase to phase current Table 61: Name ZMHPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description OffsetMhoDir Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Direction mode for offset mho OpModetPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.5.000 Impedance setting reach for phase to phase elements ZAngPP 10 .001 30.6. quadrilateral for earth faults (zone 1) IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMMPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. These changes in the network will normally impose more stringent demands on the fault clearing equipment in order to maintain an unchanged or increased security level of the power system.000 ohm/p 0. Ph-E OpModetPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.001 30. consisting of a high number of multi-circuit and/or multi terminal lines of very different lengths.000 Delay time for operation of phase to phase IMinOpPP 10 .005 .1 Application Introduction Sub transmission networks are being extended and often become more and more complex. Ph-ph 3. quadrilateral for earth faults ZMMPDIS.000 Reverse reach of the phase to phase loop(magnitude) tPP 0. ZMMAPDIS Function description Fullscheme distance protection.000 s 0.

The earth fault current at single phase-to-earth in phase L1 can be calculated as equation202: 3I 0 = 3 × U L1 Z1 + Z 2 + Z 0 + 3Z f = U L1 Z1 + Z N + Z f (Equation 202) EQUATION1267 V3 EN Where: UL1 is the phase-to-earth voltage (kV) in the faulty phase before fault Z1 is the positive sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Z2 is the negative sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Z0 is the zero sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Zf is the fault impedance (Ω). System earthing The type of system earthing plays an important roll when designing the protection system. The series impedances determine the magnitude of the earth fault current. have some marginal influence on the earth fault current in networks with long transmission lines.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The distance protection function in IED is designed to meet basic requirements for application on transmission and sub transmission lines (solid earthed systems) although it also can be used on distribution levels. often resistive ZN is the earth return impedance defined as (Z0-Z1)/3 260 Application manual . In the following some hints with respect to distance protection are highlighted.vsd IEC05000215 V1 EN Figure 126: Solidly earthed network The earth fault current is as high or even higher than the short-circuit current. however. xx05000215. The shunt admittance may. Solid earthed networks In solid earthed systems the transformer neutrals are connected solidly to earth without any impedance between the transformer neutral and earth. The shunt admittance has very limited influence on the earth fault current.

This corresponds to about 80% of the nominal phase-to-phase voltage. fe = U max U pn (Equation 203) EQUATION1268 V3 EN Where: Umax is the highest fundamental frequency voltage on one of the healthy phases at single phaseto-earth fault. X 0 = 3 × X1 EQUATION1269 V3 EN (Equation 204) R0 £ R1 EQUATION1270 V3 EN (Equation 205) The magnitude of the earth fault current in effectively earthed networks is high enough for impedance measuring element to detect fault. 261 Application manual . distance protection has limited possibilities to detect high resistance faults and should therefore always be complemented with other protection function(s) that can carry out the fault clearance in those cases. mostly a reactance in parallel with a high resistor. Upn is the phase-to-earth fundamental frequency voltage before fault. in the same way as for solid earthed networks.4. The high zero sequence current in solid earthed networks makes it possible to use impedance measuring technique to detect earth fault.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The voltage on the healthy phases is generally lower than 140% of the nominal phaseto-earth voltage. However. Another definition for effectively earthed network is when the following relationships between the symmetrical components of the network impedances are valid. High impedance earthed networks In high impedance networks the neutral of the system transformers are connected to the earth through high impedance. Effectively earthed networks A network is defined as effectively earthed if the earth fault factor fe is less than 1. distance protection has limited possibilities to detect high resistance faults and should therefore always be complemented with other protection function(s) that can carry out the fault clearance in this case. see equation 204 and equation 205. The earth fault factor is defined according to equation 56. However.

vsd IEC05000216 V1 EN Figure 127: High impedance earthing network The operation of high impedance earthed networks is different compare to solid earthed networks where all major faults have to be cleared very fast. In 262 Application manual . for this type of network is that the magnitude of the earth fault current is very low compared to the short circuit current. Typically. The voltage on the healthy phases will get a magnitude of √3 times the phase voltage during the fault.IC ) 3I 0 = 2 (Equation 206) EQUATION1271 V3 EN Where: 3I0 is the earth-fault current (A) IR is the current through the neutral point resistor (A) IL is the current through the neutral point reactor (A) IC is the total capacitive earth-fault current (A) The neutral point reactor is normally designed so that it can be tuned to a position where the reactive current balances the capacitive current from the network that is: wL = 1 3 ×w × C (Equation 207) EQUATION1272 V1 EN Ic IR Ic Ic IL en05000216. In high impedance earthed networks. but can also be found operating meshed. The magnitude of the total fault current can be calculated according to the formula below: I R 2 + ( IL .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C This type of network is many times operated in radial. some system operators do not clear single phase-toearth faults immediately. The zero sequence voltage (3U0) will have the same magnitude in different places in the network due to low voltage drop distribution. they clear the line later when it is more convenient.

Fault infeed from remote end All transmission and most all sub transmission networks are operated meshed. EsA ZSA VA A IA p*ZL (1-p)*ZL IB VA B ZSB EsB ZL Z< Rf Z< en05000217. many network operators want to selectively clear one of the two earth-faults. 263 Application manual . This effect is very important to keep in mind when both planning the protection system and making the settings. it is mostly not possible to use distance protection for detection and clearance of earth-faults. To handle this type phenomena a separate function called Phase preference logic (PPLPHIZ) is needed. 10-20 depending on the differences in source impedances at local and remote end. With reference to figure 128. which is not common to be used in transmission applications.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C case of cross country faults. Typical for this type of network is that we will have fault infeed from remote end when fault occurs on the protected line. The low magnitude of the earth-fault current might not give start of the zero sequence measurement element or the sensitivity will be too low for acceptance. we can draw the equation for the bus voltage Va at left side as: VA = IA × p × ZL + ( IA + IB ) × Rf (Equation 208) EQUATION1273 V1 EN If we divide Va by IA we get Z present to the IED at A side ZA = Va IA = p × ZL + IA + IB IA × Rf (Equation 209) EQUATION1274 V2 EN The infeed factor (IA+IB)/IA can be very high. In this type of network. For this reason a separate high sensitive earth-fault protection is necessary to carry out the fault clearance for single phase-toearth fault. The fault infeed will enlarge the fault impedance seen by the distance protection.vsd IEC05000217 V1 EN Figure 128: Influence of fault infeed from remote end.

The load encroachment algorithm will increase the possibility to detect high fault resistances.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The effect of fault current infeed from remote end is one of the most driving factors for justify complementary protection to distance protection. For short lines the major concern is to get sufficient fault resistance coverage and load encroachment is not a major problem. This has the drawback that it will reduce the sensitivity of the protection that is. the load encroachment function could preferable be switched off. ZMMPDIS function can also preferably be used on heavy loaded medium long lines. For example for a given setting of the load angle ARGLd for the load encroachment function. the resistive blinder for the zone measurement can be expanded according to the right in figure 129 given higher fault resistance coverage without risk for unwanted operation due to load encroachment. This is valid in both directions. The IED has a built in function which shapes the characteristic according to the right figure 4. for short lines. where there might be a conflict between the necessary emergency load transfer and necessary sensitivity of the distance protection. The use of the load encroachment feature is essential for long heavy loaded lines. The effect of load encroachment is illustrated to the left in figure 129. Load encroachment In some cases the load impedance might enter the zone characteristic without any fault on the protected line. So. The entrance of the load impedance inside the characteristic is of cause not allowed and the way to handle this with conventional distance protection is to consider this with the settings that is. especially for phase-to-earth faults at remote end. 264 Application manual . The settings of the parameters for load encroachment are done in the Phase selection with load enchroachment. The phenomenon is called load encroachment and it might occur when an external fault is cleared and high emergency load is transferred on the protected line. the ability to detect resistive faults. to have a security margin between the distance zone and the minimum load impedance. quadrilateral characteristic (FDPSPDIS).

The line length that can be recognized as a short line is not a fixed length.5-11 km 25-50 km The possibility in IED to set resistive and reactive reach independent for positive and zero sequence fault loops and individual fault resistance settings for phase-tophase and phase-to-earth fault together with load encroachment algorithm improves the possibility to detect high resistive faults without conflict with the load impedance. This will increase the possibility to detect resistive close-in faults. For very short line applications the underreaching zone 1 can not be used due to that the voltage drop distribution through out the line will be too low causing risk for overreaching. see figure 129. the major concern is to get sufficient fault resistance coverage.1-5. it depends on system parameters such as voltage and source impedance. Load encroachment is not so common. 265 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X Zm Zm ZL Load impedance area in forward R direction ARGLd ARGLd R ARGLd ARGLd RLdRv RLdFw en05000495.5 km 5-25 km 5. Table 62: Line category Very short line Short line Definition of short and very short line Un Un 110 kV 500 kV 1. see table "Short line application". Load encroachment is normally no problems for short line applications so the load encroachment function could be switched off (OperationLdCmp = Off).vsd IEC05000495 V1 EN Figure 129: Load encroachment phenomena and shaped load encroachment characteristic Short line application In short line applications.

and some coupling exists even for lines that are separated by 100 meters or more.99 km 350 km . Parallel line with common positive and zero sequence network Parallel circuits with common positive but isolated zero-sequence network Parallel circuits with positive and zero sequence sources isolated. 3. 266 Application manual . The reason to the introduced error in measuring due to mutual coupling is the zero sequence voltage inversion that occurs.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Long transmission line application For long transmission lines the margin to the load impedance that is. The definition of long lines with respect to the performance of distance protection is noted in table 63. will normally be a major concern.450 km Very long lines > 99 km > 450 km As mentioned in the previous chapter. The lines need not to be of the same voltage in order to experience mutual coupling. Parallel line application with mutual coupling General Introduction of parallel lines in the network is increasing due to difficulties to get necessary area for new lines. It can be shown from analytical calculations of line impedances that the mutual impedances for positive and negative sequence are very small (< 1-2%) of the self impedance and it is practice to neglect them. From an application point of view there exists three types of network configurations (classes) that must be considered when making the settings for the protection function. Table 63: Line category Definition of long lines Un 110 kV Un 500 kV Long lines 77 km . It is difficult to achieve high sensitivity for phase-to-earth fault at remote end of a long lines when the line is heavy loaded. Those are: 1. the possibility in IED to set resistive and reactive reach independent for positive and zero sequence fault loops and individual fault resistance settings for phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth fault together with load encroachment algorithm improves the possibility to detect high resistive faults at the same time as the security is improved (risk for unwanted trip due to load encroachment is eliminated). 2. Parallel lines introduce an error in the measurement due to the mutual coupling between the parallel lines. to avoid load encroachment.

For each type of network class we can have three different topologies. parallel line in service. Different groups of setting parameters for different operating conditions of a protected multi circuit line. Parallel line applications This type of networks are defined as those networks where the parallel transmission lines terminate at common nodes at both ends. • Most multi circuit lines have two parallel operating circuits. 2. Parallel line in service This type of application is very common and applies to all normal sub-transmission and transmission networks. The reach of the distance protection zone1 will be different depending on the operation condition of the parallel line. It is therefore recommended to use the different setting groups to handle the cases when the parallel line is in operation and out of service and earthed at both ends. out of service. This type of mutual coupling is not so common although it exists and is not treated any further in this manual. We consider the three most common operation modes: 1. parallel line out of service and not earthed. Vph Z = Iph + 3I 0 × EQUATION1275 V2 EN Z 0 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C One example of class3 networks could be the mutual coupling between a 400 kV line and rail road overhead lines. The application guide mentioned below recommends in more detail the setting practice for this particular type of line.Z1 = Vph Iph + 3I 0 × KN 3 × Z1 (Equation 210) 267 Application manual . parallel line out of service and earthed. The basic principles also apply to other multi circuit lines. A simplified single line diagram is shown in figure 130. The distance protection within the IED can compensate for the influence of a zerosequence mutual coupling on the measurement at single phase-to-earth faults in the following ways. out of service and earthed in both ends. the parallel line can be in service. by using: • The possibility of different setting values that influence the earth-return compensation for different distance zones within the same group of setting parameters. 3.

The reduction of 268 Application manual . The zero-sequence mutual coupling can reduce the reach of distance protection on the protected circuit when the parallel line is in normal operation. gives with X1L=0. Calculation for a 400 kV line. see figure 131. the distance protection will underreach. zone 1 reach is set to 90% of the line reactance p=71% that is. the protection is underreaching with approximately 20%. where we for simplicity have excluded the resistance. The equivalent circuit of the lines can be simplified.vsd IEC05000221 V1 EN Figure 130: Class 1. If the current on the parallel line have negative sign compare to the current on the protected line that is. parallel. the current on the parallel line has an opposite direction compare to the current on the protected line. the distance function will overreach.vsd IEC99000038 V1 EN Figure 131: Equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit of the double-circuit. A Z0 . X0L=0.303 Ω/km. operating line with a single phase-to-earth fault at the remote busbar When mutual coupling is introduced.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Where: Vph is phase-to-earth voltage at the IED point Iph is phase current in the faulty phase 3I0 is earth to fault current Z1 is positive sequence impedance Z0 is zero sequence impedance A B Z0m Z< Z< en05000221. parallel line in service.88 Ω/km. If the currents have the same direction.Z0m B 99000038.Z0m Z0m C Z0 . the voltage at the IED point A will be changed.

Here the equivalent zero sequence impedance is equal to Z0-Z0m in parallel with (Z0-Z0m)/Z0-Z0m+Z0m which is equal to equation 211.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C the reach is most pronounced with no infeed in the line IED closest to the fault. So this 15% reach reduction does not significantly affect the operation of a permissive underreach scheme. But when the reach is reduced at one line end. This reach reduction is normally less than 15%. They assume the value of zero sequence. Z 0 Zm0 I0 A Zm0 I0 C Z 0 Zm0 B 99000039. 2 Z 0E 0 Z 0 .Z 0m = Z0 EQUATION2002 V2 EN (Equation 211) The influence on the distance measurement will be a considerable overreach. When the parallel line is out of service and earthed at both ends on the bus bar side of the line CT so that zero sequence current can flow on the parallel line. All expressions below are proposed for practical use. Parallel line out of service and earthed A B Z0m Z< Z< en05000222. the equivalent zero sequence circuit of the parallel lines will be according to figure 132. which must be considered when calculating the settings. mutual resistance R0m 269 Application manual . it is proportionally increased at the opposite line end.vsd DOCUMENT11520-IMG867 V1 EN Figure 132: The parallel line is out of service and earthed. It is a recommendation to use a separate setting group for this operation condition since it will reduce the reach considerable when the line is in operation.vsd DOCUMENT11520-IMG7100 V1 EN Figure 133: Equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for the double-circuit line that operates with one circuit disconnected and earthed at both ends.

The line admittance is high which limits the zero sequence current on the parallel line to very low values. This means that the reach of the underreaching distance protection zone is reduced if. 270 Application manual . due to operating conditions. They consider only the zero-sequence. mutual reactance X0m.2 2 ÷ è R0 + X 0 ø (Equation 213) DOCUMENT11520-IMG3503 V1 EN Parallel line out of service and not earthed A B Z0m Z< Z< en05000223. the equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit for faults at the remote bus bar can be simplified to the circuit shown in figure 134 The line zero-sequence mutual impedance does not influence the measurement of the distance protection in a faulty circuit.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C equals to zero. the zero sequence on that line can only flow through the line admittance to the earth. the equivalent zero sequence impedance is set according to the conditions when the parallel system is out of operation and earthed at both ends. R0 E æ X 0m2 ö = R0 · ç1 + 2 2 ÷ è R0 + X 0 ø (Equation 212) DOCUMENT11520-IMG3502 V1 EN X 0E æ X 0m2 ö = X 0 · ç1 . Calculate the equivalent X0E and R0E zero-sequence parameters according to equation 212 and equation 213 for each particular line section and use them for calculating the reach for the underreaching zone.vsd IEC05000223 V1 EN Figure 134: Parallel line is out of service and not earthed. In practice. When the parallel line is out of service and not earthed.

If the real and imaginary components of the constant A are equal to equation 215 and equation 216. ( ) Re K U = 1 + ( ) é Re ( A ) ù + é Im ( A ) ù ë û ë û Re A × X m 0 2 2 2 (Equation 217) EQUATION1287 V2 EN The imaginary component of the same factor is equal to equation 218.vsd IEC99000040 V1 EN Figure 135: Equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for a double-circuit line with one circuit disconnected and not earthed. ( ( ) ) 1 2 × 2 × Z1 + Z 0 E + R f Zm0 3 KU = = 11 Z 0 × 2 × Z 1 + Z 0 + 3R f × 2 × Z1 + Z 0 + R f 3 ( ) (Equation 214) EQUATION1284 V1 EN This means that the reach is reduced in reactive and resistive directions. The reduction of the reach is equal to equation 214.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Z0 Z0m I0 A Z0m I0 C Z0 Z0m B 99000040. ( ) Im K U = EQUATION1288 V2 EN ( ) é Re ( A ) ù + é Im ( A ) ù ë û ë û Im A × X m 0 2 2 2 (Equation 218) 271 Application manual . Re( A ) = R 0 × (2 × R1 + R 0 + 3 × Rf ) .X 0 × ( X 0 + 2 × X 1) (Equation 215) EQUATION1285 V1 EN Im( A ) = X 0 × (2 × R1 + R0 + 3 × R1 ) + R0 × (2 × X 1 + X 0 ) (Equation 216) EQUATION1286 V1 EN The real component of the KU factor is equal to equation 217.

272 Application manual . U2/U1 Transformation ratio for transformation of impedance at U1 side of the transformer to the measuring side U2 (it is assumed that current and voltage distance function is taken from U2 side of the transformer). For example for faults between the T point and B station the measured impedance at A and C will be ZA =ZAT + IA + IC ·ZTF IA (Equation 219) DOCUMENT11524-IMG3509 V2 EN ZC = ZTrf + ( ZCT + U2 IA + IC ·ZTF) ·( )2 U1 IC (Equation 220) DOCUMENT11524-IMG3510 V2 EN Where: ZAT and ZCT is the line impedance from the B respective C station to the T point. IA and IC is fault current from A respective C station for fault between T and B.vsd DOCUMENT11524-IMG869 V1 EN Figure 136: Example of tapped line with Auto transformer This application gives rise to similar problem that was highlighted in section "Fault infeed from remote end" that is. increased measured impedance due to fault current infeed. Tapped line application A IA IB B T Z< Z< IC -IB Z< C en05000224.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Ensure that the underreaching zones from both line ends will overlap a sufficient amount (at least 10%) in the middle of the protected circuit.

and tower-footing resistance. 273 Application manual . because normally more than 70% of the faults on transmission lines are single phase-to-earth faults. without selectivity conflicts. given that the distance protection in B to T will measure wrong direction. For the IED at C. Careful fault calculations are necessary to determine suitable settings and selection of proper scheme communication. depending on the source impedance behind the IEDs. The arc resistance can be calculated according to Warrington's formula: Rarc = 28707 × L I1.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C For this example with a fault between T and B. In practice. Another complication that might occur depending on the topology is that the current from one end can have a reverse direction for fault on the protected line. This equation applies for the distance protection zone 1. At these faults. Fault resistance The performance of distance protection for single phase-to-earth faults is very important. the impedance on the high voltage side U1 has to be transferred to the measuring voltage level by the transformer ratio. Consider approximately three-times arc foot spacing for the zone 2 and wind speed of approximately 50 km/h I is the actual fault current in A. the measured impedance from the T point to the fault will be increased by a factor defined as the sum of the currents from T point to the fault divided by the IED current. In three-end application. the setting of fault resistance for both phase-to-earth (RFPE) and phaseto-phase (RFPP) should be as high as possible without interfering with the load impedance in order to obtain reliable fault detection. the impedances of the protected object and the fault location. it might be necessary to accept zone2 trip in one end or sequential trip in one end.4 EQUATION1456 V1 EN (Equation 221) where: L represents the length of the arc (in meters). the fault resistance is composed of three parts: arc resistance. For example for faults at T the current from B might go in reverse direction from B to C depending on the system parameters (see the dotted line in figure 136). Generally for this type of application it is difficult to select settings of zone1 that both gives overlapping of the zones with enough sensitivity without interference with other zone1 settings that is. resistance of a tower construction.

the effect must be recognized.5.6. In case of parallel lines. it is necessary to increase the reach of the overreaching zone to at least 120% of the protected line. We recommend to compensate setting for the cases when the parallel line is in operation. The difference between the impedances for different phase-to-earth loops can be as large as 5-10% of the total line impedance. The following basics should be considered. out of service and not earthed and out of service and earthed in both ends. depending on application. Setting of zone1 The different errors mentioned earlier usually require a limitation of the underreaching zone (normally zone 1) to 75 . quadrilateral for earth faults (ZMMPDIS) function are done in primary values. when doing the setting calculations: • • • • • • Errors introduced by current and voltage instrument transformers. The zone2 reach can be even higher if the fault infeed from adjacent lines at remote end are considerable higher than the fault current at the IED location. The effect of a load transfer between the IEDs of the protected fault resistance is considerable.2 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting guidelines General The settings for the Full-scheme distance protection. Zero-sequence mutual coupling from parallel lines. The phase impedance of non transposed lines is not identical for all fault loops. Setting of overreaching zone The first overreaching zone (normally zone2) must detect faults on the whole protected line. Inaccuracies in the line zero-sequence impedance data. The instrument transformer ratio that has been set for the analogue input card is used to automatically convert the measured secondary input signals to primary values used in ZMMPDIS function. particularly under transient conditions. The setting of earthed fault reach should be selected to be <95% also when parallel line is out of service and earthed at both ends (worst case).90% of the protected line. The setting shall generally not exceed 80% of the following impedances: 274 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 3. The effect of infeed between the IED and the fault location. including the influence of different Z0/Z1 ratios of the various sources. and their effect on the calculated value of the earth-return compensation factor. consider the influence of the mutual coupling according tosection "Parallel line application with mutual coupling" and select the case(s) that are valid in your application. Considering the different errors that might influence the measurement in the same way as for zone1.

If the requirements in the dotted paragraphs above gives a zone2 reach less than 120%. that it always covers the overreaching zone. current reversal logic. weak-end-infeed logic. The same applies to the backup protection of the bus bar or power transformers. The requirement that the zone 2 shall not reach more than 80% of the shortest adjacent line at remote end is highlighted wit a simple example below. the time delay of zone2 must be increased by approximately 200ms to avoid unwanted operation in cases when the telecommunication for the short adjacent line at remote end is down during faults. and so on. plus the first zone reach of the shortest adjacent line. The zone2 must not be reduced below 120% of the protected line section.vsd IEC05000457 V1 EN Figure 137: Setting of reverse zone The reverse zone is applicable for purposes of scheme communication logic. The impedance corresponding to the protected line. also for the explanation of all abbreviations used). The whole line must be covered under all conditions. Consider the possible enlarging factor that might exist due to fault infeed from adjacent lines. used at the remote line IED for the telecommunication purposes. 275 Application manual . It is necessary to secure. the IED at point A senses the impedance: Z AF = Z AC + æ IB ö IA + IB × Z CF = Z AC + ç 1 + ÷ × Z CF IA è IA ø (Equation 222) EQUATION302 V3 EN Z AC A IA Z CD C Z CF B I A+ IB Z< IB en05000457. If a fault occurs at point F (see figure 11. weak-end infeed and so on. plus the impedance of the maximum number of transformers operating in parallel on the bus at the remote end of the protected line. Equation 223 can be used to calculate the reach in reverse direction when the zone is used for blocking scheme.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • The impedance corresponding to the protected line.

Parallel line in service – setting of zone2 Overreaching zones (in general. the zone reach can be set to 85% of protected line. zones 2 and 3) must overreach the protected circuit in all cases. The reach is reduced for a factor: K 0 = 1EQUATION1426 V1 EN Z 0m 2 × Z1 + Z 0 + Rf (Equation 226) If the denominator in equation 226 is called B and Z0m is simplified to X0m.2 × ZL-Z2rem (Equation 223) EQUATION1525 V4 EN Where: ZL is the protected line impedance Z2rem is zone2 setting at remote end of protected line In some applications it might be necessary to consider the enlarging factor due to fault current infeed from adjacent lines in the reverse direction in order to obtain certain sensitivity.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Zrev ³ 1. The greatest reduction of a reach occurs in cases when both parallel circuits are in service with a single phase-to-earth fault located at the end of a protected line. The equivalent zero-sequence impedance circuit for this case is equal to the one in figure 131 in section "Parallel line applications". Setting of zones for parallel line application Parallel line in service – Setting of zone1 With reference to section "Parallel line applications". The components of the zero-sequence impedance for the overreaching zones must be equal to at least: R0E = R0 + R m0 (Equation 224) EQUATION553 V1 EN X 0E = X 0 + Xm0 (Equation 225) EQUATION554 V1 EN Check the reduction of a reach for the overreaching zones due to the effect of the zero sequence mutual coupling. then the real and imaginary part of the reach reduction factor for the overreaching zones can be written as: 276 Application manual .

Set separately the expected fault resistance for the phase-to-earth faults (RFPE) for each zone. Set the values of the corresponding zone (zerosequence resistance and reactance) equal to: 2 Xm0 æ ö -÷ R 0E = R 0 × ç 1 + ------------------------2 2 è R0 + X0 ø (Equation 229) EQUATION561 V1 EN 2 X m0 ö æ X 0E = X 0 × ç 1 – ------------------------2 2÷ è R0 + X0 ø (Equation 230) EQUATION562 V1 EN Setting of reach in resistive direction Set the resistive reach independently for each zone. Set all remaining reach setting parameters independently of each other for each distance zone.( 2 × R1PE + R0PE ) + RFPE 3 (Equation 231) EQUATION567 V1 EN é ù ë û + X0 ú j loop = arctan êê 22××X1PE R1PE + R0 ú EQUATION1457 V1 EN (Equation 232) Setting of the resistive reach for the underreaching zone1 should follow the condition: 277 Application manual . The final reach in resistive direction for phase-to-earth fault loop measurement automatically follows the values of the line-positive and zero-sequence resistance. and at the end of the protected zone is equal to equation 231. 1 R = --. for phase-to-earth loop (RIPE) measurement. This means that an underreaching zone must not overreach the end of a protected circuit for the single phase-to-earth faults.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ( ) Re K 0 = 1 - X 0m × Re ( B ) Re ( B ) + Im ( B ) 2 2 (Equation 227) EQUATION1427 V2 EN ( ) Im K 0 = X 0m × Im ( B ) Re ( B ) + Im ( B ) 2 2 (Equation 228) EQUATION1428 V2 EN Parallel line is out of service and earthed in both ends Apply the same measures as in the case with a single set of setting parameters.

consider both: phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth fault operating characteristics. The load impedance [Ω/phase] is a function of the minimum operation voltage and the maximum load current: Umin Z load = --------------------3 × Imax (Equation 235) EQUATION574 V1 EN Minimum voltage Umin and maximum current Imax are related to the same operating conditions. If the load encroachment function is to be used for all or some of the measuring zones. Check the maximum permissible resistive reach for any zone to ensure that there is a sufficient setting margin between the IED boundary and the minimum load impedance.8 × Z load EQUATION792 V1 EN (Equation 236) 278 Application manual . Minimum load impedance occurs normally under emergency conditions. Because a safety margin is required to avoid load encroachment under three-phase conditions and to guarantee correct healthy phase IED operation under combined heavy three-phase load and earth faults. the set resistive reach of any distance protection zone must be less than 80% of the minimum load impedance.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C RFPE £ 4.5 × X 1 (Equation 233) EQUATION569 V2 EN Load impedance limitation. RFPE £ 0. the load limitation for those zones according to this chapter can be omitted. without load encroachment function The following instructions is valid when the load encroachment function is not activated (OperationLdCmp is set to Off). To avoid load encroachment for the phase-to-earth measuring elements. The minimum load impedance (Ω/phase) is calculated as: 2 U Z loadmin = ------S (Equation 234) EQUATION571 V1 EN Where: U is the minimum phase-to-phase voltage in kV S is the maximum apparent power in MVA.

with load encroachment function activated The parameters for load encroachment shaping of the characteristic are found in the description of the phase selection with load encroachment function. section "Resistive reach with load encroachment characteristic". there is an additional criteria IMinOpIN that will block the phase-earth loop if the 3I0<IMinOpIN. there might be applications where it is necessary to increase the sensitivity by reducing the minimum operating current down to 10% of the IED base current. Load impedance limitation. If the characteristic for the impedance measurement shall be shaped with the load encroachment algorithm. when the IED serves as a remote back-up protection on series of very long transmission lines. if so required for 279 Application manual . All this is applicable for all measuring zones when no power swing detection element is in the protection scheme. Distance protection zone1 can also have a time delay. More accurate calculations are necessary according to the equation below: é êë RFPE £ 0. The value have been proven in practice to be suitable in most of the applications. Setting of timers for distance protection zones The required time delays for different distance-protection zones are independent of each other. related to the minimum load impedance conditions.8 × Z load min × cos ¶ - 2 × R1 + R 0 2 × X1+ X 0 × sin ¶ ù úû EQUATION578 V3 EN (Equation 237) Where: ϑ is a maximum load-impedance angle. refer to the description of the power swing detection (ZMRPSB) function. If the load current compensation is activated.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C This equation is applicable only when the loop characteristic angle for the single phase-to-earth faults is more than three times as large as the maximum expected loadimpedance angle. if the distance protection zone has been set for the operation in reverse direction. The default setting of IMinOpIN is 5% of the IED base current IBase. However. This happens especially in cases. Setting of minimum operating currents The operation of the distance function will be blocked if the magnitude of the currents is below the set value of the parameter IMinOpPE. The minimum operating fault current is automatically reduced to 75% of its set value. The default setting of IMinOpPE is 20% of IBase where IBase is the chosen base current for the analog input channels. the parameter OperationLdCmp in the phase selection has to be switched On. Use an additional safety margin of approximately 20% in cases when a power swing detection element is in the protection scheme.

01 40.00 ohm/p 0.01 5.00 Zero seq.00 Positive sequence reactance reach R1 0. resistance for zone characteristic angle X0 0.60.00 kV 0. rated voltage OperationDir Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1 0.00 .e. 3.00 ohm/l 0.05 .99999 A 1 3000 Base current.50 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach R1 0.000 .10 .00 Positive seq.00 ohm/p 0.e.3 Setting parameters Table 64: ZMMPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off / On IBase 1 .00 Zero sequence reactance reach R0 0. i. resistance for zone characteristic angle RFPE 1.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C selectivity reasons.99999 A 1 3000 Base current. Ph-E IMinOpPE 10 . Different time delays are possible for the ph-E (tPE) measuring loops in each distance protection zone separately.00 Base voltage.01 100. to further increase the total flexibility of a distance protection.30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for Phase-Earth loops Table 65: ZMMAPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off / On IBase 1 .3000.00 ohm/p 0.9000.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.50 .00 Base voltage.00 ohm/p 0.000 Time delay of trip.50 . The tripping function of each particular zone can be inhibited by setting the corresponding Operation parameter to Off.1000.000 s 0. rated current UBase 0.3000.50 .00 ohm/p 0. rated voltage OperationDir Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1 0.01 100. Ph-E Timer tPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.01 30.01 5. i. resistance for zone characteristic angle Table continues on next page 280 Application manual .00 ohm/p 0.05 . One can set the time delays for all zones (basic and optional) in a range of 0 to 60 seconds.9000. rated current UBase 0.01 15.30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpIN 5 .05 400. Ph-E tPE 0.3000. i.2000.5.6.00 kV 0.10 .e.05 400.e.001 0.1000.2000.00 Positive seq. i.

000 .00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.6.00 .9000. The angle is positive.01 100.50 . Ph-E IMinOpPE 10 .6.000 s 0.50 . The setting AngleOp (max.00 Zero sequence reactance reach R0 0.60.6 Values (Range) Unit Description Additional distance protection directional function for earth faults ZDARDIR Function description Additional distance protection directional function for earth faults IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZDARDIR ANSI/IEEE C37.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Step Default X0 0.1 Application The phase-to-earth impedance elements can be optionally supervised by a phase unselective directional function based on symmetrical components. 180 degrees) defines the wideness of the operating sector. Ph-E tPE 0.001 0. Optionally six possibilities are available: • • • Zero-sequence voltage polarized (-U0) Negative-sequence voltage polarized (-U2) Zero-sequence current (I0) 281 Application manual . Setting AngleRCA is used to turn the directional characteristic.01 15. 3. Directional elements for earth-faults must operate at fault current values below the magnitude of load currents.00 ohm/p 0.00 ohm/p 0. the use of sequence quantities are preferred as polarizing quantities for earth directional elements. resistance for zone characteristic angle RFPE 1. if the expected fault current angle does not coincide with the polarizing quantity to produce the maximum torque.30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops 3.01 120.2 device number - S00346 V1 EN 3.000 Time delay of trip. The sector is mirrorsymmetric along the MTA (Maximum Torque Axis).6.6. if operating quantity lags the polarizing quantity and negative if it leads the polarizing quantity.2 Setting guidelines AngleRCA and AngleOp: these settings define the operation characteristic.00 ohm/l 0. As phase quantities are adversely affected by load.3000. Ph-E Timer tPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.6.9000.00 Zero seq.

Negative sequence polarization has the following advantages compared to zero sequence polarization: • • • • on solidly earthed systems U2 may be larger than U0. In dual polarization. and therefore all transformer configurations/constructions are not suitable for polarization. The negative-sequence voltage polarized earth directional unit compares correspondingly I2 with -U2.a · UL23)/3) The zero sequence current polarized earth directional unit compares zero sequence current I0 of the line with some reference zero-sequence current. In general zero sequence voltage is higher than the negative sequence voltage at the fault. negative sequence polarization is not affected by zero sequence mutual coupling (zero sequence polarized directional elements may misoperate in parallel lines with high zero-sequence mutual coupling and isolated zero sequence sources). This makes the -U0 polarization preferable in short line applications. where no mutual coupling problems exist. for example the current in the neutral of a power transformer. zero sequence voltage polarization and zero sequence current polarization elements function in an “OR-mode”. but decreases more rapidly the further away from the fault it is measured. the IED can benefit from both elements as the two polarization measurements function in an OR mode complementing each other. Typically when zero sequence current is high. negative sequence polarization is less affected by the effects of VT neutral shift (possible caused by unearthed or multiple earths on the supplying VT neutral) no open-delta winding is needed in VTs as only 2 VTs are required (U2 = (UL12 . The relay characteristic AngleRCA is fixed and equals 0 degrees. If the bus behind the IED location is a strong zero-sequence source. then zero sequence voltage is low and vice versa.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • Dual polarization (-U0/I0) Zero-sequence voltage with zero-sequence current compensation (-U0Comp) Negative-sequence voltage with negative-sequence current compensation (U2Comp) The zero-sequence voltage polarized earth directional unit compares the phase angles of zero sequence current I0 with zero sequence voltage -U0 at the location of the protection. Flexibility is also increased as zero sequence voltage 282 Application manual . Care must be taken to ensure that neutral current direction remains unchanged during all network configurations and faults. Thus combining a zero sequence voltage polarized and a zero sequence current polarized (neutral current polarized) directional element into one element. the negative sequence voltage available at the IED location is higher than the zero-sequence voltage.

otherwise there is a risk that reverse faults can be seen as forward.6.100 %IB 1 10 Minimum polarizing current in % of IBase 283 Application manual .99999 A 1 3000 Base setting for current values UBase 0. .00 kV 0.100 %UB 1 1 Minimum polarizing voltage in % of UBase IPol> 5 . if the zero sequence current polarizing source is switched out of service. Zero-sequence voltage polarization with zero-sequence current compensation (U0Comp) compares the phase angles of zero sequence current I0 with zerosequence voltage added by a phase-shifted portion of zero-sequence current (see equation 238) at the location of the protection.200 %IB 1 5 Minimum operation current in % of IBase UPol> 1 .6. This method requires that a significant difference must exist in the magnitudes of the zero sequence currents for close-up forward and reverse faults. and similarly it must be ensured that |U2| >> |k · I2| for reverse faults.05 400. zero sequence current polarizing is used.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C polarization can be used.05 .3 Setting parameters Table 66: ZDARDIR Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IBase 1 .2000. it is a requirement that |U0| >> |k · I0| for reverse faults. and there is no zero sequence polarizing current (transformer neutral current) available. When the zero sequence polarizing current exceeds the set value for startPolCurrLevel. The zero sequence voltage is “boosted” by a portion of the measured line zero sequence current to form the polarizing quantity.00 Base setting for voltage level in kV PolMode -3U0 -U2 IPol Dual -3U0Comp -U2comp - - -3U0 Polarization quantity for opt dir function for P-E faults AngleRCA -90 . -U2 + k × I2 × e AngleRCA (Equation 239) EQUATION1639 V2 EN 3. The factor k = setting Kmag. For values of zero sequence polarizing current less than the set value for startPolCurrLevel. zero sequence voltage polarizing is used. This type of polarization in intended for use in applications where the zero sequence voltage can be too small to be used as the polarizing quantity.90 Deg 1 75 Characteristic relay angle (= MTA or base angle) I> 1 .U 0 + k × I0 × e AngleRCA (Equation 238) EQUATION1638 V2 EN The negative-sequence voltage polarization with negative-sequence current compensation (-U2Comp) compares correspondingly I2 with (see equation 239). that is.

01 40. One part of ZSMGAPC function identifies a loss of phase potential that is the result of a long term (steady state) condition such as a blown fuse or an open voltage transformer winding or connection.00 ohm 0. 284 Application manual .6.7.2 Setting guidelines IBase: IBase is normally set to the current value of the primary winding of the CT. Therefore.2 device number - Application The Mho impedance supervision logic (ZSMGAPC) includes features for fault inception detection and high SIR detection. The blocking scheme is very dependable because it will operate for faults anywhere on the protected line if the communication channel is out of service.6.7 Mho impedance supervision logic ZSMGAPC Function description Mho Impedance supervision logic 3. If the fault is later detected as a forward fault the earlier sent blocking signal is stopped.7. it is less secure than permissive schemes because it will trip for external faults within the reach of the tripping function if the communication channel is out of service. in cases where the SIR value is too high. SIR directly influences the fault voltage level for a given voltage level.6. IBase shall be adapted to the actual application. but can also be set to the rated current of the bay.180 Deg 1 160 Operation sector angle Kmag 0.50 . In the pilot channel blocking scheme a fault inception detected by a fast acting change detector is used to send a block signal to the remote end in order to block an overreaching zone. Inadequate speed or dependability can cause spurious tripping for external faults. and this is the major factor that affects the severity of CVT transients. Conversely.Section 3 IED application Table 67: Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ZDARDIR Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description AngleOp 90 . 3.3000. This will block all trips by the distance protection since they are based on voltage measurement. further filtering of the measured signals will be needed. Inadequate security can cause delayed tripping for internal faults. ZSMGAPC function also includes functionality for blocking the sample based distance protection due to high SIR. It also includes the functionality for loss of potential logic as well as for the pilot channel blocking scheme.1 IEC 61850 identification ZSMGAPC IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37.00 Boost-factor in -U0comp and -U2comp polarization 3.

1 38. Zreach: The setting of Zreach must be adopted to the specific application. PilotMode: Set PilotMode to On when pilot scheme is to be used. which is suitable in most cases. It is by default set to 400 kV and shall be adapted to the actual application. 3. set SIRLevel to 15 the highest level IMinOp: The minimum operate current for the SIR measurement is by default set to 20% of IBase.99999 A 1 3000 Base value for current measurement UBase 0. Delta3I0: The setting of the parameter Delta3I0 for fault inception detection is by default set to 10% of UBase. The setting is used in the SIR calculation for detection of high SIR.0 Line impedance IMinOp 10 .2000.6.7. In this mode fault inception function will send a block signal to remote end to block the overreaching zones.3000. If magnetic voltage transformers are used.1 .0 ohm 0.3 Setting parameters Table 68: ZSMGAPC Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IBase 1 . DeltaI: The setting of DeltaI for fault inception detection is by default set to 10% of IBase.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C UBase: UBase is set to the voltage value of the primary winding of the VT. when operated. SIRLevel: The setting of the parameter SIRLevel is by default set to 10. This is a suitable setting for applications with CVT to avoid transient overreach due to the CVT dynamics.00 kV 0.00 Base value for voltage measurement PilotMode Off On - - Off Pilot mode Off/On Zreach 0. DeltaU: The setting of DeltaU for fault inception detection is by default set to 5% of IBase. which is suitable in most cases.05 400. SIRLevel = 10 is a suitable setting for applications with CVT to avoid transient overreach due to the CVT dynamics. which is suitable in most cases.05 . which is suitable in most cases.30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operating current for SIR measurement 285 Application manual . Delta3U0: The setting of Delta3U0 for fault inception detection is by default set to 5% of UBase.

Section 3 IED application Table 69: Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ZSMGAPC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description DeltaI 0 .2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN 3. The ability to accurate and reliable classifying the different types of fault so that single pole tripping and autoreclosing can be used plays an important roll in this matter. Due to environmental considerations the rate of expansion and reinforcement of the power system is reduced for example. Therefore. which gives the possibility to enlarge the resistive setting of both the Phase selection with load encroachment and the measuring zones without interfering with the load. FMPSPDIS has an built-in algorithm for load encroachment.200 %IB 1 10 Zero seq current change level in % of IB DeltaU 0 . 286 Application manual . difficulties to get permission to build new power lines. Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho (FMPSPDIS) function is designed to accurately select the proper fault loop in the Distance protection function dependent on the fault type. The load encroachment algorithm and the blinder functions are always activated in the phase selector.100 %UB 1 5 Voltage change level in %UB for fault inception detection Delta3U0 0 .6.8 Faulty phase identification with load encroachment FMPSPDIS Function description Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification FMPSPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37.6.8.100 %UB 1 5 Zero seq voltage change level in % of UB SIRLevel 5 . The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may in some cases be in opposite to the wanted fault resistance coverage.200 %IB 1 10 Current change level in %IB for fault inception detection Delta3I0 0 . The influence from these functions on the zone measurement characteristic has to be activated by switching the setting parameter LoadEnchMode for the respective measuring zone(s) to On.1 Application The operation of transmission networks today is in many cases close to the stability limit.15 - 1 10 Settable level for source impedance ratio 3.

but can also be set to the rated current of the bay. IMaxLoad: The setting IMaxLoad must be set higher than the maximum load current transfer during emergency conditions including a safety margin of at least 20%.6.2 is the security margin against the load current and ILoad is the maximal load current during emergency conditions. It is by default set to 400 kV and shall be adapted to the actual application.2 Setting guidelines IBase: IBase is normally set to the current value of the primary winding of the CT. The current ILoad can be defined according to equation 241. It is by default set to 3000 A and shall be adapted to the actual application. I1LowLevel: The setting of the positive current threshold I1LowLevel used in the sequence based part of the phase selector for identifying three-phase fault. The default setting is suitable in most cases.2 ILoad EQUATION1614 V2 EN (Equation 240) where: 1. The default setting is suitable in most applications. The setting must normally be set to at least 10% lower than the setting of INBlockPPto give priority to open phase-to-earth loop. INRelPE must be above the normal un-balance current (3I0) that might exist due to un-transposed lines. The setting is proposed to be according to equation 240: IMaxLoad =1. 287 Application manual . INRelPE: The setting of INRelPE for release of the phase-to-earth loop is by default set to 20% of IBase. The setting must also be set higher than the 3I0 that occurs when one pole opens in single pole trip applications. but must be checked against the minimum three-phase current that occurs at remote end of the line with reasonable fault resistance. which is suitable in most applications.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.8. INBlockPP: The setting of INBlockPP is by default set to 40% of IBase. is by default set to 10% of IBase. UBase: UBase is set to the voltage value of the primary winding of the VT.

288 Application manual .vsd IEC05000226 V1 EN Figure 138: Load encroachment characteristic The calculation of the apparent load impedance Zload and minimum load impedance Zloadmin can be done according to equations: Umin Z load = --------------------3 × Imax (Equation 242) EQUATION574 V1 EN 2 U Z loadmin = ------S EQUATION571 V1 EN (Equation 243) Where: U is the minimum phase-to-phase voltage in kV S is the maximum apparent power in MVA.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C S max ILoad = 3 × ULmn (Equation 241) EQUATION1615 V1 EN where: Smax is the maximal apparent power transfer during emergency conditions and ULmn is the phase-to-phase voltage during the emergency conditions at the IED location. Load encroachment The load encroachment function has two setting parameters. RLd for the load resistance and ArgLd for the inclination of the load sector (see figure 138). X RLdFw ARGLd ARGLd ARGLd RLdRv R ARGLd en05000226.

The RLd can be calculated according to equation 245: RLd = ZLoad × cos( ArgLd ) (Equation 245) EQUATION1624 V1 EN The setting of RLd and ArgLd is by default set to 80 ohm/phase and 20 degrees.200 %IB 1 10 Pos seq current level for identification of 3-ph fault in % of IBase U1MinOp 5 .01 80. 3.00 Base voltage IMaxLoad 10 .100 %UB 1 20 Delta voltage level in % of UBase U1Level 5 .3000.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The load angle ArgLd can be derived according to equation 244: æ P max ö ÷ è S max ø ArgLd = a cos ç (Equation 244) EQUATION1623 V1 EN where: Pmax is the maximal active power transfer during emergency conditions and Smax is the maximal apparent power transfer during emergency conditions.00 .70 Deg 1 20 Load encroachment inclination of load angular sector Table 71: Name FMPSPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description DeltaIMinOp 5 . Those values must be adapted to the specific application.00 Load encroachment resistive reach in ohm/phase ArgLd 5 .00 ohm/p 0.100 %UB 1 80 Pos seq voltage limit for identification of 3ph fault I1LowLevel 5 .100 %IB 1 10 Delta current level in % of IBase DeltaUMinOp 5 .3 Setting parameters Table 70: FMPSPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IBase 1 .2000.05 .6.100 %UB 1 20 Minimum operate positive sequence voltage for ph sel Table continues on next page 289 Application manual .8.05 400.00 kV 0.99999 A 1 3000 Base current UBase 0.5000 %IB 1 200 Maximum load for identification of three phase fault in % of IBase RLd 1.

100 %UB 1 5 Minimum operate negative sequence voltage for ph sel INRelPE 10 .2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN Distance protection zone. These changes in the network will normally impose more stringent demands on the fault clearing equipment in order to maintain an unchanged or increased security level of the power system. System earthing The type of system earthing plays an important role when designing the protection system. quadrilateral characteristic.2 device number 21D Application Sub-transmission networks are being extended and often become more and more complex.6.100 %IB 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loops in % of max phase current 3.1 IEC 61850 identification ZDRDIR IEC 60617 identification Z<-> ANSI/IEEE C37. separate settings (zone 2-5) ZMRAPDIS 21 S00346 V1 EN Function description Directional impedance quadrilateral 3. 290 Application manual .9. The distance protection function in the IED is designed to meet basic requirements for application on transmission and sub-transmission lines although it also can be used on distribution levels.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description U2MinOp 1 .100 %IB 1 20 3I0 limit for release ph-e measuring loops in % of max phase current INBlockPP 10 . separate settings (zone 1) IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMRPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. consisting of a high number of multi-circuit and/or multi terminal lines of very different lengths. quadrilateral characteristic. quadrilateral characteristic. Some hints with respect to distance protection are highlighted below. ZMRAPDIS and ZDRDIR Function description Distance protection zone. separate settings ZMRPDIS.6.9 Distance protection zone.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Solid earthed networks In solidly earthed systems.earth voltage (kV) in the faulty phase before fault Z1 is the positive sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Z2 is the negative sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Z0 is the zero sequence impedance (Ω/phase) Zf is the fault impedance (Ω). The high zero sequence current in solid earthed networks makes it possible to use impedance measuring technique to detect earth-fault. however. The series impedances determine the magnitude of the fault current. have some marginal influence on the earth-fault current in networks with long transmission lines. often resistive ZN is the earth return impedance defined as (Z0-Z1)/3 The voltage on the healthy phases is generally lower than 140% of the nominal phaseto-earth voltage. The shunt admittance may. The earth-fault current is as high or even higher than the short-circuit current. However.earth in phase L1 can be calculated as equation 55: 3I 0 = 3 × U L1 Z1 + Z 2 + Z 0 + 3Z f = U L1 Z1 + Z N + Z f (Equation 246) EQUATION1267 V3 EN Where: UL1 is the phase-to. distance protection has limited possibilities to detect high resistance faults and should therefore always be complemented with other protection function(s) that can carry out the fault clearance in those cases. The earth-fault current at single phase-to. The shunt admittance has very limited influence on the earth-fault current.vsd IEC05000215 V1 EN Figure 139: Solidly earthed network. xx05000215. the transformer neutrals are connected solidly to earth without any impedance between the transformer neutral and earth. This corresponds to about 80% of the nominal phase-to-phase voltage. 291 Application manual .

see equation 57 and equation 58. distance protection has limited possibilities to detect high resistance faults and should therefore always be complemented with other protection function(s) that can carry out the fault clearance in this case. The earth-fault factor is defined according to equation 56.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Effectively earthed networks A network is defined as effectively earthed if the earth-fault factor fe is less than 1. 292 Application manual . mostly a reactance in parallel with a high resistor.4. This type of network is many times operated in radial. in the same way as for solid earthed networks. but can also be found operating meshed networks. High impedance earthed networks In high impedance networks. the neutral of the system transformers are connected to the earth through high impedance. fe = U max U pn (Equation 247) EQUATION1268 V3 EN Where: Umax is the highest fundamental frequency voltage on one of the healthy phases at single phaseto-earth fault. Upn is the phase-to-earth fundamental frequency voltage before fault. X 0 < 3 × X1 EQUATION2122 V1 EN (Equation 248) R0 £ R1 EQUATION2123 V1 EN (Equation 249) Where R0 is the resistive zero sequence source impedance X0 is the reactive zero sequence source impedance R1 is the resistive positive sequence source impedance X1 is the reactive positive sequence source impedance The magnitude of the earth-fault current in effectively earthed networks is high enough for impedance measuring element to detect earth-fault. Another definition for effectively earthed network is when the following relationships between the symmetrical components of the network source impedances are valid. However.

a separate function called Phase preference logic (PPLPHIZ) is needed. In high impedance earthed networks. The zero sequence voltage (3U0) will have the same magnitude in different places in the network due to low voltage drop distribution. they clear the line later when it is more convenient. which is not common to be used in transmission applications. 293 Application manual .vsd IEC05000216 V1 EN Figure 140: High impedance earthing network.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C What is typical for this type of network is that the magnitude of the earth fault current is very low compared to the short circuit current. The magnitude of the total fault current can be calculated according to equation 59. some system operators do not clear single phase-toearth faults immediately. To handle this type phenomena. many network operators want to selectively clear one of the two earth-faults.IC ) 2 (Equation 250) EQUATION1271 V3 EN Where: 3I0 is the earth-fault current (A) IR is the current through the neutral point resistor (A) IL is the current through the neutral point reactor (A) IC is the total capacitive earth-fault current (A) The neutral point reactor is normally designed so that it can be tuned to a position where the reactive current balances the capacitive current from the network that is: wL = 1 3 ×w × C (Equation 251) EQUATION1272 V1 EN Ic IR Ic Ic IL en05000216. 3I 0 = I R 2 + ( IL . In case of cross-country faults. The operation of high impedance earthed networks is different compared to solid earthed networks where all major faults have to be cleared very fast. The voltage on the healthy phases will get a magnitude of √3 times the phase voltage during the fault.

the distance protection at the exporting end will have a tendency to overreach. ZA = Va IA = p × ZL + IA + IB IA × Rf (Equation 253) EQUATION1274 V2 EN The infeed factor (IA+IB)/IA can be very high. This effect is very important to keep in mind when both planning the protection system and making the settings. The low magnitude of the earth-fault current might not give start of the zero sequence measurement element or the sensitivity will be too low for acceptance. ESA ZSA UA A IA p*ZL (1-p)*ZL IB UB B ZSB ESB ZL Z< Rf Z< IEC09000247-1-en. it is mostly not possible to use distance protection for detection and clearance of earth-faults. For this reason a separate high sensitive earth-fault protection is necessary to carry out the fault clearance for single phase-toearth fault. The fault current infeed will enlarge the fault impedance seen by the distance protection. To handle this phenomenon. the IED has an adaptive 294 Application manual . Fault infeed from remote end All transmission and most all sub-transmission networks are operated meshed. the equation for the bus voltage UA at A side is: VA = IA × p × ZL + ( IA + IB ) × Rf (Equation 252) EQUATION1273 V1 EN If we divide UA by IA we get Z present to the IED at A side. Typical for this type of network is that fault infeed from remote end will happen when fault occurs on the protected line. 10-20 depending on the differences in source impedances at local and remote end. With reference to figure 48.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C In this type of network.vsd IEC09000247 V1 EN Figure 141: Influence of fault current infeed from remote line end The effect of fault current infeed from remote line end is one of the most driving factors for justify complementary protection to distance protection. When the line is heavily loaded.

The settings of the parameters for load encroachment are done in . quadrilateral characteristic function (FRPSPDIS). For short lines. without load encroachment function". especially for phase-to-earth faults at remote line end. Load encroachment In some cases the load impedance might enter the zone characteristic without any fault on the protected line. the ability to detect resistive faults. at the exporting end. The phenomenon is called load encroachment and it might occur when an external fault is cleared and high emergency load is transferred on the protected line. The entrance of the load impedance inside the characteristic is of course not allowed and the way to handle this with conventional distance protection is to consider this with the settings. The load encroachment algorithm will increase the possibility to detect high fault resistances.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C built in algorithm which compensates the overreach tendency of zone 1. No settings are required for this function. The effect of load encroachment is illustrated to the left in figure 49. This is valid in both directions. The function can also preferably be used on heavy loaded medium long lines. the load encroachment function could preferably be switched off. for short lines. to have a security margin between the distance zone and the minimum load impedance. FRPSPDIS function. that is. where there might be a conflict between the necessary emergency load transfer and necessary sensitivity of the distance protection. for a given setting of the load angle ArgLd for Phase selection with load encroachment. For example. 295 Application manual . So. See section "Load impedance limitation. that is. the resistive blinder for the zone measurement can be expanded according to the figure 49 given higher fault resistance coverage without risk for unwanted operation due to load encroachment. the major concern is to get sufficient fault resistance coverage and load encroachment is not a major problem. The IED has a built in function which shapes the characteristic according to the right figure of figure 49. The use of the load encroachment feature is essential for long heavy loaded lines. This has the drawback that it will reduce the sensitivity of the protection.

that is. Load encroachment is normally no problems for short line applications. Load encroachment is not so common.vsd IEC09000248 V1 EN Figure 142: Load encroachment phenomena and shaped load encroachment characteristic defined in Phase selection and load encroachment function (FRPSPDIS) Short line application In short line applications. it depends on system parameters such as voltage and source impedance. Long transmission line application For long transmission lines.5-11 km 25-50 km The IED's ability to set resistive and reactive reach independent for positive and zero sequence fault loops and individual fault resistance settings for phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth fault together with load encroachment algorithm improves the possibility to detect high resistive faults without conflict with the load impedance.1-5. the margin to the load impedance. The line length that can be recognized as a short line is not a fixed length. For very short line applications. see table 47.5 km 5-25 km Short line 5.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X X Z1 Z1 Load impedance area in forward R direction ArgLd ArgLd ArgLd R ArgLd RLdRv RLdFw IEC09000248_1_en. It is well known that it is difficult 296 Application manual . the major concern is to get sufficient fault resistance coverage. Table 72: Line category Typical length of short and very short line Un 110 kV Un 500 kV Very short line 1. to avoid load encroachment. the underreaching zone 1 can not be used due to the voltage drop distribution throughout the line will be too low causing risk for overreaching. see figure 49. will normally be a major concern.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C to achieve high sensitivity for phase-to-earth fault at remote line end of a long line when the line is heavy loaded. and some coupling exists even for lines that are separated by 100 meters or more. see figure 49. 297 Application manual .99 km 350 km . long lines have Source impedance ratio (SIR’s) less than 0. Parallel lines introduce an error in the measurement due to the mutual coupling between the parallel lines. The different network configuration classes are: 1. 3. Parallel line application with mutual coupling General Introduction of parallel lines in the network is increasing due to difficulties to get necessary area for new lines. Parallel line with common positive and zero sequence network Parallel circuits with common positive but isolated zero sequence network Parallel circuits with positive and zero sequence sources isolated. What can be recognized as long lines with respect to the performance of distance protection can generally be described as in table 48. The lines need not be of the same voltage in order to experience mutual coupling. 2.450 km Very long lines > 99 km > 450 km The IED's ability to set resistive and reactive reach independent for positive and zero sequence fault loops and individual fault resistance settings for phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth fault together with load encroachment algorithm improves the possibility to detect high resistive faults at the same time as the security is improved (risk for unwanted trip due to load encroachment is eliminated).5. The mutual coupling does influence the zero sequence impedance to the fault point but it does not normally cause voltage inversion. From an application point of view there exists three types of network configurations (classes) that must be considered when making the settings for the protection function. It can be shown from analytical calculations of line impedances that the mutual impedances for positive and negative sequence are very small (< 1-2%) of the self impedance and it is a practice to neglect them. Table 73: Line category Typical length of long and very long lines Un 110 kV Un 500 kV Long lines 77 km .

This type of mutual coupling is not so common although it exists and is not treated any further in this manual. For each type of network class. From symmetrical components. The three most common operation modes are: 1. Different groups of setting parameters for different operating conditions of a protected multi circuit line. parallel line out of service and not earthed. Parallel line in service This type of application is very common and applies to all normal sub-transmission and transmission networks.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C One example of class 3 networks could be the mutual coupling between a 400kV line and rail road overhead lines. 298 Application manual . 3. parallel line in service. by using: • • The possibility of different setting values that influence the earth-return compensation for different distance zones within the same group of setting parameters. parallel line out of service and earthed. Let us analyze what happens when a fault occurs on the parallel line see figure 51. Most multi circuit lines have two parallel operating circuits. The distance protection within the IED can compensate for the influence of a zero sequence mutual coupling on the measurement at single phase-to-earth faults in the following ways. 2. The reach of the distance protection zone 1 will be different depending on the operation condition of the parallel line. out of service. This can be handled by the use of different setting groups for handling the cases when the parallel line is in operation and out of service and earthed at both ends. Parallel line applications This type of networks are defined as those networks where the parallel transmission lines terminate at common nodes at both ends. the parallel line can be in service. we can derive the impedance Z at the relay point for normal lines without mutual coupling according to equation 63. out of service and earthed in both ends. there are three different topologies.

Z1 = Vph Iph + 3I 0 × KN 3 × Z1 (Equation 254) EQUATION1275 V2 EN Where: Uph is phase to earth voltage at the relay point Iph is phase current in the faulty phase 3I0 is earth fault current Z1 is positive sequence impedance Z0 is zero sequence impedance A B Z0m Z< Z< IEC09000250_1_en.vsd IEC09000250 V1 EN Figure 143: Class 1. 299 Application manual . Z0 -Z0m A Z0m C Z0 -Z0m B IEC09000253_1_en. When mutual coupling is introduced. the voltage at the relay point A will be changed according to equation 64. see figure 52. parallel line in service.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C U ph Z = I + 3I × ph U ph = Z -Z 0 I + 3I × K 1 ph 0 N 0 3× Z 1 (Equation 254) EQUATION2311 V1 EN Vph Z = Iph + 3I 0 × Z 0 . parallel.vsd IEC09000253 V1 EN Figure 144: Equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit of the double-circuit. The equivalent zero sequence circuit of the lines can be simplified. operating line with a single phase-to-earth fault at the remote busbar.

the distance protection will underreach.p ) EQUATION1279 V2 EN (Equation 258) Simplification of equation 67.Z1 L 0 3 × Z1 L + 3I Z0 m 0p 3 × Z1 L L ö ÷ ø (Equation 255) EQUATION2312 V1 EN By dividing equation 64 by equation 63 and after some simplification we can write the impedance present to the relay at A side as: æ 3I 0 × K Nm ö Z = Z t ç1 + ÷ è I ph + 3I 0 × K N ø (Equation 256) EQUATION1277 V2 EN Where: KNm = Z0m/(3 · Z1L) The second part in the parentheses is the error introduced to the measurement of the line impedance. the voltage UA in the faulty phase at A side as in equation 66. Maximum overreach will occur if the fault current infeed from remote line end is weak. If the currents have the same direction. the distance function will overreach. that is.p ø è EQUATION1280 V1 EN (Equation 259) 300 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C æ è U ph = Z1 × ç I + 3I × L ph Z0 . solving it for 3I0p and substitution of the result into equation 66 gives that the voltage can be drawn as: æ 3I 0 × p ö VA = p × Z 1L ç Iph + KN × 3I 0 + KNm × ÷ 2. If considering a single phase-to-earth fault at 'p' unit of the line length from A to B on the parallel line for the case when the fault current infeed from remote line end is zero. the current on the parallel line has an opposite direction compared to the current on the protected line. If the current on the parallel line has negative sign compared to the current on the protected line. U A = p × Z1 L (I ph + K × 3I + K × 3I N 0 Nm 0p ) EQUATION2313 V1 EN (Equation 257) One can also notice that the following relationship exists between the zero sequence currents: 3 I 0 × Z 0 L = 3I 0 p × Z 0 L ( 2 .

303 Ω/km. the equivalent zero sequence circuit of the parallel lines will be according to figure 54. where we for simplicity have excluded the resistance. 301 Application manual . This reach reduction is normally less than 15%. Parallel line out of service and earthed A B Z0m Z< Z< IEC09000251_1_en. The zero sequence mutual coupling can reduce the reach of distance protection on the protected circuit when the parallel line is in normal operation.p ÷ø ú è ê Z = p × Z1L ê ú Iph + 3I 0 × KN ê ú ë û (Equation 260) EQUATION1379 V2 EN Calculation for a 400 kV line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C If we finally divide equation 68 with equation 63 we can draw the impedance present to the IED as éæ 3I 0 × p ö ù ê ç Iph + KN × 3I 0 + KNm × ú 2 .vsd IEC09000251 V1 EN Figure 145: The parallel line is out of service and earthed. When the parallel line is out of service and earthed at both line ends on the bus bar side of the line CTs so that zero sequence current can flow on the parallel line. gives with X1L=0. The reduction of the reach is most pronounced with no current infeed in the IED closest to the fault. it is proportionally increased at the opposite line end. X0L=0. A I0 Z0 .vsd IEC09000252 V1 EN Figure 146: Equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit for the double-circuit line that operates with one circuit disconnected and earthed at both ends. zone 1 reach is set to 90% of the line reactance p=71% that is. So this 15% reach reduction does not significantly affect the operation of a permissive underreaching scheme.Z0m Z0m B Z0 -Z0m I0 C IEC09000252_1_en.88 Ω/km. But when the reach is reduced at one line end. the protection is underreaching with approximately 20%.

2 0 m 2 ÷ è R0 + X 0 ø (Equation 263) DOCUMENT11520-IMG3503 V1 EN Parallel line out of service and not earthed A B Z0m Z< Z< IEC09000254_1_en. It is recommended to use a separate setting group for this operation condition since it will reduce the reach considerably when the line is in operation. Calculate the equivalent X0E and R0E zero sequence parameters according to equation 71 and equation 72 for each particular line section and use them for calculating the reach for the underreaching zone.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Here the equivalent zero sequence impedance is equal to Z0-Z0m in parallel with (Z0-Z0m)/Z0-Z0m+Z0m which is equal to equation 70. 302 Application manual . the equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit for faults at the remote bus bar can be simplified to the circuit shown in figure 55 The line zero sequence mutual impedance does not influence the measurement of the distance protection in a faulty circuit. mutual reactance X0m. All expressions below are proposed for practical use. When the parallel line is out of service and not earthed. 2 Z 0E 0 Z 0 . They assume the value of zero sequence.Z 0m = Z0 (Equation 261) EQUATION2002 V2 EN The influence on the distance measurement will be a considerable overreach. They consider only the zero sequence. In practice.vsd IEC09000254 V1 EN Figure 147: Parallel line is out of service and not earthed. R0 E æ X 0m2 ö = R0 · ç1 + 2 2 ÷ è R0 + X 0 ø (Equation 262) DOCUMENT11520-IMG3502 V1 EN æ X 2 ö X 0 E = X 0 · ç1 . The line admittance is high which limits the zero sequence current on the parallel line to very low values. mutual resistance R0m equals to zero. the zero sequence on that line can only flow through the line admittance to the earth. which must be considered when calculating the settings.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C A Z0 . This application gives rise to similar problem that was highlighted in section "Fault infeed from remote end" . for faults between the T point and B station the measured impedance at A and C will be ZA =ZAT + IA + IC ·ZTF IA (Equation 264) DOCUMENT11524-IMG3509 V2 EN ZC = ZTrf + ( ZCT + DOCUMENT11524-IMG3510 V2 EN U2 IA + IC ·ZTF) ·( )2 U1 IC (Equation 265) 303 Application manual .vsd IEC09000255 V1 EN Figure 148: Equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit for a double-circuit line with one circuit disconnected and not earthed. For example.vsd IEC09000160 V2 EN Figure 149: Example of tapped line with Auto transformer.Z0m I0 Z0m I0 C Z0 . Tapped line application IA A T Z< IB F B Z< IC -IB Z< C IEC09000160-2-en.Z0m B IEC09000255_1_en. that is increased measured impedance due to fault current infeed.

ZTrf Transformer impedance For this example with a fault between T and B. Generally for this type of application it is difficult to select settings of zone 1 that both gives overlapping of the zones with enough sensitivity without interference with other zone 1 settings. For example. ZTF is the line impedance from the T point to the fault (F). For the IED at C. U2/U1 Transformation ratio for transformation of impedance at U1 side of the transformer to the measuring side U2 (it is assumed that current and voltage distance function is taken from U2 side of the transformer). The arc resistance can be calculated according to Warrington's formula: 304 Application manual . given that the distance protection in B to T will measure wrong direction. Careful fault calculations are necessary to determine suitable settings and selection of proper scheme communication. Another complication that might occur depending on the topology is that the current from one end can have a reverse direction for fault on the protected line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Where: ZAT and ZCT is the line impedance from the A respective C station to the T point. it might be necessary to accept zone 2 trip in one end or sequential trip in one end. In three-end application.The resistance is also depending on the presence of earth shield conductor at the top of the tower. for faults at T the current from B might go in reverse direction from B to C depending on the system parameters (see the dotted line in figure 57). Fault resistance The performance of distance protection for single phase-to-earth faults is very important. depending on the source impedance behind the IEDs. because normally more than 70% of the faults on transmission lines are single phase-to-earth faults. the impedance on the high voltage side U1 has to be transferred to the measuring voltage level by the transformer ratio. the measured impedance from the T point to the fault will be increased by a factor defined as the sum of the currents from T point to the fault divided by the IED current. resistance of a tower construction. At these faults. IA and IC is fault current from A respective C station for fault between T and B. that is without selectivity conflicts. and tower-footing resistance. connecting tower-footing resistance in parallel. the fault resistance is composed of three parts: arc resistance. the impedances of the protected object and the fault location.

The following basics must be considered.90% of the protected line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Rarc = 28707 × L I1. The effect from load transfer together with fault resistance may be considerable in some extreme cases.9. Zero sequence mutual coupling from parallel lines. particularly under transient conditions. By proper setting it is possible to compensate for the cases when the parallel line is in operation. and their effect on the calculated value of the earth-return compensation factor. quadrilateral characteristic ((ZMRPDIS) are done in primary values. In case of parallel lines. The difference between the impedances for different phase-to-earth loops can be as large as 5-10% of the total line impedance. depending on application. including the influence of different Z0/Z1 ratios of the various sources.4 EQUATION1456 V1 EN (Equation 266) where: L represents the length of the arc (in meters). consider the influence of the mutual coupling according to section "Parallel line application with mutual coupling" and select the case(s) that are valid in the particular application.2 Setting guidelines General The settings for Distance measuring zones. The phase impedance of non transposed lines is not identical for all fault loops. the setting of fault resistance for both phase-to-earth RFPE and phase-tophase RFPP should be as high as possible without interfering with the load impedance in order to obtain reliable fault detection. Setting of zone 1 The different errors mentioned earlier usually require a limitation of the underreaching zone (normally zone 1) to 75 . In practice. 3. out of service and not earthed 305 Application manual . The effect of infeed between the IED and the fault location. Consider approximately three times arc foot spacing for the zone 2 and wind speed of approximately 50 km/h I is the actual fault current in A. Inaccuracies in the line zero sequence impedance data. This equation applies for the distance protection zone 1. The instrument transformer ratio that has been set for the analogue input module is used to automatically convert the measured secondary input signals to primary values used in (ZMRPDIS).6. when doing the setting calculations: • • • • • • Errors introduced by current and voltage instrument transformers.

The setting shall generally not exceed 80% of the following impedances: • • The impedance corresponding to the protected line.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C and out of service and earthed in both ends.vsd IEC09000256 V1 EN Figure 150: Setting of overreaching zone 306 Application manual . The impedance corresponding to the protected line. the time delay of zone 2 must be increased by approximately 200ms to avoid unwanted operation in cases when the telecommunication for the short adjacent line at remote end is down during faults. The requirement that the zone 2 shall not reach more than 80% of the shortest adjacent line at remote end is highlighted in the example below. the IED at point A senses the impedance: Z AF = Z AC + æ IB ö IA + IB × Z CF = Z AC + ç 1 + ÷ × Z CF IA è IA ø (Equation 267) EQUATION302 V3 EN Z AC A Z CB F IA C Z CF B I A+ I B Z< IB IEC09000256_1_en. The zone 2 reach can be even longer if the fault infeed from adjacent lines at remote end are considerable higher than the fault current at the IED location. Considering the different errors that might influence the measurement in the same way as for zone 1. The setting of earth-fault reach should be selected to be <95% also when parallel line is out of service and earthed at both ends (worst case). If a fault occurs at point F see figure 58. The whole line must be covered under all conditions. Larger overreach than the mentioned 80% can often be acceptable due to fault current infeed from other lines. plus the impedance of the maximum number of transformers operating in parallel on the bus at the remote end of the protected line. it is necessary to increase the reach of the overreaching zone to at least 120% of the protected line. If any of the above indicates a zone 2 reach less than 120%. The zone 2 must not be reduced below 120% of the protected line section. This requires however analysis by means of fault calculations. Setting of overreaching zone The first overreaching zone (normally zone 2) must detect faults on the whole protected line. plus the first zone reach of the shortest adjacent line.

Parallel line in service – setting of zone 2 Overreaching zones (in general. It is necessary to secure.2 × Z2 rem .ZL EQUATION2314 V1 EN (Equation 268) Where: ZL is the protected line impedance Z2rem is zone 2 setting at remote end of protected line. current reversal logic. the zone reach can be set to 85% of protected line. weak-end infeed etc. The same applies to the backup protection of the bus bar or power transformers. Consider the possible enlarging factor that might exist due to fault infeed from adjacent lines. The equivalent zero sequence impedance circuit for this case is equal to the one in figure 52 in section "Parallel line applications". used at the remote line IED for the telecommunication purposes. Equation 82 can be used to calculate the reach in reverse direction when the zone is used for blocking scheme. The greatest reduction of a reach occurs in cases when both parallel circuits are in service with a single phase-to-earth fault located at the end of a protected line. In many applications it might be necessary to consider the enlarging factor due to fault current infeed from adjacent lines in the reverse direction in order to obtain certain sensitivity. zones 2 and 3) must overreach the protected circuit in all cases. Z rev ³ 1.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting of reverse zone The reverse zone is applicable for purposes of scheme communication logic. and so on. influence of mutual impedance has to be taken into account. that it always covers the overreaching zone. However. The components of the zero sequence impedance for the overreaching zones must be equal to at least: R0E = R0 + R m0 EQUATION553 V1 EN (Equation 269) X 0E = X 0 + Xm0 EQUATION554 V1 EN (Equation 270) 307 Application manual . Setting of zones for parallel line application Parallel line in service – Setting of zone 1 With reference to section "Parallel line applications". weak-end infeed logic.

The reach is reduced for a factor: K 0 = 1- Z 0m 2 × Z1 + Z 0 + Rf (Equation 271) EQUATION1426 V1 EN If the denominator in equation 85 is called B and Z0m is simplified to X0m. This means that an underreaching zone must not overreach the end of a protected circuit for the single phase-to-earth faults. set all remaining reach setting parameters independently of each other. Set the values of the corresponding zone (zero-sequence resistance and reactance) equal to: 2 Xm0 æ ö -÷ R 0E = R 0 × ç 1 + ------------------------2 2 è R0 + X0 ø (Equation 274) EQUATION561 V1 EN 2 X m0 ö æ X 0E = X 0 × ç 1 – ------------------------2 2÷ è R0 + X0 ø EQUATION562 V1 EN (Equation 275) Setting of reach in resistive direction Set the resistive independently for each zone. For each distance zone. 308 Application manual . Set separately the expected fault resistance for phase-to-phase faults RFPP and for the phase-to-earth faults RFPE for each zone. then the real and imaginary part of the reach reduction factor for the overreaching zones can be written as: ( ) Re K 0 = 1 - X 0m × Re ( B ) Re ( B ) + Im ( B ) 2 2 (Equation 272) EQUATION1427 V2 EN ( ) Im K 0 = X 0m × Im ( B ) Re ( B ) + Im ( B ) 2 2 (Equation 273) EQUATION1428 V2 EN Parallel line is out of service and earthed in both ends Apply the same measures as in the case with a single set of setting parameters.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Check the reduction of a reach for the overreaching zones due to the effect of the zero sequence mutual coupling.

the setting of the load resistance RLdFw and RLdRv in FRPSPDIS must be set to max value (3000). If FRPSPDIS is to be used for all or some of the measuring zones. compared to the fault resistance for phase-to-earth faults. the load limitation for those zones according to this chapter can be omitted. quadrilateral characteristic function FRPSPDIS is not activated. without load encroachment function The following instructions are valid when Phase selection with load enchroachment. To deactivate the function. R= 1 3 ( 2 × R1 + R0 ) + RFPE (Equation 276) IECEQUATION2303 V1 EN j loop = arctan é 2 × X1 + X0 ù êë 2 × R1 + R0 úû (Equation 277) EQUATION2304 V1 EN Setting of the resistive reach for the underreaching zone 1 should follow the condition to minimize the risk for overreaching: RFPE £ 4. limit the setting of the zone1 reach in resistive direction for phase-to-phase loop measurement to: RFPP £ 3 × X1 (Equation 279) IECEQUATION2306 V1 EN Load impedance limitation.5 × X1 (Equation 278) IECEQUATION2305 V1 EN The fault resistance for phase-to-phase faults is normally quite low. 309 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The final reach in resistive direction for phase-to-earth fault loop measurement automatically follows the values of the line-positive and zero-sequence resistance. The minimum load impedance (Ω/phase) is calculated as: 2 U Z loadmin = ------S EQUATION571 V1 EN (Equation 280) Where: U is the minimum phase-to-phase voltage in kV S is the maximum apparent power in MVA. Check the maximum permissible resistive reach for any zone to ensure that there is a sufficient setting margin between the boundary and the minimum load impedance. To minimize the risk for overreaching. and at the end of the protected zone is equal to equation 90.

é êë RFPE £ 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The load impedance [Ω/phase] is a function of the minimum operation voltage and the maximum load current: Umin Z load = --------------------3 × Imax (Equation 281) EQUATION574 V1 EN Minimum voltage Umin and maximum current Imax are related to the same operating conditions.8 × Z load (Equation 282) EQUATION792 V1 EN This equation is applicable only when the loop characteristic angle for the single phase-to-earth faults is more than three times as large as the maximum expected loadimpedance angle. For the case when the loop characteristic angle is less than three times the load-impedance angle. consider both: phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth fault operating characteristics. 310 Application manual . the set resistive reach of any distance protection zone must be less than 80% of the minimum load impedance. RFPE £ 0. related to the maximum load power. Minimum load impedance occurs normally under emergency conditions. the set resistive reach of any distance protection zone must be less than 160% of the minimum load impedance.8 × Z load min × cos ¶ - 2 × R1 + R 0 2 × X1+ X 0 × sin ¶ ù úû EQUATION578 V3 EN (Equation 283) Where: ∂ is a maximum load-impedance angle. To avoid load encroachment for the phase-to-earth measuring elements. As a safety margin is required to avoid load encroachment under three-phase conditions and to guarantee correct healthy phase IED operation under combined heavy three-phase load and earth faults. To avoid load encroachment for the phase-to-phase measuring elements. more accurate calculations are necessary according to equation 97.

311 Application manual . Setting of minimum operating currents The operation of Distance protection zone.× sin J ùú X1 ë û (Equation 285) All this is applicable for all measuring zones when no Power swing detection function ZMRPSB is activated in the IED. quadrilateral characteristic function (FRPSPDIS).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C RFPP £ 1. quadrilateral characteristic (ZMQPDIS) can be blocked if the magnitude of the currents is below the set value of the parameter IMinOpPP and IMinOpPE. Setting IMinOpIN blocks the phase-to-earth loop if 3I0<IMinOpIN. Use an additional safety margin of approximately 20% in cases when a ZMRPSB function is activated in the IED. if the distance protection zone has been set for the operation in reverse direction. However.6 × Z load min IECEQUATION2307 V1 EN R1 × éê cos J . there might be applications where it is necessary to increase the sensitivity by reducing the minimum operating current down to 10% of IBase. when the IED serves as a remote back-up protection on series of very long transmission lines. More accurate calculations are necessary according to equation 99. The default setting of IMinOpPP and IMinOpPE is 20% of IBase where IBase is the chosen current for the analogue input channels. with Phase selection with load encroachment. RFPP £ 1. The value has been proven in practice to be suitable in most of the applications. The default setting of IMinOpIN is 5% of IBase. The minimum operating fault current is automatically reduced to 75% of its set value. refer to the description of Power swing detection function ZMRPSB.6 × Zload (Equation 284) EQUATION579 V2 EN RFP Equation 98 is applicable only when the loop characteristic angle for the phase-tophase faults is more than three times as large as the maximum expected loadimpedance angle. Load impedance limitation. quadrilateral characteristic function activated The parameters for shaping of the load encroachment characteristic are found in the description of Phase selection with load encroachment. This happens especially in cases.

000 Time delay of trip.10 .01 .001 0.6.00 Positive seq.01 30.9000.3 Setting parameters Table 74: ZMRPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off / On IBase 1 . rated voltage OperationDir Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1PP 0.10 .00 Positive seq. Ph-E X0PE 0.00 Base voltage.01 100.000 s 0.3000.01 . rated current UBase 0. resistance for characteristic angle.05 400.1000.e. i. 3.000 .99999 A 1 3000 Base current.00 kV 0.3000.01 15. Ph-E tPE 0.00 Zero seq.01 5. Ph-Ph tPP 0. Ph-E RFPE 0.9000.2000.001 0.10 .000 s 0.000 Time delay of trip.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.3000.00 ohm/p 0.05 .00 ohm/p 0. Ph-Ph RFPP 0.01 5.60.1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.10 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach Ph-E R1PE 0. Distance protection zone 1 can also have a time delay.60. Ph-E Table continues on next page 312 Application manual .01 30.10 .00 ohm/l 0. Different time delays are possible for the phase-to-earthtPE and for the phase-to-phase tPP measuring loops in each distance protection zone separately. Time delays for all zones can be set in a range of 0 to 60 seconds. Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops Timer tPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.000 . if so required for selectivity reasons. Ph-E OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops Timer tPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting of timers for distance protection zones The required time delays for different distance protection zones are independent of each other. i.00 ohm/p 0.3000.e.9.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop. Ph-Ph X1PE 0.00 ohm/p 0. resistance for characteristic angle. Ph-E R0PE 0. The tripping function of each particular zone can be inhibited by setting the corresponding Operation parameter to Off.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.01 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach PhPh R1PP 0. resistance for zone characteristic angle. to further increase the total flexibility of a distance protection.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 ohm/p 0.

1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 .3000.1000 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for Phase-Earth loops Table 75: ZMRAPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off / On IBase 1 .01 . Ph-Ph X1PE 0.001 0.01 .9000. Ph-E R0PE 0.001 0. Ph-E tPE 0. i. rated voltage OperationDir Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1PP 0.10 .10 .1000.00 ohm/p 0. rated current UBase 0.000 .60.00 Zero seq. resistance for characteristic angle.01 15.e.01 5.00 Positive sequence reactance reach Ph-E R1PE 0.000 .2000.01 30.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IMinOpPP 10 .01 30.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.000 Time delay of trip. resistance for characteristic angle. i.3000.00 ohm/p 0.00 ohm/l 0.3000.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.000 s 0.00 ohm/p 0.000 Time delay of trip.1000. resistance for zone characteristic angle.00 ohm/l 0.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops 313 Application manual .1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpIN 5 .00 ohm/p 0. Ph-E X0PE 0. Ph-E RFPE 0.3000.01 5.10 .01 100.60. Ph-Ph tPP 0.01 100. Ph-E IMinOpPP 10 .000 s 0.00 Positive seq.01 30.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach PhPh R1PP 0.00 kV 0. Ph-Ph RFPP 0.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.10 . Ph-E OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops Timer tPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.00 Base voltage.05 400.00 ohm/p 0.10 .99999 A 1 3000 Base current. Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops Timer tPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.01 .9000.e.00 ohm/p 0.00 Positive seq.05 .

The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may in some cases be in opposite to the wanted fault resistance coverage.6. As illustrated. The load encroachment functionality is always active. quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle (FRPSPDIS) is designed to accurately select the proper fault loop in the distance measuring function depending on the fault type. Phase selection. which can be used for fault analysis. the function has a built in algorithm for load encroachment. The extensive output signals from FRPSPDIS give also important information about faulty phase(s). Load encroachment Each of the six measuring loops has its own load (encroachment) characteristic based on the corresponding loop impedance.1 Application The operation of transmission networks today is in many cases close to the stability limit. A current-based phase selection is also included. compare them with the set values. 314 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 3. The outline of the characteristic is presented in figure 151. so that single pole tripping and autoreclosing can be used plays an important role in this matter. quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification FRPSPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. which gives the possibility to enlarge the resistive setting of both the Phase selection with load encroachment and the measuring zones without interfering with the load.6. The ability to accurately and reliably classify the different types of fault. Therefore. but can be switched off by selecting a high setting.2 device number 21 Z<phs SYMBOL-DD V1 EN 3.10 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Phase selection. the resistive blinders are set individually in forward and reverse direction while the angle of the sector is the same in all four quadrants. quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle FRPSPDIS Function description Phase selection. The measuring elements continuously measure three phase currents and the residual current and.10.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X RLdFw ARGLd ARGLd ARGLd RLdRv R ARGLd en05000196.vsd IEC05000196 V1 EN Figure 151: Characteristic of load encroachment function The influence of load encroachment function on the operation characteristic is dependent on the chosen operation mode of the FRPSPDIS function. When output signal STCNDZis selected. the characteristic for the FRPSPDIS (and also zone measurement depending on settings) can be reduced by the load encroachment characteristic (as shown in figure 152). 315 Application manual .

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X X R STCNDZ R STCNDLE IEC10000099-1en. Thus. The figure shows a distance measuring zone operating in forward direction. 316 Application manual . the operating area of the zone together with the load encroachment area is highlighted in black.vsd IEC10000099 V1 EN Figure 152: Operating characteristic when load encroachment is activated When the "phase selection" is set to operate together with a distance measuring zone the resultant operate characteristic could look something like in figure 153.

the angle of the blinder in quadrant one is now 100 degrees instead of the original 70 degrees. 317 Application manual . The blinder that is nominally located to quadrant four will at the same time tilt outwards and increase the resistive reach around the R-axis.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X "Phase selection" "quadrilateral" zone Distance measuring zone Load encroachment characteristic R Directional line en05000673. Due to the 30-degree rotation. it will be more or less necessary to use the load encroachment characteristic in order to secure a margin to the load impedance. or load. Notice in particular what happens with the resistive blinders of the "phase selection" "quadrilateral" zone. when the "quadrilateral" phase-to-phase characteristic is subject to enlargement and rotation the operate area is transformed according to figure 154.vsd IEC05000673 V1 EN Figure 153: Operation characteristic in forward direction when load encroachment is enabled Figure 153 is valid for phase-to-earth. During a three-phase fault. Consequently.

vsd IEC05000674 V1 EN Figure 154: Operation characteristic for FRPSPDIS in forward direction for threephase fault. from the full RLdFw/RLdRv reach. the characteristic "shrinks" by 2/√3. At the same time. Since the load characteristic is based on the same measurement as the quadrilateral characteristic. which is valid at load or three-phase fault.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X (ohm/phase) Phase selection ”Quadrilateral” zone Distance measuring zone R (ohm/phase) en05000674. ohm/phase domain The result from rotation of the load characteristic at a fault between two phases is presented in fig 155. it will rotate with the quadrilateral characteristic clockwise by 30 degrees when subject to a pure phase-to-phase fault. 318 Application manual .

319 Application manual .2 Load encroachment characteristics The phase selector must at least cover the overreaching zone 2 in order to achieve correct phase selection for utilizing single-phase autoreclosing for faults on the entire line. It should also provide better fault resistive coverage in quadrant 1.vsd IEC08000437 V1 EN Figure 155: Rotation of load characteristic for a fault between two phases This rotation may seem a bit awkward.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X R IEC08000437.10. For normal overhead lines. In order to get operation from distance zones. A safety margin of at least 10% is recommended.6. the angle for the loop impedance φ for phase-to-earth fault defined according to equation 174. but there is a gain in selectivity by using the same measurement as for the quadrilateral characteristic since not all phase-tophase loops will be fully affected by a fault between two phases. The relative loss of fault resistive coverage in quadrant 4 should not be a problem even for applications on series compensated lines. 3. It is not necessary to cover all distance protection zones. the phase selection output STCNDZ or STCNDLE must be connected to input STCND on distance zones.

the settings of fault resistance coverage in forward and reverse direction. the following equations for the setting calculations can be obtained. like implemented in the REL500 series The following figures illustrate alternative B). In these applications. The following setting guideline considers normal overhead lines applications and provides two different setting alternatives: A) A recommended characteristic angle of 60 degrees for the phase selection B) A characteristic angle of 90 and 70 degrees for phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase respectively.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C arctan j = X1L + XN R1L + RN (Equation 286) EQUATION2115 V1 EN But in some applications. The necessary increased setting of the fault resistance coverage can be derived from trigonometric evaluation of the basic characteristic for respectively fault type. for instance cable lines. 320 Application manual . Index PHS in images and equations reference settings for Phase selection with load encroachment function (FRPSPDIS) and index Zm reference settings for Distance protection function (ZMRPDIS). RFFwPE and RFRvPE for phase-toearth faults and RFFwPP and RFRvPP for phase-to-phase faults have to be increased to avoid that the phase selection characteristic must cut off some part of the zone characteristic. Phase-to-earth fault in forward direction With reference to figure 156. the angle of the loop might be less than the set angle.

vsd IEC08000435 V1 EN Figure 156: Relation between measuring zone and FRPSPDIS characteristic Reactive reach The reactive reach in forward direction must as minimum be set to cover the measuring zone used in the Teleprotection schemes. characteristic angle. These recommendations are valid for both 60 and 90 deg. mostly zone 2. X1PHS ³ 1. Equation 175 and equation 176 gives the minimum recommended reactive reach.R1PEPHS 3 RFFwPEPHS R1Zm+RN RFPEZm Zm RFPEZm X1PHS+XNPHS X1Zm+XNZm 90° φloop φloop R (Ohm/loop) X1Zm+XNZm RFPEZm X1PHS+XNPHS RFPEZm R1Zm+RN IEC08000435.44 × X1Zm EQUATION1309 V1 EN (Equation 287) 321 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C R1PEPHS + RNPHS X PHS RFRvPEPHS (Minimum setting) RNPHS = R0 PEPHS .

322 Application manual . and the constant 1. No additional setting is required. Fault resistance reach The resistive reach must cover RFPE for the overreaching zone to be covered. Resistive reach The resistive reach in reverse direction must be set longer than the longest reverse zones. RFFwPP and RFFRvPP must be set in a way that the loop characteristic angle can be 60 degrees (or alternatively the same or lower compared to the measuring zone that must be covered).44 × X0 Zm (Equation 288) EQUATION1310 V1 EN where: X1Zm is the reactive reach for the zone to be covered by FRPSPDIS. RFFwPP and RFFRvPP must be set to minimum setting values. If the characteristic angle for IEDs in the 500 series of 90 degrees is desired. In blocking schemes it must be set longer than the overreaching zone at remote end that is used in the communication scheme.1 × RFPE Zm (Equation 289) EQUATION2223 V2 EN B) 90 degrees RFFwPE > 1 3 × ( 2 × R1PEZm + R 0 PEZm ) + RFPEZm EQUATION2224 V2 EN (Equation 290) The security margin has to be increased in the case where φloop<60° to avoid that FRPSPDIS characteristic cuts off some part of the zone measurement characteristic.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X0 PHS ³ 1. Consider the longest overreaching zone if correct fault selection is important in the application. mostly zone 2. A) 60 degrees RFFwPE ³ 1.44 is a safety margin X0Zm is the zero-sequence reactive reach for the zone to be covered by FRPSPDIS The reactive reach in reverse direction is automatically set to the same reach as for forward direction. Phase-to-earth fault in reverse direction Reactive reach The reactive reach in reverse direction is the same as for forward so no additional setting is required. Equation 289 and 290 gives the minimum recommended resistive reach. In equation 178 the index ZmRv references the specific zone to be coordinated to.

32 × X 1PPZm + 0. as shown in figure 110. at three-phase faults).91 × RFPPZm EQUATION2226 V1 EN (Equation 293) where: RFPPZm is the setting of the longest reach of the overreaching zones that must be covered by FRPSPDIS. The proposed margin of 25% will cater for the risk of cut off of the zone measuring characteristic that might occur at three-phase fault when FRPSPDIScharacteristic angle is changed from 60 degrees to 90 degrees or from 70 degrees to 100 degrees (rotated 30° anticlock wise).2 × RFPE ZmRv (Equation 291) EQUATION1316 V1 EN Phase-to-phase fault in forward direction Reactive reach The reach in reactive direction is determined by phase-to-earth reach setting X1. must cover RFPPZm with at least 25% margin. Equation 292 and 293 are is also valid for three-phase fault. quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle function FRPSPDISand index Zm reference settings for Distance protection function ZMRPDIS. Index PHS in images and equations reference settings for Phase selection. is desired. If the 500series characteristic angle of 70 deg. The minimum recommended reach can be calculated according to equation 292 and 293. Resistive reach R1PE and R0PE must be set in a way that the loop characteristic angle can be 60 deg (this gives a characteristic angle of 90 deg. 323 Application manual . No extra setting is required. RFPPZm is the setting of fault resistance for phase-tophase fault for the longest overreaching zone to be covered by FRPSPDIS.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C RFRvPE min ³ 1.25 × RFPP zm EQUATION1318 V3 EN (Equation 292) B) 70° RFFwPP > 1. A) 60° RFFwPP ³ 1.82 × R1PPZm + 0. Fault resistance reach The fault resistance reaches in forward direction RFFwPP. R1PE and R0PE must be set accordingly.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X ( W / phase ) X 1PHS R1PP= tan 70° 0.5*RFPPZm 0.6. as shown in figure 111.5 × RFRvPP PHS 0.5*RFPPZm X1Zm 0.5*RFPPZm 0.5*RFPPZM R1Zm 0.5 × RFRvPP X 1PHS R1PP= tan 70° en08000249. Resistive reach with load encroachment characteristic The procedure for calculating the settings for the load encroachment consist basically to define the load angle ArgLd. the blinder RLdFw in forward direction and blinder RLdRv in reverse direction.5*RFPPPm 0.vsd IEC08000249 V1 EN Figure 157: 3.10. 324 Application manual .5*RFPPZm R1Zm Zm X1 X1Zm j 70 R j ( W / phase ) 70 0.5 × RFFwPP 0.3 Relation between measuring zone and FRPSPDIS characteristic for phase-to-phase fault for φline>70° (setting parameters in italic) Setting guidelines The following setting guideline consider normal overhead lines applications where φloop and φline is greater than 60°.

but use maximum importing power that might occur instead of maximum exporting power and the relevant Umin voltage for this condition. which blocks the respective phase-toearth loop and phase-to-phase loop if the RMS value of the phase current (ILn) and phase difference current (ILmILn) is below the settable threshold. Minimum operate currents FRPSPDIS has two current setting parameters. Set the parameter to the maximum possible load angle at maximum active load. 325 Application manual . A value bigger than 20° must be used. The blinder in forward direction. The resistive boundary RLdRv for load encroachment characteristic in reverse direction can be calculated in the same way as RLdFw.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C X RLdFw ArgLd ArgLd ArgLd RLdRv R ArgLd IEC09000050-1-en. can be calculated according to equation 180.8 is a security factor to ensure that the setting of RLdFw can be lesser than the calculated minimal resistive load.8 × U min P exp max where: Pexp max is the maximum exporting active power Umin is the minimum voltage for which the Pexp max occurs 0. so it could be suitable to begin to calculate the setting for that parameter. The threshold to activate the phase selector for phase-to-earth (IMinOpPE) is set to the default value or a level to securely detect a single line-to-earth fault at the furthest reach of the phase selection. 2 RLdFw = 0. It is recommended to set IMinOpPP to double value of IMinOpPE. RLdFw.vsd IEC09000050 V1 EN Figure 158: Load encroachment characteristic The load angle ArgLd is the same in forward and reverse direction.

Ph-E.00 Base voltage.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The threshold for opening the measuring loop for phase-to-earth fault (INReleasePE) is set securely detect single line-to-earth fault at remote end on the protected line.10 . forward RFRvPE 1.00 Reverse resistive reach within the load impedance area ArgLd 5 .01 15.01 30.00 ohm/p 0.60.100 %IPh 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loops INReleasePE 10 .3000.00 ohm/p 0.6.9000.3000.00 kV 0. Ph-Ph tPP 0.50 .00 Zero sequence reactance reach R0PE 0. rated voltage INBlockPP 10 .3000.00 Forward resistive reach within the load impedance area RLdRv 1.00 .500 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 5 .01 5.00 Positive seq.2000.01 30.01 1.1000.50 .4 Setting parameters Table 76: FRPSPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IBase 1 .00 .00 ohm/l 0.001 3. Ph-E. rated current UBase 0. Ph-Ph TimerPE Off On - - Off Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.00 ohm/p 0.00 Fault resistance reach.000 s 0. reverse IMinOpPP 5 .00 .000 .000 .01 120. i.3000.01 100. Ph-E X0 0. Ph-Ph.3000.00 ohm/p 0. Ph-Ph R1PE 0.70 Deg 1 30 Load angle determining the load impedance area X1 0.10.01 400. resistance for characteristic angle. Ph-Ph.01 80.01 40.50 .99999 A 1 3000 Base current.3000.e.00 ohm/l 0.500 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops Table 77: Name FRPSPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description TimerPP Off On - - Off Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.e.50 Positive seq. Ph-E tPE 0.00 . Ph-E RFFwPP 0. i. reverse RFFwPE 1.50 .00 ohm/l 0.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Positive sequence reactance reach R1PP 0.00 Fault resistance reach.00 ohm/p 0.01 80.50 . forward RFRvPP 0.00 ohm/p 0. 3. resistance for zone characteristic angle.000 Time delay to trip.001 3.00 Fault resistance reach.1000.60. It is recommended to set INBlockPP to double value of INReleasePE.100 %IPh 1 20 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth measuring loops RLdFw 1.01 100.10 . Ph-E 326 Application manual .9000.05 .00 Zero seq.9000.00 ohm/l 0.000 s 0. resistance for characteristic angle.000 Time delay to trip.00 ohm/p 0.

As the rotating masses strive to find a stable operate condition.1 Application General Various changes in power system may cause oscillations of rotating units.11 Power swing detection ZMRPSB Function description Power swing detection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMRPSB ANSI/IEEE C37. its unwanted operation. see figure 159.11.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. This locus can enter the operating characteristic of a distance protection and cause. These oscillations cause changes in phase and amplitude of the voltage difference between the oscillating generating units in the power system. The extent of the oscillations depends on the extent of the disturbances and on the natural stability of the system.6. jX Operating characteristic Impedance locus at power swing R IEC09000224_1_en.the power swings from one part to another and vice versa. which reflects further on in oscillating power flow between two parts of the system . The most typical reasons for these oscillations are big changes in load or changes in power system configuration caused by different faults and their clearance.2 device number 68 Zpsb SYMBOL-EE V1 EN 3.6. The measured impedance varies with time along a locus in an impedance plane. Distance IEDs located in interconnected networks see these power swings as the swinging of the measured impedance in relay points.vsd IEC09000224 V1 EN Figure 159: Impedance plane with Power swing detection operating characteristic and impedance locus at power swing 327 Application manual . The oscillation rate depends also on the inertia of the system and on the total system impedance between different generating units. they oscillate with damped oscillations until they reach the final stability. if no preventive measures have been considered.

Observe a fact that these impedances can not be directly calculated from the maximum three-phase short circuit currents for faults on the corresponding busbar. See the corresponding description in “Technical reference manual” for the IEDs. EA EB dA= const A ~ ZSA dB= f(t) B ZL ZSB ~ R 99001019.vsd IEC99001019 V1 EN Figure 160: Protected power line as part of a two-machine system Reduce the power system with protected power line into equivalent two-machine system with positive sequence source impedances ZSA behind the IED and ZSB behind the remote end bus B.11. It is necessary to consider separate contributions of different connected circuits.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Basic characteristics Power swing detection function (ZMRPSB) detects reliably power swings with periodic time of swinging as low as 200 ms (which means slip frequency as high as 10% of the rated frequency on the 50 Hz basis). The operating characteristic of the ZMRPSB function is easily adjustable to the selected impedance operating characteristics of the corresponding controlled distance protection zones as well as to the maximum possible load conditions of the protected power lines. even with the swing (electrical) centre located on the protected power line. 3. The operation of the distance protection function remains stable for external faults during the power swing condition.6. It detects the swings under normal system operate conditions as well as during dead time of a single-pole automatic reclosing cycle. ZMRPSB function is able to secure selective operation for internal faults during power. The required data is as follows: 328 Application manual .2 Setting guidelines Setting guidelines are prepared in the form of a setting example for the protected power line as part of a two-machine system presented in figure 160.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C U r = 400 kV Rated system voltage EQUATION1321 V1 EN U min = 380 kV Minimum expected system voltage under critical system conditions EQUATION1322 V1 EN f r = 50 Hz Rated system frequency EQUATION1323 V1 EN Up = 400 3 Rated primary voltage of voltage protection transformers used kV EQUATION1324 V1 EN Us = 0.7 ) W Positive sequence source impedance behind B bus EQUATION1330 V1 EN S max = 1000 MVA Maximum expected load in direction from A to B (with minimum system operating voltage Umin) EQUATION1331 V1 EN cos (j max ) = 0.6 ) W Line positive sequence impedance EQUATION1328 V1 EN Z SA1 = (1.95 Power factor at maximum line loading EQUATION1332 V1 EN j max = 25° Maximum expected load angle EQUATION1333 V1 EN f si = 2.5 Hz Maximum possible initial frequency of power oscillation EQUATION1334 V1 EN f sc = 7.3 + j 35.15 + j 43. which transforms the primary impedances to the corresponding secondary values is calculated according to equation 296.0 Hz Maximum possible consecutive frequency of power oscillation EQUATION1335 V1 EN The impedance transformation factor.71 + j 75. 329 Application manual .5) W Positive sequence source impedance behind A bus EQUATION1329 V1 EN Z SB1 = ( 5.11 3 Rated secondary voltage of voltage instrument transformers used kV EQUATION1325 V1 EN I p = 1200 A Rated primary current of current protection transformers used EQUATION1326 V1 EN I s = 1A Rated secondary current of current protection transformers used EQUATION1327 V1 EN Z L1 = (10.

4W S max 1000 EQUATION1337 V1 EN (Equation 297) The minimum load resistance RLmin at maximum load and minimum system voltage is equal to equation 298. Its value is calculated according to equation 299.2W EQUATION1338 V1 EN (Equation 298) The system impedance ZS is determined as a sum of all impedance in an equivalent two-machine system.8 ) W EQUATION1339 V1 EN (Equation 299) The calculated value of the system impedance is of informative nature and helps determining the position of oscillation center.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Consider a fact that all settings are performed in primary values. see figure 161.11 × = × = 0.33 Is U p 1 400 EQUATION1336 V1 EN (Equation 296) The minimum load impedance at minimum expected system voltage is equal to equation 297. The impedance transformation factor is presented for orientation and testing purposes only. KIMP = I p U s 1200 0. when E A = EB EQUATION1342 V1 EN (Equation 301) 330 Application manual . Z L min 2 U min 3802 = = = 144. RL min = Z L min × cos (j max ) = 144. see figure 160. Z CO = ZS .Z SA1 EB 1+ EA EQUATION1340 V1 EN (Equation 300) In particular cases. which is for general case calculated according to equation 300.4 × 0. Z S = Z SA1 + Z L1 + Z SB1 = (17.95 = 137.16 + j154.

Z CO = ZS .9 ) W 2 EQUATION1341 V1 EN (Equation 302) 331 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C resides the center of oscillation on impedance point.Z SA1 = ( 7. see equation 302.43 + j 33.

vsd IEC09000225 V1 EN Figure 161: Impedance diagrams with corresponding impedances under consideration The outer boundary of oscillation detection characteristic in forward direction RLdOutFw should be set with certain safety margin KL compared to the minimum expected load resistance RLmin.Section 3 IED application ZC O ZL 1 ZS 1 ZS B 1 jX 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Im pe da nc el oc us for |E =| EB R | jX ZS A1 A| ArgLd (FDPSPDIS) ArgLd (ZMRPSB) R IEC09000225-1-en. When the exact value of the minimum load resistance is not known. the following approximations may be considered for lines with rated voltage 400 kV: 332 Application manual .

8 × è ø è ø EQUATION1346 V1 EN (Equation 306) The required setting tP1 of the initial oscillation detection timer depends on the load angle difference according to equation 307.3ms f si × 360° 2.8 for lines shorter than 80 km Multiply the required resistance for the same safety factor KL with the ratio between actual voltage and 400kV when the rated voltage of the line under consideration is higher than 400kV.9 ×137.5° . RLdInFw = kLdRFw·RLdOutFw = 98.5W EQUATION1343 V1 EN (Equation 303) It is a general recommendation to set the inner boundary RLdInFw of the oscillation detection characteristic to 80% or less of its outer boundary. tP1 = d In . The outer boundary RLdOutFw obtains in this particular case its value according to equation 303.5° = = 13.85 for lines between 80 and 150 km KL = 0.5° ç 2 × RLdOutFw ÷ 2 × 123.5° ç 2 × RLdInFwmax ÷ 2 98. This requires the maximum permitted setting values of factor kLdRFw = 0. if possible.d Out 76. Equation 304 presents the corresponding maximum possible value of RLdInFw.64.2 = 123.75 ö d Out = 2 × arc tan ç ÷ = 2 × arc tan ç ÷ = 64.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • KL = 0.5 è ø è ø EQUATION1345 V1 EN (Equation 305) æ ö ZS æ 155.5 × 360° EQUATION1347 V1 EN (Equation 307) The general tendency should be to set the tP1 time to at least 30 ms.8.9 for lines longer than 150 km KL = 0. RLdOutFw = K L × RL min = 0.8W EQUATION1344 V2 EN (Equation 304) The load angles. æ ö ZS æ 155. it is 333 Application manual . which correspond to external δOut and internal δIn boundary of proposed oscillation detection characteristic in forward direction. Since it is not possible to further increase the external load angle δOut. Exceptions are always possible. are calculated with sufficient accuracy according to equation 305 and 306 respectively.75 ö d In = 2 × arc tan ç ÷ = 2 × arc tan ç ÷ = 76. but must be considered with special care especially when it comes to settings of timers tP1 and tP2 included in oscillation detection logic.

The minimum required value is calculated according to the procedure listed in equation 308. tP1min = 30 ms (Equation 308) EQUATION1348 V1 EN d In . 309. It is at the same time necessary to adjust the load angle in FDPSPDIS or FRPSPDIS to follow the condition presented in equation 313.min ÷ è 2 ø = 155.0Ω. 310 and 311.5 ö 2 × tan ç ÷ è 2 ø (Equation 310) EQUATION1350 V1 EN kLdRFw = RLdInFwmax1 75. see equation 312.5° (Equation 309) EQUATION1349 V1 EN RLdInFwmax1 = ZS æd ö 2 × tan ç in .5 × 0.64.7 ms 7 × 360° f sc × 360° (Equation 312) EQUATION1352 V1 EN The final proposed settings are as follows: RLdOutFw = 123.61 RLdOutFw 123.030 + 64.5 (Equation 311) EQUATION1351 V1 EN Also check if this minimum setting satisfies the required speed for detection of consecutive oscillations.5° = 91. Do not forget to adjust the setting of load encroachment resistance RLdFw in Phase selection with load encroachment (FDPSPDIS or FRPSPDIS) to the value equal to or less than the calculated value RLdInFw.75 = 75.5Ω kLdRFw = 0.5° . tP 2 max = d In .8W æ 91.d Out 91.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C necessary to reduce the inner boundary of the oscillation detection characteristic.min = 360° × f si × tP1min + d Out = 360° × 2.5° = = 10. This requirement will be satisfied if the proposed setting of tP2 time remains higher than 10 ms.8 = = 0.61 tP1 = 30 ms tP2 = 10 ms Consider RLdInFw = 75. 334 Application manual .

even after the transient impedance leaves ZMRPSB operating characteristic and is expected to return within a certain time due to continuous swinging. which dictate motoring and generating types of oscillations. 335 Application manual . This time delay was usually set to approximately two seconds in older power-swing devices.61 û EQUATION1355 V1 EN (Equation 315) It is recommended to set the corresponding resistive reach parameters in reverse direction (RLdOutRv and kLdRRv) to the same values as in forward direction. requires different values. when the direction of transmitted power may change fast in short periods of time. if the measured impedance remains within ZMRPSB operating area for a time longer than the set tR2 value. The tR1 inhibit timer delays the influence of the detected residual current on the inhibit criteria for ZMRPSB. Consider the minimum possible speed of power swinging in a particular system. to secure continuous output signal from Power swing detection function (ZMRPSB) during the power swing. unless the system operating conditions.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Index PHS designates correspondence to FDPSPDIS or FRPSPDIS function and index PSD the correspondence to ZMRPSB function. It is recommended to use different setting groups for operating conditions. The purpose of this timer is. é tan ( ArgLd PSD ) ù é tan ( 25° ) ù ArgLd PHS ³ arc tan ê ú = arc tan ê ú = 37. It prevents operation of the function for short transients in the residual current measured by the IED. This decision must be made on basis of possible system contingency studies especially in cases. which are changing only between different periods of year (summer. ArgLdPHS ³ arc tan tan( ArgLdPSD) kLdRFw EQUATION1353 V2 EN (Equation 313) Consider equation 314.5° kLdRFw û ë ë 0. System studies should determine the settings for the hold timer tH. The tR2 inhibit timer disables the output START signal from ZMRPSB function. ArgLd PSD = j max = 25° EQUATION1354 V1 EN (Equation 314) then it is necessary to set the load argument in FDPSPDIS or FRPSPDIS function to not less than equation 315. winter).

000 s 0.01 30.3000.00 Outer resistive load boundary.001 0.00 Line resistance for inner characteristic angle R1FInFw 0.3000.00 ohm 0.30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate current in % of IBase IBase 1 . reverse kLdRFw 0.250 Waiting timer for activation of tP2 timer tH 0.0.60.1000. 3.000 . the opening time of a circuit breaker and the dead-time of a single-phase autoreclosing together with the breaker closing time.01 0.10 .000 .000 s 0.10 .01 30.01 30. forward R1LIn 0.10 .99999 A 1 3000 Base setting for current level settings Table 79: ZMRPSB Group settings (advanced) Name Values (Range) Unit tP1 0.01 30.001 0.01 0.000 .00 Fault resistance coverage to inner resistive line.000 s 0.00 Fault resistance line to inner resistive boundary.000 s 0. forward X1InRv 0.70 Deg 1 25 Load angle determining load impedance area RLdOutRv 0.000 Timer for overcoming single-pole reclosing dead time IMinOpPE 5 .300 Timer giving delay to inhibit by the residual current tR2 0.001 0.01 30.3000.00 Outer resistive load boundary.001 3.10 .6.3 Table 78: Name Setting parameters ZMRPSB Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Mode On / Off X1InFw 0.000 s 0.11.50 .00 ohm 0.000 .000 .1000.60. reverse OperationLdCh Off On - - On Operation of load discrimination characteristic RLdOutFw 0.00 ohm 0.000 .00 ohm 0.60.00 Inner reactive boundary.01 30.90 Mult 0.000 .10 .90 Mult 0. reverse R1FInRv 0.000 s 0.015 Timer for detection of subsequent power swings tW 0.0.000 s 0.10 .60.75 Multiplication factor for inner resistive load boundary.001 0.00 ohm 0. with sufficient margin.00 ohm 0.60.01 30.60.045 Timer for detection of initial power swing tP2 0.001 0.001 2.60.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The setting of the tEF timer must cover.00 Inner reactive boundary.1000.10 . reverse tEF 0.500 Timer for holding power swing START output tR1 0.00 ohm 0. forward kLdRRv 0.75 Multiplication factor for inner resistive load boundary. forward ArgLd 5 .50 .3000.000 Timer giving delay to inhibit at very slow swing Step Default Description 336 Application manual .

over which the power swing has been detected and the fast distance protection zone has been blocked by ZMRPSB element. see figure 162) causes the measured impedance to enter the operate area of ZMRPSB function and. The second fault can.12 Power swing logic ZMRPSL Function description IEC 61850 identification Power swing logic 3.6. C A EA ZSA ZSC B EC RA F ZSD ED D xx06000238. see figure 163.vsd IEC06000238 V1 EN Figure 162: Fault on adjacent line and its clearance causes power swinging between sources A and C ZMRPSL function and the basic operating principle of ZMRPSB function operate reliably for different faults on parallel power lines with detected power swings. The power swing occurs over two phases of a protected line during the dead time of a singlepole auto-reclosing after the Ph-E fault has been correctly cleared by the distance protection. the zone 2 operating characteristic (see figure 163). It is. It is possible to distinguish between the following main cases: • • • A fault occurs on a so far healthy power line. preferred to keep the distance protection function blocked in cases of single phase-to-earth faults on so far healthy lines with detected power swings.1 IEC 60617 identification ZMRPSL - ANSI/IEEE C37. In 337 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.6. but does not need to. Correct fault clearance initiates an evolving power swing so that the locus of the measured impedance continues through zone 1 operating characteristic and causes its unwanted operation.2 device number - Application Power Swing Logic (ZMRPSL) is a complementary function to Power Swing Detection (ZMRPSB) function. however. It is a general goal. if no preventive measures have been taken. occur within this time interval. to secure fast and selective operation of the distance protection scheme for the faults. for example. It enables a reliable fault clearing for different faults on protected lines during power swings in power systems. Fault on an adjacent line (behind the B substation.12. which occur on power lines during power swings.

338 Application manual . Their operation must be time delayed but shorter (with sufficient margin) than the set time delay of normal distance protection zone 2. Their resistive reach setting must secure. that the slowest expected swings pass the impedance operate area without initiating their operation.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C these cases. together with the set time delay for their operation. Following are the basic conditions for the operation of the so called (underreaching and overreaching) power-swing zones: • • • They must generally be blocked during normal operation and released during power swings. it is recommended to use an optionally available directional overcurrent earth-fault protection with scheme communication logic. jX Measured impedance at initital fault position Zone 2 B Zone 1 Impedance locus at initial power swing after the fault clearance A R ZMRPSB operating characteristic IEC99000181_2_en.12.vsd IEC99000181 V2 EN Figure 163: 3. It is possible to use one or two of them intentionally for selective fault clearing during power swings only.2 Impedance trajectory within the distance protection zones 1 and 2 during and after the fault on line B – D Setting guidelines Scheme communication and tripping for faults occurring during power swinging over the protected line The IED includes generally up to five distance protection zones. which is generally blocked by the power swing.6.

Only one power swing zone is necessary in distance protection at each line terminal.LDCM” and the “Binary signal transfer to remote end” function. and one overreaching power swing zone.vsd IEC06000236 V1 EN Figure 164: Simplified logic diagram . the complete functionality into regular scheme communication logic for the distance protection function. zone 3) is in many cases not blocked by the power swing detection elements. STDEF AR1P1 & STPSD BLOCK & tCS t & tTrip tBlkTr t CS CSUR & BLKZMPS t CACC CR & >1 TRIP en06000236. because the distance protection zones included in the scheme are normally blocked.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Communication and tripping logic as used by the power swing distance protection zones is schematically presented in figure 164. The operation of the distance protection zones with long time delay (for example.power swing communication and tripping logic 339 Application manual . are necessary with PUTT schemes. which performs the local tripping condition. It is preferred to use the communication channels over the optionally available “Line Data Communication Module . in an easy way (by means of configuration possibilities). The powerswing zones can for this reason use the same communication facilities during the power-swing conditions. The communication scheme for the regular distance protection does not operate during the power-swing conditions. The operation of the power swing zones is conditioned by the operation of Power swing detection (ZMRPSB) function. if the POTT communication scheme is applied. They operate in PUTT or POTT communication scheme with corresponding distance protection zones at the remote line end. One underreaching power swing zone. It is also possible to include. which sends the time delayed carrier signal. This allows in such cases the distance protection zone 3 (together with the full-scheme design of the distance protection function) to be used at the same time as the overreaching power-swing zone.

The CR signal should be configured to the functional input which provides the logic with information on received carrier signal sent by the remote end power swing distance protection zone. Reactive reach setting of power swing distance protection zones 340 Application manual . etc. The CS functional output signal should be configured to either output relay or to corresponding input of the “Binary signal transfer to remote end” function. which serves as a local criteria at receiving of carrier signal during the power swing cycle. The STPSD input should be connected to the starting signal of the power swing detection (ZMRPSB) function. The STDEF functional input should be configured to the START signal of any line earth fault overcurrent protection function within the IED. which are supposed to block the operation of logic. which is used as a local tripping criteria during power swings in PUTT schemes. When the POTT scheme is used (also on series compensated networks) the local criteria and the carrier sending zone are one and the same. Connection to detected fuse failure conditions is required as a minimum. which signals the activation of the single pole autoreclosing dead time. Connect the CACC functional input to start output signal of the local overreaching power swing distance protection zone. Time difference between 100 ms and 150 ms is generally sufficient.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Configuration Configure the BLOCK input to any combination of conditions. The necessary time difference depends mostly on the speed of the communication channel used. speed of the circuit breaker used. When the directional earth fault O/C function is used an OR combination of forward and reverse operation should be used. Connect the AR1P1 to the output signal of the autoreclosing function. Setting calculations Time delay of power swing carrier send distance protection zones Time delay for the underreaching or overreaching carrier send power swing zone should be set shorter (with sufficient margin) than the time delay of normal distance protection zone 2 to obtain selective time grading also in cases of faults during power swings. The CSUR functional input should be connected to the starting output of the power swing distance protection zone. The TRIP signal should be connected correspondingly towards the tripping functionality of the complete distance protection within the IED. The BLKZMPS output signal should be configured to BLOCK input of the power swing distance protection zones. It is preferred to use separate communication facilities for distance protection and for power swing communication logic. but combination of functionality within the same communication channel is possible as well. which becomes active in cases of detected system oscillations.

the following equation may be used: vz = 2 × Z L min × f s min (Equation 316) EQUATION1537 V1 EN Where: vz is a minimum expected speed of swing impedance in Ω / s ZLmin is a minimum expected primary load impedance in Ω fsmin is a minimum expected oscillation (swing) frequency in Hz Calculate the maximum permissible resistive reach for each power swing zone separately according to the following equations. Resistive reach setting of carrier send power swing distance protection zone Determine the minimum possible speed of impedance ΔZ / Δt in primary Ω / s of the expected power swings.8 2 EQUATION1539 V1 EN (Equation 318) Here is factor 0. 341 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Set the reactive reach for the power swing zones according to the system selectivity planning. The reach of the underreaching zone should not exceed 85% of the protected line length. RFPPn = v z × tnPP × 0. The reach of the overreaching zone should be at least 120% of the protected line length. if the zone is used only for the protection purposes at power-swings. When better information is not available from system studies.8 considered for safety reasons and: RFPEn phase-to-earth resistive reach setting for a power swing distance protection zone n in Ω RFPPn phase-to-phase resistive reach setting for a power swing distance protection zone n in Ω tnPE time delay for phase-to-earth fault measurement of power swing distance protection zone n in s tnPP time delay for phase-to-phase fault measurement of power swing distance protection zone n in s Time-delay for the overreaching power swing zone Time delay for the overreaching power swing zone is not an important parameter.8 (Equation 317) EQUATION1538 V1 EN RFPEn = vz × tnPE × 0.

Configure for this reason the STZMPSD to the functional output signal of ZMRPSB function. The simplified logic is presented in figure 165. see figure 162 and figure 163. The recommended settings consider only the general system conditions and the most used practice at different utilities. before it can issue a carrier send signal. caused by the faults and their clearance on the adjacent power lines. The logic should generally be configured between distance protection zones 1 and 2. A time delay between 150 and 300 ms is generally sufficient.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Consider the normal time grading. A time delay between 50 and 100 ms is generally sufficient. The trip timer tTrip is used for safety reasons within the logic. The logic controls the operation of the underreaching distance protection zone (Zone 1) at power swings. which indicates the measured impedance within its external boundaries. It requires continuous presence of the input signal STPSD. The blocking timer tBlkTr prolongs the presence of the BLKZMOR output signals. The carrier send timer tCS is used for safety reasons within the logic. which is not blocked by the operation of Power swing detection (ZMRPSB) function. if the overreaching zone serves as a time delayed back-up zone. It requires continuous presence of the input signal STPSD. It is necessary to permit the O/C EF protection to eliminate the initial fault and still make possible for the power swing zones to operate for possible consecutive faults. which can be used to block the operation of the power swing zones after the detected single-phase-to-earth faults during the power swings. 342 Application manual . A time delay between 50 and 100 ms is generally sufficient. These settings differ within different power systems. before it can issue a tripping command during the power swings. Timers within the power swing logic Settings of the timers within Power swing logic (ZMRPSL) depend to a great extent on the settings of other time delayed elements within the complete protection system. It is always necessary to check the local system conditions. Blocking and tripping logic for evolving power swings The second part of a complete Power swing logic (ZMRPSL) functionality is a blocking and tripping logic for evolving power swings. Configuration The fault impedance should be detected within the external boundary of Power Swing Detection (ZMRPSB) function without power swing detected during the entire fault duration.

which develops by occurrence and clearance of the faults on adjacent power lines. The function will determine whether the start signal of this zone is permitted to be used in further logic or not. Configure it accordingly within the logic. Configure for this reason the functional output signal STZMURPS to the start output of the overreaching distance protection zone (usually START of distance protection zone 2).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C & BLKZMH & STZML BLOCK STMZH STZMPSD STPSD tZL t & & tDZ t & >1 STZMLL >1 & -loop en06000237. A setting between 80 and 150 ms is generally sufficient. which might result in prolonged operate times of zone 1 (underreaching zone) compared to zone 2 starting time (overreaching zone). dependent on time difference on appearance of overreaching distance protection zone (usually zone 2). Setting calculations Setting of the differentiating timer tDZ influences to a great extent the performance of the protection during the power swings. Functional output signal BLKZMOR should be configured to block the overreach distance protection zone (generally zone 2) in order to prevent its maloperation during the first swinging of the system. Functional output PUZMLL replaces the start (and trip) signals of the distance protection zone 1 in all following logic. Configure for this reason the STPSD functional input to the START functional output of ZMRPSB function or to any binary input signal indicating the detected oscillations within the power system. Configure the functional input STZMUR to the start output of the instantaneous underreaching distance protection zone (usually START of distance protection zone 1). Configure it accordingly to BLOCK functional input of distance protection zone 2. It is necessary to consider the possibility for the faults to occur close to the set reach of the underreaching distance protection zone.vsd IEC06000237 V1 EN Figure 165: Blocking and tripping logic for evolving power swings No system oscillation should be detected in power system. 343 Application manual .

100 Conditional timer for sending the CS at power swings tTrip 0. In such a case the generator loses the synchronism (pole slip) to the external power system.000 .000 .300 Timer for blocking the overreaching zones trip 3. that is.001 0. A setting between 200 and 300 ms is generally sufficient.6.000 s 0.000 s 0.6.000 s 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The release timer tZL permits unconditional operation of the underreaching zone.100 Conditional timer for tripping at power swings tBlkTr 0. the generator will accelerate so much. close to the generator.60. is shown in figure 166.000 . A short circuit occurs in the external power grid. 344 Application manual . all the generators in the system have the same angular velocity and approximately the same phase angle difference.60.3 Table 80: Name Setting parameters ZMRPSL Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On tDZ 0. if the measured impedance remains within its operate characteristic longer than the set time tZL.050 Permitted max oper time diff between higher and lower zone tDZMUR 0.60.60.13 3.60. If the phase angle between the generators gets too large the stable operation of the system cannot be maintained.1 Pole slip protection PSPPPAM Function description IEC 61850 identification Pole slip protection PSPPPAM IEC 60617 identification Ucos ANSI/IEEE C37. The release timer must still permit selective tripping of the distance protection within the complete network.001 0. If the fault clearance time is too long. so the synchronism cannot be maintained.001 0. the generator operates synchronously with the power system.001 0. The situation with pole slip of a generator can be caused by different reasons. 3.12.000 .000 s 0.000 s 0. relative to the external power system.6.2 device number 78 Application Normally.200 Delay for oper of underreach zone with detected diff in oper time tCS 0.001 0. The relative generator phase angle at a fault and pole slip.13. Its setting depends on the expected speed of the initial swings and on the setting of the time delay for the overreaching zone 2.000 .

When the critical fault clearance time is reached the stability cannot be maintained. At the moment of pole slip there will be a centre of this pole slip.vsd IEC06000313 V1 EN Figure 166: Relative generator phase angle at a fault and pole slip relative to the external power system The relative angle of the generator is shown for different fault duration at a threephase short circuit close to the generator. be split into two parts. if possible. oscillate against each other. which is equivalent with distance protection impedance measurement of a three-phase. 345 Application manual . the generator should be tripped as fast as possible. where generator groups at different locations.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C en06000313. As the fault duration increases the angle swing amplitude increases. This split can be made at predefined locations (trip of predefined lines) after function from pole slip protection (PSPPPAM) in the line protection IED. If this point is situated in the generator itself. If the locus of the out of step centre is located in the power system outside the generators the power system should. If the connection between the generators is too weak the amplitude of the oscillations will increase until the angular stability is lost. Un-damped oscillations occur in the power system. and the generators should be kept in service.

The consequence can be damages on insulation and stator/rotor iron. 346 Application manual . thus risking overload of the windings. For this fault the underexcitation protection and PSPPPAM function will give mutual redundancy. The operation of a generator having pole slip will give risk of damages to the generator block.vsd IEC06000314 V1 EN Figure 167: Undamped oscillations causing pole slip The relative angle of the generator is shown a contingency in the power system. If the excitation of the generator gets too low there is a risk that the generator cannot maintain synchronous operation. causing un-damped oscillations. After a few periods of the oscillation the swing amplitude gets to large and the stability cannot be maintained. At asynchronous operation the generator will absorb a significant amount of reactive power. Normally the under-excitation protection will detect this state and trip the generator before the pole slip. In asynchronous operation there will be induction of currents in parts of the generator normally not carrying current. The generator will slip out of phase and operate as an induction machine. • • • At each pole slip there will be significant torque impact on the generatorturbine shaft. thus resulting in increased heating.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C en06000314.

to prevent further damages to the generator block.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C PSPPPAM function shall detect out of step conditions and trip the generator as fast as possible if the locus of the pole slip is inside the generator. The setting possibilities are: PosSeq. IBase = SN 3 ×U N EQUATION1884 V1 EN (Equation 319) UBase: The parameter UBase is set to the generator rated Voltage (phase-to-phase) in kV MeasureMode: The voltage and current used for the impedance measurement is set by the parameter MeasureMode. the first action should be to split the network into two parts. If all phase voltages and phase currents are fed to the IED the PosSeq alternative is recommended (default).2 Setting guidelines Operation: With the parameter Operation the function can be set On or Off. If this fails there should be operation of the generator pole slip protection. L1-L2. 3. according to equation 319. after line protection action.13. Further settings can be illustrated in figure 168. situated out in the power grid. or L3-L1. L2L3.6. 347 Application manual . If the centre of pole slip is outside the generator. IBase: The parameter IBase is set to the generator rated current in A.

see equation 320. ZB should be equal to the generator transient reactance X'd. according to equation 320.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Zone 1 EB B Zone 2 X’d XT EA ZS IED A jX ZA Pole slip impedance movement Zone 2 ZC TripAngle Zone 1 WarnAngle f R ZB IEC06000548_2_en. ZA should be the sum of the transformer impedance XT and the equivalent impedance of the external system ZS. The impedance is given in % of the base impedance. 348 Application manual .vsd IEC06000548 V2 EN Figure 168: Settings for the Pole slip detection function The ImpedanceZA is the forward impedance as show in figure 168. UBase Z Base = EQUATION1883 V1 EN 3 IBase (Equation 320) The ImpedanceZB is the reverse impedance as show in figure 168. The impedance is given in % of the base impedance.

the slip line ZA – ZB is crossed and the direction of rotation is the same as at start. This angle is normally close to 90°. N2Limit: The setting N2Limit gives the number of pole slips that should occur before trip. The default value 110° is recommended. The default value 3 is recommended give external protections possibility to split the network and thus limit the system consequencies. The impedance is given in % of the base impedance. It should be checked so that the points in the impedance plane. the node of the pole slip is in the external network.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The ImpedanceZC is the forward impedance giving the borderline between zone 1 and zone 2. ZC should be equal to the transformer reactance ZT.2 – 8 Hz. see equation 320. if the crossing of the slip line ZA – ZB is within zone 2. The angle of the impedance line ZB – ZA is given as AnglePhi in degrees. ResetTime: The setting ResetTime gives the time for (PSPPPAM) function to reset after start when no pole slip been detected. ZA = forward source impedance ZB Line impedance = ZC IED IEC07000014_2_en. see figure 170. a trip is given when the rotor angle gets below the set TripAngle. that is. if the crossing of the slip line ZA – ZB is within zone 1. N1Limit: The setting N1Limit gives the number of pole slips that should occur before trip. The default value 90° is recommended. 349 Application manual . corresponding to the chosen StartAngle does not interfere with apparent impedance at maximum generator load. TripAngle: If a pole slip has been detected: change of rotor angle corresponding to slip frequency 0. Setting example for line application In case of out of step conditions this shall be detected and the line between substation 1 and 2 shall be tripped. The default value 1 is recommended to minimize the stress on the generator and turbine at out of step conditions. the node of the pole slip is within the generator transformer block.vsd IEC07000014 V2 EN Figure 169: Line application of pole slip protection If the apparent impedance crosses the impedance line ZB – ZA this is the detection criterion of out of step conditions. StartAngle: An alarm is given when movement of the rotor is detected and the rotor angle exceeds the angle set for StartAngle. that is. The default value 5s is recommended.

it is recommended to set the MeasureMode to positive sequence. The impedance settings are set in pu with ZBase as reference: 350 Application manual .vsd IEC07000015 V2 EN Figure 170: Impedances to be set for pole slip protection The setting parameters of the protection is: ZA: Line + source impedance in the forward direction ZB: The source impedance in the reverse direction ZC: The line impedance in the forward direction AnglePhi: The impedance phase angle Use the following data: UBase: 400 kV SBase set to 1000 MVA Short circuit power at station 1 without infeed from the protected line: 5000 MVA (assumed to a pure reactance) Short circuit power at station 2 without infeed from the protected line: 5000 MVA (assumed to a pure reactance Line impedance: 2 + j20 ohm With all phase voltages and phase currents available and fed to the protection IED.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ZA X ZC anglePhi R Apparent impedance at normal load ZB IEC07000015_2_en.

0125 + j 0. ZB = Zsc ( station1) = j 400 2 5000 = j 32ohm (Equation 324) EQUATION1963 V1 EN This corresponds to: ZB = j 32 160 = j 0.13 and AnglePhi to 88° The warning angle (StartAngle) should be chosen not to cross into normal operating area.2 This corresponds to: ZC = 2 + j 20 160 = 0.126Ð84° pu (Equation 326) EQUATION1966 V1 EN Set ZC to 0.325 pu = 0.20 pu = 0.32.325Ð88° pu (Equation 323) EQUATION1962 V1 EN Set ZA to 0.20Ð90° pu (Equation 325) EQUATION1964 V1 EN Set ZB to 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ZBase = UBase 2 SBase = 400 2 1000 = 160ohm (Equation 321) EQUATION1960 V1 EN ZA = Z (line ) + Zsc ( station 2) = 2 + j 20 + j 400 2 5000 = 2 + j 52ohm (Equation 322) EQUATION1961 V1 EN This corresponds to: ZA = 2 + j 52 160 = 0.0125 + j 0.125 pu = 0. The maximum line power is assumed to be 2000 MVA. This corresponds to apparent impedance: Z= U 2 S EQUATION1967 V1 EN = 400 2 2000 = 80ohm (Equation 327) 351 Application manual .

If the line shall be tripped at all pole slip situations also the parameter N2Limit is set to 1.vsd IEC07000016 V1 EN Figure 171: angleStart ³ arctan Simplified figure to derive StartAngle ZB ZA 32 52 + arctan = arctan + arctan = 21. Set StartAngle to 110° For the TripAngle it is recommended to set this parameter to 90° to assure limited stress for the circuit breaker.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Simplified. 352 Application manual . Normally the N1Limit is set to 1 so that the line will be tripped at the first pole slip.80 + 33. The protection is therefore situated at lines where this predefined split shall take place. X ZA Zload R ZB en07000016. the example can be shown as a triangle. In a power system it is desirable to split the system into predefined parts in case of pole slip. In other cases a larger number is recommended.0 » 550 Zload Zload 80 80 EQUATION1968 V2 EN (Equation 328) In case of minor damped oscillations at normal operation we do not want the protection to start. see figure 171. Therefore we set the start angle with large margin.

ZA ZB ZC en07000017. 353 Application manual . see figure 173.vsd IEC07000017 V1 EN Figure 172: Generator application of pole slip protection If the apparent impedance crosses the impedance line ZB – ZA this is the detected criterion of out of step conditions.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting example for generator application In case of out of step conditions this shall be checked if the pole slip centre is inside the generator (zone 1) or if it is situated in the network (zone 2).

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ZA X ZC anglePhi R Apparent impedance at normal load ZB IEC07000015_2_en.vsd IEC07000015 V2 EN Figure 173: Impedances to be set for pole slip protection PSPPPAM The setting parameters of the protection are: ZA Block transformer + source impedance in the forward direction ZB The generator transient reactance ZC The block transformer reactance AnglePhi The impedance phase angle Use the following generator data: UBase: 20 kV SBase set to 200 MVA Xd': 25% Use the following block transformer data: UBase: 20 kV (low voltage side) SBase set to 200 MVA ek: 15% 354 Application manual .

38 2.15 + j = j 0. Therefore it is recommended to set the MeasureMode to positive sequence.25Ð90° pu (Equation 333) EQUATION1973 V1 EN Set ZB to 0.3ohm 200 EQUATION1974 V1 EN (Equation 334) This corresponds to: ZC = j 0.15Ð90o pu 2.0 EQUATION1975 V2 EN (Equation 335) 355 Application manual .0ohm (Equation 329) EQUATION1969 V1 EN ZA = Z (transf ) + Zsc (network ) = j 202 202 × 0.0 = j 0.15 pu = 0.3 = j 0.25 pu = 0.19Ð90° pu (Equation 331) EQUATION1971 V1 EN Set ZA to 0.25 ZC = jX T = j 202 × 0.38ohm 200 5000 (Equation 330) EQUATION1970 V1 EN This corresponds to: ZA = j 0. We have all phase voltages and phase currents available and fed to the protection IED.5 2. The impedance settings are set in pu with ZBase as reference: ZBase = UBase 2 SBase = 20 2 200 = 2.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Short circuit power from the external network without infeed from the protected line: 5000 MVA (assumed to a pure reactance).19 ZB = jX d ' = j 20 2 × 0.25 = j 0.5ohm 200 (Equation 332) EQUATION1972 V2 EN This corresponds to: ZB = j 0.19 pu = 0.15 = j 0.0 = j 0.

Set StartAngle to 110°. 356 Application manual . see figure 174.10 + 5.4 » 130 Zload Zload 2 2 EQUATION1977 V2 EN (Equation 337) In case of minor damped oscillations at normal operation we do not want the protection to start. X ZA Zload R ZB en07000016.vsd IEC07000016 V1 EN Figure 174: angleStart ³ arctan Simplified figure to derive StartAngle ZB ZA 0.15 and AnglePhi to 90°. the example can be shown as a triangle.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Set ZC to 0. The maximum line power is assumed to be 200 MVA. Therefore we set the start angle with large margin.19 + arctan = arctan + arctan = 7. This corresponds to apparent impedance: Z= U 2 S = 20 2 200 = 2ohm (Equation 336) EQUATION1976 V1 EN Simplified. The warning angle (StartAngle) should be chosen not to cross into normal operating area.25 0.

If the centre of pole slip is within the network set N2Limit to 3 to get enable split of the system before generator trip.01 10.1 3000.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C For the TripAngle it is recommended to set this parameter to 90° to assure limited stress for the circuit breaker.1000.180.00 Deg 0.0 Base Voltage (primary phase-to-phase voltage in kV) MeasureMode PosSeq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 - - PosSeq Measuring mode (PosSeq.0 .20 - 1 1 Count limit for the trip1 signal N2Limit 1 .00 Forward impedance in % of Zbase ImpedanceZB 0.00 % 0. 3.1 20.6.1000.13.000 Description Time without slip to reset all signals PSPPPAM Non group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default IBase 0. If the centre of pole slip is within the generator block set N1Limit to 1 to get trip at first pole slip.99999.1 .00 % 0.60.00 Angle of the slip impedance line StartAngle 0.1 90.1 110.01 10. L1L2.00 .0 Deg 0.00 .00 % 0.9 A 0. L2L3.000 s Step 0.9999.20 - 1 3 Count limit for the trip2 signal Table 82: Name ResetTime Table 83: PSPPPAM Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit 0.000 .90.01 10.0 Rotor angle for the start signal TripAngle 0.001 Default 5.00 .1 .00 Impedance of zone1 limit in % of Zbase AnglePhi 72.3 Setting parameters Table 81: PSPPPAM Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation On / Off OperationZ1 Off On - - On Operation Zone1 On / Off OperationZ2 Off On - - On Operation Zone2 On / Off ImpedanceZA 0. L3L1) InvertCTcurr No Yes - - No Invert current direction Description 357 Application manual .0 Rotor angle for the trip1 and trip2 signals N1Limit 1 .01 85.180.9 kV 0.1000.00 Reverse impedance in % of Zbase ImpedanceZC 0.0 Deg 0.0 .00 .0 Base Current (primary phase current in Amperes) UBase 0.

together with slow tripping. a sensitive. gives a considerable increase of the risk of a second fault in a healthy phase and the second fault can occur at any location. quadrilateral characteristic function FDPSPDIS. In other cases. 358 Application manual . the fault is commonly called cross-country fault.6.2 device number - Application Phase preference logic function PPLPHIZ is an auxiliary function to Distance protection zone. the occurring system voltages on the healthy phases will increase to line voltage level as the neutral displacement is equal to the phase voltage level at a fully developed earth fault. typically below 25 A. Figure 175 shows an occurring cross-country fault. Due to the resonance/high resistive earthing principle.14.1 IEC 61850 identification PPLPHIZ IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37. quadrilateral characteristic ZMQPDIS and Phase selection with load encroachment. the practice is to trip only one of the faulty lines.6. This increase of the healthy phase voltage. The purpose is to create the logic in resonance or high resistive earthed systems (normally subtransmission) to achieve the correct phase selective tripping during two simultaneous single-phase earth-faults in different phases on different line sections. When cross-country faults occur. the earth faults in the system gives very low fault currents. The main use of this logic is in systems where single phase-to-earth faults are not automatically cleared. At the same time.Section 3 IED application 3. Different practices for tripping is used by different utilities. but due to the low fault currents long tripping times are utilized. Figure 176 shows the achievement of line voltage on healthy phases and an occurring cross-country fault. directional earth-fault protection is provided to trip. only alarm is given and the fault is left on until a suitable time to send people to track down and repair the fault.14 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Phase preference logic PPLPHIZ Function description Phase preference logic 3. When it occurs on another feeder.

quadrilateral characteristic function FDPSPDIS as shown in figure 177.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Load L3N Load L1N en06000550. reactance) earthed PPLPHIZ is connected between Distance protection zone.vsd IEC06000550 V1 EN An occurring cross-country fault on different feeders in a subtransmission network. The integer from the phase selection function. high impedance (resistance.vsd IEC06000551 V1 EN Figure 176: The voltage increase on healthy phases and occurring neutral point voltage (3U0) at a single phase-to-earth fault and an occurring cross-country fault on different feeders in a subtransmission network. which gives the type of fault undergoes a check and will release the distance protection zones as decided by the logic. high impedance (resistance. The logic includes a check of the fault loops given by the phase 359 Application manual . quadrilateral characteristic function ZMQPDIS and ZMQAPDIS and Phase selection with load encroachment. reactance) earthed 2F UL 3 UL UL 2 UL 3 F UL1 Figure 175: UL 3 F 3U0 en06000551.

the fault current in the faulty phase on each of the lines will be seen as a phase current and at the same time as a neutral current as the remaining phases on each feeder virtually carries no (load) current. quadrilateral characteristic function FDPSPDIS As the fault is a double earth-faults at different locations of the network. Local conditions to check the phaseto-earth voltage levels and occurring zero sequence current and voltages completes the logic. quadrilateral characteristic ZMQPDIS and ZMQAPDIS and Phase selection with load encroachment.vsd IEC06000552 V3 EN Figure 177: The connection of Phase preference logic function PPLPHIZ between Distance protection zone.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C selection and if the fault type indicates a two or three phase fault the integer releasing the zone is not changed. If the fault indicates and earth-fault checks are done which mode of tripping to be used. ZMQAPDIS FDPSPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK DIRCND TRIP START STFWL1 STFWL2 STFWL3 STFWPE STRVL1 STRVL2 STRVL3 STRVPE STNDL1 STNDL2 STNDL3 STNDPE STFW1PH STFW2PH STFW3PH STPE STPP STCNDZ STCNDLE W2_CT_B_I3P W2_VT_B_U3P FALSE PHS_L1 PHS_L2 PHS_L3 W2_FSD1-BLKZ FALSE I3P* U3P* BLOCK VTSZ BLKTR STCND DIRCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 START STL1 STL2 STL3 STND ZMQPDIS W2_CT_B_I3P W2_VT_B_U3P FALSE W2_FSD1-BLKZ FALSE I3P* U3P* BLOCK VTSZ BLKTR STCND DIRCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 START STL1 STL2 STL3 STND PPLPHIZ W2_CT_B_I3P W2_VT_B_U3P FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE I3P* U3P* BLOCK RELL1N RELL2N RELL3N STCND START ZREL IEC06000552-3-en. Occurring neutral current is thus a sign of a cross-country fault (a double earth. for example 1231c. say 25 to 40 A.fault) 360 Application manual . which means that fault in the phases are tripped in the cyclic order L1 before L2 before L3 before L1. A current through the earthing impedance does not exist. It is limited by the impedance to below the typical.

UBase: Base voltage level in kV. 3.vsd IEC06000553 V1 EN Figure 178: The currents in the phases at a double earth fault The function has a block input (BLOCK) to block start from the function if required in certain conditions.14. Phase selection and zones are set according to normal praxis. although earth-fault loops will only be active during a crosscountry fault. OperMode: The operating mode is selected. Phase preference logic function is an intermediate logic between Distance protection zone.earth voltage level (phase voltage) which is used by the evaluation logic to verify that a fault exists in the phase. The base voltage is used as reference for the voltage setting factors. The base current is used as reference for the neutral current setting factor. quadrilateral characteristic function FDPSPDIS.2 Setting guidelines The parameters for the Phase preference logic function PPLPHIZ are set via the local HMI or PCM600.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C IL3=IN IL1=IN en06000553. UPN<: The setting of the phase-to. including earth-fault loops. Normally it is set to the current transformer rated current. Choices includes cyclic or acyclic phase selection in the preferred mode. Normally it is set to the system voltage level (phase to phase). Normally in a 361 Application manual . quadrilateral characteristic function ZMQPDIS and Phase selection with load encroachment. IBase: Base current level in A.6. This setting must be identical for all IEDs in the same galvanic connected network part.

0.3 Table 84: Name Setting parameters PPLPHIZ Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IBase 1 .1 s 3.00 kV 0. Note that the systems are high impedance earthed which means that the earth-fault currents at earth-faults are limited and the occurring IN above this level shows that there exists a two-phase fault on this line and a parallel line where the IN is the fault current level in the faulty phase.14. L2-L3 for a L1-L2 fault.1 .2000. A high sensitivity need not to be achieved as the two-phase fault level normally is well above base current.6. for example.0.a=acyclic) UPN< 10 .15 s. tOffUN: The UN voltage has a reset drop-off to ensure correct function without timing problems. IN>: The setting of the residual current level (neutral current) which is used by the evaluation logic to verify that a cross-country fault exists.00 Base voltage OperMode No Filter NoPref 1231c 1321c 123a 132a 213a 231a 312a 321a - - No Filter Operating mode (c=cyclic. Normal time setting is 0.100 %UB 1 70 Operate value of phase undervoltage in % of UBase/sqrt(3) Table continues on next page 362 Application manual . tUN: The time delay for a secure UN detecting that the fault is an earth-fault or double earth-fault with residual voltage. the voltage drop is big and the setting can typically be set to 70% of base voltage (UBase) UPP<: The setting of the phase-to-phase voltage level (line voltage) which is used by the evaluation logic to verify that a fault exists in two or more phases.15 s.99999 A 1 3000 Base current UBase 0. The voltage must be set to avoid that a partly healthy phase-to-phase voltage. The setting can typically be 20% of base current (IBase) but the setting shall be above the maximum current generated by the system earthing.05 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C high impedance earthed system.1 . picks-up and gives an incorrect release of all loops. The setting can typically be 40 to 50% of rated voltage (UBase) divided by √3. 3U0>: The setting of the residual voltage level (neutral voltage) which is used by the evaluation logic to verify that an earth-fault exists. that is 40%.01 400. The setting can typically be 20% of base voltage (UBase). Normal time setting is 0. Normal time setting is 0. tIN: The time delay for detecting that the fault is cross-country.

000 .000 s 0.300 %UB 1 20 Operate value of residual voltage in % of UBase/sqrt(3) IN> 10 .150 Pickup-delay for residual current 3.100 %UB 1 50 Operate value of line to line undervoltage (% of UBase) 3U0> 5 .001 0.000 s 0. is too long.7. The fault current on long transmission lines depends mostly on the fault position and decreases with the distance from the generation point.7.60. This means that a fault on the line can easily endanger the stability of a complete system.001 0. Three-phase faults are the most dangerous.000 s 0. which consists of the protection operating time and the breaker opening time. A high fault current indicates that the decrease of transmitted power is high.1 Application Long transmission lines often transfer great quantities of electric power from production to consumption areas.7 Current protection 3.1. because no power can be transmitted through the fault point during fault conditions.60.100 Dropoff-delay for residual voltage tIN 0.1 Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output PHPIOC Function description Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification PHPIOC ANSI/IEEE C37.000 . The total fault clearing time. For this reason the 363 Application manual . The magnitude of the fault current. The phase angles between the EMFs of the generators on both sides of the transmission line increase over the permitted stability limits if the total fault clearing time. The transient stability of a power system depends mostly on three parameters (at constant amount of transmitted electric power): • • • The type of the fault.60. The unbalance of the produced and consumed electric power at each end of the transmission line is very large.2 device number 50 3I>> SYMBOL-Z V1 EN 3.200 %IB 1 20 Operate value of residual current (% of IBase) tUN 0.100 Pickup-delay for residual voltage tOffUN 0.001 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description UPP< 10 .000 .

The instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output PHPIOC can operate in 10 ms for faults characterized by very high currents. 2 out of 3 should be chosen.2 Setting guidelines The parameters for instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output PHPIOC are set via the local HMI or PCM600. 3. apply a fault in B and then calculate the current through-fault phase current IfB. StValMult: The operate current can be changed by activation of the binary input ENMULT to the set factor StValMult. With reference to figure 179. A typical example is a transmission line with a power transformer at the remote end. Meshed network without parallel line The following fault calculations have to be done for three-phase.1. This protection function must operate only in a selective way. Also study transients that could cause a high increase of the line current for short times. 364 Application manual . Normally this parameter is set to 1 out of 3and will thus detect all fault types. But also examine single-phase-to-earth and two-phase-to-earth conditions. If possible to find a suitable value the rated current of the protected object is chosen. this current appears during three-phase fault conditions. The setting controls the minimum number of phase currents that must be larger than the set operate current IP>> for operation. IP>>: Set operate current in % of IBase. overcurrent protection. single-phase-toearth and two-phase-to-earth faults. for which very high fault currents are characteristic. instantaneous. In most cases. The calculation should be done using the minimum source impedance values for ZA and the maximum source impedance values for ZB in order to get the maximum through fault current from A to B. This current is used as reference for current setting.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C protection must operate very quickly for faults very close to the generation (and relay) point. which can cause high inrush current when connected to the network and can thus also cause the operation of the built-in. IBase: Base current in primary A. If the protection is to be used mainly for multi phase faults. OpMode: This parameter can be set to 2 out of 3 or 1 out of 3. So check all system and transient conditions that could cause its unwanted operation.7. Only detailed network studies can determine the operating conditions under which the highest possible fault current is expected on the line.

figure 180. IfB ) EQUATION78 V1 EN (Equation 338) A safety margin of 5% for the maximum protection static inaccuracy and a safety margin of 5% for the maximum possible transient overreach have to be introduced. Hence the minimum theoretical current setting (Imin) will be: Imin ³ MAX(I fA.vsd IEC09000022 V1 EN Figure 179: Through fault current from A to B: IfB Then a fault in A has to be applied and the through fault current IfA has to be calculated.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ~ I fB A ZA B ZL ZB ~ IED Fault IEC09000022-1-en. An additional 20% is suggested due to the inaccuracy of the instrument transformers under transient conditions and inaccuracy in the system data. ~ ZA I fA A ZL B ZB ~ IED Fault IEC09000023-1-en.vsd IEC09000023 V1 EN Figure 180: Through fault current from B to A: IfA The IED must not trip for any of the two through-fault currents. the minimum value for ZB and the maximum value for ZA have to be considered. The minimum primary setting (Is) for the instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output is then: 365 Application manual . In order to get the maximum through fault current.

The maximal influence from the parallel line for the IED in figure 182 will be with a fault at the C point with the C breaker open. and then the maximum current seen from the IED (IM ) on the healthy line (this applies for single-phase-to-earth and two-phase-toearth faults) is calculated.Im in (Equation 339) EQUATION79 V2 EN The protection function can be used for the specific application only if this setting value is equal to or less than the maximum fault current that the IED has to clear. IF in figure 181. One example is given in figure 182 where the two lines are connected to the same busbars.vsd IEC09000024 V1 EN Figure 181: IP >>= Is IBase Fault current: IF × 100 EQUATION1147 V3 EN (Equation 340) Meshed network with parallel line In case of parallel lines. 366 Application manual . A fault in C has to be applied.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Is ³ 1. IF ZA ~ A ZL B ZB ~ IED Fault IEC09000024-1-en. the influence of the induced current from the parallel line to the protected line has to be considered.3. In this case the influence of the induced fault current from the faulty line (line 1) to the healthy line (line 2) is considered together with the two through fault currents IfA and IfB mentioned previously.

IM ) (Equation 341) EQUATION82 V1 EN Where IfA and IfB have been described in the previous paragraph. Influence from parallel line to the through fault current: IM The minimum theoretical current setting for the overcurrent protection function (Imin) will be: Imin ³ MAX(I fA. Considering the safety margins mentioned previously. IBase. the minimum setting (Is) for the instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output is then: Is ³1.vsd IEC09000025 V1 EN Figure 182: Two parallel lines. IfB . The value for IP>> is given from this formula: IP >>= Is IBase EQUATION1147 V3 EN × 100 (Equation 343) 367 Application manual .3·Imin (Equation 342) EQUATION83 V2 EN The protection function can be used for the specific application only if this setting value is equal or less than the maximum phase fault current that the IED has to clear.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Line 1 A C B ZL1 ZA ~ ZB M Fault ~ ZL2 IM IED Line 2 IEC09000025-1-en. The IED setting value IP>> is given in percentage of the primary base current value.

If VT inputs are not available or not connected.0 Unit - Step 0.5 .0 Description Multiplier for operate current level Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC Function description Four step phase overcurrent protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification OC4PTOC 3I> 4 4 ANSI/IEEE C37. motors and others.1 Application The Four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output OC4PTOC is used in several applications in the power system.1 Default 1. 2. Short circuit protection of different kinds of equipment connected to the power system such as.5.7. shunt capacitor banks.1. shunt reactors. Back-up short circuit protection of power generators. individual settable. 368 Application manual .3 Table 85: Name Setting parameters PHPIOC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IBase 1 . Normally these feeders have radial structure.2 device number 51/67 alt TOC-REVA V1 EN 3. Some applications are: • • • • • Short circuit protection of feeders in distribution and subtransmission systems. Back-up short circuit protection of transmission lines.2 PHPIOC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) 0. In many applications several steps with different current pick up levels and time delays are needed.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.2500 %IB 1 200 Operate phase current level in % of IBase Table 86: Name StValMult 3.2. Back-up short circuit protection of power transformers.7. setting parameter DirModex (x = step 1. 3 or 4) shall be left to default value Nondirectional. OC4PTOC can have up to four different.7.99999 A 1 3000 Base current OpMode 2 out of 3 1 out of 3 - - 1 out of 3 Select operation mode 2-out of 3 / 1-out of 3 IP>> 1 .

The selectivity between different overcurrent protections is normally enabled by co-ordination between the function time delays of the different protections.7. the directional function can be necessary. at minimum.2 Setting guidelines 369 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C steps. This multiplication factor is activated from a binary input signal to the function. In order to achieve both selectivity and fast fault clearance. This can be used to avoid unwanted operation of the protection. At the start up sequence of a motor the start current can be significantly larger than the rated current of the motor. Therefore there is a possibility to give a setting of a multiplication factor to the current pick-up level. In some cases some sort of delayed reset is required. Choice of delay time characteristics: There are several types of delay time characteristics available such as definite time delay and different types of inverse time delay characteristics. Therefore it is possible to make a choice how many phases. Therefore a wide range of standardized inverse time characteristics are available: IEC and ANSI. The phase overcurrent protection is often used as protection for two and three phase short circuits. To enable optimal co-ordination between all overcurrent protections. Power transformers can have a large inrush current. The inrush current has a large 2nd harmonic content. Therefore different kinds of reset characteristics can be used. Therefore. This fault type is detected and cleared after operation of earth fault protection. It is also possible to tailor make the inverse time characteristic. The following options are possible: Non-directional / Directional function: In most applications the non-directional functionality is used. to enable operation. 3. In some cases it is not wanted to detect single-phase earth faults by the phase overcurrent protection. Normally it is required that the phase overcurrent protection shall reset as fast as possible when the current level gets lower than the operation level.2. A typical case is when the protection will measure the current to a large motor. they should have the same time delay characteristic. The flexibility of each step of OC4PTOC is great. when being energized. that have to have current above the pick-up level. This is mostly the case when no fault current can be fed from the protected object itself. For some protection applications there can be a need to change the current pick-up level for some time. There is a risk that inrush current will reach levels above the pick-up current of the phase overcurrent protection. If set 2 of 3 or 3 of 3 single-phase earth faults are not detected. This phenomenon is due to saturation of the transformer magnetic core during parts of the period. If set 1 of 3 it is sufficient to have high current in one phase only. OC4PTOC have a possibility of 2nd harmonic restrain if the level of this harmonic current reaches a value above a set percentage of the fundamental current.

370 Application manual . to define the angle sector of the directional function. AngleROA: Angle value. The parameters for Four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output OC4PTOC are set via the local HMI or PCM600. if only the inverse time delay is required. If the angle of the fault loop current has the angle RCA the direction to fault is forward. RMS is used when the harmonic contents are to be considered. the operate time of the stage will be the sum of the inverse time delay and the set definite time delay. Default setting is 7%. The setting range is 5 . for example in applications with shunt capacitors. AngleRCA: Protection characteristic angle set in degrees. This setting should be less than the lowest step setting. The setting possibilities are: Not used. UBase: Base voltage level in kV.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C When inverse time overcurrent characteristic is selected. Thus. 2ndHarmStab: Operate level of 2nd harmonic current restrain set in % of the fundamental current. It can be suitable to set this parameter to the rated primary current of the current of the protected object. Default setting is 1 out of 3. with high current. 2 out of 3 and 3 out of 3. Default setting is 20%. StartPhSel: Number of phases. given in degrees. This voltage is give as a phase-to-phase voltage and this is the reference for voltage related settings of the function. Normally the setting should be chosen to the rated phase-to-phase voltage of the voltage transformer feeding the protection IED. required for operation. Operation: The protection can be set to Off or On IBase: Base current in primary A.1 out of 3. MeasType: Selection of discrete Fourier filtered (DFT) or true RMS filtered (RMS) signals. it is of utmost importance to set the definite time delay for that stage to zero. This current is used as reference for current setting.100% in steps of 1%. see figure 183. The following settings can be done for OC4PTOC. IminOpPhSel: Minimum current for phase selection set in % of IBase.

3 and 4.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3 Uref 1 2 2 4 Idir IEC09000636_1_vsd IEC09000636 V1 EN Figure 183: 1. 4. Directional function characteristic RCA = Relay characteristic angle ROA = Relay operating angle Reverse Forward Settings for each step x means step 1. 3. Characteristx: Selection of time characteristic for step x. Possible settings are Off/Nondirectional/Forward/Reverse. DirModex: The directional mode of step x. Definite time delay and different types of inverse time characteristics are available according to table 87. 2. 371 Application manual . 2.

If a binary input signal (enableMultiplier) is activated the current operation level is increase by this setting constant. IxMult: Multiplier for scaling of the current setting value. Setting range: 1.000s in steps of 0. Used if definite time characteristic is chosen.000 .001s.0-10. kx: Time multiplier for inverse time delay for step x.0 txMin: Minimum operate time for all inverse time characteristics. If IMinx is set above Ix> for any step the ANSI reset works as if current is zero when current drops below IMinx. Setting range: 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 87: Inverse time characteristics Curve name ANSI Extremely Inverse ANSI Very Inverse ANSI Normal Inverse ANSI Moderately Inverse ANSI/IEEE Definite time ANSI Long Time Extremely Inverse ANSI Long Time Very Inverse ANSI Long Time Inverse IEC Normal Inverse IEC Very Inverse IEC Inverse IEC Extremely Inverse IEC Short Time Inverse IEC Long Time Inverse IEC Definite Time User Programmable ASEA RI RXIDG (logarithmic) The different characteristics are described in Technical reference manual. tx: Definite time delay for step x. At high currents the inverse time characteristic might give a very short operation time. IMinx: Minimum operate current for step x in % of IBase. 372 Application manual . Ix>: Operate phase current level for step x given in % of IBase. By setting this parameter the operation time of the step can never be shorter than the setting.60. Set IMinx below Ix> for every step to achieve ANSI reset characteristic according to standard.

By choosing setting the possibilities are according to table 88. 373 Application manual . Table 88: Reset possibilities Curve name Curve index no. For the definite time delay characteristics the possible delay time settings are instantaneous (1) and IEC (2 = set constant time reset). There are some restrictions regarding the choice of reset delay. ResetTypeCrvx: The reset of the delay timer can be made in different ways.vsd IEC10000058 V1 EN Figure 184: Minimum operate current and operation time for inverse time characteristics In order to fully comply with curves definition setting parameter txMin shall be set to the value. which is equal to the operating time of the selected inverse curve for measured current of twenty times the set current pickup value.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Operate time IMinx txMin Current IEC10000058-1-en. Note that the operating time value is dependent on the selected setting value for time multiplier kx. Instantaneous 1 IEC Reset (constant time) 2 ANSI Reset (inverse time) 3 The delay characteristics are described in the technical reference manual.

tr and cr must be given. as the inrush current is deviating between the phases. For the customer tailor made inverse time delay characteristics (type 17) all three types of reset time characteristics are available.. tBCrvx. tPCrvx. to block chosen steps. The inrush current has a relatively large ratio of 2nd harmonic component. There is a risk that the phase overcurrent function will give an unwanted trip. The setting range is 5 . See equation 344 for the time characteristic equation. æ ö ç ÷ A ÷ × IxMult + t [s] = ç B p çæ i ö ÷ çç ÷ -C ÷ è è in > ø ø EQUATION1261 V2 EN (Equation 344) For more information. The settings for the 2nd harmonic restrain are described below. This component can be used to create a restrain signal to prevent this unwanted function. HarmRestrainx: Enable block of step x from the harmonic restrain function (2nd harmonic).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C For ANSI inverse time characteristics all three types of reset time characteristics are available. tCCrvx: Parameters for customer creation of inverse time characteristic curve (Curve type = 17). For IEC inverse time characteristics the possible delay time settings are instantaneous (1) and IEC (2 = set constant time reset). If the current dependent type is used settings pr. IEC (2 = set constant time reset) and ANSI (3 = current dependent reset time). Further description can be found in the technical reference manual. The default setting is 20% and can be used if a deeper investigation shows that no other value is needed. tTRCrvx. tCRCrvx: Parameters for customer creation of inverse reset time characteristic curve (Reset Curve type = 3). instantaneous (1). This will give a declining residual current in the network. instantaneous (1). tPRCrvx.100% in steps of 1%. IEC (2 = set constant time reset) and ANSI (3 = current dependent reset time). 2nd harmonic restrain If a power transformer is energized there is a risk that the transformer core will saturate during part of the period. refer to the technical reference manual. Can be set Off/On. The setting is given in % of the fundamental frequency residual current. 374 Application manual . resulting in an inrush transformer current. 2ndHarmStab: The rate of 2nd harmonic current content for activation of the 2nd harmonic restrain signal. This function should be used when there is a risk if power transformer inrush currents might cause unwanted trip. tACrvx.

The operating current setting inverse time protection or the lowest current step constant inverse time protection must be given a current setting so that the highest possible load current does not cause protection operation.vsd IEC05000203 V3 EN Figure 185: Operate and reset current for an overcurrent protection The lowest setting value can be written according to equation 345.2 is a safety factor.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C HarmRestrainx: This parameter can be set Off/On. Current I Line phase current Operate current Reset current The IED does not reset Time t IEC05000203-en-2. 375 Application manual . Here consideration also has to be taken to the protection reset current. The four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output can be used in different ways. A general description is given below. Ipu ³ 1. depending on the application where the protection is used. k is the resetting ratio of the protection Imax is the maximum load current. so that a short peak of overcurrent does not cause operation of the protection even when the overcurrent has ceased.2 × Im ax k EQUATION1262 V2 EN (Equation 345) where: 1. This phenomenon is described in figure 185. to disable or enable the 2nd harmonic restrain.

and disconnectors. current transformers. in most cases. must be calculated. The maximum load current on the line has to be estimated. the highest pick up current setting can be written according to equation 346. at the most remote part of the primary protected zone. Iscmax. Investigate the maximum load current that different equipment on the line can withstand. must be given a current setting so that the protection is selective to other protection in the power system.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C From operation statistics the load current up to the present situation can be found.7 × Isc min EQUATION1263 V2 EN (Equation 346) where: 0. realistic that the setting values are updated not more often than once every five years. The current setting must be valid also for some years ahead. It is. It is desirable to have a rapid tripping of faults within as large portion as possible of the part of the power system to be protected by the protection (primary protected zone). which only has a short delay of the operation. 1. Taking this value as a base. In many cases this time interval is still longer. As a summary the operating current shall be chosen within the interval stated in equation 347. Considerations have to be made to the risk of transient overreach. A fault current calculation gives the largest current of faults. Ipu £ 0. of the phase overcurrent protection. The minimum fault current Iscmin. The manufacturer of the equipment normally gives the maximum thermal load current of the equipment. The lowest current setting of the most rapid stage. due to a possible DC component of the short circuit current.7 is a safety factor Iscmin is the smallest fault current to be detected by the overcurrent protection. can be written according to 376 Application manual . must be detected by the phase overcurrent protection. There is also a demand that all faults. Study components such as line conductors. within the zone that the protection shall cover. to be detected by the protection. circuit breakers.2 × Im ax £ Ipu £ 0.7 × Isc min k EQUATION1264 V2 EN (Equation 347) The high current function of the overcurrent protection.

en05000204. at the same time as selectivity is assured.2 is a safety factor. Selectivity is assured if the time difference between the curves is larger than a critical time difference. kt is a factor that takes care of the transient overreach due to the DC component of the fault current and can be considered to be less than 1.wmf IEC05000204 V1 EN Figure 186: Fault time with maintained selectivity 377 Application manual . This is mostly used in the case of inverse time overcurrent protection.2 × kt × I sc max (Equation 348) EQUATION1265 V1 EN where: 1. The time setting is chosen to get the shortest fault time with maintained selectivity. Figure 186 shows how the time-versus-current curves are plotted in a diagram. For overcurrent protection.1 Iscmax is the largest fault current at a fault at the most remote point of the primary protection zone. the time setting can be chosen in a graphical way. in a radial fed network.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C I high ³ 1. The operate times of the phase overcurrent protection has to be chosen so that the fault time is so short that protected equipment will not be destroyed due to thermal overload.

the operation time of protections. breaker opening time and protection resetting time must be known. The following time delays can be estimated: Protection operation time: 15-60 ms Protection resetting time: 15-60 ms Breaker opening time: 20-120 ms Example for time coordination Assume two substations A and B directly connected to each other via one line. The overcurrent protection of IED A1 must have a delayed function. The minimum time difference can be determined for different cases. Consider a fault located at another line from the station B. The fault current to the overcurrent protection of IED B1 has a magnitude so that the protection will have instantaneous function. These time delays can vary significantly between different protective equipment. 378 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The operation time can be set individually for each overcurrent protection. there have to be a minimum time difference Dt between the time delays of two protections. as shown in the figure 187. in the radial network. To assure selectivity between different protections. The sequence of events during the fault can be described using a time axis. To determine the shortest possible time difference. see figure 187.

With normal values the needed time difference can be calculated according to equation 349.vsd IEC05000205 V1 EN Figure 187: Sequence of events during fault where: t=0 is when the fault occurs. breaker opening time and protection resetting time. To ensure that the overcurrent protection at IED A1.t1 and t=t3 is when the overcurrent protection at IED A1 resets. t=t1 is when the trip signal from the overcurrent protection at IED B1 is sent to the circuit breaker. t=t2 is when the circuit breaker at IED B1 opens. The protection resetting time is t3 . the minimum time difference must be larger than the time t3. Dt ³ 40 ms + 100 ms + 40 ms + 40 ms = 220 ms (Equation 349) EQUATION1266 V1 EN where it is considered that: the operate time of overcurrent protection B1 is 40 ms the breaker open time is 100 ms the resetting time of protection A1 is 40 ms and the additional margin is 40 ms 379 Application manual . is selective to the overcurrent protection at IED B1. The circuit breaker opening time is t2 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C A1 B1 I> I> Feeder Time axis t=0 t=t1 t=t2 t=t3 The fault occurs Protection B1 trips Breaker at B1 opens Protection A1 resets en05000205. The operation time of this protection is t1.t2. Therefore a safety margin has to be included. There are uncertainties in the values of protection operation time.

0 - 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.60.1 2.05 400. Time Selection of time delay curve type for step 1 I1> 1 .T.89 Deg 1 80 Relay operation angle (ROA) StartPhSel 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 - - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of 3. forward. L.T. 2 of 3.10000 %IB 1 100 Minimum operate current for step1 in % of IBase t1Min 0. forward.2000. IEC Very inv.01 0. IEC Norm. nodir. inv.000 .10. reverse) Table continues on next page 380 Application manual .05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 1 IMin1 1 . ANSI Mod.05 .2500 %IB 1 1000 Phase current operate level for step1 in % of IBase t1 0. ANSI Def. IEC Def.000 s 0.999. L.T.65 Deg 1 55 Relay characteristic angle (RCA) AngleROA 40 . inv. inv.0 .00 kV 0.000 .T. reverse) Characterist1 ANSI Ext.001 0.T.001 0. inv.00 Base voltage AngleRCA 40 . Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.00 - 0. inv.99999 A 1 3000 Base current UBase 0. IEC inv. Time L. IEC L. 3 of 3) DirMode1 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 1 (off. IEC Ext.E.000 s 0.000 Definitive time delay of step 1 k1 0. inv.3 Setting parameters Table 89: OC4PTOC Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IBase 1 .05 .2.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 I1Mult 1.7. inv. ANSI Very inv.0 Multiplier for current operate level for step 1 DirMode2 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 2 (off.V. inv.60. nodir. ANSI Norm. inv. inv. IEC S.

05 . inv. IEC Norm. L.000 s 0. IEC Def.T. inv. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def. inv. inv. inv. inv. L.V.T. reverse) Characterist3 ANSI Ext.T. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.T.T. inv. nodir.001 0.E. inv. IEC inv.T. ANSI Mod.60. IEC Very inv.T. inv.60. Time Selection of time delay curve type for step 3 I3> 1 .000 s 0.0 Multiplier for current operate level for step 2 DirMode3 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 3 (off. IEC S.800 Definitive time delay of step 3 Table continues on next page 381 Application manual . inv.001 0.2500 %IB 1 250 Phase current operate level for step3 in % of IBase t3 0. inv. IEC inv. ANSI Def. forward.10. IEC Very inv.000 .T.T.2500 %IB 1 500 Phase current operate level for step2 in % of IBase t2 0. IEC Def. L.T.1 2.000 s 0.60.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 2 IMin2 1 . IEC L.001 0.400 Definitive time delay of step 2 k2 0. ANSI Norm. ANSI Mod. IEC Ext. inv.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 2 I2Mult 1. inv.999.01 0.0 - 0. inv.000 .10000 %IB 1 50 Minimum operate current for step2 in % of IBase t2Min 0.000 . L. ANSI Norm. inv. Time L.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Characterist2 ANSI Ext. inv. IEC S. inv. IEC Norm.V.00 - 0. IEC Ext. Time L. inv.0 . inv. ANSI Very inv. IEC L.E. Time Selection of time delay curve type for step 2 I2> 1 . inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Def.

100 %IB 1 20 Operate level of 2nd harm restrain op in % of Fundamental ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 1 Table continues on next page 382 Application manual .000 .05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 3 IMin3 1 .60.999.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 4 IMin4 1 . nodir.05 .T. IEC S.000 s 0. Time Selection of time delay curve type for step 4 I4> 1 .001 2.00 - 0. inv.01 0.60. inv.001 0.T.000 s 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 3 I3Mult 1.1 2.2500 %IB 1 175 Phase current operate level for step4 in % of IBase t4 0. ANSI Very inv.T.000 . IEC Norm.T. IEC Very inv.00 - 0.000 . inv. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def. inv. IEC L.01 0.0 Multiplier for current operate level for step 4 Table 90: Name Values (Range) Unit Description OC4PTOC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IMinOpPhSel 1 .10.999.E. inv. Time L.0 . IEC Def.10.000 s 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 4 I4Mult 1.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Step Default k3 0. inv.001 0. IEC inv. ANSI Norm.0 . forward.05 . L.1 2.10000 %IB 1 17 Minimum operate current for step4 in % of IBase t4Min 0.0 Multiplier for current operate level for step 3 DirMode4 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 4 (off.0 - 0.V. reverse) Characterist4 ANSI Ext.T.0 - 0. ANSI Def. IEC Ext.100 %IB 1 7 Minimum current for phase selection in % of IBase 2ndHarmStab 5 .10000 %IB 1 33 Minimum operate current for step3 in % of IBase t3Min 0.000 Definitive time delay of step 4 k4 0.60. inv. inv. inv. L.

01 0.00 .005 .200.01 0.100.000 - 0.00 .000 - 0.001 0.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 1 HarmRestrain1 Off On - - Off Enable block of step 1 from harmonic restrain ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 2 tReset2 0.10.001 1.000 - 0.01 0.005 .020 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 3 tPCrv3 0.00 - 0.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 tACrv2 0.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 tPRCrv2 0.0 - 0.10.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 1 tTRCrv1 0.60.200.005 .60.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 3 tACrv3 0.001 13.001 13.1 1.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 1 tCRCrv1 0.1 .000 .500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 2 tCRCrv2 0.20.1 .00 - 0.005 .001 1.1 1.001 0.001 1.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 tBCrv1 0.001 13.20.3.001 Default 0.005 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit tReset1 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 tCCrv2 0.000 - 0.1 1.60.020 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 2 tPCrv2 0.00 - 0.005 .000 - 0.000 - 0.000 .3.000 s 0.100.10.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 2 tTRCrv2 0.3.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 3 tBCrv3 0.000 - 0.00 .00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 3 Table continues on next page 383 Application manual .0 - 0.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 2 HarmRestrain2 Off On - - Off Enable block of step 2 from harmonic restrain ResetTypeCrv3 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 3 tReset3 0.020 Description Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1 tPCrv1 0.000 - 0.1 .1 1.001 13.000 s 0.200.000 .3.005 .0 - 0.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 tPRCrv1 0.000 - 0.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 tBCrv2 0.005 .001 0.0 - 0.20.000 s Step 0.10.005 .3.1 .000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 tACrv1 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 tCCrv1 0.001 0.005 .

00 - 0.10.100.000 - 0.001 13.001 1.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 3 HarmRestrain3 Off On - - Off Enable block of step3 from harmonic restrain ResetTypeCrv4 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 4 tReset4 0.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 4 tCRCrv4 0.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 4 tBCrv4 0.01 0.10.1 1.1 .005 .000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 4 tACrv4 0.20.001 13.005 .3 OC4PTOC Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) DFT RMS Unit - Step - Default DFT Description Selection between DFT and RMS measurement Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC Function description Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification EFPIOC ANSI/IEEE C37.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 4 tPRCrv4 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 4 tCCrv4 0.000 - 0.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 4 tTRCrv4 0.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 3 tTRCrv3 0.0 - 0.005 .200.000 s 0.1 .000 - 0.00 .0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 3 tPRCrv3 0.3.000 - 0.001 13.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description tCCrv3 0.005 .005 .001 0.1 1.10.7.0 - 0.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 3 tCRCrv3 0.1 .1 1.020 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 4 tPCrv4 0.100.3.005 .2 device number 50N IN>> IEF V1 EN 384 Application manual .60.000 .0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 4 HarmRestrain4 Off On - - Off Enable block of step 4 from harmonic restrain Table 91: Name MeasType 3.001 0.1 .3.10.000 - 0.001 0.000 - 0.

which can operate in 15 ms (50 Hz nominal system frequency) for faults characterized by very high currents. 3. In this calculation the operational state with low source impedance ZA and high source impedance ZB should be used.2 Setting guidelines The parameters for the Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC are set via the local HMI or PCM600. The setting of the function is limited to the operate residual current to the protection (IN>>).7.vsd IEC09000022 V1 EN Figure 188: Through fault current from A to B: IfB 385 Application manual . Some guidelines for the choice of setting parameter for EFPIOC is given.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. when fault current is limited to a defined value by the object impedance. For the fault at the home busbar this fault current is IfA.3. is included in the IED. ~ ZA I fB A ZL B ZB ~ IED Fault IEC09000022-1-en. The basic requirement is to assure selectivity. For a fault at the remote line end this fault current is IfB. that is EFPIOC shall not be allowed to operate for faults at other objects than the protected object (line).3. an instantaneous earth-fault protection can provide fast and selective tripping.1 Application In many applications. In this calculation the operational state with high source impedance ZA and low source impedance ZB should be used.7. For a normal line in a meshed system single phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phaseto-earth faults shall be calculated as shown in figure 188 and figure 189. The residual currents (3I0) to the protection are calculated. The Instantaneous residual overcurrent EFPIOC.

should be calculated.Im in EQUATION285 V2 EN (Equation 351) In case of parallel lines with zero sequence mutual coupling a fault on the parallel line. as shown in figure 190.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ~ ZA I fA A ZL B ZB ~ IED Fault IEC09000023-1-en. The minimum theoretical current setting (Imin) will be: Imin ³ MAX(I fA. IfA ) EQUATION284 V1 EN (Equation 350) A safety margin of 5% for the maximum static inaccuracy and a safety margin of 5% for maximum possible transient overreach have to be introduced. The minimum primary current setting (Is) is: Is ³ 1.3.vsd IEC09000023 V1 EN Figure 189: Through fault current from B to A: IfA The function shall not operate for any of the calculated currents to the protection. 386 Application manual . An additional 20% is suggested due to inaccuracy of instrument transformers under transient conditions and inaccuracy in the system data.

This current is used as reference for current setting. Influence from parallel line to the through fault current: IM The minimum theoretical current setting (Imin) will in this case be: I m in ³ M A X ( IfA. IN>>: Set operate current in % of IBase. the minimum setting (Is) is: Is ³ 1. The setting of the protection is set as a percentage of the base current (IBase).vsd IEC09000025 V1 EN Figure 190: Two parallel lines. I fB. StValMult: The operate current can be changed by activation of the binary input ENMULT to the set factor StValMult. 387 Application manual . If possible to find a suitable value the rated current of the protected object is chosen.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Line 1 C A ~ B ZL1 ZA ZB M Fault ~ ZL2 IM IED Line 2 IEC09000025-1-en. Considering the safety margins mentioned previously.Im in EQUATION288 V2 EN (Equation 353) Transformer inrush current shall be considered. Operation: set the protection to On or Off. I M ) EQUATION287 V1 EN (Equation 352) Where: IfA and IfB have been described for the single line case. IBase: Base current in primary A.3.

2 device number 51N/67N alt TEF-REVA V1 EN 3. In order to achieve both selectivity and fast fault clearance.0 Unit - Step 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. The flexibility of each step of EF4PTOC is great.5. Some applications are: In many applications several steps with different current operating levels and time delays are needed. the directional function can be necessary. The directional function uses the polarizing quantity as decided by setting.3. negative sequence direction EF4PTOC Function description Four step residual overcurrent protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification EF4PTOC IN 4 4 ANSI/IEEE C37.4.7. but alternatively current polarizing where currents in transformer neutrals providing the neutral (zero sequence) source (ZN) is used to polarize (IN · ZN) the function. Voltage polarizing (-3U0 is most commonly used. The following options are possible: Non-directional/Directional function: In some applications the non-directional functionality is used. which enables fast clearance of earth faults on transmission lines.7. EF4PTOC can have up to four.0 Description Multiplier for operate current level Four step residual overcurrent protection. The directional residual overcurrent protection is also well suited to operate in teleprotection communication schemes. zero. 388 Application manual . This can be the case for earthfault protection in meshed and effectively earthed transmission systems.2500 %IB 1 200 Operate residual current level in % of IBase Table 93: Name StValMult 3.99999 A 1 3000 Base current IN>> 1 .5 .1 Application The four step residual overcurrent protection EF4PTOC is used in several applications in the power system.4 EFPIOC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) 0.7.1 Default 1. individual settable steps.3 Table 92: Name Setting parameters EFPIOC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IBase 1 . This is mostly the case when no fault current can be fed from the protected object itself.

389 Application manual . In some cases some sort of delayed reset is required. This multiplication factor is activated from a binary input signal ENMULTx to the function. The selectivity between different overcurrent protections is normally enabled by co-ordination between the operate time of the different protections. should have the same time characteristic. Therefore different kinds of reset characteristics can be used.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Dual polarizing where the sum of both voltage and current components is allowed to polarize can also be selected. Therefore there is a possibility to give a setting of a multiplication factor INxMult to the residual current pick-up level. Table 94: Time characteristics Curve name ANSI Extremely Inverse ANSI Very Inverse ANSI Normal Inverse ANSI Moderately Inverse ANSI/IEEE Definite time ANSI Long Time Extremely Inverse ANSI Long Time Very Inverse ANSI Long Time Inverse IEC Normal Inverse IEC Very Inverse IEC Inverse IEC Extremely Inverse IEC Short Time Inverse IEC Long Time Inverse IEC Definite Time User Programmable ASEA RI RXIDG (logarithmic) It is also possible to tailor make the inverse time characteristic. Therefore a wide range of standardized inverse time characteristics are available: IEC and ANSI. Choice of time characteristics: There are several types of time characteristics available such as definite time delay and different types of inverse time characteristics. For some protection applications there can be a need to change the current operating level for some time. to be coordinated against each other. Normally it is required that EF4PTOC shall reset as fast as possible when the current level gets lower than the operation level. To enable optimal co-ordination all overcurrent protections.

390 Application manual . 2.4.7. Inverse time characteristic enables fast fault clearance of high current faults at the same time as selectivity to other inverse time phase overcurrent protections can be assured. the operate time of the stage will be the sum of the inverse time delay and the set definite time delay. EF4PTOC has a possibility of second harmonic restrain 2ndHarmStab if the level of this harmonic current reaches a value above a set percentage of the fundamental current. This current is used as reference for current setting. The residual voltage is used as reference voltage for the directional function. 3. IBase: Base current in primary A. when being energized.2 Setting guidelines When inverse time overcurrent characteristic is selected. Settings for each step (x = 1. zero or negative sequence direction EF4PTOC are set via the local HMI or PCM600. It can be suitable to set this parameter to the rated primary current of the current transformer where the current measurement is made. This can be used to avoid unwanted operation of the protection. This is mainly used in radial fed networks but can also be used in meshed networks. Possible settings are Off/Nondirectional/Forward/Reverse. if only the inverse time delay is required. The phenomenon is due to saturation of the transformer magnetic core during parts of the cycle. Characteristx: Selection of time characteristic for step x. This inrush current can have residual current components. Therefore. This voltage is given as a phase-to-phase voltage and this is the reference for voltage related settings of the function. Normally the setting should be chosen to the rated phase-to-phase voltage of the voltage transformer feeding the protection IED. The parameters for the four step residual overcurrent protection. UBase: Base voltage level in kV. it is of utmost importance to set the definite time delay for that stage to zero. Operation: Sets the protection to On or Off.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Power transformers can have a large inrush current. The following settings can be done for the four step residual overcurrent protection. In meshed networks the settings must be based on network fault calculations. Thus. There is a risk that inrush current will give a residual current that reaches level above the operating current of the residual overcurrent protection. Definite time delay and different types of inverse time characteristics are available. 3 and 4) DirModex: The directional mode of step x. The inrush current has a large second harmonic content.

The following time delays can be estimated: Protection operate time: 15-60 ms Protection resetting time: 15-60 ms Breaker opening time: 20-120 ms The different characteristics are described in the technical reference manual. there have to be a minimum time difference Dt between the time delays of two protections.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C To assure selectivity between different protections. the operation time of protections. If a binary input signal (ENMULTx) is activated the current operation level is increased by this setting constant. IMinx: Minimum operate current for step x in % of IBase. breaker opening time and protection resetting time must be known. At high currents the inverse time characteristic might give a very short operation time. These time delays can vary significantly between different protective equipment. 391 Application manual . To determine the shortest possible time difference. The minimum time difference can be determined for different cases. in the radial network. INxMult: Multiplier for scaling of the current setting value. Set IMinx below Ix> for every step to achieve ANSI reset characteristic according to standard. INx>: Operate residual current level for step x given in % of IBase. If IMinx is set above Ix> for any step the ANSI reset works as if current is zero when current drops below IMinx. txMin: Minimum operating time for inverse time characteristics. kx: Time multiplier for the dependent (inverse) characteristic for step x. By setting this parameter the operation time of the step can never be shorter than the setting.

392 Application manual .vsd IEC10000058 V1 EN Figure 191: Minimum operate current and operate time for inverse time characteristics In order to fully comply with curves definition the setting parameter txMin shall be set to the value which is equal to the operate time of the selected IEC inverse curve for measured current of twenty times the set current pickup value. tPCrvx. tCCrvx: Parameters for user programmable of inverse time characteristic curve.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Operate time IMinx txMin Current IEC10000058-1-en. The time characteristic equation is according to equation 354: æ ö ç ÷ A ÷×k t[ s ] = ç + B ç æ i öp ÷ ÷ -C çç ÷ è è in > ø ø EQUATION1189 V1 EN (Equation 354) Further description can be found in the technical reference manual. Note that the operate time value is dependent on the selected setting value for time multiplier kx. ResetTypeCrvx: The reset of the delay timer can be made in different ways. tBCrvx. tACrvx. The possibilities are described in the technical reference manual.

In such cases the polarizing voltage (3U0) can be below 1% and it is then 393 Application manual . Dual (dual polarizing. The angle is defined positive when the residual current lags the reference voltage (Upol = 3U0 or U2) RCA Upol = 3U0 or U2 Operation I>Dir en 05000135-4-nsi. This angle is defined as shown in figure 192.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C tPRCrvx. Common settings for all steps tx: Definite time delay for step x. tCRCrvx: Parameters for user programmable of inverse reset time characteristic curve. AngleRCA: Relay characteristic angle given in degree. Further description can be found in the technical reference manual. tTRCrvx. Current polarizing is useful when the local source is strong and a high sensitivity is required. or both currents and voltage. (3U0 + 3I0 · ZNpol) or (U2 + I2 · ZNpol)). Used if definite time characteristic is chosen. Normally voltage polarizing from the internally calculated residual sum or an external open delta is used.vsd IEC05000135 V4 EN Figure 192: Relay characteristic angle given in degree In a normal transmission network a normal value of RCA is about 65°. The setting range is -180° to +180°. polMethod: Defines if the directional polarization is from • • • Voltage (3U0 or U2) Current (3I0 · ZNpol or 3I2 ·ZNpol where ZNpol is RNpol + jXNpol).

and the parallel transformer is switched in. At current transformer saturation a false residual current can be measured by the protection. given in % of UBase/√3. set for the directional measurement. The maximum earth-fault current at the local source can be used to calculate the value of ZN as U/(√3 · 3I0) Typically. If so. The output signals. IPolMin: is the minimum earth-fault current accepted for directional evaluation. The polarizing voltage is then achieved as 3I0 · ZNpol. the minimum ZNPol (3 · zero sequence source) is set.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C necessary to use current polarizing or dual polarizing. The ZNpol can be defined as (ZS1-ZS0)/3. RNPol. there is a risk for incorrect operation for faults in the reverse direction. When the dual polarizing method is used it is important that the settingINx>or the product 3I0 · ZNpol is not greater than 3U0. Setting is in primary ohms. I>Dir: Operate residual current release level in % of IBase for directional comparison scheme. Multiply the required set current (primary) with the minimum impedance (ZNpol) and check that the percentage of the phase-to-earth voltage is definitely higher than 1% (minimum 3U0>UPolMin setting) as a verification. that is the earth return impedance of the source behind the protection. resulting in a transformer inrush current. the 394 Application manual . The appropriate signal should be configured to the communication scheme block. Parallel transformer inrush current logic In case of parallel transformers there is a risk of sympathetic inrush current. For smaller currents than this value the operation will be blocked. STFW and STRV can be used in a teleprotection scheme. XNPol: The zero-sequence source is set in primary ohms as base for the current polarizing. If one of the transformers is in operation. Typical setting is 5-10% of IBase. Also here the 2nd harmonic restrain can prevent unwanted operation. HarmRestrainx: Enable block of step x from the harmonic restrain function. The setting is given in % of IBase and must be set below the lowest INx> setting. This will give a declining residual current in the network. The inrush current has a relatively large ratio of 2nd harmonic component. as the inrush current is deviating between the phases. UPolMin: Minimum polarization (reference) residual voltage for the directional function. There is a risk that the residual overcurrent function will give an unwanted trip. 2nd harmonic restrain If a power transformer is energized there is a risk that the current transformer core will saturate during part of the period. This component can be used to create a restrain signal to prevent this unwanted function. 2ndHarmStab: The rate of 2nd harmonic current content for activation of the 2nd harmonic restrain signal. The setting is given in % of the fundamental frequency residual current.

Assume that step 4 is chosen to be the most sensitive step of the four step residual overcurrent protection function EF4PTOC. The summation of the two currents will thus give a small 2nd harmonic current. This is called transferred saturation. Therefore we will have high 2nd harmonic current initially. either the close command or the open/close position (change of position). After a short period this current will however be small and the normal 2nd harmonic blocking will reset.vsd IEC05000136 V1 EN Figure 193: Application for parallel transformer inrush current logic If the BlkParTransf function is activated the 2nd harmonic restrain signal will latch as long as the residual current measured by the relay is larger than a selected step current level. will be a little delayed compared to the first transformer. the parallel transformer logic. SOTF and Under Time are similar functions to achieve fast clearance at asymmetrical closing based on requirements from different utilities. The residual fundamental current will however be significant.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C asymmetric inrush current of the switched in transformer will cause partial saturation of the transformer already in service. Normally the step having the lowest operation current level should be set. The 2nd harmonic of the inrush currents of the two transformers will be in phase opposition. The inrush current of the transformer in service before the parallel transformer energizing. if the fault current is too small to give fast operation of the protection. Switch onto fault logic In case of energizing a faulty object there is a risk of having a long fault clearance time. The harmonic restrain blocking is enabled for this step. BlkParTransf: This parameter can be set Off/On. The switch on to fault function can be activated from auxiliary signals from the circuit breaker. IN> IN> Power System en05000136. 395 Application manual . Below the settings for the parallel transformer logic are described. This logic can be used to issue fast trip if one breaker pole does not close properly at a manual or automatic closing. UseStartValue: Gives which current level that should be used for activation of the blocking signal. Also the same current setting as this step is chosen for the blocking at parallel transformer energizing. This is given as one of the settings of the steps: Step 1/2/3/4.

is highly dependent of the total positive and zero-sequence source impedances as well as the residual current distribution between the network zero-sequence impedance and the transformer zero-sequence impedance. which has 2nd harmonic restrain blocking. The default setting is 0.000 s. will give operation from step 4. The setting range is 0. SOTF operation mode: This parameter can be set: Off/SOTF/Under Time/SOTF +Under Time.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The function is divided into two parts.000 s in step of 0.000 . The SOTF function has a set time delay.300 s Transformer application example Two main cases are of interest when residual overcurrent protection is used for a power transformer. The function can be activated by Circuit breaker position (change) or Circuit breaker command. The SOTF function will give operation from step 2 or 3 during a set time after change in the position of the circuit breaker. The Under Time function. CB position open/CB position closed/CB close command. 396 Application manual .60. The setting range is 0. If set off step 2 start signal will be used as current set level. Below the settings for switch on to fault logics are described.001 s. ActivationSOTF: This setting will select the signal to activate SOTF function. The default setting is 0.001 s.000 s in step of 0.000 .000 s in step of 0.000 60. The Under Time function has a set time delay.60. t4U: Time interval when the SOTF function is active after breaker closing. The default setting is 1. An example of this application is shown in figure 194. The 2nd harmonic restrain will prevent unwanted function in case of transformer inrush current.100 s StepForSOTF: If this parameter is set on the step 3 start signal will be used as current set level. The residual current fed from the transformer at external phase-to-earth faults. ActUnderTime: Describes the mode to activate the sensitive undertime function. namely if residual current can be fed from the protected transformer winding or not.001 s. tSOTF: Time delay for operation of the SOTF function. The setting range is 0. tUnderTime: Time delay for operation of the sensitive undertime function. The protected winding will feed earth-fault (residual) current to earth faults in the connected power system.

vsd IEC05000490 V1 EN Figure 194: Residual overcurrent protection application on a directly earthed transformer winding In this case the protection has two different tasks: • • Detection of earth faults on the transformer winding. faults close to the transformer winding neutral point. the 2nd harmonic restrain blocking should be used. To prevent unwanted function of the earth-fault overcurrent protection. If the current setting gap between step 1 and step 2 is large another step can be introduced with a current and time delay setting between the two described steps. It can be suitable to use a residual overcurrent protection with at least two steps. that is. Step 2 shall detect and clear transformer winding earth faults with low earth-fault current. Step 1 shall have a short definite time delay and a relatively high current setting. to which the protected winding is connected. to which the protection is connected. If the protected winding will not feed earth-fault (residual) current to earth faults in the connected power system the application is as shown in figure 195. The transformer inrush current will have a large residual current component.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C YN/D or YN/Y transformer Three phase CT summated alt IN> Single CT en05000490. Detection of earth faults in the power system. in order to detect and clear high current earth faults in the transformer winding or in the power system close to the transformer. at least for the sensitive step 2. 397 Application manual . Step 2 shall have a longer time delay (definite or inverse time delay) and a lower current operation level.

398 Application manual . at different earth faults. Therefore a fault calculation as shown in figure 196 is made.vsd IEC05000491 V1 EN Figure 195: Residual overcurrent protection application on an isolated transformer winding In the calculation of the fault current fed to the protection. shall be detected. as well as the division of residual current in the network. Earth-fault current calculations are necessary for the setting.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Y/Y. Y/D or D/Y transformer Three phase CT summated IN> en05000491. are highly dependent on the positive and zero sequence source impedances. where the transformer winding is connected. Setting of step 1 One requirement is that earth faults at the busbar.

Therefore. tripped after a delay (typically distance protection zone 2) of about 0. a fault calculation as shown in figure 197 is made.vsd IEC05000493 V2 EN Figure 197: Step 1 fault calculation 1 399 Application manual . selectivity to other earth-fault protections in the network a short delay is selected.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Three phase CT summated YN/D or YN/Y transformer 3I0 alt Single CT IN> Single phase-toearth fault IEC05000492-en-2.4 s is appropriate. To assure selectivity to line faults. a delay in the range 0. YN/D or YN/Y transformer Three phase CT summated 3I0 alt IN> Single phase-toearth fault Single CT IEC05000493-en-2. Normally.3 – 0. To assure that step 1.5 s the current setting must be set so high so that such faults does not cause unwanted step 1 trip.vsd IEC05000492 V2 EN Figure 196: Step 1 fault calculation 1 This calculation gives the current fed to the protection: 3I0fault1.

50 .05 .1000.2).00 Real part of source Z to be used for current polarisation XNPol 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The fault is located at the borderline between instantaneous and delayed operation of the line protection.01 5. one must consider zero-sequence currents that can occur during normal operation of the power system.3000.180 Deg 1 65 Relay characteristic angle (RCA) polMethod Voltage Current Dual - - Voltage Type of polarization UPolMin 1 .00 ohm 0.50 .00 ohm 0. 3I 0fault 2 × lowmar < I step1 < 3I 0fault1 × highmar (Equation 355) EQUATION1455 V2 EN Where: lowmar is a margin to assure selectivity (typical 1.99999 A 1 3000 Base value for current settings UBase 0. This calculation gives the current fed to the protection: 3I0fault2 The setting of step 1 can be chosen within the interval shown in equation 355.2) and highmar is a margin to assure fast fault clearance of busbar fault (typical 1. such as Distance protection or line residual overcurrent protection.4. values down to the minimum setting possibilities can be chosen.05 400 Base value for voltage settings AngleRCA -180 . As it is required to detect earth faults in the transformer winding.00 kV 0. 3.3 Setting parameters Table 95: EF4PTOC Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IBase 1 .7. Such currents can be due to un-transposed lines. Setting of step 2 The setting of the sensitive step 2 is dependent of the chosen time delay. However.00 Imaginary part of source Z to be used for current polarisation Table continues on next page 400 Application manual . In case to protection of transformer windings not feeding residual current at external earth faults a fast lowcurrent step can be acceptable.01 40.100 %IB 1 5 Minimum current level for polarization in % of IBase RNPol 0.2000.100 %UB 1 1 Minimum voltage level for polarization in % of UBase IPolMin 2 . Often a relatively long definite time delay or inverse time delay is chosen. The current setting can be chosen very low. close to the neutral point.

2.E.300 Time delay for under time DirMode1 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 1 (off. IEC S.000 s 0. L. IEC Very inv. inv. ANSI Norm. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def. IEC Ext. nodir. inv.001 0.000 Independent (defenite) time delay of step 1 Table continues on next page 401 Application manual .100 %IB 1 10 Residual current level for Direction release in % of IBase 2ndHarmStab 5 . IEC Norm.001 0. IEC Def. forward.001 1.T. inv.T.000 .60. inv.V.T. inv.000 s 0.000 Switch-onto-fault active time ActUnderTime CB position CB command - - CB position Select signal to activate under time (CB Pos/CBCommand) tUnderTime 0. inv. reverse) Characterist1 ANSI Ext. inv.000 s 0.60.T. ANSI Def.2500 %IB 1 100 Operate residual current level for step 1 in % of IBase t1 0. ANSI Mod.100 % 1 20 Second harmonic restrain operation in % of IN amplitude BlkParTransf Off On - - Off Enable blocking at parallel transformers UseStartValue IN1> IN2> IN3> IN4> - - IN4> Current level blk at parallel transf (step1.60.000 .60.200 Time delay for SOTF t4U 0. Time L. inv. IEC inv.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IN>Dir 1 . inv. inv. L.T.000 s 0.001 0.000 .000 . ANSI Very inv. Time Time delay curve type for step 1 IN1> 1 . IEC L. 3 or 4) SOTF Off SOTF UnderTime SOTF&UnderTime - - Off SOTF operation mode (Off/SOTF/ Undertime/SOTF&Undertime) ActivationSOTF Open Closed CloseCommand - - Open Select signal that shall activate SOTF StepForSOTF Step 2 Step 3 - - Step 2 Selection of step used for SOTF HarmResSOTF Off On - - Off Enable harmonic restrain function in SOTF tSOTF 0.

60.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 tPRCrv1 0. inv.00 .005 .1 2.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 1 DirMode2 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 2 (off.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 1 tCRCrv1 0. nodir.000 - 0.001 13. Time L.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 1 tTRCrv1 0.2500 %IB 1 50 Operate residual current level for step 2 in % of IBase Table continues on next page 402 Application manual .T. IEC L.01 0.1 .V.001 13. ANSI Mod. IEC Very inv.1 1.000 - 0.000 - 0.0 - 0.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 1 ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 1 tReset1 0.T.001 0.999. IEC Norm.60.00 Unit - 0. ANSI Very inv.10. ANSI Def.T.00 - 0. inv.3.0 - 0.000 s 0.T. IEC S. reverse) Characterist2 ANSI Ext. IEC inv.005 . L.01 0.005 .000 - 0.10.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 IN1Mult 1.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Step Default k1 Values (Range) 0.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 tBCrv1 0.200.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 tACrv1 0.001 0.10000.0 - 0.005 . ANSI Norm. inv.00 %IB 1.20.10.1 1. inv.3.05 Description Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 1 IMin1 1. inv.100.00 100.000 s 0. inv. IEC Def. inv. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def. inv.001 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 tCCrv1 0.000 .E.T.00 . Time Time delay curve type for step 2 IN2> 1 .001 1.020 Reset time delay for step 1 HarmRestrain1 Off On - - On Enable block of step 1 from harmonic restrain tPCrv1 0. forward.0 .000 . IEC Ext. L. inv.1 .00 Minimum current for step 1 t1Min 0. inv.05 .

IEC inv. IEC Very inv.001 13.00 50 Minimum current for step 2 t2Min 0. inv.00 - 0.1 2.000 - 0. nodir.1 1.000 - 0.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 2 IMin2 1.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 tBCrv2 0.000 s 0.020 Reset time delay for step 2 HarmRestrain2 Off On - - On Enable block of step 2 from harmonic restrain tPCrv2 0.T.V.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 2 ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 2 tReset2 0.2500 %IB 1 33 Operate residual current level for step 3 in % of IBase Table continues on next page 403 Application manual . inv.3.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 tCCrv2 0.05 .60.200.000 .T.00 %IB 1.000 .400 Description Independent (definitive) time delay of step 2 k2 0. L.3.60.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit t2 0. inv.000 s Step 0.10.10. ANSI Norm.0 .001 0. inv.01 0.001 1. IEC S.T.0 - 0. reverse) Characterist3 ANSI Ext.005 . forward.0 - 0.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 tACrv2 0. ANSI Def.01 0. ANSI Mod.000 - 0. IEC Norm. ANSI Very inv.60.999. IEC Def.10.005 .000 .001 0.00 .001 13.000 s 0. inv.1 . inv. IEC Ext. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 2 tTRCrv2 0. inv.000 - 0.10000.1 .00 .005 . Time L.1 1.0 - 0.001 Default 0.001 0. inv.100.00 - 0. Time Time delay curve type for step 3 IN3> 1 .0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 tPRCrv2 0. IEC L.20.T.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 2 DirMode3 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 3 (off.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 2 tCRCrv2 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves step 2 IN2Mult 1. inv.005 .

IEC Def.00 . ANSI Very inv.0 - 0.01 0.10. inv.1 2.999.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve step 3 tCRCrv3 0.000 - 0. inv.00 - 0.1 1. forward.000 s 0.001 0.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 3 tACrv3 0. ANSI Mod.001 0. inv.T. IEC Ext.0 - 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 3 IN3Mult 1.00 .1 1.001 1.3. inv.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit t3 0. inv.T.05 . IEC S. inv. nodir.0 .200.005 .0 - 0. inv.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 3 tCCrv3 0.001 13.001 0.10000.01 0.000 - 0.60.000 - 0.1 .T.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 3 IMin3 1.00 - 0.T. IEC L.000 s 0.E.800 Description Independent time delay of step 3 k3 0. ANSI Norm.020 Reset time delay for step 3 HarmRestrain3 Off On - - On Enable block of step 3 from harmonic restrain tPCrv3 0. Time Time delay curve type for step 4 IN4> 1 . L.2500 %IB 1 17 Operate residual current level for step 4 in % of IBase Table continues on next page 404 Application manual . ANSI Def. IEC Norm.100. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve step 3 tPRCrv3 0.60.20. L.005 .00 33 Minimum current for step 3 t3Min 0.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 3 DirMode4 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 4 (off.000 - 0. inv.000 .1 .10.000 s Step 0.001 Default 0.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 3 ResetTypeCrv3 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 3 tReset3 0.000 . Time L.00 %IB 1. reverse) Characterist4 ANSI Ext.005 .3.001 13. IEC inv.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve step 3 tTRCrv3 0.005 .500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 3 tBCrv3 0. inv.10. IEC Very inv. inv.T.000 .60.V.

100.10.5.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 4 tACrv4 0.1 1.01 0.000 s 0.00 17 Minimum current for step 4 t4Min 0.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 4 IMin4 1.1 .200.00 - 0.00 - 0.000 Minimum operate time in inverse curves step 4 IN4Mult 1.60.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve step 4 tCRCrv4 0.3.000 - 0.005 .200 Independent (definitive) time delay of step 4 k4 0.000 s 0.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 4 ResetTypeCrv4 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 4 tReset4 0.020 Reset time delay for step 4 HarmRestrain4 Off On - - On Enable block of step 4 from harmonic restrain tPCrv4 0.00 .10000.0 - 0.000 - 0.0 - 0.1 Application Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC is used in several applications in the power system.999.00 .001 13.3.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve step 4 3.60.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve step 4 tBCrv4 0.20.000 .0 .10.001 0.005 .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit t4 0.001 1.1 1.001 0.7.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve step 4 tTRCrv4 0.000 .000 s 0. Some applications are: 405 Application manual .00 %IB 1.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve step 4 tPRCrv4 0.60.7.001 1.05 .5 Step Default Description Four step directional negative phase sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC Function description Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.01 0.000 - 0.1 .005 .1 2.10.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 4 tCCrv4 0.005 .001 0.2 device number NS4PTOC I2 46I2 4 4 alt IEC10000053 V1 EN 3.0 - 0.000 .001 13.000 - 0.

Therefore a wide range of standardized inverse time characteristics are available: IEC and ANSI. NS4PTOC can have better sensitivity to detect resistive phase-to-earth-faults compared to distance protection.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • • • Earth-fault and phase-phase short circuit protection of feeders in effectively earthed distribution and subtransmission systems. In many applications several steps with different current operating levels and time delays are needed. Voltage polarizing is most commonly used but alternatively dual polarizing. the directional function can be necessary. Back-up earth-fault and phase-phase short circuit protection of power transformers. Table 96: Inverse time characteristics Curve name ANSI Extremely Inverse ANSI Very Inverse ANSI Normal Inverse ANSI Moderately Inverse ANSI/IEEE Definite time Table continues on next page 406 Application manual . This can be the case for unsymmetrical fault protection in meshed and effectively earthed transmission systems. The flexibility of each step of NS4PTOC function is great. should have the same time characteristic. which enables fast clearance of unsymmetrical faults on transmission lines. To enable optimal co-ordination all overcurrent relays. where the sum of both voltage and current components is allowed to polarize. individual settable steps. to be coordinated against each other. NS4PTOC can have up to four. The directional function uses the polarizing quantity as decided by setting. can also be selected. Sensitive earth-fault protection of transmission lines. Choice of time characteristics: There are several types of time characteristics available such as definite time delay and different types of inverse time characteristics. The following options are possible: Non-directional/Directional function: In some applications the non-directional functionality is used. Normally these feeders have radial structure. Back-up earth-fault and phase-phase short circuit protection of transmission lines. This is mostly the case when no fault current can be fed from the protected object itself. The selectivity between different overcurrent protections is normally enabled by co-ordination between the operating time of the different protections. Earth-fault and phase-phase short circuit protection of different kinds of equipment connected to the power system such as shunt capacitor banks. shunt reactors and others. The directional negative sequence overcurrent protection is also well suited to operate in teleprotection communication schemes. In order to achieve both selectivity and fast fault clearance.

This current is used as reference for current setting. IBase: Base current in primary A. The following settings can be done for the four step negative sequence overcurrent protection: Operation: Sets the protection to On or Off. 3.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Curve name ANSI Long Time Extremely Inverse ANSI Long Time Very Inverse ANSI Long Time Inverse IEC Normal Inverse IEC Very Inverse IEC Inverse IEC Extremely Inverse IEC Short Time Inverse IEC Long Time Inverse IEC Definite Time User Programmable ASEA RI RXIDG (logarithmic) There is also a user programmable inverse time characteristic. Therefore different kinds of reset characteristics can be used. This multiplication factor is activated from a binary input signal ENMULTx to the function.2 Setting guidelines The parameters for Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC are set via the local HMI or Protection and Control Manager (PCM600). This voltage is internally divided by √3. UBase: Base voltage level in kV. In some cases some sort of delayed reset is required.7. For some protection applications there can be a need to change the current operating level for some time. Normally it is required that the negative sequence overcurrent function shall reset as fast as possible when the current level gets lower than the operation level. 407 Application manual .5. This voltage is given as a phase-to-phase voltage and this is the reference for voltage related settings of the function. It can be suitable to set this parameter to the rated primary current of the protected object where the current measurement is made. Therefore there is a possibility to give a setting of a multiplication factor IxMult to the negative sequence current pick-up level.

if only the inverse time delay is required. Characteristx: Selection of time characteristic for step x. it is of utmost importance to set the definite time delay for that stage to zero. Thus. 2. Possible settings are off/nondirectional/ forward/reverse. Table 97: Inverse time characteristics Curve name ANSI Extremely Inverse ANSI Very Inverse ANSI Normal Inverse ANSI Moderately Inverse ANSI/IEEE Definite time ANSI Long Time Extremely Inverse ANSI Long Time Very Inverse ANSI Long Time Inverse IEC Normal Inverse IEC Very Inverse IEC Inverse IEC Extremely Inverse IEC Short Time Inverse IEC Long Time Inverse IEC Definite Time User Programmable ASEA RI RXIDG (logarithmic) The different characteristics are described in the Technical Reference Manual (TRM). 3 and 4. Ix>: Operation negative sequence current level for step x given in % of IBase. the operate time of the stage will be the sum of the inverse time delay and the set definite time delay. DirModeSelx: The directional mode of step x. Definite time delay and different types of inverse time characteristics are available. 408 Application manual . Settings for each step x means step 1.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C When inverse time overcurrent characteristic is selected.

For the independent time delay characteristics the possible delay time settings are instantaneous (1) and IEC (2 = set constant time reset). ResetTypeCrvx: The reset of the delay timer can be made in different ways. For ANSI inverse time delay characteristics all three types of reset time characteristics are available. The time characteristic equation is according to equation 354: 409 Application manual . If the current dependent type is used settings pr. tCCrvx: Parameters for programmable inverse time characteristic curve (Curve type = 17).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C tx: Definite time delay for step x. For the programmable inverse time delay characteristics all three types of reset time characteristics are available. tACrvx. IEC (2 = set constant time reset) and ANSI (3 = current dependent reset time). IMinx: Minimum operate current for step x in % of IBase. If a binary input signal (ENMULTx) is activated the current operation level is multiplied by this setting constant. By setting this parameter the operation time of the step can never be shorter than the setting. instantaneous (1). kx: Time multiplier for the dependent (inverse) characteristic. IxMult: Multiplier for scaling of the current setting value. At high currents the inverse time characteristic might give a very short operation time. If IMinx is set above Ix> for any step the ANSI reset works as if current is zero when current drops below IMinx. txMin: Minimum operation time for inverse time characteristics. instantaneous (1). tPCrvx. tBCrvx. tr and cr must be given. Set IMinx below Ix> for every step to achieve ANSI reset characteristic according to standard. IEC (2 = set constant time reset) and ANSI (3 = current dependent reset time). Used if definite time characteristic is chosen. By choosing setting there are the following possibilities: Curve name Instantaneous IEC Reset (constant time) ANSI Reset (inverse time) The different reset characteristics are described in the Technical Reference Manual (TRM). There are some restrictions regarding the choice of reset delay. For IEC inverse time delay characteristics the possible delay time settings are instantaneous (1) and IEC (2 = set constant time reset).

This angle is defined as shown in figure 192. AngleRCA: Relay characteristic angle given in degrees. 2. tCRCrvx: Parameters for programmable inverse reset time characteristic curve. 3 and 4. tPRCrvx. Common settings for all steps x means step 1.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C æ ö ç ÷ A ÷×k t[ s ] = ç + B ç æ i öp ÷ ÷ -C çç ÷ è è in > ø ø (Equation 356) EQUATION1189 V1 EN Further description can be found in the Technical reference manual (TRM). The angle is defined positive when the residual current lags the reference voltage (Upol = -U2) 410 Application manual . tTRCrvx. Further description can be found in the Technical reference manual (TRM).

00 kV 0.vsd IEC10000031 V1 EN Figure 198: Relay characteristic angle given in degree In a transmission network a normal value of RCA is about 80°. I>Dir: Operate residual current level for directional comparison scheme.180 Deg 1 65 Relay characteristic angle (RCA) Table continues on next page 411 Application manual .05 . UPolMin: Minimum polarization (reference) voltage % of UBase. The start forward or start reverse signals can be used in a communication scheme.99999 A 1 3000 Base value for current settings UBase 0.2000.5. The appropriate signal must be configured to the communication scheme block.05 400 Base value for voltage settings AngleRCA -180 .7.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Reverse Area Upol=-U2 AngleRCA Forward Area Iop = I2 IEC10000031-1-en.3 Setting parameters Table 98: NS4PTOC Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IBase 1 . The setting is given in % of IBase. 3.

seq.00 ohm 0. inv.1000. L.00 .100 %UB 1 5 Minimum voltage level for polarization in % of UBase IPolMin 2 .60.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 1 IMin1 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 Table continues on next page 412 Application manual .0 . IEC Very inv.00 %IB 1. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.005 .000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 I1Mult 1.00 100.01 40.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 1 ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 1 tReset1 0. nodir. IEC Def. source imp.3.E. seq.000 s 0.T.00 Minimum current for step 1 t1Min 0.01 0. inv. I2 level for step 1 in % of IBase t1 0.000 Independent (defenite) time delay of step 1 k1 0.100 %IB 1 5 Minimum current level for polarization in % of IBase RPol 0. inv. ANSI Norm. inv. inv. L.100 %IB 1 10 Neg. inv.10. IEC L.3000. forward.V. Time L.T.01 5. seq.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description polMethod Voltage Dual - - Voltage Type of polarization UPolMin 1 . reverse) Characterist1 ANSI Ext.000 .000 . seq.60. curr.00 Real part of neg. curr.020 Reset time delay for step 1 tPCrv1 0. to be used for current polarisation XPol 0. inv. I2 level for Direction release in % of IBase DirMode1 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 1 (off. IEC inv. inv.001 0.10000.000 s 0.0 - 0. IEC Norm. IEC Ext.000 - 0. ANSI Def. ANSI Mod.T.60. IEC S.00 Imaginary part of neg. Time Time delay curve type for step 1 I1> 1 .00 - 0.2500 %IB 1 100 Operate neg.00 ohm 0. to be used for current polarisation I>Dir 1 .1 2.T. inv. source imp.001 0. ANSI Very inv.05 .000 .50 .T.50 .999.001 1.001 0.000 s 0. inv.

000 .005 .005 .05 .0 .T.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 Table continues on next page 413 Application manual .60.000 - 0. inv. forward.10. inv.1 2.020 Reset time delay for step 2 tPCrv2 0. L. I2 level for step 2 in % of IBase t2 0.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 tPRCrv1 0. reverse) Characterist2 ANSI Ext. inv.000 s 0.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 1 tTRCrv1 0.3.3.T. IEC L.000 - 0.60.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 tCCrv1 0.00 . IEC Norm.2500 %IB 1 50 Operate neg.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 2 IMin2 1.00 %IB 1. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.001 1.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 1 DirMode2 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 2 (off. inv. IEC inv.005 . nodir. inv. inv. inv.001 0.001 0. ANSI Very inv.000 .1 1.T. Time L. curr. IEC Def. ANSI Norm.V.000 s 0.001 0.0 - 0.000 - 0.100.001 13.01 0.00 - 0.00 - 0. inv.001 13.1 .0 - 0.200.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 2 ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 2 tReset2 0. inv.10000. seq.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 1 tCRCrv1 0.10.400 Independent (definitive) time delay of step 2 k2 0.000 . inv.000 - 0. Time Time delay curve type for step 2 I2> 1 . IEC Very inv.20.E. IEC Ext. ANSI Mod.01 0.005 .500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 tBCrv1 0.T. ANSI Def.001 0.1 .T.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description tACrv1 0.00 50 Minimum current for step 2 t2Min 0. IEC S.1 1.999.60.00 .000 s 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves step 2 I2Mult 1.0 - 0.10. L.

01 0. inv.01 0.000 - 0.0 - 0.800 Independent time delay of step 3 k3 0.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 2 tCRCrv2 0. inv.000 s 0.1 1. IEC L. curr.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 tBCrv2 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 tCCrv2 0. forward.001 13. IEC S.005 .000 .005 . Time Time delay curve type for step 3 I3> 1 .10.2500 %IB 1 33 Operate neg.999.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description tACrv2 0. ANSI Mod.005 .001 0.60.10. L.100.T.1 .005 .200.T.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 3 I3Mult 1. reverse) Characterist3 ANSI Ext.001 1. inv.000 .001 0.V.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 3 tACrv3 0.005 . Time L.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 2 tTRCrv2 0.000 s 0.020 Reset time delay for step 3 tPCrv3 0.0 - 0.T.20.001 13.0 . ANSI Def. nodir. IEC Ext.1 .1 2.0 - 0.00 - 0. ANSI Very inv.000 s 0.05 .10000.00 %IB 1. IEC Norm.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 3 IMin3 1.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 2 DirMode3 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 3 (off.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 3 ResetTypeCrv3 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 3 tReset3 0. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 3 Table continues on next page 414 Application manual . IEC Very inv. seq. inv.00 .60. inv. ANSI Norm. inv.000 - 0.00 .00 33 Minimum current for step 3 t3Min 0.60.200.3. IEC inv.001 0.000 - 0.3.000 .0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 tPRCrv2 0.00 - 0.001 13.10.T.001 0. inv. inv.000 - 0.1 1. inv. I2 level for step 3 in % of IBase t3 0.000 - 0.

0 - 0. inv.V. nodir. seq.2500 %IB 1 17 Operate neg. IEC Def. ANSI Very inv.000 s 0.005 .000 - 0.020 Reset time delay for step 4 tPCrv4 0.0 .01 0. inv.1 . ANSI Norm.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 3 DirMode4 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 4 (off. L.0 - 0.10. forward.000 - 0.T. inv. inv.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve step 3 tCRCrv3 0.60. IEC Very inv.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 4 tACrv4 0.00 - 0.001 1.005 .000 s 0.000 Minimum operate time in inverse curves step 4 I4Mult 1.1 1.00 Unit - 0.001 1.00 . IEC L.00 Description Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 3 tCCrv3 0.001 0. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.1 2. Time L.10000. IEC S.0 - 0.000 .000 - 0.999.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 4 ResetTypeCrv4 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 4 tReset4 0.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve step 3 tPRCrv3 0.T.001 0.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 4 IMin4 1. IEC inv.000 - 0. L. I2 level for step 4 in % of IBase t4 0. reverse) Characterist4 ANSI Ext.001 0. IEC Ext. inv. Time Time delay curve type for step 4 I4> 1 .01 0.20. ANSI Mod.00 17 Minimum current for step 4 t4Min 0.60.000 s 0.3.001 13.005 .T.100.05 .60.00 %IB 1. inv.001 13.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve step 4 Table continues on next page 415 Application manual .T.000 . ANSI Def. curr.10.E.1 1. IEC Norm.T. inv.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve step 3 tTRCrv3 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Step Default tBCrv3 Values (Range) 0. inv.1 .200 Independent (definitive) time delay of step 4 k4 0.005 .200.00 .10.3. inv. inv.000 .

416 Application manual .3. The protection uses the residual current component 3I0 · cos φ.00 - 0. the phase-to-earth fault current is significantly smaller than the short circuit currents.0 - 0.100.7.1 Description IEC 61850 identification SDEPSDE IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve step 4 tPRCrv4 0.005 . Directional residual power can also be used to detect and give selective trip of phaseto-earth faults in high impedance earthed networks. Directional residual current can be used to detect and give selective trip of phase-toearth faults in high impedance earthed networks.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve step 4 3.6.10.005 . compensated with a characteristic angle. where φ is the angle between the residual current and the reference residual voltage.1 . Alternatively. The protection uses the residual power component 3I0 · 3U0 · cos φ.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve step 4 tCRCrv4 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 4 tCCrv4 0. compensated with a characteristic angle.000 - 0. where φ is the angle between the residual current and the residual voltage (-3U0).1 .10. Another difficulty for earthfault protection is that the magnitude of the phase-to-earth fault current is almost independent of the fault location in the network.20.000 - 0.6 Values (Range) Unit Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection SDEPSDE Function description Sensitive directional residual over current and power protection 3.001 0.01 0.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Step Default tBCrv4 0.0 - 0.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve step 4 tTRCrv4 0.1 1. A back-up neutral point voltage function is also available for non-directional sensitive back-up protection.001 13.2 device number 67N Application In networks with high impedance earthing. A normal non-directional residual current function can also be used with definite or inverse time delay.00 .7.1 1. the function can be set to strict 3I0 level with a check of angle 3I0 and cos φ.

This sensitivity is in most cases sufficient in high impedance network applications. for example.25 % of IBase.6. or in systems with resistive earthing where the neutral point resistor gives an earth-fault current larger than what normal high impedance gives but smaller than the phase-to-phase short circuit current. As the amplitude of the residual current is independent of the fault location the selectivity of the earth-fault protection is achieved by time selectivity. that is. the neutral point voltage (zero sequence voltage) and the earth-fault current will be calculated at the desired sensitivity (fault resistance). In the setting of earth-fault protection. Such a resistor will give a resistive earth-fault current component of about 200 . The setting possibilities of this function are down to 0. in low impedance earthed system. The complex neutral point voltage (zero sequence) can be calculated as: 417 Application manual .2 Sensitive directional residual overcurrent protection gives possibility for better sensitivity. Setting guidelines The sensitive earth-fault protection is intended to be used in high impedance earthed systems. When should the sensitive directional residual overcurrent protection be used and when should the sensitive directional residual power protection be used? Consider the following facts: • • • 3. Sensitive directional residual power protection gives possibility to use inverse time characteristics. if the measuring CT ratio is not too high. in a high impedance earthed system. In resistance earthed networks or in Petersen coil earthed.7. In such a system the directional residual power protection gives better possibilities for selectivity enabled by inverse time power characteristics. the active residual current component (in phase with the residual voltage) should be used for the earth-fault detection.400 A at a zero resistive phase-toearth fault. In such networks the characteristic angle is chosen to 0º. the network is only coupled to earth via the capacitances between the phase conductors and earth. with large capacitive earth-fault current In some power systems a medium size neutral point resistor is used. with a parallel resistor.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C In an isolated network. In a high impedance system the fault current is assumed to be limited by the system zero sequence shunt impedance to earth and the fault resistance only. This is applicable in large high impedance earthed networks. the residual current always has -90º phase shift compared to the reference residual voltage. 1 A or 5 A. The characteristic angle is chosen to -90º in such a network. All the series impedances in the system are assumed to be zero.

can be calculated as: I j = 3I 0 = 3 × U phase Z0 + 3 × R f (Equation 358) EQUATION1944 V1 EN The impedance Z0 is dependent on the system earthing. In an isolated system (without neutral point apparatus) the impedance is equal to the capacitive coupling between the phase conductors and earth: Z 0 = .j 3 × U phase Ij (Equation 359) EQUATION1945 V1 EN Where Ij is the capacitive earth-fault current at a non-resistive phase to earth-fault Xc is the capacitive reactance to earth In a system with a neutral point resistor (resistance earthed system) the impedance Z0 can be calculated as: Z0 = .jX c × 3R n . in the fault point. Rf is the resistance to earth in the fault point and Z0 is the system zero sequence impedance to earth The fault current.jX c + 3R n EQUATION1946 V1 EN (Equation 360) Where Rn is the resistance of the neutral point resistor 418 Application manual .jX c = .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C U phase U0 = 1+ 3× Rf Z0 (Equation 357) EQUATION1943 V1 EN Where Uphase is the phase voltage in the fault point before the fault.

Source impedance Zsc (pos.0 (zero seq) Phase to earth fault en06000654.1 (pos. seq) ZT. seq) ZT.X c ) (Equation 361) EQUATION1947 V1 EN Where Xn is the reactance of the Petersen coil.0 (zero seq) RN U0A Substation A 3I0 ZlineAB. The system with a single phase to earth-fault can be described as in figure 199. In such a system the impedance Z0 can be calculated as: Z 0 = . If the Petersen coil is well tuned we have 3Xn = Xc In this case the impedance Z0 will be: Z0 = 3Rn Now consider a system with an earthing via a resistor giving higher earth-fault current than the high impedance earthing.vsd IEC06000654 V1 EN Figure 199: Equivalent of power system for calculation of setting The residual fault current can be written: 419 Application manual .1 (pos.1 (pos.0 (zero seq) U0B Substation B ZlineBC. seq) ZlineBC.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C In many systems there is also a neutral point reactor (Petersen coil) connected to one or more transformer neutral points. The series impedances in the system can no longer be neglected. seq) ZlineAB.jX c // 3R n // j3X n = 9R n X n X c 3X n X c + j3R n × ( 3X n .

1 Z0 is the total zero sequence impedance to the fault point. Z0 = ZT.1+ZlineAB.prot = 3U 0 B × 3I 0 × cos j B EQUATION1954 V1 EN (Equation 368) The angles φA and φB are the phase angles between the residual current and the residual voltage in the station compensated with the characteristic angle RCA.0 ) EQUATION1950 V1 EN (Equation 364) The residual power.0 + 3R N ) EQUATION1949 V1 EN (Equation 363) U OB = 3I 0 × (Z T .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3I 0 = 3U phase 2 × Z1 + Z 0 + 3 × R f EQUATION1948 V1 EN (Equation 362) Where Uphase is the phase voltage in the fault point before the fault Z1 is the total positive sequence impedance to the fault point. measured by the protection. The residual voltages in stations A and B can be written: U 0 A = 3I 0 × ( Z T .1+ZlineBC. 420 Application manual .0 + 3R N + Z lineAB. can be written: S0 A . The protection will have a maximum sensitivity in the characteristic angle RCA.0+3RN+ZlineAB.0+ZlineBC. measured by the sensitive earth-fault protections in A and B will be: S0 A = 3U 0 A × 3I 0 EQUATION1951 V1 EN (Equation 365) S0 B = 3U 0 B × 3I 0 EQUATION1952 V1 EN (Equation 366) The residual power is a complex quantity.prot = 3U 0 A × 3I 0 × cos j A EQUATION1953 V1 EN (Equation 367) S0 B.0 Rf is the fault resistance. Z1 = Zsc+ZT. The apparent residual power component in the characteristic angle.

The setting SBase gives the base voltage in kVA. The characteristic for RCADir is equal to 0° is shown in figure 200. RCADir = 0 . With OpMode set to 3I0cosfi the current component in the direction equal to the characteristic angleRCADir has the maximum sensitivity. ROADir = 0 3I0 ϕ = ang(3I0 ) − ang(3Uref ) 3I0 ⋅ cosϕ −3U0 = Uref IEC06000648-3-en. Normally the primary rated current of the CT feeding the protection should be chosen.vsd IEC06000648 V3 EN Figure 200: Characteristic for RCADir equal to 0° The characteristic is for RCADir equal to -90° is shown in figure 201. The inverse time delay is defined as: t inv = kSN × (3I0 × 3U 0 × cos j(reference)) 3I0 × 3U 0 × cos j(measured) (Equation 369) EQUATION1942 V2 EN The function can be set On/Off with the setting of Operation. The setting UBase gives the base voltage in kV. Normally the system phase to earth voltage is chosen.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The protection will use the power components in the characteristic angle direction for measurement. and as base for the inverse time delay. Normally IBase · UBase is chosen. With the setting OpMode the principle of directional function is chosen. The setting IBase gives the base current in A. 421 Application manual .

ROADir = 90 3I0 3I0 ⋅ cos ϕ ϕ = ang (3I0 ) − ang (Uref ) −3U0 IEC06000649_3_en. The characteristic for RCADir = 0° and ROADir = 80° is shown in figure 202. RCADir = 0º ROADir = 80º Operate area 3I0 -3U0 IEC06000652-3-en.vsd IEC06000652 V3 EN Figure 202: Characteristic for RCADir = 0° and ROADir = 80° 422 Application manual .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Uref RCADir = −90 .vsd IEC06000649 V3 EN Figure 201: Characteristic for RCADir equal to -90° When OpMode is set to 3U03I0cosfi the apparent residual power component in the direction is measured. When OpMode is set to 3I0 and fi the function will operate if the residual current is larger than the setting INDir> and the residual current angle is within the sector RCADir ± ROADir.

given in % of SBase. for the directional residual current protection if definite time delay is chosen. The setting shall be much shorter than the set trip delay. The setting should be based on calculation of the active or capacitive earth-fault current at required sensitivity of the protection. RCADir is normally set equal to 0° in a high impedance earthed network with a neutral point resistor as the active current component is appearing out on the faulted feeder only. The setting is given in % of IBase. For angles differing more than ROADir fromRCADir the function from the protection is blocked. due to CT phase angle error. This setting should be chosen smaller than or equal to the lowest fault residual voltage to be detected. The setting can be used to prevent unwanted function for non-faulted feeders. given in s. tDef is the definite time delay. tReset is the reset time for definite time delay. The setting should be based on calculation of the active or capacitive earth-fault residual power at required sensitivity of the protection. This setting should be chosen smaller than or equal to the lowest fault current to be detected. All the directional protection modes have a residual voltage release level setting UNRel> which is set in % of UBase. The input transformer for the Sensitive directional residual over current and power protection function has the same short circuit capacity as the phase current transformers. If the time delay for residual power is chosen the delay time is dependent on two setting parameters. RCADir is set equal to -90° in an isolated network as all currents are mainly capacitive. SRef is the reference residual power. With a tReset time of several periods there is increased possibilities to clear intermittent earth-faults correctly. with large capacitive earth-fault current contributions. INCosPhi> is the operate current level for the directional function when OpMode is set 3I0Cosfi. The relay open angle ROADir is set in degrees. All the directional protection modes have a residual current release level setting INRel> which is set in % of IBase. SN> is the operate power level for the directional function when OpMode is set 3I03U0Cosfi. kSN is the time multiplier. The time delay will follow the following expression: t inv = kSN × Sref 3I 0 × 3U 0 × cos j (measured) EQUATION1957 V1 EN (Equation 370) 423 Application manual . given in s. The characteristic angle of the directional functions RCADir is set in degrees.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C DirMode is set Forward or Reverse to set the direction of the trip function from the directional residual current function. The setting is given in % of SBase.

OpINNonDir> is set On to activate the non-directional residual current protection. The setting should be based on calculation of the earth-fault current at required sensitivity of the protection. tCCrv: Parameters for customer creation of inverse time characteristic curve (Curve type = 17). This function can be used for detection and clearance of crosscountry faults in a shorter time than for the directional function. tPCrv. The current setting should be larger than the maximum single-phase residual current out on the protected line. The setting is given in % of IBase. The time characteristic equation is: 424 Application manual . tBCrv. Definite time delay and different types of inverse time characteristics are available: Table 99: Inverse time characteristics Curve name ANSI Extremely Inverse ANSI Very Inverse ANSI Normal Inverse ANSI Moderately Inverse ANSI/IEEE Definite time ANSI Long Time Extremely Inverse ANSI Long Time Very Inverse ANSI Long Time Inverse IEC Normal Inverse IEC Very Inverse IEC Inverse IEC Extremely Inverse IEC Short Time Inverse IEC Long Time Inverse IEC Definite Time User Programmable ASEA RI RXIDG (logarithmic) The different characteristics are described in Technical Manual. The setting is given in % of IBase.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C INDir> is the operate current level for the directional function when OpMode is set 3I0 and fi. TimeChar is the selection of time delay characteristic for the non-directional residual current protection. INNonDir> is the operate current level for the non-directional function. tACrv.

2.03 .01 10.00 Set level for 3I03U0cosFi.00 Reference value of res power for inverse time count.200.1 0.01 5.100 Definite time delay directional residual overcurrent. OpUN> is set On to activate the trip function of the residual voltage protection.00 %IB 0.180 Deg 1 -90 Relay characteristic angle RCA.7. in deg RCAComp -10.00 %SB 0.000 s 0.000 . in sec Table continues on next page 425 Application manual .000 .001 0. given in s.25 .0 Deg 0.00 %SB 0. in %Ib SN> 0.25 . in %Sb kSN 0.60.01 10.01 10. starting inv time count.200.10.00 %IB 0. 3. in deg INCosPhi> 0.001 1.200.60. directional res over current. given in s.0 .01 0.00 .00 Set level for directional residual over current prot.000 s 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C æ ö ç ÷ A ç t[ s ] = + B ÷ × InMult ç æ i öp ÷ ÷ -C çç ÷ è è in > ø ø (Equation 371) EQUATION1958 V1 EN tINNonDir is the definite time delay for the non directional earth-fault current protection.90 Deg 1 90 Relay open angle ROA used as release in phase mode.25 . in %Ib tDef 0.0 Relay characteristic angle compensation ROADir 0 .00 - 0.00 Set level for non directional residual over current.00 .000 Time delay for non-directional residual over current. in %Sb INDir> 0.10 Time multiplier setting for directional residual power mode OpINNonDir> Off On - - Off Operation of non-directional residual overcurrent protection INNonDir> 1.00 %IB 0. tUN is the definite time delay for the trip function of the residual voltage protection.3 Table 100: Name Setting parameters SDEPSDE Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OpMode 3I0Cosfi 3I03U0Cosfi 3I0 and fi - - 3I0Cosfi Selection of operation mode for protection DirMode Forward Reverse - - Forward Direction of operation forward or reverse RCADir -179 .200. in sec SRef 0.400.01 1.6. in %Ib tINNonDir 0.00 Set level for 3I0cosFi.

25 .T. inv. inv.00 %UB 0. Operation curve selection for IDMT operation tMin 0.000 s 0.200. inv. inv.000 s 0. ANSI Norm.001 13. inv.100 Time delay for non-directional residual over voltage.E. in sec kIN 0. in %Ub tUN 0.001 0.01 20.001 0.60.00 Set level for non-directional residual over voltage. IEC L. Time L.500 Setting A for customer programmable curve tBCrv 0.1 .00 - 0.01 0.T.01 . in %Ub Step Default Table 101: Name SDEPSDE Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit tReset 0.00 Setting B for customer programmable curve tCCrv 0.1 1. inv. inv.60.00 . IEC Def.00 - 0.00 Residual release current for all directional modes.001 1.V.005 . inv. ANSI Very inv.20.000 - 0.200.00 Residual release voltage for all direction modes.000 .00 . L.000 .00 %UB 0.200. in sec tPCrv 0.T. IEC inv. in %Ib UNRel> 0.00 .01 3. IEC S. L.000 .0 - 0. Table continues on next page 426 Application manual . IEC Ext. inv. inv. inv.000 s 0. IEC Very inv.T.005 .000 Setting P for customer programmable curve tACrv 0. ANSI Mod.001 0.01 1.00 %IB 0.10. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - IEC Norm.200. IEC Norm. in sec INRel> 0.01 1.040 Minimum operate time for IEC IDMT curves. ANSI Def.040 Description Time delay used for reset of definite timers.00 IDMT time mult for non-dir res over current protection OpUN> Off On - - Off Operation of non-directional residual overvoltage protection UN> 1.T.0 Setting C for customer programmable curve ResetTypeCrv Immediate IEC Reset ANSI reset - - IEC Reset Reset mode when current drops off.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description TimeChar ANSI Ext.000 - 0.2.60.3.

500 Setting TR for customer programmable curve tCRCrv 0.001 0.05 6350.000 - 0. which will degrade the paper insulation.0 Setting CR for customer programmable curve Table 102: Name SDEPSDE Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IBase 1 . two time constants IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification TRPTTR ANSI/IEEE C37. IBase*Ubase Table 103: Name RotResU 3.7 SDEPSDE Non group settings (advanced) Values (Range) 0 deg 180 deg Unit - Step Default - 180 deg Description Setting for rotating polarizing quantity if necessary Thermal overload protection.005 .00 kVA 0. As a consequence of this. in kV Phase to Neutral SBase 0.005 .05 200000000.000 - 0. There might be hot spots within the transformer. 427 Application manual . the risk of internal phase-to-phase or phase-to-earth faults will increase. two time constants TRPTTR Function description Thermal overload protection.7.100. If the current exceeds this level the losses will be higher than expected.1 .05 .1 1.05 63.500 Setting PR for customer programmable curve tTRCrv 0.7.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description tPRCrv 0.00 Base Power. It might also cause bubbling in the transformer oil.0 - 0.10.50 Base Voltage.1 Application Transformers in the power system are designed for a certain maximum load current (power) level.99999 A 1 100 Base Current.001 13.2 device number 49 SYMBOL-A V1 EN 3. If the temperature of the transformer reaches too high values the equipment might be damaged: • • The insulation within the transformer will have forced ageing. As a consequence the temperature of the transformer will increase. in kVA.3.7.00 kV 0. in A UBase 0.2000.

the protection initiates a trip of the protected transformer. 3. This estimation is made by using a thermal model of the transformer. This can be used for transformers where forced cooling can be taken out of operation. for example at fan or pump faults.7. two time constants (TRPTTR) are set via the local HMI or Protection and Control IED Manager (PCM600). which is based on current measurement. The thermal overload protection estimates the internal heat content of the transformer (temperature) continuously.7. the function will continue to estimate the heat content using a set cooling time constant. one for non-forced cooling and one for forced cooling. Energizing of the transformer can be blocked until the heat content has reached a set level. Two alarm levels are available. If the heat content of the protected transformer reaches a set alarm level a signal can be given to the operator. 428 Application manual . The two parameters sets can be activated by the binary input signal COOLING. The thermal overload protection provides information and makes temporary overloading of transformers possible. The protection can have two sets of parameters. This enables preventive actions in the power system to be taken before dangerous temperatures are reached. There are two main principles: • • OA: The air is naturally circulated to the coolers without fans and the oil is naturally circulated without pumps. Both the permissive steady state loading level as well as the thermal time constant is influenced by the cooling system of the transformer. This should be done without the above mentioned risks. Therefore. After tripping by the thermal overload protection.2 Setting guideline The parameters for the thermal overload protection. Off switches off the complete function. The permissible load level of a power transformer is highly dependent on the cooling system of the transformer. There will be a time gap before the heat content (temperature) reaches such a level so that the transformer can be taken into service again. FOA: The coolers have fans to force air for cooling and pumps to force the circulation of the transformer oil.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C In stressed situations in the power system it can be required to overload transformers for a limited time. If the temperature continues to increase to the trip value. The following settings can be done for the thermal overload protection: Operation: Off/On Operation: Sets the mode of operation. the transformer will cool down over time.

related to IBase2 (with cooling) given in minutes. If the transformer has no forced cooling IBase2 can be set equal to IBase1. Tau1: The thermal time constant of the protected transformer. This current is used as reference for current setting. The activation could be used in case of deviating ambient temperature from the reference value. The thermal time constant should be obtained from the transformer manufacturers manuals. IBase2: Base current for setting given as percentage of IBase. This setting shall be related to the status with activated COOLING input. When the current is equal to IRef the final (steady state) heat content is equal to 1. Normal time constants for medium and large transformers (according to IEC 60076-7) are about 2. Then the transformer is disconnected from the grid (no load). The thermal time constant is dependent on the cooling and the amount of oil. It is suggested to give a setting corresponding to the rated current of the transformer winding.10. In the standard for loading of a transformer an ambient temperature of 20°C is used. It is assumed that the transformer is operated at a certain load level with a constant oil temperature (steady state operation).01 . The thermal time constant can now be estimated as: t= t ln DQo 0 . After a time t of at least 30 minutes the temperature of the oil is measured again.ln DQ ot EQUATION1180 V1 EN (Equation 372) 429 Application manual . Tau2: The thermal time constant of the protected transformer. It is suggested to give a setting corresponding to the rated current of the transformer with forced cooling (FOA).5 hours for naturally cooled transformers and 1.5 hours for forced cooled transformers. related to IBase1 (no cooling) given in minutes. It is suggested to give a setting corresponding to the rated current of the transformer with natural cooling (OA). IRefMult can be set within a range: 0. The time constant can be estimated from measurements of the oil temperature during a cooling sequence (described in IEC 60076-7). IBase1: Base current for setting given as percentage of IBase. The oil temperature above the ambient temperature is DQo0. It can be suitable to set this parameter to the rated primary current of the transformer winding where the current measurement is made. This setting shall be related to the status with no COOLING input.00. IRef: Reference level of the current given in % of IBase. IRefMult: If a binary input ENMULT is activated the reference current value can be multiplied by the factor IRefMult. Now the oil temperature above the ambient temperature is DQot. For lower ambient temperatures the load ability is increased and vice versa.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C IBase: Base current in primary A.

Tau2Low: Multiplication factor to adjust the time constant Tau2 if the current is lower than the set value ILowTau2. The possibility to change time constant with the current value as the base can be useful in different applications. Alarm1: Heat content level for activation of the signal ALARM1. Alarm2: Heat content level for activation of the output signal ALARM2. Below some examples are given: • • In case a total interruption (low current) of the protected transformer all cooling possibilities will be inactive. The setting is given in % of IBase1 or IBase2. The signal is released when the estimated heat content is below the set value. Tau1Low: Multiplication factor to adjust the time constant Tau1 if the current is lower than the set value ILowTau1. Tau2High: Multiplication factor to adjust the time constant Tau2 if the current is higher than the set value IHighTau2. The setting of the parameters below enables automatic adjustment of the time constant. ThetaInit: Heat content before activation of the function. If other components (motors) are included in the thermal protection. its temperature can be higher than the ambient temperature. ResLo is set in % of the trip heat content level. When the thermal overload protection trips a lock-out signal is activated. If the transformer is loaded before the activation of the protection function. The thermal time constant is often smaller for a motor than for the transformer.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C If the transformer has forced cooling (FOA) the measurement should be made both with and without the forced cooling in operation. ALARM2 is set in % of the trip heat content level. Tau1High: Multiplication factor to adjust the time constant Tau1 if the current is higher than the set value IHighTau1. ResLo: Lockout release level of heat content to release the lockout signal. If the current is high it is assumed that the forced cooling is activated while it is deactivated at low current. The time constants can be changed if the current is higher than a set value or lower than a set value. This temperature value should be chosen below the alarm temperature. IHighTau2 is set in % of IBase2. there is a risk of overheating of that equipment in case of very high current. This signal is intended to block switching on of the protected circuit transformer as long as the transformer temperature is high. The start point given in the setting will prevent risk of no trip at overtemperature 430 Application manual . ILowTau2 is set in % of IBase2. This setting can be set a little below the alarm level. ILowTau1 is set in % of IBase1. IHighTau1 is set in % of IBase1. ALARM1 is set in % of the trip heat content level. ITrip: The steady state current that the transformer can withstand. This can result in a changed value of the time constant. giving Tau2 and Tau1.

0 .0 %Itr 1.0 100.0 Min 1.500.0 First alarm level in % of heat content trip value Alarm2 50.0 %IBx 1.0 Current Sett.0 .99.0 100.0 100.0 100.00 - 0.0 60.250.0 %IB 1.95.250.0 %Itr 1. Warning: If the calculated time to trip factor is below the setting Warning a warning signal is activated.0 .500.0 %IB1 1. with Cooling input ON in % of IBASE Tau1 1.0 100.0 %IB1 1.2000 %tC2 1 100 Multiplier in % to TC2 when current is >IHIGH-TC2 ILowTau2 30. in % of IBase1 for rescaling TC1 by TC1-ILOW Tau1Low 5 .250.0 80.01 .0 .0 Steady state operate current level in % of IBasex Alarm1 50.2000 %tC2 1 100 Multiplier in % to TC2 when current is < ILOW-TC2 ITrip 50.10.99999 A 1 3000 Base current in A IRef 10.1000.2000 %tC1 1 100 Multiplier in % to TC1 when current is > IHIGH-TC1 ILowTau1 30.0 Base Current.7.250.0 %IB 1.250.0 Current Set.0 .0 .IBase1 without Cooling inpout in % of IBASE IBase2 30.0 .250.99.0 .0 . in % of IBase2 for rescaling TC2 by TC2-ILOW Tau2Low 5 . in % of IBase2 for rescaling TC2 by TC2-IHIGH Tau2High 5 .0 Current Set.0 100.0 60.0 90.0 %IB2 1.0 %IB 1.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C during the first moments after activation.0 100. with IBase2 IHighTau1 30.0 .0 .0 60.2000 %tC1 1 100 Multiplier in % to TC1 when current is < ILOW-TC1 IHighTau2 30.7.0 %Itr 1.0 Min 1.0 .01 1.0 Reference current in % of IBASE IRefMult 0.3 Table 104: Name Setting parameters TRPTTR Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IBase 1 .0 %IB2 1. in % of IBase1 for rescaling TC1 by TC1-IHIGH Tau1High 5 . 3.250.00 Multiplication Factor for reference current IBase1 30.0 110. with IBase1 Tau2 1.0 Time constant with cooling input in min.0 Base current.0 Current Set.0 . ThetaInit: is set in % of the trip heat content level.IBase2. The setting is given in minutes.0 Second alarm level in % of heat content trip value ResLo 10.0 Time constant without cooling input in min.0 Lockout reset level in % of heat content trip value Table continues on next page 431 Application manual .

Section 3
IED application
Name

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

Unit

Step

Default

ThetaInit

0.0 - 95.0

%

1.0

50.0

Initial Heat content, in % of heat content
trip value

Warning

1.0 - 500.0

Min

0.1

30.0

Time setting, below which warning would
be set (in min)

tPulse

0.01 - 0.30

s

0.01

0.10

Length of the pulse for trip signal (in
msec).

3.7.8

Values (Range)

Description

Breaker failure protection CCRBRF
Function description
Breaker failure protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

CCRBRF

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
50BF

3I>BF
SYMBOL-U V1 EN

3.7.8.1

Application
In the design of the fault clearance system the N-1 criterion is often used. This
means that a fault needs to be cleared even if any component in the fault clearance
system is faulty. One necessary component in the fault clearance system is the
circuit breaker. It is from practical and economical reason not feasible to duplicate
the circuit breaker for the protected component. Instead a breaker failure protection
is used.
Breaker failure protection, 3-phase activation and output (CCRBRF) will issue a
back-up trip command to adjacent circuit breakers in case of failure to trip of the
“normal” circuit breaker for the protected component. The detection of failure to
break the current through the breaker is made by means of current measurement or
as detection of remaining trip signal (unconditional).
CCRBRF can also give a re-trip. This means that a second trip signal is sent to the
protected circuit breaker. The re-trip function can be used to increase the
probability of operation of the breaker, or it can be used to avoid back-up trip of
many breakers in case of mistakes during relay maintenance and test.

3.7.8.2

Setting guidelines
The parameters for Breaker failure protection 3-phase activation and output
CCRBRF are set via the local HMI or PCM600.
The following settings can be done for the breaker failure protection.
Operation: Off/On

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IBase: Base current in primary A. This current is used as reference for current
setting. It can be suitable to set this parameter to the rated primary current of the
current transformer where the current measurement is made.
FunctionMode This parameter can be set Current or Contact. This states the way
the detection of failure of the breaker is performed. In the mode current the current
measurement is used for the detection. In the mode Contact the long duration of
breaker position signal is used as indicator of failure of the breaker. The mode
Current&Contact means that both ways of detections are activated. Contact mode
can be usable in applications where the fault current through the circuit breaker is
small. This can be the case for some generator protection application (for example
reverse power protection) or in case of line ends with weak end infeed.
RetripMode: This setting states how the re-trip function shall operate. Retrip Off
means that the re-trip function is not activated. CB Pos Check (circuit breaker
position check) and Current means that a phase current must be larger than the
operate level to allow re-trip. CB Pos Check (circuit breaker position check) and
Contact means re-trip is done when circuit breaker is closed (breaker position is
used). No CBPos Check means re-trip is done without check of breaker position.
Table 105:
RetripMode

Dependencies between parameters RetripMode and FunctionMode
FunctionMode

Description

Retrip Off

N/A

the re-trip function is not
activated

CB Pos Check

Current

a phase current must be larger
than the operate level to allow
re-trip

Contact

re-trip is done when breaker
position indicates that breaker
is still closed after re-trip time
has elapsed

Current&Contact

both methods are used

Current

re-trip is done without check of
breaker position

Contact

re-trip is done without check of
breaker position

Current&Contact

both methods are used

No CBPos Check

BuTripMode: Back-up trip mode is given to state sufficient current criteria to detect
failure to break. For Current operation 2 out of 4 means that at least two currents,
of the three-phase currents and the residual current, shall be high to indicate
breaker failure. 1 out of 3 means that at least one current of the three-phase currents
shall be high to indicate breaker failure. 1 out of 4 means that at least one current of
the three-phase currents or the residual current shall be high to indicate breaker
failure. In most applications 1 out of 3 is sufficient. For Contact operation means
back-up trip is done when circuit breaker is closed (breaker position is used).
IP>: Current level for detection of breaker failure, set in % of IBase. This
parameter should be set so that faults with small fault current can be detected. The
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IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

setting can be chosen in accordance with the most sensitive protection function to
start the breaker failure protection. Typical setting is 10% of IBase.
I>BlkCont: If any contact based detection of breaker failure is used this function
can be blocked if any phase current is larger than this setting level. If the
FunctionMode is set Current&Contact breaker failure for high current faults are
safely detected by the current measurement function. To increase security the
contact based function should be disabled for high currents. The setting can be
given within the range 5 – 200% of IBase.
IN>: Residual current level for detection of breaker failure set in % of IBase. In
high impedance earthed systems the residual current at phase- to-earth faults are
normally much smaller than the short circuit currents. In order to detect breaker
failure at single-phase-earth faults in these systems it is necessary to measure the
residual current separately. Also in effectively earthed systems the setting of the
earth-fault current protection can be chosen to relatively low current level. The
BuTripMode is set 1 out of 4. The current setting should be chosen in accordance to
the setting of the sensitive earth-fault protection. The setting can be given within
the range 2 – 200 % of IBase.
t1: Time delay of the re-trip. The setting can be given within the range 0 – 60s in
steps of 0.001 s. Typical setting is 0 – 50ms.
t2: Time delay of the back-up trip. The choice of this setting is made as short as
possible at the same time as unwanted operation must be avoided. Typical setting is
90 – 200ms (also dependent of re-trip timer).
The minimum time delay for the re-trip can be estimated as:

t 2 ³ t1 + tcbopen + t BFP _ reset + t margin
(Equation 373)

EQUATION1430 V1 EN

where:
tcbopen

is the maximum opening time for the circuit breaker

tBFP_reset

is the maximum time for breaker failure protection to detect correct breaker function (the
current criteria reset)

tmargin

is a safety margin

It is often required that the total fault clearance time shall be less than a given
critical time. This time is often dependent of the ability to maintain transient
stability in case of a fault close to a power plant.

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IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

Protection
operate time
Normal tcbopen
Retrip delay t1

The fault
occurs

tcbopen after re-trip
tBFPreset
Margin
Minimum back-up trip delay t2
Critical fault clearance time for stability

Time
Trip and Start
CCRBRF
IEC05000479_2_en.vsd
IEC05000479 V2 EN

Figure 203:

Time sequence

t2MPh: Time delay of the back-up trip at multi-phase start. The critical fault
clearance time is often shorter in case of multi-phase faults, compared to single phaseto-earth faults. Therefore there is a possibility to reduce the back-up trip delay for
multi-phase faults. Typical setting is 90 – 150 ms.
t3: Additional time delay to t2 for a second back-up trip TRBU2. In some
applications there might be a requirement to have separated back-up trip functions,
tripping different back-up circuit breakers.
tCBAlarm: Time delay for alarm in case of indication of faulty circuit breaker.
There is a binary input CBFLT from the circuit breaker. This signal is activated
when internal supervision in the circuit breaker detect that the circuit breaker is
unable to clear fault. This could be the case when gas pressure is low in a SF6
circuit breaker, of others. After the set time an alarm is given, so that actions can be
done to repair the circuit breaker. The time delay for back-up trip is bypassed when
the CBFLT is active. Typical setting is 2.0 seconds.
tPulse: Trip pulse duration. This setting must be larger than the critical impulse
time of circuit breakers to be tripped from the breaker failure protection. Typical
setting is 200 ms.

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3.7.8.3
Table 106:
Name

Setting parameters
CCRBRF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

-

-

Off

Operation Off / On

IBase

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

Base current

FunctionMode

Current
Contact
Current&Contact

-

-

Current

Detection principle for back-up trip

BuTripMode

2 out of 4
1 out of 3
1 out of 4

-

-

1 out of 3

Back-up trip mode

RetripMode

Retrip Off
CB Pos Check
No CBPos Check

-

-

Retrip Off

Operation mode of re-trip logic

IP>

5 - 200

%IB

1

10

Operate phase current level in % of IBase

IN>

2 - 200

%IB

1

10

Operate residual current level in % of
IBase

t1

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.000

Time delay of re-trip

t2

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.150

Time delay of back-up trip

t2MPh

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.150

Time delay of back-up trip at multi-phase
start

tPulse

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.200

Trip pulse duration

Table 107:
Name

CCRBRF Group settings (advanced)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

I>BlkCont

5 - 200

%IB

1

20

Current for blocking of CB contact
operation in % of IBase

t3

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.030

Additional time delay to t2 for a second
back-up trip

tCBAlarm

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

5.000

Time delay for CB faulty signal

3.7.9

Pole discordance protection CCRPLD
Function description
Pole discordance protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

CCRPLD

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
52PD

PD
SYMBOL-S V1 EN

436
Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

3.7.9.1

Application
There is a risk that a circuit breaker will get discordance between the poles at
circuit breaker operation: closing or opening. One pole can be open and the other
two closed, or two poles can be open and one closed. Pole discordance of a circuit
breaker will cause unsymmetrical currents in the power system. The consequence
of this can be:

Negative sequence currents that will give stress on rotating machines
Zero sequence currents that might give unwanted operation of sensitive earthfault protections in the power system.

It is therefore important to detect situations with pole discordance of circuit
breakers. When this is detected the breaker should be tripped directly.
Pole discordance protection CCRPLD will detect situation with deviating positions
of the poles of the protected circuit breaker. The protection has two different
options to make this detection:

3.7.9.2

By connecting the auxiliary contacts in the circuit breaker so that logic is
created, a signal can be sent to the protection, indicating pole discordance.
This logic can also be realized within the protection itself, by using opened
and close signals for each circuit breaker pole, connected to the protection.
Each phase current through the circuit breaker is measured. If the difference
between the phase currents is larger than a CurrUnsymLevel this is an
indication of pole discordance, and the protection will operate.

Setting guidelines
The parameters for the Pole discordance protection CCRPLD are set via the local
HMI or PCM600.
The following settings can be done for the pole discordance protection.
Operation: Off or On
IBase: Base current in primary A. This current is used as reference for current
setting. It can be suitable to set this parameter to the rated primary current of the
protected object where the current measurement is made.
tTrip: Time delay of the operation.
ContSel: Operation of the contact based pole discordance protection. Can be set:
Off/PD signal from CB. If PD signal from CB is chosen the logic to detect pole
discordance is made in the vicinity to the breaker auxiliary contacts and only one
signal is connected to the pole discordance function. If the Pole pos aux cont.
alternative is chosen each open close signal is connected to the IED and the logic to
detect pole discordance is realized within the function itself.

437
Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

CurrSel: Operation of the current based pole discordance protection. Can be set:
Off/CB oper monitor/Continuous monitor. In the alternative CB oper monitor the
function is activated only directly in connection to breaker open or close command
(during 200 ms). In the alternative Continuous monitor function is continuously
activated.
CurrUnsymLevel: Unsymmetrical magnitude of lowest phase current compared to
the highest, set in % of the highest phase current. Natural difference between phase
currents in 1 1/2 breaker installations must be considered. For circuit breakers in 1
1/2 breaker configured switch yards there might be natural unbalance currents
through the breaker. This is due to the existence of low impedance current paths in
the switch yard. This phenomenon must be considered in the setting of the parameter.
CurrRelLevel: Current magnitude for release of the function in % of IBase.

3.7.9.3
Table 108:
Name

Setting parameters
CCRPLD Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

-

-

Off

Operation Off / On

IBase

1 - 99999

-

1

3000

Base current

tTrip

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.300

Time delay between trip condition and
trip signal

ContSel

Off
PD signal from CB
Pole pos aux cont.

-

-

Off

Contact function selection

CurrSel

Off
CB oper monitor
Continuous monitor

-

-

Off

Current function selection

CurrUnsymLevel

0 - 100

%

1

80

Unsym magn of lowest phase current
compared to the highest.

CurrRelLevel

0 - 100

%IB

1

10

Current magnitude for release of the
function in % of IBase

3.7.10

Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP
Function description
Directional underpower protection

IEC 61850
identification
GUPPDUP

IEC 60617
identification

P<

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
37

SYMBOL-LL V1 EN

438
Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

3.7.10.1

Application
The task of a generator in a power plant is to convert mechanical energy available
as a torque on a rotating shaft to electric energy.
Sometimes, the mechanical power from a prime mover may decrease so much that
it does not cover bearing losses and ventilation losses. Then, the synchronous
generator becomes a synchronous motor and starts to take electric power from the
rest of the power system. This operating state, where individual synchronous
machines operate as motors, implies no risk for the machine itself. If the generator
under consideration is very large and if it consumes lots of electric power, it may
be desirable to disconnect it to ease the task for the rest of the power system.
Often, the motoring condition may imply that the turbine is in a very dangerous
state. The task of the reverse power protection is to protect the turbine and not to
protect the generator itself.
Steam turbines easily become overheated if the steam flow becomes too low or if
the steam ceases to flow through the turbine. Therefore, turbo-generators should
have reverse power protection. There are several contingencies that may cause
reverse power: break of a main steam pipe, damage to one or more blades in the
steam turbine or inadvertent closing of the main stop valves. In the last case, it is
highly desirable to have a reliable reverse power protection. It may prevent damage
to an otherwise undamaged plant.
During the routine shutdown of many thermal power units, the reverse power
protection gives the tripping impulse to the generator breaker (the unit breaker). By
doing so, one prevents the disconnection of the unit before the mechanical power
has become zero. Earlier disconnection would cause an acceleration of the turbine
generator at all routine shutdowns. This should have caused overspeed and high
centrifugal stresses.
When the steam ceases to flow through a turbine, the cooling of the turbine blades
will disappear. Now, it is not possible to remove all heat generated by the windage
losses. Instead, the heat will increase the temperature in the steam turbine and
especially of the blades. When a steam turbine rotates without steam supply, the
electric power consumption will be about 2% of rated power. Even if the turbine
rotates in vacuum, it will soon become overheated and damaged. The turbine
overheats within minutes if the turbine loses the vacuum.
The critical time to overheating a steam turbine varies from about 0.5 to 30 minutes
depending on the type of turbine. A high-pressure turbine with small and thin
blades will become overheated more easily than a low-pressure turbine with long
and heavy blades. The conditions vary from turbine to turbine and it is necessary to
ask the turbine manufacturer in each case.
Power to the power plant auxiliaries may come from a station service transformer
connected to the secondary side of the step-up transformer. Power may also come
from a start-up service transformer connected to the external network. One has to

439
Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

design the reverse power protection so that it can detect reverse power independent
of the flow of power to the power plant auxiliaries.
Hydro turbines tolerate reverse power much better than steam turbines do. Only
Kaplan turbine and bulb turbines may suffer from reverse power. There is a risk
that the turbine runner moves axially and touches stationary parts. They are not
always strong enough to withstand the associated stresses.
Ice and snow may block the intake when the outdoor temperature falls far below
zero. Branches and leaves may also block the trash gates. A complete blockage of
the intake may cause cavitations. The risk for damages to hydro turbines can justify
reverse power protection in unattended plants.
A hydro turbine that rotates in water with closed wicket gates will draw electric
power from the rest of the power system. This power will be about 10% of the
rated power. If there is only air in the hydro turbine, the power demand will fall to
about 3%.
Diesel engines should have reverse power protection. The generator will take about
15% of its rated power or more from the system. A stiff engine may require
perhaps 25% of the rated power to motor it. An engine that is good run in might
need no more than 5%. It is necessary to obtain information from the engine
manufacturer and to measure the reverse power during commissioning.
Gas turbines usually do not require reverse power protection.
Figure 204 illustrates the reverse power protection with underpower protection and
with overpower protection. The underpower protection gives a higher margin and
should provide better dependability. On the other hand, the risk for unwanted
operation immediately after synchronization may be higher. One should set the
underpower protection (reference angle set to 0) to trip if the active power from the
generator is less than about 2%. One should set the overpower protection
(reference angle set to 180) to trip if the power flow from the network to the
generator is higher than 1%.
Underpower protection

Operate
Line

Q

Overpower protection

Margin

Margin

P

Operating point
without
turbine torque

Q

Operate
Line

P

Operating point
without
turbine torque

IEC09000019-2-en.vsd
IEC09000019 V2 EN

Figure 204:

Reverse power protection with underpower or overpower protection

440
Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

3.7.10.2

Setting guidelines
Operation: With the parameter Operation the function can be set On/Off.
IBase: The parameter IBase is set to the generator rated current in A, see
equation 374.
IBase =

SN
3 ×U N
(Equation 374)

EQUATION1707 V1 EN

UBase: The parameter UBase is set to the generator rated voltage (phase-phase) in
kV.
Mode: The voltage and current used for the power measurement. The setting
possibilities are shown in table 109.
Table 109:
Set value Mode
L1, L2, L3

Complex power calculation
Formula used for complex power calculation

S = U L1 × I L1* + U L 2 × I L 2* + U L 3 × I L 3*
EQUATION1697 V1 EN

Arone

S = U L1L 2 × I L1* - U L 2 L 3 × I L 3*
EQUATION1698 V1 EN

PosSeq

(Equation 381)

S = 3 × U L 2 × I L 2*
EQUATION1704 V1 EN

L3

(Equation 380)

S = 3 × U L1 × I L1*
EQUATION1703 V1 EN

L2

(Equation 379)

S = U L 3 L1 × ( I L 3* - I L1* )
EQUATION1702 V1 EN

L1

(Equation 378)

S = U L 2 L 3 × ( I L 2* - I L 3* )
EQUATION1701 V1 EN

L3L1

(Equation 377)

S = U L1L 2 × ( I L1* - I L 2* )
EQUATION1700 V1 EN

L2L3

(Equation 376)

S = 3 × U PosSeq × I PosSeq *
EQUATION1699 V1 EN

L1L2

(Equation 375)

(Equation 382)

S = 3 × U L 3 × I L 3*
EQUATION1705 V1 EN

(Equation 383)

The function has two stages that can be set independently.

441
Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

With the parameter OpMode1(2) the function can be set On/Off.
The function gives trip if the power component in the direction defined by the
setting Angle1(2) is smaller than the set pick up power value Power1(2)
Q

Power1(2)
Angle1(2)

P

Operate

en06000441.vsd
IEC06000441 V1 EN

Figure 205:

Underpower mode

The setting Power1(2) gives the power component pick up value in the Angle1(2)
direction. The setting is given in p.u. of the generator rated power, see equation 384.
Minimum recommended setting is 0.2% of SN when metering class CT inputs into
the IED are used.
S N = 3 × UBase × IBase
EQUATION1708 V1 EN

(Equation 384)

The setting Angle1(2) gives the characteristic angle giving maximum sensitivity of
the power protection function. The setting is given in degrees. For active power the
set angle should be 0° or 180°. 0° should be used for generator low forward active
power protection.

442
Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

Q

Operate
Angle1(2) = 0°
P
Power1(2)

en06000556.vsd
IEC06000556 V1 EN

Figure 206:

For low forward power the set angle should be 0° in the
underpower function

TripDelay1(2) is set in seconds to give the time delay for trip of the stage after pick
up.
Hysteresis1(2) is given in p.u. of generator rated power according to equation 385.
S N = 3 × UBase × IBase
(Equation 385)

EQUATION1708 V1 EN

The drop out power will be Power1(2) + Hysteresis1(2).
The possibility to have low pass filtering of the measured power can be made as
shown in the formula:
S = k × SOld + (1 - k ) × SCalculated
(Equation 386)

EQUATION1893 V1 EN

Where
S

is a new measured value to be used for the protection function

Sold

is the measured value given from the function in previous execution cycle

SCalculated is the new calculated value in the present execution cycle

k

is settable parameter

443
Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

The value of k=0.92 is recommended in generator applications as the trip delay is
normally quite long.
The calibration factors for current and voltage measurement errors are set % of
rated current/voltage:
IAmpComp5, IAmpComp30, IAmpComp100
UAmpComp5, UAmpComp30, UAmpComp100
IAngComp5, IAngComp30, IAngComp100
The angle compensation is given as difference between current and voltage angle
errors.
The values are given for operating points 5, 30 and 100% of rated current/voltage.
The values should be available from instrument transformer test protocols.

3.7.10.3
Table 110:
Name

Setting parameters
GUPPDUP Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

-

-

Off

Operation Off / On

OpMode1

Off
UnderPower

-

-

UnderPower

Operation mode 1

Power1

0.0 - 500.0

%SB

0.1

1.0

Power setting for stage 1 in % of Sbase

Angle1

-180.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

0.0

Angle for stage 1

TripDelay1

0.010 - 6000.000

s

0.001

1.000

Trip delay for stage 1

DropDelay1

0.010 - 6000.000

s

0.001

0.060

Drop delay for stage 1

OpMode2

Off
UnderPower

-

-

UnderPower

Operation mode 2

Power2

0.0 - 500.0

%SB

0.1

1.0

Power setting for stage 2 in % of Sbase

Angle2

-180.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

0.0

Angle for stage 2

TripDelay2

0.010 - 6000.000

s

0.001

1.000

Trip delay for stage 2

DropDelay2

0.010 - 6000.000

s

0.001

0.060

Drop delay for stage 2

Table 111:
Name

GUPPDUP Group settings (advanced)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

k

0.000 - 0.999

-

0.001

0.000

Low pass filter coefficient for power
measurement, P and Q

Hysteresis1

0.2 - 5.0

pu

0.1

0.5

Absolute hysteresis of stage 1 in % Sbase

Hysteresis2

0.2 - 5.0

pu

0.1

0.5

Absolute hysteresis of stage 2 in % Sbase

IAmpComp5

-10.000 - 10.000

%

0.001

0.000

Amplitude factor to calibrate current at
5% of Ir

Table continues on next page

444
Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

IAmpComp30

-10.000 - 10.000

%

0.001

0.000

Amplitude factor to calibrate current at
30% of Ir

IAmpComp100

-10.000 - 10.000

%

0.001

0.000

Amplitude factor to calibrate current at
100% of Ir

UAmpComp5

-10.000 - 10.000

%

0.001

0.000

Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at
5% of Ur

UAmpComp30

-10.000 - 10.000

%

0.001

0.000

Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at
30% of Ur

UAmpComp100

-10.000 - 10.000

%

0.001

0.000

Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at
100% of Ur

IAngComp5

-10.000 - 10.000

Deg

0.001

0.000

Angle calibration for current at 5% of Ir

IAngComp30

-10.000 - 10.000

Deg

0.001

0.000

Angle calibration for current at 30% of Ir

IAngComp100

-10.000 - 10.000

Deg

0.001

0.000

Angle calibration for current at 100% of Ir

Table 112:
Name

GUPPDUP Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

IBase

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

Base setting for current level

UBase

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Base setting for voltage level

Mode

L1, L2, L3
Arone
Pos Seq
L1L2
L2L3
L3L1
L1
L2
L3

-

-

Pos Seq

Selection of measured current and
voltage

3.7.11

Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP
Function description
Directional overpower protection

IEC 61850
identification
GOPPDOP

IEC 60617
identification

P>

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
32

DOCUMENT172362-IMG158942
V1 EN

3.7.11.1

Application
The task of a generator in a power plant is to convert mechanical energy available
as a torque on a rotating shaft to electric energy.
Sometimes, the mechanical power from a prime mover may decrease so much that
it does not cover bearing losses and ventilation losses. Then, the synchronous
generator becomes a synchronous motor and starts to take electric power from the
445

Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

rest of the power system. This operating state, where individual synchronous
machines operate as motors, implies no risk for the machine itself. If the generator
under consideration is very large and if it consumes lots of electric power, it may
be desirable to disconnect it to ease the task for the rest of the power system.
Often, the motoring condition may imply that the turbine is in a very dangerous
state. The task of the reverse power protection is to protect the turbine and not to
protect the generator itself.
Steam turbines easily become overheated if the steam flow becomes too low or if
the steam ceases to flow through the turbine. Therefore, turbo-generators should
have reverse power protection. There are several contingencies that may cause
reverse power: break of a main steam pipe, damage to one or more blades in the
steam turbine or inadvertent closing of the main stop valves. In the last case, it is
highly desirable to have a reliable reverse power protection. It may prevent damage
to an otherwise undamaged plant.
During the routine shutdown of many thermal power units, the reverse power
protection gives the tripping impulse to the generator breaker (the unit breaker). By
doing so, one prevents the disconnection of the unit before the mechanical power
has become zero. Earlier disconnection would cause an acceleration of the turbine
generator at all routine shutdowns. This should have caused overspeed and high
centrifugal stresses.
When the steam ceases to flow through a turbine, the cooling of the turbine blades
will disappear. Now, it is not possible to remove all heat generated by the windage
losses. Instead, the heat will increase the temperature in the steam turbine and
especially of the blades. When a steam turbine rotates without steam supply, the
electric power consumption will be about 2% of rated power. Even if the turbine
rotates in vacuum, it will soon become overheated and damaged. The turbine
overheats within minutes if the turbine loses the vacuum.
The critical time to overheating of a steam turbine varies from about 0.5 to 30
minutes depending on the type of turbine. A high-pressure turbine with small and
thin blades will become overheated more easily than a low-pressure turbine with
long and heavy blades. The conditions vary from turbine to turbine and it is
necessary to ask the turbine manufacturer in each case.
Power to the power plant auxiliaries may come from a station service transformer
connected to the primary side of the step-up transformer. Power may also come
from a start-up service transformer connected to the external network. One has to
design the reverse power protection so that it can detect reverse power independent
of the flow of power to the power plant auxiliaries.
Hydro turbines tolerate reverse power much better than steam turbines do. Only
Kaplan turbine and bulb turbines may suffer from reverse power. There is a risk
that the turbine runner moves axially and touches stationary parts. They are not
always strong enough to withstand the associated stresses.

446
Application manual

Section 3
IED application

1MRK 504 116-UEN C

Ice and snow may block the intake when the outdoor temperature falls far below
zero. Branches and leaves may also block the trash gates. A complete blockage of
the intake may cause cavitations. The risk for damages to hydro turbines can justify
reverse power protection in unattended plants.
A hydro turbine that rotates in water with closed wicket gates will draw electric
power from the rest of the power system. This power will be about 10% of the
rated power. If there is only air in the hydro turbine, the power demand will fall to
about 3%.
Diesel engines should have reverse power protection. The generator will take about
15% of its rated power or more from the system. A stiff engine may require
perhaps 25% of the rated power to motor it. An engine that is well run in might
need no more than 5%. It is necessary to obtain information from the engine
manufacturer and to measure the reverse power during commissioning.
Gas turbines usually do not require reverse power protection.
Figure 207 illustrates the reverse power protection with underpower IED and with
overpower IED. The underpower IED gives a higher margin and should provide
better dependability. On the other hand, the risk for unwanted operation
immediately after synchronization may be higher. One should set the underpower
IED to trip if the active power from the generator is less than about 2%. One
should set the overpower IED to trip if the power flow from the network to the
generator is higher than 1%.
Underpower IED

Operate
Line

Overpower IED

Q

Q

Operate
Line

Margin

Margin

P

Operating point
without
turbine torque

P

Operating point
without
turbine torque

IEC06000315-2-en.vsd
IEC06000315 V2 EN

Figure 207:

3.7.11.2

Reverse power protection with underpower IED and overpower IED

Setting guidelines
Operation: With the parameter Operation the function can be set On/Off.
IBase: The parameter IBase is set to the generator rated current in A, see
equation 387.

447
Application manual

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C IBase = SN 3 ×U N (Equation 387) EQUATION1707 V1 EN UBase: The parameter UBase is set to the generator rated voltage (phase-phase) in kV. The setting possibilities are shown in table 113.U L 2 L 3 × I L 3* EQUATION1698 V1 EN PosSeq S = 3 × U PosSeq × I PosSeq * EQUATION1699 V1 EN L1L2 (Equation 394) S = 3 × U L 2 × I L 2* EQUATION1704 V1 EN L3 (Equation 393) S = 3 × U L1 × I L1* EQUATION1703 V1 EN L2 (Equation 392) S = U L 3 L1 × ( I L 3* . With the parameter OpMode1(2) the function can be set On/Off.I L 2* ) EQUATION1700 V1 EN L2L3 (Equation 389) (Equation 395) S = 3 × U L 3 × I L 3* EQUATION1705 V1 EN (Equation 396) The function has two stages that can be set independently. Table 113: Set value Mode L1.I L1* ) EQUATION1702 V1 EN L1 (Equation 391) S = U L 2 L 3 × ( I L 2* . L2. L3 Complex power calculation Formula used for complex power calculation S = U L1 × I L1* + U L 2 × I L 2* + U L 3 × I L 3* (Equation 388) EQUATION1697 V1 EN Arone S = U L1L 2 × I L1* . The function gives trip if the power component in the direction defined by the setting Angle1(2) is larger than the set pick up power value Power1(2) 448 Application manual . Mode: The voltage and current used for the power measurement.I L 3* ) EQUATION1701 V1 EN L3L1 (Equation 390) S = U L1L 2 × ( I L1* .

u.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Q Operate Power1(2) Angle1(2) P en06000440. see equation 397. For active power the set angle should be 0° or 180°. 449 Application manual .2% of SN when metering class CT inputs into the IED are used. 180° should be used for generator reverse power protection. S N = 3 × UBase × IBase EQUATION1708 V1 EN (Equation 397) The setting Angle1(2) gives the characteristic angle giving maximum sensitivity of the power protection function.vsd IEC06000440 V1 EN Figure 208: Overpower mode The setting Power1(2) gives the power component pick up value in the Angle1(2) direction. of the generator rated power. The setting is given in degrees. The setting is given in p. Minimum recommended setting is 0.

of generator rated power according to equation 398.vsd IEC06000557 V2 EN Figure 209: For reverse power the set angle should be 180° in the overpower function TripDelay1(2) is set in seconds to give the time delay for trip of the stage after pick up.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Q Angle1(2 ) = 180 o Operate P Power1(2) IEC06000557-2-en.u. Hysteresis1(2) is given in p.k ) × SCalculated (Equation 399) EQUATION1893 V1 EN Where S is a new measured value to be used for the protection function Sold is the measured value given from the function in previous execution cycle SCalculated is the new calculated value in the present execution cycle k is settable parameter 450 Application manual . The possibility to have low pass filtering of the measured power can be made as shown in the formula: S = k × SOld + (1 . S N = 3 × UBase × IBase (Equation 398) EQUATION1708 V1 EN The drop out power will be Power1(2) .Hysteresis1(2).

1 0.3 Table 114: Name Setting parameters GOPPDOP Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OpMode1 Off OverPower - - OverPower Operation mode 1 Power1 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The value of k=0.0 pu 0.0 Deg 0. UAmpComp100 IAngComp5.010 .000 .5.001 0.0 %SB 0.5. IAmpComp30.001 0. IAmpComp100 UAmpComp5.6000.2 .0 Angle for stage 1 TripDelay1 0.010 .010 .6000. 3.001 1.5 Absolute hysteresis of stage 1 in % of Sbase Hysteresis2 0.0 %SB 0.180.1 120.000 .000 Low pass filter coefficient for power measurement. The calibration factors for current and voltage measurement errors are set % of rated current/voltage: IAmpComp5.0 Power setting for stage 1 in % of Sbase Angle1 -180. The values should be available from instrument transformer test protocols.7.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 5% of Ir Table continues on next page 451 Application manual .0 Angle for stage 2 TripDelay2 0. P and Q Hysteresis1 0.001 0. IAngComp30.0 .0 Power setting for stage 2 in % of Sbase Angle2 -180.0.1 0. UAmpComp30.500.1 0.10. The values are given for operating points 5.0 .2 .0 .000 Trip delay for stage 1 DropDelay1 0.010 .060 Drop delay for stage 1 OpMode2 Off OverPower - - OverPower Operation mode 2 Power2 0.0 pu 0.001 0.6000.0 .060 Drop delay for stage 2 Table 115: Name GOPPDOP Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description k 0.000 s 0. IAngComp100 The angle compensation is given as difference between current and voltage angle errors.1 0.000 % 0.000 s 0.5 Absolute hysteresis of stage 2 in % of Sbase IAmpComp5 -10.500.000 s 0.6000.001 1.0 Deg 0.1 120.000 s 0.000 Trip delay for stage 2 DropDelay2 0.999 - 0.11.92 is recommended in generator applications as the trip delay is normally quite long. 30 and 100% of rated current/voltage.180.

001 0.000 . 3.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 100% of Ir UAmpComp5 -10.7.000 .10.10.000 % 0.000 Deg 0.12 Broken conductor check BRCPTOC Function description Broken conductor check 3.000 Angle calibration for current at 30% of Ir IAngComp100 -10.001 0.000 .7. L2.10.000 Deg 0.001 0.000 .000 Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 30% of Ur UAmpComp100 -10.000 Deg 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 100% of Ur IAngComp5 -10.12.00 Base setting for voltage level Mode L1.000 % 0.10.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 30% of Ir IAmpComp100 -10. BRCPTOC must at the same time be set to 452 Application manual .7.2 Setting guidelines Broken conductor check BRCPTOC must be set to detect open phase/s (series faults) with different loads on the line.000 .000 .2 device number 46 Application Conventional protection functions can not detect the broken conductor condition.000 Angle calibration for current at 100% of Ir Table 116: Name GOPPDOP Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IBase 1 . Broken conductor check (BRCPTOC) function.10.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 5% of Ur UAmpComp30 -10.12.99999 A 1 3000 Base setting for current level UBase 0. L3 Arone Pos Seq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 L1 L2 L3 - - Pos Seq Selection of measured current and voltage 3.000 Angle calibration for current at 5% of Ir IAngComp30 -10.05 400.000 .Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IAmpComp30 -10.001 0.000 .000 % 0.10.00 kV 0.001 0.001 0.05 .001 0.1 IEC 61850 identification BRCPTOC IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37.10.000 % 0.2000. consisting of continuous current unsymmetrical check on the line where the IED connected will give alarm or trip at detecting broken conductors.000 % 0.10.001 0.

90 %IM 1 50 Unbalance current operation value in percent of max current IP> 5 . Set the time delay tOper = 5 .001 Default Description 0.000 s Step 0.000 . Set the unsymmetrical current. not transposed power lines.13 BRCPTOC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit 0. 3.60.010 .12.7.010 . Set IBase to power line rated current or CT rated current.000 s 0.000 seconds. All settings are in primary values or percentage.60.100 Time delay in reset Capacitor bank protection CBPGAPC Function description IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.60 seconds and reset time tReset = 0.99999 A 1 3000 IBase Iub> 50 .000 Operate time delay Table 118: Name tReset 3. which is relation between the difference of the minimum and maximum phase currents to the maximum phase current to typical Iub> = 50%.001 5. Set minimum operating level per phase IP> to typically 10-20% of rated current.7.60.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C not operate for maximum asymmetry which can exist due to.2 device number Capacitor bank protection CBPGAPC - - 453 Application manual .100 %IB 1 20 Minimum phase current for operation of Iub> in % of Ibase tOper 0. Note that it must be set to avoid problem with asymmetry under minimum operating conditions.3 Table 117: Name Setting parameters BRCPTOC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IBase 0 . for example.

Units are available in a variety of voltage ratings (240V to 25kV) and sizes (2. Capacitor unit can be designed with one or two bushings. arranged in parallel or series connections. Typically the neighboring capacitor units are mounted in racks. The capacitor unit is made up of individual capacitor elements.5kVAr to about 1000kVAr). These specific features of SCB are briefly summarized in this section.Section 3 IED application 3.1 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Application Shunt capacitor banks (SCBs) are somewhat specific and different from other power system elements. A capacitor unit is the building block used for SCB construction. The internal discharge resistor is also integrated within the capacitor unit in order to reduce trapped residual voltage after disconnection of the SCB from the power system. or filminsulated cells immersed in a biodegradable insulating fluid and are sealed in a metallic container. Refer figure 210 for an example: 454 Application manual .13. The high-voltage SCB is normally constructed using individual capacitor units connected in series and/or parallel to obtain the required voltage and MVAr rating. Each rack must be insulated from the other by insulators because the can casing within each rack are at a certain potential. Capacitor elements normally consist of aluminum foil.7. paper.

in contrary to the fuseless configuration. protects each capacitor unit. 455 Application manual . still without any fuses Which type of fusing is used may depend on can manufacturer or utility preference and previous experience.vsd IEC09000753 V1 EN Figure 210: Replacement of a faulty capacitor unit within SCB There are four types of the capacitor unit fusing designs which are used for construction of SCBs: Externally fused where an individual fuse. strings) and without any fuses Unfused where. Internally fused where each capacitor element is fused inside the capacitor unit Fuseless where SCB is built from series connections of the individual capacitor units (that is. a series or parallel connection of the capacitor units is used to form SCB.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Rack Capacitor Unit (Can) IEC09000753_1_en. externally mounted.

In modern power system the synchronized CB closing/opening may be utilized in such a manner that transients caused by SCB switching are avoided. When the animal touches the HV live parts this can result in a flash-over. The transient inrush current during SCB energizing typically has high frequency components and can reach peak current values. when available. utility preference and previous experience. a means to initiate a shutdown of the bank in case of faults that may lead to a catastrophic failure and alarms to indicate unbalance within the bank. Different types of shunt capacitor bank fusing. Which type of SCB earthing is used depends on voltage level.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Because the SCBs are built from the individual capacitor units the overall connections may vary. can be either directly earthed . which can consequently cause restrikes upon the first interruption of capacitive current. In accordance with IEC and ANSI standards capacitors shall be capable of continuous operation under contingency system and bank conditions. which are multiples of SCB rating. SCB protection IED protection of shunt capacitor banks requires an understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the individual capacitor units and associated electrical equipment. 4. birds. Opening of capacitor bank circuit breaker may produce step recovery voltages across open CB contact. Capacitor bank outages and failures are often caused by accidental contact by animals. 2. fire or even total destruction of the whole SCB. Availability and placement of CTs and VTs can be additional limiting factor during protection scheme design. the SCB star point. provided the following limitations are not exceeded: 456 Application manual . Many utilities have standard system earthing principle to earth neutrals of SCB above 100 kV. monkeys. where each phase is connected in a bridge Additionally. used circuit breaker. Bank protection may include items such as a means to disconnect a faulted capacitor unit or capacitor element(s). configuration or earthing may affect the IED selection for the protection scheme. Delta-connected banks (generally used only at distribution voltages) Single wye-connected banks Double wye-connected banks H-configuration. 3. Switching of SCB will produce transients in power system. Vermin. can rapture or a cascading failures that might cause extensive damages. to fault conditions SCB can be exposed to different types of abnormal operating conditions. earthed via impedance or isolated from earth. SCB protection schemes are provided in order to detect and clear faults within the capacitor bank itself or in the connected leads to the substation busbar. may use the SCB as a resting place or a landing site. In addition. unless the bank is sufficiently fitted with protection IEDs. Typically used SCB configurations are: 1.

CVGAPC. Short circuit protection for SCB and connecting leads (can be provided by using PHPIOC. T2WPDIF/T3WPDIF or HZPDIF functions) Earth-fault protection for SCB and connecting leads (can be provided by using EFPIOC. Capacitor units mounted in multiple rows and tiers should be designed for continuous operation for a 24h average temperature of 40 °C during the hottest day. 4. but not over 110% of rated RMS voltage Harmonic voltages superimposed on the fundamental frequency Reactive power manufacturing tolerance of up to 115% of rated reactive power Capacitor units rated above 600 V shall have an internal discharge device to reduce the residual voltage to 50 V or less in 5 or 10 minutes (depending on national standard). to 110% of rated IED root-mean-square (RMS) voltage and a crest voltage not exceeding of rated RMS voltage. The voltage capability of any series element of a capacitor unit shall be considered to be its share of the total capacitor unit voltage capability. the minimum number of capacitor units connected in parallel within a SCB is such that isolation of one capacitor unit in a group should not cause a voltage unbalance sufficient to place more than 110% of rated voltage on the remaining capacitors of that parallel group. 7. 4. 2. EF4PTOC. The SCB typically requires the following types of IED protection: 1. CVGAPC. measured at a uniform case and internal temperature of 25°C. CVGAPC or VDCPTOV functions) Overload protection for SCB Undercurrent protection for SCB Reconnection inhibit protection for SCB Restrike condition detection 457 Application manual . Voltage in excess of the nameplate rating at fundamental frequency. OC4PTOC. Thus. T2WPDIF/T3WPDIF or HZPDIF functions) Current or Voltage based unbalance protection for SCB (can be provided by using EF4PTOC. or −40 °C during the coldest day expected at the location. 6. OC4PTOC. The capacitor should also be able to carry 135% of nominal current. as a general rule. 2. The value of 110% is the maximum continuous overvoltage capability of capacitor units as per IEEE Std 18-1992. Capacitor units should not give less than 100% nor more than 110% of rated reactive power at rated sinusoidal voltage and frequency. Capacitor units should be suitable for continuous operation at up to 135% of rated reactive power caused by the combined effects of: • • • 5. 3. 3. Capacitor units should be capable of continuous operation including harmonics. Note that capacitor units designed for special applications can exceed these ratings. the minimum number of series connected groups within a SCB is such that complete bypass of one group should not pause voltage higher than 110% of the rated voltage on the remaining capacitors of that serial group. 5. Equally. but excluding transients.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 1.

vsd IEC09000754 V1 EN Figure 211: Single line diagram for the application example From figure 211 it is possible to calculate the following rated fundamental frequency current for this SCB: Ir = 1000 × 200[ MVAr ] = 289 A 3 × 400[ kV ] (Equation 400) IEC09000755 V1 EN or on the secondary CT side: I r _ S ec = IEC09000756 V1 EN 289 A = 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C CBPGAPC function can be used to provide the last four types of protection mentioned in the above list.2 Setting guidelines This setting example will be done for application as shown in figure 211: 400kV Preprocessing Function Block Capacitor bank protection function SMAI CBPGAPC 500/1 200MVAr 400kV IED IEC09000754-1-en. The following settings are done for this function: 458 Application manual .578 A 500 1 (Equation 401) Note that the SCB rated current on the secondary CT side is important for secondary injection of the function.7.13. The parameters for the Capacitor bank protection function CBPGAPC are set via the local HMI or PCM600. 3.

to enable this feature IRecnInhibit< =10% (of IBase). Time delay for reactive power overload trip Harmonic voltage overload feature: OperationHOL =On. Selected value gives pickup recommended by international standards. Current level for undercurrent pickup tUC =5s. Overcurrent feature: OperationOC =On. to enable the function IBase =289A. to enable this feature IUC< =70% (of IBase).Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C General Settings: Operation =On. to enable this feature IOC> =135% (of IBase). to enable this feature QOL> =130% (of SCB MVAr rating). Selected value gives pickup recommended by international standards. Current level for overcurrent pickup. Time delay for overcurrent trip Undercurrent feature: OperationUC =On. Reactive power level required for pickup. tQOL =60s. Current level under which function will detect that SCB is disconnected from the power system tReconnInhibit =300s. Time period under which SCB shall discharge remaining residual voltage to less than 5%. to enable this feature Settings for definite time delay step 459 Application manual . Reconnection inhibit feature: OperationRecIn =On. Reactive power overload feature: OperationQOL =On. tOC =30s. Fundamental frequency SCB rated current in primary amperes. Time delay for undercurrent trip Undercurrent feature is blocked by operation of Reconnection inhibit feature. This value is used as a base value for pickup settings of all other features integrated in this function.

the built in overcurrent feature can be used.1000 %IB 1 10 Cap bank cut off current level for inhibit in % of IBase tReconnInhibit 1.1s. Definite time delay for harmonic overload trip Settings for IDMT delay step HOLIDMTU> =110% (of SCB voltage rating). Maximum time delay for IDMT stage for very low level of harmonic overload tMinHOLIDMT =0. 3.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C HOLDTU> =200% (of SCB voltage rating).0. Simply. Time multiplier for IDMT stage. To detect this CB condition. a binary signal that the CB is going to be opened (but not trip command) shall be made available to the IED. This condition is manifested as high current pulses at the moment of current re-ignition. In simple words this means that the CB is not breaking the current at the first zero crossing after separation of the CB contacts.01 300. Therefore simple logic can be created in the Application Configuration tool to detect such CB behavior. Selected value gives operate time in accordance with international standards Restrike detection Opening of SCBs can be quite problematic for certain types of circuit breakers (CBs).00 s 0. any start of the overcurrent feature during breaker normal opening means a restrike. the built in disturbance recorder can also be triggered. Typically such problems are manifested as CB restrikes.00 . Instead current is re-ignited and only braked at consecutive current zero crossings. To create this logic. Selected value gives operate time in accordance with international standards tMaxHOLIDMT =2000s. Selected value gives pickup recommended by international standards.13. Voltage level required for pickup of IDMT stage.99999 A 1 3000 Rated capacitor bank current OperationRecIn Off On - - On Operation reconnection inhibit Off/On IRecnInhibit< 4 .6000. kHOLIDMT =1. Minimum time delay for IDMT stage.00 Time delay for reconnected inhibit signal OperationOC Off On - - On Operation over current Off/On Table continues on next page 460 Application manual . Voltage level required for pickup tHOLDT =10s.3 Table 119: Name Setting parameters CBPGAPC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off/On IBase 1 . and if required.7. Such CB condition can be just alarmed.

2 device number 46I2 Application Negative sequence overcurrent protection for machines NS2PTOC is intended primarily for the protection of generators against possible overheating of the rotor caused by negative sequence component in the stator current.50 - 0.00 Time multiplier for harmonic overload IDMT curve tMaxHOLIDMT 0.500 % 1 200 Start value of voltage for harmOvLoad for DT stage in % tHOLDT 0.14 Negativ sequence time overcurrent protection for machines NS2PTOC Function description Negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines 3.00 s 0. be caused by: 461 Application manual .1.200 % 1 110 Start value of voltage for harmOvLoad in IDMT stage in % kHOLIDMT 0.900 %IB 1 135 Start level for over current operation.05 .01 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IOC> 0 .50 . % of IBase tUC 0. % of IBase tOC 0.05 .6000.6000.10 Minimum trip delay for harmonic overload 3.1 IEC 61850 identification NS2PTOC IEC 60617 identification 2I2> ANSI/IEEE C37.01 10. The negative sequence currents in a generator may.01 5.00 Time delay for under current operation OperationQOL Off On - - On Operation reactive power over load Off/ On QOL> 5 . among others.7.00 .6000.6000.01 30.00 s 0.00 s 0.60.00 s 0.00 Time delay for over current operation OperationUC Off On - - Off Operation under current Off/On IUC< 5 .01 2000.14.6000.01 60.900 % 1 130 Start level for reactive power over load in % tQOL 1.00 .00 .00 Time delay for reactive power overload operation OperationHOL Off On - - On Operation harmonic over load Off/On HOLDTU> 5 .00 s 0.01 1.00 s 0.00 Maximum trip delay for harmonic overload tMinHOLIDMT 0.100 %IB 1 70 Start level for under current operation.00 .7.00 Time delay for minimum operation for harmonic overload HOLIDMTU> 80 .

to protect the generator in the event line protections or circuit breakers fail to perform for unbalanced system faults. which provide the sensitivity and capability necessary to detect and trip for negative sequence currents down to the continuous capability of a generator. Features Negative-sequence time overcurrent protection NS2PTOC is designed to provide a reliable protection for generators of all types and sizes against the effect of unbalanced system conditions. Sensitive protection. that is. 462 Application manual . Wide range of settings for generator capability constant K is provided. To provide an effective protection for the generator for external unbalanced conditions. capable of detecting and tripping for negative sequence currents down to 3% of rated generator current with high accuracy. The following features are available: • • • Two steps. NS2PTOC is able to directly measure the negative sequence current. from 1 to 99 seconds. NS2PTOC also have a time delay characteristic which matches the heating characteristic of the generator I22t = K as defined in standard. A separate output is available as an alarm feature to warn the operator of a potentially dangerous situation.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • • • Unbalanced loads Line to line faults Line to ground faults Broken conductors Malfunction of one or more poles of a circuit breaker or a disconnector NS2PTOC can also be used as a backup protection. independently adjustable. with separate tripping outputs. Two time delay characteristics for step 1: • • • • Definite time delay Inverse time delay 2 The inverse time overcurrent characteristic matches I 2 t = K capability curve of the generators. as this constant may vary greatly with the type of generator. where: I2 is negative sequence current expressed in per unit of the rated generator current t is operating time in seconds K is a constant which depends of the generators size and design A wide range of I22t settings is available.

Generator continuous unbalance current capability During unbalanced loading. a rotor failure may occur. in primary Amperes. For example. line protections. industry standards has been established that determine generator continuous and short-time unbalanced current 2 capabilities in terms of negative sequence current I2 and rotor heating criteria I 2 t . If the generator is not tripped. is available through the local HMI. negative sequence current flows in the stator winding. Maximum operate time delay for inverse time characteristic. Therefore. This setting assures appropriate coordination with. the rotor temperature will increase. Service value that is. 463 Application manual . measured negative sequence current value. Table 120: ANSI requirements for unbalanced faults on synchronous machines Types of Synchronous Machine Permissible Salient pole generator 40 Synchronous condenser 30 Cylindrical rotor generators: I 22t = K [ s ] Indirectly cooled 30 Directly cooled (0 – 800 MVA) 10 Directly cooled (801 – 1600 MVA) See Figure 212 Fig 212 shows a graphical representation of the relationship between generator I 22t capability and generator MVA rating for directly cooled (conductor cooled) generators.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • • Minimum operate time delay for inverse time characteristic. Typical short-time capability (referred to as unbalanced fault capability) expressed 2 in terms of rotor heating criterion I 2 t = K is shown below in Table 120. Inverse reset characteristic which approximates generator rotor cooling rates and provides reduced operate time if an unbalance reoccurs before the protection resets. for example. Unbalanced short-time negative sequence current I2 is expressed in per unit of rated generator current and time t in seconds. a 500 MVA generator would have K = 10 seconds and a 1600 MVA generator would have K = 5 seconds. freely settable. Negative sequence current in the stator winding will induce double frequency current in the rotor surface and cause heating in almost all parts of the generator rotor. When the negative sequence current increases beyond the generator’s continuous unbalance current capability. freely settable.

capability of generators is also covered by the standard.13) contains the suggested capability: Table 121: Continous I2 capability Type of generator Salient Pole: Permissible I2 (in percent of rated generator current) with damper winding 10 without damper winding 5 Cylindrical Rotor Indirectly cooled 10 Directly cooled to 960 MVA 8 961 to 1200 MVA 6 1201 to 1500 MVA 5 As it is described in the table above that the continuous negative sequence current capability of the generator is in range of 5% to 10% of the rated generator current. Other generator or system protections will not usually detect this condition and the only protection is the negative sequence overcurrent protection.vsd IEC08000358 V1 EN Figure 212: Short-time unbalanced current capability of direct cooled generators Continuous I2 . During an open conductor or open generator breaker pole condition. Negative sequence currents in a generator may be caused by: • Unbalanced loads such as • • Single phase railroad load Unbalanced system faults such as 464 Application manual . Table 121 below (from ANSI standard C50.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C en08000358. the negative sequence current can be in the range of 10% to 30% of the rated generator current.

while inverse time delay characteristic do depend on the magnitude of the negative sequence current. includes • • Broken line conductors Malfunction of one pole of a circuit breaker .Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C • • • • Line to earth faults Double line to earth faults Line to line faults Open conductors. where the K1 setting is adjustable over the range of 1 – 99 seconds. This means that inverse time delay is long for a small overcurrent and becomes progressively shorter as the magnitude of the negative sequence current increases. the operate time of the stage will be the sum of the inverse time delay and the set definite time delay. A typical inverse time overcurrent curve is shown in Figure 213.7.14. it is of utmost importance to set the definite time delay for that stage to zero. Thus. 465 Application manual . Inverse time delay characteristic of the NS2PTOC function is represented in the 2 equation I 2 t = K .2 Setting guidelines When inverse time overcurrent characteristic is selected. Operate time characteristic Negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines NS2PTOC provides two operating time delay characteristics for step 1: • • Definite time delay characteristic Inverse time delay characteristic The desired operate time delay characteristic is selected by setting CurveType1 as follows: • • CurveType1 = Definite CurveType1 = Inverse Step 2 always has a definite time delay characteristic. Definite time delay is independent of the magnitude of the negative sequence current once the start value is exceeded. if only the inverse time delay is required. 3.

A settable time delay tAlarm is provided for the alarm function to avoid false alarms during short-time unbalanced conditions.1 1 10 100 I2 Negative sequence current IEC08000355-2-en.97.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Negative sequence inverse time characteristic 10000 tMax Time delay 1000 100 tMin 10 1 0.01 0. when generator continuous negative sequence current capability is exceeded. It is also possible to set the upper time limit. a certain hysteresis is used before resetting start levels. for example. Alarm function The alarm function is operated by START signal and used to warn the operator for an abnormal situation. After start.vsd IEC08000355 V2 EN Figure 213: Inverse Time Delay characteristic The example in figure 213 indicates that the protection function has a set minimum operating time t1Min of 5 sec. Start sensitivity The trip start levels Current I2-1> and I2-2> of NS2PTOC are freely settable over a range of 3 to 500 % of rated generator current IBase. thereby allowing corrective action to be taken before removing the generator from service. For both steps the reset ratio is 0. The wide range of start setting is required in order to be able to protect generators of different types and sizes. t1Max. This minimum setting assures appropriate coordination with for example line protections. The setting t1Min is freely settable and is used as a security measure. 466 Application manual .

in sec t1Max 0.00 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated generator current in primary Amperes tAlarm 0.1 10.99.6000.001 5. in sec OpStep1 Off On - - On Enable execution of step 1 I2-1> 3 .1 10.60.20. seq.0 s 0.00 Reset multiplier for K1.000 Minimum trip time for inverse delay of step 1.000 Time delay for reset of definite timer of step 2.0 s 0. defines reset time of inverse curve 467 Application manual .00 Maximum trip delay for step 1. in sec t2Max 0.001 0.00 s 0. defines reset time of inverse curve OpStep2 Off On - - On Enable execution of step 2 I2-2> 3 .7. in sec t1Min 0.00 - 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.00 Definite time delay for trip of step 2.01 .00 .000 . in sec tResetDef2 0.00 s 0. capability value of generator for step 2.0 Neg.01 1000.0 .0 Neg.500 %IB 1 10 Step 1 Neg.60.01 1000.000 Minimum trip time for inverse delay of step 2.0 .00 Definite time delay for trip of step 1.99. for step 2 t2 0.00 Reset multiplier for K2.01 10.000 . for step 1 t1 0. in % of IBase CurveType1 Definite Inverse - - Definite Selection of definite or inverse timecharacteri. in sec K1 1. in sec ResetMultip1 0.00 .00 - 0. Seq.000 . Current pickup level.000 s 0.00 Time delay for Alarm (operated by START signal). in sec K2 1.6000.001 5.6000.000 s 0.001 0.60.3 Table 122: Name Setting parameters NS2PTOC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IBase 1 .000 s 0.01 1. Seq. Current pickup level. in sec ResetMultip2 0. in sec t2Min 0. in % of IBase CurveType2 Definite Inverse - - Definite Selection of definite or inverse timecharacteri.00 s 0.01 1.000 Time delay for reset of definite timer of step 1.20.00 s 0.00 .01 3.14. in sec tResetDef1 0.00 Maximum trip delay for step 2.000 s 0.00 s 0.00 . seq.01 .01 10.6000.500 %IB 1 10 Step 2 Neg.000 .60.6000. capability value of generator for step 1.

The function has a high measuring accuracy and setting hysteresis to allow applications to control reactive load. Overload (symmetrical voltage decrease). Short circuits. UV2PTUV is also used to initiate voltage correction measures. which can be caused by the following reasons: 1. either as restraint or in logic "and gates" of the trip signals issued by the two functions. often as phase-to-earth faults (unsymmetrical voltage decrease). to increase the security of a complete protection system. such as generators. motors and power lines in order to detect low voltage conditions.8. before the energization of a HV line or for automatic breaker trip in case of a blackout. In many cases. for example.1. like insertion of shunt capacitor banks to compensate for reactive load and thereby increasing the voltage.2 device number 27 3U< SYMBOL-R-2U-GREATER-THAN V2 EN 3. 3.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. transformers. It is used also as a supervision and fault detection function for other protection functions. which will be damaged when subject to service under low voltage conditions. where reliable detection of low phase voltages is necessary.8 Voltage protection 3.1 Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV Function description Two step undervoltage protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification UV2PTUV ANSI/IEEE C37. Other applications are the detection of "no voltage" condition. 2. UV2PTUV prevents sensitive equipment from running under conditions that could cause their overheating and thus shorten their life time expectancy. 468 Application manual . Low voltage conditions are caused by abnormal operation or fault in the power system. UV2PTUV is used to disconnect apparatuses. Malfunctioning of a voltage regulator or wrong settings under manual control (symmetrical voltage decrease).1 Application Two-step undervoltage protection function (UV2PTUV) is applicable in all situations. it is a useful function in circuits for local or remote automation processes in the power system. UV2PTUV is used in combination with overcurrent protections. like electric motors. UV2PTUV deals with low voltage conditions at power system frequency.8. UV2PTUV is applied to power system elements.

There is a very wide application area where general undervoltage functions are used. All voltage related settings are made as a percentage of the settings base voltage UBase and base current IBase. Disconnected equipment detection The setting must be below the lowest occurring "normal" voltage and above the highest occurring voltage. good practice or other agreements. This voltage is used as reference for voltage setting. which normally is set to the primary rated voltage level (phase-to-phase) of the power system or the high voltage equipment under consideration.8. Some applications and related setting guidelines for the voltage level are described in the following sections.2 Setting guidelines All the voltage conditions in the system where UV2PTUV performs its functions should be considered. Settings for Two step undervoltage protection The following settings can be done for Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV: ConnType: Sets whether the measurement shall be phase-to-earth fundamental value. when the equipment is disconnected. UBase: Base voltage phase-to-phase in primary kV. phase-to-phase fundamental value. since there must be enough time available for the main protection to clear short circuits and earth faults. and thorough studies have to be made to find the suitable levels.1. Equipment protection. due to regulation.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. caused by inductive or capacitive coupling. such as for motors and generators The setting must be below the lowest occurring "normal" voltage and above the lowest acceptable voltage for the equipment. Operation: Off or On. The setting for UV2PTUV is normally not critical. Backup protection for power system faults The setting must be below the lowest occurring "normal" voltage and above the highest occurring voltage during the fault conditions under consideration. Voltage instability mitigation This setting is very much dependent on the power system characteristics. Power supply quality The setting must be below the lowest occurring "normal" voltage and above the lowest acceptable voltage. The same also applies to the associated equipment. phase-to-earth RMS value or phase-tophase RMS value. its voltage and time characteristic. UV2PTUV measures selectively phase-to-earth 469 Application manual .

it is sufficient that one phase voltage is low to give operation. It is essential to consider the minimum voltage at non-faulted situations. curve. tnMin: Minimum operation time for inverse time characteristic for step n.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C voltages. By setting t1Min longer than the operation time for other protections such unselective tripping can be avoided. Therefore. OpModen: This parameter describes how many of the three measured voltages that should be below the set level to give operation for step n. The selection is dependent on the protection application. Inverse Curve A. When ConnType is set to PhN DFT or PhN RMS then the IED automatically divides set value for UBase by √3. In most applications. This means operation for phase-to-earth voltage under: U < (%) × UBase( kV ) 3 EQUATION1447 V1 EN (Equation 402) and operation for phase-to-phase voltage under: U < (%) × UBase(kV) EQUATION1990 V1 EN (Equation 403) The below described setting parameters are identical for the two steps (n = 1 or 2). given as % of the parameter UBase. 470 Application manual . given in s. Un<: Set operate undervoltage operation value for step n. When using inverse time characteristic for the undervoltage function during very low voltages can give a short operation time. the setting parameters are described only once. 2 out of 3 can be chosen. Prog. tResetn: Reset time for step n if definite time delay is used. Therefore. Normally this voltage is larger than 90% of nominal voltage. In many applications the protection function shall not directly trip when there is a short circuit or earth faults in the system. The setting can be Definite time. 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3. given in s. or phase-to-phase voltage chosen by the setting ConnType. If UV2PTUV shall be insensitive for single phaseto-earth faults. always set UBase as rated primary phase-to-phase voltage of the protected object. This might lead to unselective trip. tn: time delay of step n. In subtransmission and transmission networks the undervoltage function is mainly a system supervision function and 3 out of 3 is selected. This setting is dependent of the protection application. inv. The time delay must be coordinated to the short circuit protections. The setting is highly dependent of the protection application. The default value is 25 ms. The setting can be 1 out of 3. Characteristicn: This parameter gives the type of time delay to be used. given in s. UBase is used when ConnType is set to PhPh DFT or PhPh RMS. The function will operate if the voltage gets lower than the set percentage of UBase. Inverse Curve B.

kn: Time multiplier for inverse time characteristic. ACrvn.CrvSatn/100). In the voltage interval Un< down to Un< · (1. If the programmable curve is used this parameter must be calculated so that: B× CrvSatn -C > 0 100 (Equation 404) EQUATION1448 V1 EN IntBlkSeln: This parameter can be set to Off. CCrvn.05 . Description of this can be found in the technical reference manual. that is. As switch of shall be detected the setting can be very low. Frozen time. PCrvn: Parameters to set to create programmable under voltage inverse time characteristic. In case of a low voltage the undervoltage function can be blocked. Block of trip.0 . This parameter is used for coordination between different inverse time delayed undervoltage protections. Therefore. IntBlkStValn: Voltage level under which the blocking is activated set in % of UBase.1. It is important that this delay is shorter than the operate time delay of the undervoltage protection step. 3. given in s. about 10%. Linearly decreased. This function can be used to prevent function when the protected object is switched off. given in s. CrvSatn: When the denominator in the expression of the programmable curve is equal to zero the time delay will be infinity.00 kV 0. The default setting isInstantaneous. DCrvn. There will be an undesired discontinuity. The default value is 25 ms. tBlkUVn: Time delay to block the undervoltage step n when the voltage level is below IntBlkStValn.3 Table 123: Name Setting parameters UV2PTUV Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On UBase 0.8.2000. Block all. BCrvn. a tuning parameter CrvSatn is set to compensate for this phenomenon.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ResetTypeCrvn: This parameter for inverse time characteristic can be set to Instantaneous. This setting must be lower than the setting Un<. tIResetn: Reset time for step n if inverse time delay is used.05 400.0 . If the parameter is set Block of trip or Block all unwanted trip is prevented.CrvSatn/100) the used voltage will be: Un< · (1.00 Base voltage OperationStep1 Off On - - On Enable execution of step 1 Table continues on next page 471 Application manual .

step 1 t1 0.00 Definitive time delay of step 1 t1Min 0.000 s 0.60.000 .5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase. step 1 IntBlkStVal1 1 .000 Time delay of internal (low level) blocking for step 2 HystAbs2 0.100.000 . 3 of 3) from step 2 U2< 1 .01 5.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Characterist1 Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Prog.1. step 1 OperationStep2 Off On - - On Enable execution of step 2 Characterist2 Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Prog.60.60.0 %UB 0.000 .000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 k1 0.001 5.00 s 0.100 %UB 1 20 Voltage setting for internal blocking in % of UBase.001 0.01 0.000 . 2 of 3.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 2 IntBlkSel2 Off Block of trip Block all - - Off Internal (low level) blocking mode.0 .000 Time delay of internal (low level) blocking for step 1 HystAbs1 0.60.10 - 0.1 0.00 .1 0. inv.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 2 k2 0.01 0.05 .001 0. step 2 IntBlkStVal2 1 .5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase. curve - - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for step 1 OpMode1 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 - - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of 3.000 . inv. 3 of 3) from step 1 U1< 1 .001 5.0 .60. step 2 tBlkUV2 0.6000.001 5.000 Definitive time delay of step 2 t2Min 0. step 2 472 Application manual .000 s 0.100 %UB 1 70 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in % of UBase.10 - 0.0 %UB 0. curve - - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for step 2 OpMode2 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 - - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of 3. step 1 tBlkUV1 0.100 %UB 1 20 Voltage setting for internal blocking in % of UBase. step 2 t2 0.100.100 %UB 1 50 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in % of UBase.05 .000 s 0.000 s 0.000 s 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 1 IntBlkSel1 Off Block of trip Block all - - Off Internal (low level) blocking mode.1. 2 of 3.

2 Step Default Description UV2PTUV Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) PhN DFT PhPh RMS PhN RMS PhPh DFT Unit - Step - Default PhN DFT Description Group selector for connection type Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV 473 Application manual .100.000 .005 .000 .001 0.100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog.001 0.000 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 BCrv2 0.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 DCrv1 0.000 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 2 PCrv2 0.000 .000 .00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 CCrv2 0.0 . step 2 Table 125: Name ConnType 3.000 s 0.025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s).50 .001 0.025 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1 ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased - - Instantaneous Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 1 tIReset1 0.1 0.001 1.0 .0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 DCrv2 0.001 1.60.60.000 .000 .0 - 0.000 .0 - 0.000 - 0.000 - 0.000 s 0.100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog.000 - 0.001 0.8. step 2 ACrv2 0.3.000 - 0.001 0.001 1.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Table 124: Name UV2PTUV Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit tReset1 0.60.1.00 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 1 PCrv1 0.01 1.1.01 1.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 CCrv1 0.00 - 0.60.100. step 1 ACrv1 0.200.200.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 CrvSat1 0 .000 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 BCrv1 0. under voltage IDMT curve.005 .60.3.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 CrvSat2 0 .60.025 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 2 ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased - - Instantaneous Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 2 tIReset2 0.025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s). step 1 tReset2 0.50 . under voltage IDMT curve.000 - 0.000 - 0.000 .000 s 0.001 0.000 s 0.1 0.

Low load compared to the reactive power generation (symmetrical voltage decrease). OV2PTOV is used to disconnect apparatuses. 3.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Function description Two step overvoltage protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification OV2PTOV ANSI/IEEE C37. beside the high voltage in the neutral. increase the security of a complete protection system. Different kinds of faults. like electric motors. it is a useful function in circuits for local or remote automation processes in the power system. which can be caused by: 1. and. like insertion of shunt reactors. in combination with other protection functions. and thereby decreasing the voltage.2. Earth-faults in high impedance earthed systems causes. OV2PTOV is used in combination with low current signals.1 Application Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV is applicable in all situations. where a too high voltage appears in a certain power system. 474 Application manual . which.8. shorten their life time expectancy. where reliable detection of high voltage is necessary. It deals with high voltage conditions at power system frequency. The function has a high measuring accuracy and hysteresis setting to allow applications to control reactive load. High overvoltage conditions are caused by abnormal situations in the power system. OV2PTOV prevents sensitive equipment from running under conditions that could cause their overheating or stress of insulation material. to identify a transmission line. OV2PTOV is also used to initiate voltage correction measures. transformers. open in the remote end. thus. 2. motors and power lines in order to detect high voltage conditions. In many cases. such as generators. OV2PTOV is used for supervision and detection of abnormal conditions. to compensate for low load. transformer flash over fault from the high voltage winding to the low voltage winding and so on). Malfunctioning of a voltage regulator or wrong settings under manual control (symmetrical voltage decrease). high voltages in the two non-faulted phases.2 device number 59 3U> SYMBOL-C-2U-SMALLER-THAN V2 EN 3. (unsymmetrical voltage increase). In addition to that. which will be damaged when subject to service under high voltage conditions. like metallic connection to a higher voltage level (broken conductor falling down to a crossing overhead line. 4. OV2PTOV is applied to power system elements.

8. There is a very wide application area where general overvoltage functions are used. Some applications and related setting guidelines for the voltage level are given below: Equipment protection. reactors and transformers High voltage will cause overexcitation of the core and deteriorate the winding insulation. phase-to-earth RMS value or phase-tophase RMS value. but in case of large overvoltages the related equipment should be disconnected more rapidly.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. which normally is set to the nominal voltage level (phase-to-phase) of the power system or the high voltage equipment under consideration. A metallic single-phase earth-fault causes the non-faulted phase voltages to increase a factor of √3. High impedance earthed systems In high impedance earthed systems. Operation: Off/On. Power supply quality The setting has to be well above the highest occurring "normal" voltage and below the highest acceptable voltage.a power system or a high voltage component can withstand smaller overvoltages for some time. Equipment protection. The following settings can be done for the two step overvoltage protection ConnType: Sets whether the measurement shall be phase-to-earth fundamental value. The same also applies to the associated equipment. capacitors High voltage will deteriorate the dielectricum and the insulation. earth-faults cause a voltage increase in the nonfaulty phases.2. The time delay for the OV2PTOV can sometimes be critical and related to the size of the overvoltage . good practice or other agreements. 475 Application manual . All the voltage conditions in the system where OV2PTOV performs its functions should be considered.2 Setting guidelines The parameters for Two step overvoltage protection (OV2PTOV) are set via the local HMI or PCM600. phase-to-phase fundamental value. The setting has to be well above the highest occurring "normal" voltage and well below the highest acceptable voltage for the capacitor. such as for motors. its voltage and time characteristic. generators. due to regulation. The setting must be above the highest occurring "normal" voltage and below the lowest occurring voltage during faults. All voltage related settings are made as a percentage of a settable base primary voltage. The setting has to be well above the highest occurring "normal" voltage and well below the highest acceptable voltage for the equipment. Two step overvoltage protection (OV2PTOV) is used to detect such faults.

The speed might be important for example in case of protection of transformer that might be overexcited. Un>: Set operate overvoltage operation value for step n. Inverse Curve B. always set UBase as rated primary phase-tophase voltage of the protected object. 3 out of 3. The setting is highly dependent of the protection application. OpModen: This parameter describes how many of the three measured voltages that should be above the set level to give operation. Therefore the setting parameters are described only once. The default value is 25 ms. Inverse Curve A. The time delay must be coordinated with other automated actions in the system. If the function shall be insensitive for single phase-to-earth faults 1 out of 3 can be chosen.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C UBase: Base voltage phase to phase in primary kV. This means operation for phase-to-earth voltage over: U > (%) × UBase(kV ) / 3 and operation for phase-to-phase voltage over: U > (%) × UBase(kV) EQUATION1993 V1 EN (Equation 406) The below described setting parameters are identical for the two steps (n = 1 or 2). Therefore. The choice is highly dependent of the protection application. When ConnType is set to PhPh DFT or PhPh RMS then set value for UBase is used. Inverse Curve C or I/Prog. The setting can be Definite time. given in s. 2 out of 3. The function will operate if the voltage gets lower than the set percentage of UBase. OV2PTOV measures selectively phase-to-earth voltages. the operation of phase-to-earth over voltage is automatically divided by sqrt3. Here it is essential to consider the maximum voltage at non-faulted situations. If phase to neutral (PhN) measurement is selected as setting. In subtransmission and transmission networks the UV function is mainly a system supervision function and 3 out of 3 is selected. This voltage is used as reference for voltage setting. 476 Application manual . The setting can be 1 out of 3. Normally this voltage is less than 110% of nominal voltage. given as % of UBase. curve. tn: time delay of step n. The setting is highly dependent of the protection application. In many applications the protection function is used to prevent damages to the protected object. In most applications it is sufficient that one phase voltage is high to give operation. given in s. Characteristicn: This parameter gives the type of time delay to be used. inv. When ConnType is set to PhN DFT or PhN RMS then the IED automatically divides set value for UBase by √3. or phase-to-phase voltage chosen by the setting ConnType. tResetn: Reset time for step n if definite time delay is used. because the voltage will normally rise in the non-faulted phases at single phase-to-earth faults.

2. can give very short operation time. PCrvn: Parameters to set to create programmable under voltage inverse time characteristic.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C tnMin: Minimum operation time for inverse time characteristic for step n. In the voltage interval Un> up to Un> · (1. BCrvn. The setting of this parameter is highly dependent of the application. kn: Time multiplier for inverse time characteristic. Description of this can be found in the technical reference manual. This might lead to unselective trip. Linearly decreased. using inverse time characteristic.05 400.05 .3 Table 126: Name Setting parameters OV2PTOV Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On UBase 0. The default setting is Instantaneous.8.0 + CrvSatn/100).00 kV 0. By setting t1Min longer than the operation time for other protections such unselective tripping can be avoided.0 + CrvSatn/100) the used voltage will be: Un> · (1. For very high voltages the overvoltage function. ACrvn. There will be an undesired discontinuity. CCrvn.00 Base voltage OperationStep1 Off On - - On Enable execution of step 1 Table continues on next page 477 Application manual . this parameter must be calculated so that: B× CrvSatn -C > 0 100 (Equation 407) EQUATION1448 V1 EN HystAbsn: Absolute hysteresis set in % of UBase. CrvSatn: When the denominator in the expression of the programmable curve is equal to zero the time delay will be infinity. This parameter is used for coordination between different inverse time delayed undervoltage protections. If the function is used as control for automatic switching of reactive compensation devices the hysteresis must be set smaller than the voltage change after switching of the compensation device. ResetTypeCrvn: This parameter for inverse time characteristic can be set: Instantaneous. The default value is 25 ms. Frozen time. If the programmable curve is used. 3. Therefore a tuning parameter CrvSatn is set to compensate for this phenomenon.2000. given in s. tIResetn: Reset time for step n if inverse time delay is used. DCrvn. given in s.

001 0.0 %UB 0.1.1 0.100.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 2 HystAbs2 0.000 s 0. step 2 Table 127: Name OV2PTOV Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit tReset1 0.001 5.01 0.60. curve - - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for step 2 OpMode2 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 - - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of 3.000 s Step 0.1.005 . step 1 t1 0.05 .1 0. inv.000 - 0. curve - - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for step 1 OpMode1 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 - - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of 3.000 .000 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 BCrv1 0.1.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 CCrv1 0.60.10 - 0.200 %UB 1 120 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in % of UBase.5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase.000 .0 .200 %UB 1 150 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in % of UBase. step 1 ACrv1 0.000 .0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 Table continues on next page 478 Application manual .025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s).00 Definitive time delay of step 1 t1Min 0. 2 of 3. step 1 OperationStep2 Off On - - On Enable execution of step 2 Characterist2 Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Inverse curve C Prog.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 2 k2 0.5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 1 HystAbs1 0.100.01 0. step 2 t2 0. inv. 3 of 3) from step 1 U1> 1 .01 5.000 .200.10 - 0.6000.001 5.001 5.60.05 .60.50 .000 s 0.001 Default 0.100.00 - 0. 2 of 3.025 Description Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1 ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased - - Instantaneous Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 1 tIReset1 0.00 s 0.60.00 .000 s 0.000 s 0.Section 3 IED application Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Characterist1 Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Inverse curve C Prog. 3 of 3) from step 2 U2> 1 .0 - 0.000 .001 1.1 0.000 Definitive time delay of step 2 t2Min 0.0 .0 %UB 0.0 .000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 k1 0.01 1.

000 s 0.60. To increase the security for 479 Application manual .000 - 0.000 - 0.025 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 2 ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased - - Instantaneous Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 2 tIReset2 0.100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog.001 1.000 - 0.001 1.60.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description DCrv1 0.000 .000 .0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 DCrv2 0.000 .001 0. over voltage IDMT curve. step 2 ACrv2 0.001 0.1 0.2 device number 59N 3U0 TRV V1 EN 3.001 1. step 1 tReset2 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 CCrv2 0.3 OV2PTOV Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) PhN DFT PhPh DFT PhN RMS PhPh RMS Unit - Step - Default PhN DFT Description Group selector for connection type Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV Function description Two step residual overvoltage protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ROV2PTOV ANSI/IEEE C37.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 CrvSat1 0 . step 2 Table 128: Name ConnType 3.60. over voltage IDMT curve.000 .1.000 .005 .000 .000 s 0.01 1.00 - 0.3.50 .3.1 Application Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV is primarily used in high impedance earthed distribution networks.0 - 0. mainly as a backup for the primary earthfault protection of the feeders and the transformer.000 - 0.100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog.8.200.025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s).000 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 2 PCrv2 0.8.000 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 BCrv2 0.000 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 1 PCrv1 0.100.000 - 0.001 0.3.001 0.60.0 .000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 CrvSat2 0 .

the residual overvoltage signal can be used as a release signal. Depending on the type of fault and fault resistance the residual voltage will reach different values. Two step residual overvoltage protection (ROV2PTOV) has to be connected to a neutral or open delta winding. The residual voltage can be measured either at the transformer neutral or from a voltage transformer open delta connection. All voltage related settings are made as a percentage of a settable base voltage. is achieved for a single phase-to-earth fault. In high impedance earthed systems the residual voltage will increase in case of any fault connected to earth. ROV2PTOV is often used as a backup protection or as a release signal for the feeder earth-fault protection. In some more specific situations. generators. The residual voltage increases approximately to the same level in the whole system and does not provide any guidance in finding the faulted component. The residual voltage can also be calculated internally. Therefore. the time delay is shorter. The setting must be above the highest occurring "normal" residual voltage and below the highest acceptable residual voltage for the equipment Equipment protection. 480 Application manual . where the single overvoltage protection is used to protect some specific equipment. such as for motors. perhaps in the component to which Two step residual overvoltage protection (ROV2PTOV) is connected. which can be set to the primary nominal voltage (phase-phase) level of the power system or the high voltage equipment under consideration.3. The same also applies to the associated equipment. There is a very wide application area where general single input or residual overvoltage functions are used.2 Setting guidelines All the voltage conditions in the system where ROV2PTOV performs its functions should be considered. The time delay for ROV2PTOV is seldom critical. For selectivity reasons to the primary protection for the faulted device ROV2PTOV must trip the component with some time delay.8. equal to three times the phase-to-earth voltage. since residual voltage is related to earth-faults in a high impedance earthed system. Equipment protection. Some applications and related setting guidelines for the residual voltage level are given below. 3. its voltage and time characteristic. capacitors High voltage will deteriorate the dielectric and the insulation. and enough time must normally be given for the primary protection to clear the fault.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C different earth-fault related functions. reactors and transformers High residual voltage indicates earth-fault in the system. The highest residual voltage. based on measurement of the three-phase voltages. The setting must be above the highest occurring "normal" residual voltage and below the highest acceptable residual voltage for the capacitor.

See figure 214. good practice or other agreements. earth faults cause a neutral voltage in the feeding transformer neutral.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Power supply quality The setting must be above the highest occurring "normal" residual voltage and below the highest acceptable residual voltage. A metallic single-phase earth fault causes a transformer neutral to reach a voltage equal to the nominal phase-to-earth voltage. as the faulty phase will be connected to earth. and as a backup for the transformer primary earth-fault protection. due to regulation. and below the lowest occurring residual voltage during the faults under consideration. 481 Application manual . Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV is used to trip the transformer. The voltage transformers measuring the phase-to-earth voltages measure zero voltage in the faulty phase. The setting must be above the highest occurring "normal" residual voltage. High impedance earthed systems In high impedance earthed systems. The two healthy phases will measure full phase-tophase voltage. The residual overvoltage will be three times the phase-to-earth voltage. as a backup protection for the feeder earth-fault protection.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C IEC07000190 V1 EN Figure 214: Earth fault in Non-effectively earthed systems Direct earthed system In direct earthed systems. The two healthy phases will have normal phase-to-earth voltages. See figure 215. 482 Application manual . The residual sum will have the same value as the remaining phase-to-earth voltage. an earth fault on one phase indicates a voltage collapse in that phase.

The Setting chapter in the application manual explains how the analog input needs to be set.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C IEC07000189 V1 EN Figure 215: Earth fault in Direct earthed system Settings for Two step residual overvoltage protection Operation: Off or On UBase is used as voltage reference for the voltage. In this connection the protection is fed by the voltage UN=U0 (single input). 483 Application manual . The IED is fed from a broken delta connection normal voltage transformer group. 3. The IED is fed from a single voltage transformer connected to the neutral point of a power transformer in the power system. The measurement will be based on the neutral voltage displacement. 2. The IED is fed from a normal voltage transformer group where the residual voltage is calculated internally from the phase-to-earth voltages within the protection. The Setting chapter in the application manual explains how the analog input needs to be set. In an open delta connection the protection is fed by the voltage 3U0 (single input). The voltage can be fed to the IED in different ways: 1. The setting of the analog input is given as UBase=Uph-ph. Therefore the setting parameters are described only once. ROV2PTOV will measure the residual voltage corresponding nominal phase-toearth voltage for a high impedance earthed system. The below described setting parameters are identical for the two steps (n = step 1 and 2).

inv. The default setting is Instantaneous. can give very short operation time.0 + 484 Application manual . CrvSatn: Set tuning parameter for step n. ResetTypeCrvn: Set reset type curve for step n. tnMin: Minimum operation time for inverse time characteristic for step n. The setting can be. This might lead to unselective trip. The setting is highly dependent of the protection application. This parameter gives the type of time delay to be used. curve. Description of this can be found in the technical reference manual.Frozen time. tIResetn: Reset time for step n if inverse time delay is used. given in s. Un>: Set operate overvoltage operation value for step n. In effectively earthed systems this value is dependent of the ratio Z0/Z1. given in s. This parameter can be set: Instantaneous. the protection function has the task to prevent damages to the protected object. tResetn: Reset time for step n if definite time delay is used. Therefore. to set to create programmable undervoltage inverse time characteristic. The choice is highly dependent of the protection application. ACrvn.Linearly decreased. given as % of residual voltage corresponding to UBase: U > ( % ) × UBase ( kV ) IECEQUATION2290 V1 EN 3 (Equation 408) The setting is dependent of the required sensitivity of the protection and the system earthing.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Characteristicn: Selected inverse time characteristic for step n. DCrvn. When the denominator in the expression of the programmable curve is equal to zero the time delay will be infinity. In many applications. For very high voltages the overvoltage function. The speed might be important for example in case of protection of transformer that might be overexcited. In non-effectively earthed systems the residual voltage can be maximum the rated phase-to-earth voltage. The time delay must be coordinated with other automated actions in the system. The default value is 25 ms. which should correspond to 100%. given in s. CCrvn. tn: time delay of step n. Definite time or Inverse curve A or Inverse curve B or Inverse curve C or Prog. using inverse time characteristic. PCrvn: Parameters for step n. The required setting to detect high resistive earth-faults must be based on network calculations. given in s. The default value is 25 ms. a tuning parameter CrvSatn is set to compensate for this phenomenon. There will be an undesired discontinuity. By setting t1Min longer than the operation time for other protections such unselective tripping can be avoided. BCrvn. In the voltage interval U> up to U> · (1. This parameter is used for coordination between different inverse time delayed undervoltage protections. kn: Time multiplier for inverse time characteristic.

0 %UB 0.5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 1 HystAbs1 0.00 Definitive time delay of step 1 t1Min 0.05 . step 2 485 Application manual .0 + CrvSatn/100).00 Base voltage OperationStep1 Off On - - On Enable execution of step 1 Characterist1 Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Inverse curve C Prog.0 . step 1 OperationStep2 Off On - - On Enable execution of step 2 Characterist2 Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Inverse curve C Prog.3 Table 129: Name Setting parameters ROV2PTOV Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On UBase 0.000 .8.100. set in % of UBase.000 Definitive time delay of step 2 t2Min 0. inv.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 k1 0.01 5.000 s 0.05 400. The setting of this parameter is highly dependent of the application.6000.10 - 0.001 5.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C CrvSatn/100) the used voltage will be: U> · (1.05 .001 5.05 . 3.10 - 0.01 0.5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase.60. curve - - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for step 1 U1> 1 .2000. step 2 in % of UBase t2 0.60.100.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 2 k2 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 2 HystAbs2 0. inv.1.60.0 . If the programmable curve is used this parameter must be calculated so that: B× CrvSatn -C > 0 100 (Equation 409) EQUATION1448 V1 EN HystAbsn: Absolute hysteresis for step n.000 .00 . curve - - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for step 2 U2> 1 .001 5.3.0 %UB 0.1 0.000 s 0.200 %UB 1 30 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT).000 s 0.01 0.00 kV 0.100 %UB 1 45 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT).1 0.000 .1.00 s 0. step 1 in % of UBase t1 0.

000 .0 .Section 3 IED application Table 130: Name 1MRK 504 116-UEN C ROV2PTOV Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit tReset1 0.01 1.001 0.100.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 DCrv2 0.001 0.000 - 0.00 - 0.005 .1.000 s 0.000 .60. over voltage IDMT curve.001 1.50 .000 s 0.000 .000 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 BCrv1 0.0 .01 1.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 CCrv1 0. over voltage IDMT curve.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 CrvSat1 0 .200.100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog.1 0.0 - 0.001 1.001 0.005 .60.60.000 - 0.001 1.025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s).000 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 2 PCrv2 0.1.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 CCrv2 0.3.001 0.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 DCrv1 0.000 - 0.000 .000 .025 Time delay in DT reset (s).025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s).60.001 0. step 1 ACrv1 0. step 1 tReset2 0.0 - 0.025 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1 ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased - - Instantaneous Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 1 tIReset1 0. step 2 ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased - - Instantaneous Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 2 tIReset2 0.4 Step Default Description Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH Function description Overexcitation protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification OEXPVPH ANSI/IEEE C37.60.100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog.001 1.3.000 .000 - 0.000 .001 0.000 .000 s 0.100.000 - 0.8.200.2 device number 24 U/f > SYMBOL-Q V1 EN 486 Application manual .1 0.000 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 BCrv2 0.50 .000 - 0.60.000 s 0. step 2 3. step 2 ACrv2 0.00 - 0.000 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 1 PCrv1 0.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 CrvSat2 0 .

When the transformer is loaded. According to ANSI/IEEE standards. the power transformers shall be capable of delivering rated load current continuously at an applied voltage of 105% of rated value (at rated frequency). that is. Overexcitation can occur during start-up and shut-down of the generator if the field current is not properly adjusted. or a combination of both. the transformers shall be capable of delivering rated load current continuously at an output voltage of 105% of rated value (at rated frequency) and operate continuously with output voltage equal to 110% of rated value at no load. Normally. the flux flowing in the yoke may be critical for the ability of the transformer to handle excess flux. a diagram which shows the permissible time as a function of the level of over-excitation. depending on the design.4. or in network “islands” occuring at disturbance where high voltages and/or low frequencies can occur.1 Application When the laminated core of a power transformer is subjected to a magnetic flux density beyond its design limits. the voltage to OEXPVPH should therefore be taken from the feeder side. Overvoltage. For power transformers with unidirectional load flow. The eddy currents can cause excessive heating and severe damage to insulation and adjacent parts in a relatively short time. the leakage reactance of each separate winding is not known and the flux density in the transformer core can then not be calculated. Loss-of load or loadshedding can also result in overexcitation if the voltage control and frequency governor is not functioning properly. The capability of a transformer (or generator) to withstand overexcitation can be illustrated in the form of a thermal capability curve. However.8. which is denominated overfluxing or over-excitation. In two-winding transformers. the induced voltage and hence the flux density in the core can not be read off directly from the transformer terminal voltage. 487 Application manual . the purchaser may specify that the transformer shall be capable of operating continuously at an applied voltage 110% of rated value at no load. Loss of load or load-shedding at a transformer substation can result in overexcitation if the voltage control function is insufficient or out of order. Low frequency in a system isolated from the main network can result in overexcitation if the voltage regulating system maintains normal voltage. This gives a more exact measurement of the magnetizing flow. or underfrequency. will result in an excessive flux density level. For special cases. the low voltage winding is normally located close to the core and the voltage across this winding reflects the flux density in the core. reduced to 105% at rated secondary load current.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. The greatest risk for overexcitation exists in a thermal power station when the generator-transformer block is disconnected from the rest of the network. The Overexcitation protection (OEXPVPH) has current inputs to allow calculation of the load influence on the induced voltage. stray flux will flow into non-laminated components not designed to carry flux and cause eddy currents to flow. According to the IEC standards.

A fixed cooling time constant is settable within a wide range. a corresponding phase-tophase current is calculated which has the same phase angle relative the phase-tophase voltage as the phase currents have relative the phase voltages in a symmetrical system.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Heat accumulated in critical parts during a period of overexcitation will be reduced gradually when the excitation returns to the normal value. It then uses the positive sequence quantities of voltages and currents. Some different connection alternatives are shown in figure 216. The general experience is that the overexcitation characteristics for a number of power transformers are not in accordance with standard inverse time curves. When configured to a single phase-to-phase voltage input. If a new period of overexcitation occurs after a short time interval. The function should preferably be configured to use a threephase voltage input if available. OEXPVPH must have thermal memory. 24 U/f> 24 24 U/f> U/f> G en05000208. the heating will start from a higher level. Analog measurements shall not be taken from any winding where a load tap changer is located. therefore. In order to make optimal settings possible.vsd IEC05000208 V1 EN Figure 216: Alternative connections of an Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH(Volt/Hertz) 488 Application manual . The operate characteristic of the protection function can be set to correspond quite well with any characteristic by setting the operate time for six different figures of overexcitation in the range from 100% to 180% of rated V/Hz. a transformer adapted characteristic is available in the IED.

Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. The setting is normally the system voltage level.4. The operation is based on the relation between rated voltage and rated frequency and 489 Application manual . MeasuredI: The phases involved in the measurement are set here. TRIP signal is used to trip the circuit breaker(s). Settings Operation: The operation of the Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH can be set to On/Off. IBase: The IBase setting is the setting of the base (per unit) current on which all percentage settings are based. START: The START output indicates that the level V/Hz>> has been reached. IEEE or tailor made. V/Hz>: Operating level for the inverse characteristic.8. Recommendations for Output signals Please see the default factory configuration for examples of configuration. the block input can be used to block the operation for a limited time during special service conditions. Activation of the RESET input will reset the function instantaneously.2 Setting guidelines Recommendations for input and output signals Recommendations for Input signals Please see the default factory configuration. can be configuration problems where analogue signals are missing. TRIP: The TRIP output is activated after the operate time for the U/f level has expired. ERROR: The output indicates a measuring error. The reason. ALARM: The output is activated when the alarm level has been reached and the alarm timer has elapsed. for example. Normally the three phase measurement measuring the positive sequence voltage should be used but when only individual VT's are used a single phase-to-phase can be used. which can take a long time to reset. BLOCK: The input will block the operation of the Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH. MeasuredI: must be in accordance with MeasuredU. It can be used to initiate time measurement. When the system voltage is high this output sends an alarm to the operator. MeasuredU: The phases involved in the measurement are set here. UBase: The UBase setting is the setting of the base (per unit) voltage on which all percentage settings are based. Normally the power transformer rated current is used but alternatively the current transformer rated current can be set. for example. RESET: OEXPVPH has a thermal memory.

490 Application manual . The default value is recommended to be used if the constant is not known. Service value report A number of internal parameters are available as service values for use at commissioning and during service. Substation SAsystem and PCM600. Remaining time to trip (in seconds) TMTOTRIP. tMin: The operating times at voltages higher than the set V/Hz>>. The setting shall be the transformer leak reactance in primary ohms. Normal setting is around 110-180% depending of the capability curve of the transformer/generator. If no current compensation is used (mostly the case) the setting is not used. A typical pulse length can be 50 ms. Typical setting is 5 seconds. Typical setting can be 1-10 second. Shall be set above the cooling time constant of the transformer.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C set as a percentage factor. Normally the final trip pulse is decided by the trip function block. Setting should be above the knee-point when the characteristic starts to be straight on the high side. The alarm level is normally set at around 98% of the trip level. CurveType: Selection of the curve type for the inverse delay. The setting shall match capabilities on these high voltages. flux density VPERHZ. The IEEE curves or tailor made curve can be selected depending of which one matches the capability curve best. Typical settings are 1800-3600 seconds (30-60 minutes) AlarmLevel: Setting of the alarm level in percentage of the set trip level. A maximum time can then be set to cut the longest times. tAlarm: Setting of the time to alarm is given from when the alarm level has been reached. internal thermal content in percentage of trip value THERMSTA. XLeak: The transformer leakage reactance on which the compensation of voltage measurement with load current is based. V/Hz>>: Operating level for the tMin definite time delay used at high overvoltages. kForIEEE: The time constant for the inverse characteristic. tCooling: The cooling time constant giving the reset time when voltages drops below the set value. Normal setting is around 108-110% depending of the capability curve for the transformer/generator. Select the one giving the best match to the transformer capability. The values are available at local HMI. TrPulse: The length of the trip pulse. The operation is based on the relation between rated voltage and rated frequency and set as a percentage factor. tMax: For overvoltages close to the set value times can be extremely long if a high K time constant is used.

The setting of time delays t1 to t6 are listed in table 131. tripping is obtained after a time equal to the setting of t6. 491 Application manual . In this example. Table 131: U/f op (%) Settings Timer Time set (s) 105 t1 7200 (max) 112 t2 600 119 t3 60 126 t4 20 133 t5 8 140 t6 4 Information on the cooling time constant Tcool should be retrieved from the power transformer manufacturer. Set the transformer adapted curve for a transformer with overexcitation characteristics in according to figure 217. When the overexcitation is equal to the set value of V/Hz>>. V/Hz> for the protection is set equal to the permissible continuous overexcitation according to figure 217 = 105%. When the overexcitation is equal to V/Hz>. The most complete information is given in an overexcitation capability diagram as shown in figure 217. For other values. tripping is obtained after a time equal to the setting of t1. The settings V/Hz>> and V/Hz> are made in per unit of the rated voltage of the transformer winding at rated frequency. This is the case when UBase is equal to the transformer rated voltages. the percentage settings need to be adjusted accordingly. A suitable setting would be V/Hz>> = 140% and t6 = 4 s.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting example Sufficient information about the overexcitation capability of the protected object(s) must be available when making the settings. each step will be (140-105) /5 = 7%. The interval between V/Hz>> and V/Hz> is automatically divided up in five equal steps. and the time delays t2 to t5 will be allocated to these values of overexcitation.

5 t4 1 2 t3 5 10 20 50 100 t2 200 Time (minutes) t1 en01000377.00 s 0.1 140.00 kV 0.60.200.000 . in sec Table continues on next page 492 Application manual .200.05 .001 0.05 0.3 Table 132: Name Example on overexcitation capability curve and V/Hz protection settings for power transformer Setting parameters OEXPVPH Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IBase 1 .01 1800.001 7.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C V/Hz % 150 transformer capability curve relay operate characteristic 140 130 120 110 Continous 100 0.000 .1 110.00 .001 0.0 .000 s 0.00 Maximum trip delay for V/Hz inverse curve.0 High level of V/Hz above which tMin is used.2000.99999 A 1 3000 Base current (rated phase current) in A UBase 0.000 .0 %UB/f 0.00 Base voltage (main voltage) in kV V/Hz> 100.0 Operate level of V/Hz at no load and rated freq in % of (Ubase/frated) V/Hz>> 100.8.2 t5 0.1 t6 0.0 %UB/f 0.0 . in sec tMax 0.vsd IEC01000377 V1 EN Figure 217: 3.100 Length of the pulse for trip signal (in sec) tMin 0.000 Minimum trip delay for V/Hz inverse curve.60.000 s 0.4.05 400.000 Winding leakage reactance in primary ohms TrPulse 0.9000.180. in % of (Ubase/frated) XLeak 0.000 ohm 0.

01 1800. either short-circuited or open element in the capacitor bank.8.01 7200. in sec t3Tailor 0.9000.00 Alarm time delay.00 Time delay t6 (shortest) for tailor made curve.00 s 0.00 s 0.60 - 1 1 Time multiplier for IEEE inverse type curve AlarmLevel 50. IEEE/Tailor made kForIEEE 1 .0 .00 Time delay t4 for tailor made curve.2 device number 60 Application The Voltage differential protection VDCPTOV functions can be used in some different applications.9000.8.00 .01 450. in sec t6Tailor 0.00 . in sec Step Default Table 134: Name Description OEXPVPH Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Description MeasuredU PosSeq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 - - L1L2 Selection of measured voltage MeasuredI L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 PosSeq - - L1L2 Selection of measured current 3.0 % 0.00 . in sec CurveType IEEE Tailor made - - IEEE Inverse time curve selection.01 3600.00 .00 .9000.00 Time delay t2 for tailor made curve.00 s 0. phase.01 1200.01 900.5 Voltage differential protection VDCPTOV Function description Voltage differential protection 3.00 Time delay t1 (longest) for tailor made curve.1 100.00 s 0. The voltage on the bus is supervised with the voltage in the capacitor bank.00 .5.00 s 0. It 493 Application manual .by phase.9000.0 Alarm operate level as % of operate level tAlarm 0.00 Time delay t3 for tailor made curve.9000.9000. in sec t5Tailor 0. • Voltage unbalance protection for capacitor banks.00 .00 s 0.10 .00 Time delay t5 for tailor made curve.00 Transformer magnetic core cooling time constant.00 s 0.1 IEC 61850 identification VDCPTOV IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37.01 5.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Name Values (Range) Unit Step tCooling 0. in sec t4Tailor 0. in sec t2Tailor 0. Difference indicates a fault.9000.01 225.120.00 s 0.9000. in sec Default Table 133: Name Default Description OEXPVPH Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step t1Tailor 0.

U1 Ud>L1 Single earthed wye U2 Ph L3 Ph L2 Ud>L1 U1 U2 Ph L3 Ph L2 Double wye Ph L3 Ph L2 IEC06000390_1_en. Fuse failure supervision (SDDRFUF) function for voltage transformers.vsd IEC06000390 V3 EN Figure 218: Connection of voltage differential protection VDCPTOV function to detect unbalance in capacitor banks (one phase only is shown) VDCPTOV function has a block input (BLOCK) where a fuse failure supervision (or MCB tripped) can be connected to prevent problems if one fuse in the capacitor bank voltage transformer set has opened and not the other (capacitor voltage is connected to input U2). generator units where often two voltage transformers are supplied for measurement and excitation equipment. 494 Application manual . It will also ensure that a fuse failure alarm is given instead of a Undervoltage or Differential voltage alarm and/or tripping. It will be an alternative for example. Figure 218 shows some different alternative connections of this function. The function requires voltage transformers in all phases of the capacitor bank.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C is mainly used on elements with external fuses but can also be used on elements with internal fuses instead of a current unbalance protection measuring the current between the neutrals of two half’s of the capacitor bank. In many application the voltages of two fuse groups of the same voltage transformer or fuse groups of two separate voltage transformers measuring the same voltage can be supervised with this function.

Normally.g.g. The setting is normally done at site by evaluating the differential voltage achieved as a 495 Application manual . different voltage levels e. it is set to the system voltage level. be used by voltage drop in the secondary circuits.2 Supervision of fuses on generator circuit voltage transformers Setting guidelines The parameters for the voltage differential function are set via the local HMI or PCM600. The following settings are done for the voltage differential function. RFLx: Is the setting of the voltage ratio compensation factor where possible differences between the voltages is compensated for. BlkDiffAtULow: The setting is to block the function when the voltages in the phases are low. the voltage measurement inside the capacitor bank can have a different voltage level but the difference can also e.5.8.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C The application to supervise the voltage on two voltage transformers in the generator circuit is shown in figure 219.vsd IEC06000389 V1 EN Figure 219: 3. Operation: Off/On UBase: Base voltage level in kV. The base voltage is used as reference for the voltage setting factors. To Protection U1 Ud> U2 To Excitation Gen en06000389. The differences can be due to different voltage transformer ratios.

the delay does not need to be so short in capacitor bank applications as there is no fault requiring urgent tripping. Normally. The proposed default setting is 70%. For application on capacitor banks the setting will depend of the capacitor bank voltage and the number of elements per phase in series and parallel. few seconds delay can be used on capacitor banks alarm. UDTrip: The voltage differential level required for tripping is set with this parameter. For the advanced users following parameters are also available for setting. For fuse supervision normally only the alarm level is used. For other applications it has to be decided case by case. Default values are here expected to be acceptable. UDAlarm: The voltage differential level required for alarm is set with this parameter. tReset: The time delay for reset of tripping level element is set by this parameter. For application on capacitor banks the setting will depend of the capacitor bank voltage and the number of elements per phase in series and parallel. tBlock: The time delay for blocking of the function at detected undervoltages is set by this parameter. U2Low: The setting of the undervoltage level for the second voltage input is decided by this parameter. Capacitor banks must be tripped before excessive voltage occurs on the healthy capacitor elements. The setting values required are normally given by the capacitor bank supplier. Normally. The proposed default setting is 70%. For other applications it has to be decided case by case. Normally.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C service value for each phase. Normally values required are given by capacitor bank supplier. tAlarm: The time delay for alarm is set by this parameter. The factor is defined as U2 · RFLx and shall be equal to the U1 voltage. it can be set to a short delay as faults are permanent when they occur. Each phase has its own ratio factor. U1Low: The setting of the undervoltage level for the first voltage input is decided by this parameter. 496 Application manual . For fuse failure supervision (SDDRFUF) the alarm delay can be set to zero. tTrip: The time delay for tripping is set by this parameter. For fuse supervision normally only this alarm level is used and a suitable voltage level is 3-5% if the ratio correction factor has been properly evaluated during commissioning.

5.0 Alarm level.100.60.0 %UB 0.001 1.000 .6 Unit Default Description Loss of voltage check LOVPTUV Function description Loss of voltage check 3.000 Ratio compensation factor phase L1 U2L1*RFL1=U1L1 RFL2 0. Loss of voltage check (LOVPTUV) generates a TRIP signal only if the voltage in all the three phases is low for more than the set time.8.8.0 %UB 0.1 2.01 400. in % of UBase tBlock 0.1 5.000 Ratio compensation factor phase L3 U2L3*RFL3=U1L3 3.000 Reset time for undervoltage block UDAlarm 0.1 70.6.001 0.001 0.000 Time delay for voltage differential alarm.00 kV 0.000 s 0.000 Time delay for voltage differential reset.2 device number 27 Application The trip of the circuit breaker at a prolonged loss of voltage at all the three phases is normally used in automatic restoration systems to facilitate the system restoration after a major blackout. 497 Application manual .001 2.001 1.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3. in seconds Table 136: VDCPTOV Group settings (advanced) Name Values (Range) RFL1 0.000 - 0.100.000 .1 Step IEC 61850 identification LOVPTUV IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37.0 Operate level.0 .001 1.3 Table 135: Name Setting parameters VDCPTOV Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off/On UBase 0.000 .00 Base Voltage BlkDiffAtULow No Yes - - Yes Block operation at low voltage UDTrip 0.0 .000 .60.0 . LOVPTUV is used for signallization only through an output contact or through the event recording function.000 .60. in milliseconds tReset 0.100. in % of UBase tTrip 0.8.0 Input 1 undervoltage level.3.000 Ratio compensation factor phase L2 U2L2*RFL2=U1L2 RFL3 0. If the trip to the circuit breaker is not required.0 .000 .100.000 s 0.001 1.3.1 70. in % of UBase U2Low 0.0 %UB 0. in seconds U1Low 0.000 s 0.000 Time delay for voltage differential operate.3.60.50 .000 s 0.0 %UB 0.2000.000 - 0.000 - 0.0 Input 2 undervoltage level. in % of UBase tAlarm 0.000 .

001 Default 0. if some but not all voltage are low.1 400.0 seconds and set the time delay for enabling the function after restoration tRestore to 3 . Set the length of the trip pulse to typical tPulse=0.15 sec.9 kV 0.000 s 0.40 seconds. 3. Advanced users settings For advanced users the following parameters need also to be set.000 Operate time delay Table 138: Name LOVPTUV Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit tPulse 0.2 Setting guidelines Loss of voltage check (LOVPTUV) is in principle independent of the protection functions.9999.6.000 .3 Table 137: Name Setting parameters LOVPTUV Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off/On UBase 0.001 3. Set the blocking time tBlock to block Loss of voltage check (LOVPTUV).000 .60. Set UBase to rated voltage of the system or the voltage transformer primary rated voltage.60.000 Time delay for enable the function after restoration 3. Set the time delay tTrip=5-20 seconds.001 5. Set operating level per phase UPE to typically 70% of rated UBase level.100 %UB 1 70 Operate voltagein% of base voltage Ubase tTrip 0.150 Description Duration of TRIP pulse tBlock 0.000 .001 7.8.60.6. All settings are in primary values or per unit.0 Base voltage UPE 1 .1 .8.1 Underfrequency protection SAPTUF 498 Application manual . to typical 5. It requires to be set to open the circuit breaker in order to allow a simple system restoration following a main voltage loss of a big part of the network and only when the voltage is lost with breakers still closed.000 s Step 0.050 .000 s 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.60.9.9 Frequency protection 3.000 Time delay to block when all 3ph voltages are not low tRestore 0.000 s 0.

during a roll-out sequence. where reliable detection of low fundamental power system frequency is needed.2 Setting guidelines All the frequency and voltage magnitude conditions in the system where SAPTUF performs its functions should be considered.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Function description Underfrequency protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification SAPTUF ANSI/IEEE C37. 3. is a measure of the unbalance between the actual generation and the load demand. which normally is set to the nominal primary voltage level (phase-phase) of the power system or the high voltage equipment under consideration.1 Application Underfrequency protection SAPTUF is applicable in all situations. The underfrequency signal is also used for overexcitation detection. The underfrequency START value is set in Hz.9. SAPTUF detects such situations and provides an output signal.1.2 device number 81 f< SYMBOL-P V1 EN 3. If the generator is still energized. in generation deficit situations. in order to reduce the power system voltage and hence also reduce the voltage dependent part of the load. All voltage magnitude related settings are made as a percentage of a settable base voltage. and that manual actions might be enough. gas turbine start up and so on. due to the low frequency. generator boosting. by shedding load. and the rate of change of frequency. transformers. The power system frequency. the system will experience overexcitation. Low fundamental frequency in a power system indicates that the available generation is too low to fully supply the power demanded by the load connected to the power grid.9. SAPTUF is very sensitive and accurate and is used to alert operators that frequency has slightly deviated from the set-point.1. 2. which might be connected to the generator but disconnected from the grid. or a part of a power system. such as generators. its frequency and time characteristic. There are especially two specific application areas for SAPTUF: 1. 499 Application manual . Sometimes shunt reactors are automatically switched in due to low frequency. and motors. Overexcitation is also related to low frequency to protect a power system. HVDC-set-point change. This is especially important for generator step-up transformers. against breakdown. to protect equipment against damage due to low frequency. The same also applies to the associated equipment. suitable for load shedding.

which normally are the most problematic areas. The load shedding is then performed firstly in areas with low voltage magnitude. The voltage related time delay is used for load shedding. which normally are the most problematic areas. the load shedding can be set at a fairly high frequency level. In large systems. by load shedding The setting has to be well below the lowest occurring "normal" frequency and well above the lowest acceptable frequency for power stations. The size of the "largest loss of production" compared to "the size of the power system" is a critical parameter. or sensitive loads. Equipment protection. 500 Application manual . The settings of the underfrequency function could be the same all over the power system. The size of the "largest loss of production" compared to "the size of the power system" is a critical parameter. the number of levels and the distance between two levels (in time and/ or in frequency) depends very much on the characteristics of the power system under consideration. The setting level. The settings of SAPTUF could be the same all over the power system. and the time delay is normally not critical. The setting level. The load shedding is then performed firstly in areas with low voltage magnitude. the load shedding can be set at a fairly high frequency level. the number of levels and the distance between two levels (in time and/ or in frequency) depends very much on the characteristics of the power system under consideration. by load shedding The setting has to be below the lowest occurring "normal" frequency and well above the lowest acceptable frequency for power stations. Power system protection. where the load shedding also is most efficient. Power system protection. and the time delay must be rather short. or sensitive loads. and the time delay is normally not critical. In large systems. such as for motors and generators The setting has to be well below the lowest occurring "normal" frequency and well above the lowest acceptable frequency for the equipment. The voltage related time delay is used for load shedding. In smaller systems the frequency start level has to be set at a lower value. where the load shedding also is most efficient. and the time delay must be rather short. In smaller systems the frequency START level has to be set at a lower value.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Some applications and related setting guidelines for the frequency level are given below: Equipment protection. such as for motors and generators The setting has to be well below the lowest occurring "normal" frequency and well above the lowest acceptable frequency for the equipment.

RestoreFreq 45. tMax 0.00 Hz 0.200 Operate time delay in over/underfrequency mode.000 s 0.000 Time delay for reset. TimeDlyReset 0. TimeDlyOperate 0.0 - 0.05 .001 1.2000.00 kV 0. UNom 50 .2 Overfrequency protection SAPTOF Function description Overfrequency protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification SAPTOF ANSI/IEEE C37.1.00 Base voltage StartFrequency 35.60.5.000 s 0.9.05 400.0 For calculation of the curve form for voltage based timer.100 %UB 1 50 Internal blocking level in % of UBase. 501 Application manual . TimerOperation Definite timer Volt based timer - - Definite timer Setting for choosing timer mode.000 s 0.000 . TimeDlyRestore 0. The power system frequency.60.001 0.000 .10 Restore frequency if frequency is above frequency value. is a measure of the unbalance between the actual generation and the load demand. tMin 0. 3.0 .001 0.60.60.9.65. and rate of change of frequency.000 s 0.001 1.01 48.9.60.1 1.00 .75. UMin 50 .000 Minimum time operation limit for voltage based timer.00 Hz 0.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C 3.150 %UB 1 90 Lower operation limit in % of UBase for voltage based timer.00 .000 .010 .000 Maximum time operation limit for voltage based timer.80 Frequency setting/start value.150 %UB 1 100 Nominal voltage in % of UBase for voltage based timer.000 s 0.1 Application Overfrequency protection function SAPTOF is applicable in all situations. Exponent 0.3 Table 139: Name Setting parameters SAPTUF Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On UBase 0. where reliable detection of high fundamental power system frequency is needed.2 device number 81 f> SYMBOL-O V1 EN 3. IntBlockLevel 0 . High fundamental frequency in a power system indicates that the available generation is too large compared to the power demanded by the load connected to the power grid.000 Restore time delay.001 0.01 50.010 .2.

3. which normally is set to the nominal voltage level (phase-to-phase) of the power system or the high voltage equipment under consideration. Power system protection. or sensitive loads. and that manual actions might be enough. In large systems. or a part of a power system. Power system protection. Equipment protection. SAPTOF is very sensitive and accurate and can also be used to alert operators that frequency has slightly deviated from the set-point. the generator shedding can be set at a fairly low frequency level. The same also applies to the associated equipment.9. 2. Some applications and related setting guidelines for the frequency level are given below: Equipment protection. and motors to protect a power system. the number of levels and the distance between two levels (in time and/or in frequency) depend very much on the characteristics of the power system 502 Application manual . The overfrequency START value is set in Hz. such as for motors and generators The setting has to be well above the highest occurring "normal" frequency and well below the highest acceptable frequency for the equipment. and the time delay is normally not critical.2. in over production situations. The setting level. and the time delay must be rather short. HVDC-set-point change and so on. against breakdown. suitable for generator shedding. the number of levels and the distance between two levels (in time and/or in frequency) depend very much on the characteristics of the power system under consideration. to protect equipment against damage due to high frequency. by shedding generation. by generator shedding The setting level. All voltage magnitude related settings are made as a percentage of a settable base voltage. such as generators. such as for motors and generators The setting has to be well above the highest occurring "normal" frequency and well below the highest acceptable frequency for the equipment. There are especially two application areas for SAPTOF: 1. its frequency and time characteristic. by generator shedding The setting must be above the highest occurring "normal" frequency and below the highest acceptable frequency for power stations. In smaller systems the frequency START level has to be set at a higher value.2 Setting guidelines All the frequency and voltage magnitude conditions in the system where SAPTOF performs its functions must be considered. The size of the "largest loss of load" compared to "the size of the power system" is a critical parameter.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C SAPTOF detects such situations and provides an output signal.

and the time delay must be rather short.3.60. 3.000 Time delay for reset. In such situations load shedding actions are required at a rather high frequency level. HVDC-set-point change. where loss of a fairly large generator will require quick remedial actions to secure the power system integrity.000 s 0.000 . 3. 503 Application manual . IntBlockLevel 0 . especially in smaller power systems. is applicable in all situations.000 s 0. generator boosting.01 51.Section 3 IED application 1MRK 504 116-UEN C under consideration. The size of the "largest loss of load" compared to "the size of the power system" is a critical parameter.2 device number 81 df/dt > < SYMBOL-N V1 EN 3.9.00 Base voltage StartFrequency 35. In large systems.75.3 Table 140: Name Setting parameters SAPTOF Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On UBase 0.20 Frequency setting/start value. TimeDlyReset 0.000 .100 %UB 1 50 Internal blocking level in % of UBase.05 . SAPFRC can be used both for increasing frequency and for decreasing frequency.2000.9.001 0.2. TimeDlyOperate 0. and the time delay is normally not critical.000 Operate time delay in over/underfrequency mode. but in combination with a large negative rate-of-change of frequency the underfrequency protection can be used at a rather high setting.05 400. where reliable detection of change of the fundamental power system voltage frequency is needed.00 . the generator shedding can be set at a fairly low frequency level. In smaller systems the frequency start level has to be set at a higher value.9.60. SAPFRC provides an output signal.1 Application Rate-of-change frequency protection (SAPFRC).00 Hz 0.001 0.3 Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC Function description Rate-of-change frequency protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification SAPFRC ANSI/IEEE C37. Very often SAPFRC is used in combination with a low frequency signal.00 kV 0. suitable for load shedding or generator shedding. gas turbine start up and so on.

in small power systems. 2.2 1MRK 504 116-UEN C Setting guidelines The parameters for Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC are set via the local HMI or PCM600. There are especially two application areas for SAPFRC: 1. It is recommended to have a time delay long enough to take care of signal noise. and motors to protect a power system. For more "normal" severe disturbances in large power systems. SAPFRCSTART value is set in Hz/s. down to 70 ms.up to 3 Hz/s has been experienced when a small island was isolated from a large system. The same also applies to the associated equipment. since the function needs some time to supply a stable value. in situations where load and generation are not in balance. such as generators. due to a single event. SAPFRC is not instantaneous.3. for example. its frequency and time characteristic. SAPFRC is normally used together with an overfrequency or underfrequency function. Actions are therefore taken at a frequency level closer to the primary nominal level. the time.9. rate-of-change frequency and frequency steps between different actions might be critical. or a part of a power system. when severe faults (or combinations of faults) are cleared . In such situations load or generation shedding has to take place very quickly.0 Hz/s. most often just a fraction of 1. to protect equipment against damage due to high or too low frequency. All voltage magnitude related settings are made as a percentage of a settable base voltage. rate-of-change of frequency is much less. where a single event can cause a large imbalance between load and generation. However. and sometimes a rather short operation time is required.Section 3 IED application 3. All the frequency and voltage magnitude conditions in the system where SAPFRC performs its functions should be considered. which normally is set to the primary nominal voltage level (phase-phase) of the power system or the high voltage equipment under consideration. and there might not be enough time to wait until the frequency signal has reached an abnormal value. transformers. Even large power systems may form small islands with a large imbalance between load and generation. 504 Application manual . against breakdown by shedding load or generation. if the rate-of-change frequency is large (with respect to sign). Smaller industrial systems might experience rate-of-change frequency as large as 5 Hz/s.

001 0. frequency gradient mode.01 0.2000.00 Base setting for the phase-phase voltage in kV StartFreqGrad -10. Depending on the type of voltage deviation and type of power system abnormal condition different over/under voltage protections based on measurement of phase-to-earth.1 General current and voltage protection CVGAPC Function description General current and voltage protection 3. Sign defines direction.00 Hz/s 0.200 Operate time delay in pos.3. IntBlockLevel 0 .or sequence.00 .50 Frequency gradient start value.65.001 0.000 Time delay for reset. phase-to-phase.00 .05 .voltage components can be used to detect and operate for such incident. 3.3 Table 141: Name Setting parameters SAPFRC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On UBase 0.000 Restore time delay. tTrip 0. such as generators.2 device number - Application A breakdown of the insulation between phase conductors or a phase conductor and earth results in a short circuit or an earth fault.000 s 0. tReset 0.10. The IED can be provided with multiple General current and voltage protection (CVGAPC) protection modules.10. transformers.000 .00 Hz 0. Such faults can result in large fault currents and may cause severe damage to the power system primary equipment.1 IEC 61850 identification CVGAPC IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37.60.00 kV 0.01 49./neg. based on measurement of phase. Additionally it is sometime