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Chapter - 8

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTRODUCTION:
This chapter is specifically included to enable readers know the doubts (questions)
arised in the past by transformer users. The genesis of raising such question has been
to take right techno commercial decision during the process of “procurement to
commissioning” for the useful life of transformer. Committee members have captured
such frequently asked question (FAQ) through recalling their memories of field
experiences and customer interactions.
It is interesting to know that such FAQ’s bring out a good understanding of techno
commercial evaluation which power transformer industry has undergone in last five
decades.
These FAQ’s are grouped in three categories:
Design and Engineering:
1. What are the acceptable vibration & acoustic levels?
2. What should be essential type test requirement for a particular voltage class
transformer but of different ratings?
3. What is the significance of stray losses and should it be within some limits of
total losses?
4. Is there any standard for thickness of tank sheet according to rating of Power
transformer?
5. Some bushings are provided with spark gap with arcing horns, what gap should
be maintained?
6. What is the significance of over fluxing factor and its ideal duration ?
7. How much difference in percentage
transformers to be paralleled?

impedance

is

acceptable

among

8. What is the function of stabilizing tertiary winding?
9. What will be a contribution of power transformer in Smart Grid?
10.What are the interfaces of power transformer with switchyard layout ?
11.What is the best core material, one should use to achieve minimum losses.
12.Up to what voltage class power transformer should have Air Cell ?

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How to decide on mixing of oil of two different makes? Page 2 of 16 . Should there be one-to-one match between material used in type tested job and later supplied during manufacturing? 4. What is the thumb rule for IR value in power transformer above 66 KV Class? 2. foggy or saline as near to sea? 12.13. Is there any rule or practice for first charging with respect to HV side or LV side? 6. which has undergone short circuit test? 6. steel and copper in old Transformers? 11. misty as near to a cooling tower. How to ascertain that core material used is genuine? 3. Commissioning and Service issues: 1.Many times tank body is found hot particularly top plate during operation. Should the oil in transformer below drain valve be accepted? Up to what level. like dusty as in a cement plant. How to make scrap or repair decision for transformers? 10. Can we use the transformer unit.How to avoid bushing porcelain flash over in highly contaminated locations. what could be cause & care to be taken in design? 14. How to ensure that transformer after manufacturing has good IR value and minimum moisture? 2.How to find out the weight of core. oil should be filled in conservator? 4. What is the typical manufacturing through put time for different voltage classes of transformers? 5.Why do you need to know the solubility of water in electrical insulating liquids? Manufacturing and Quality: 1. What are the ideal Alarm and Trip values for OTI and WTI? 8.What is the most ideal location for locating the fiber optic sensors? 15. What is polarization index & the significance of polarization index? 5. Should we connect transformer neutral earthing to main earth mat of switchyard? 9. How to ascertain that transformer offered by supplier is similar to what is type tested? Erection. What are the key points for internal inspection of unit at site before oil filling & bushing erection? 7. What to do if IR value is low after filtration at site in new units and how to improve it? 3.

to limit winding eddy current losses. In case of short circuit test. 2. but only for reactors. Temperature rise test with DGA test before and after should be done preferably on one unit of each type of transformer. standards provide alternative method of proving s/c withstand capability by calculations.e. What is the significance of stray losses and should it be within some limits of total losses? Stray losses are additional eddy losses in the structural parts and within the winding. To reduce stray losses.. Tank stresses shall not exceed 2. this has to be decided by purchaser on case to case basis. Quantum of the stray losses mainly depends upon the leakage flux intensity linking with structural parts and the windings. However. Typical specification for EHV shunt Reactors call for “maximum vibration amplitude in any panel shall not exceed 200 microns peak to peak at rated voltage (sometimes maximum system voltage) and frequency. eddy current losses) may be responsible for increased value of the hot spots in the winding. Tank vibration levels are usually not specified for Transformers. bunched conductors. can cause local overheating of structural parts and further gasification in transformer oil during service conditions. Higher stray losses in the winding (i. Table 2 (Power Transformers) Table 3 (Distribution Transformers) Table 4 (Dry Type Transformers). Leakage flux is responsible for these losses. Manufacturers can deliver transformers with still lower sound levels by adopting special measures. type of conductors used and material used in structural parts influence the magnitude of stray losses. many reactors in service failed from tank welding failures due to excessive vibrations. Excessive value of the stray losses if not controlled. What are the acceptable vibration & acoustic levels? Generally accepted maximum limits of audible sound level for transformers are as per tables in NEMA Standard TR 1-1993(R2000) Transformers.Design and Engineering: 1. effective shielding is provided in terms Page 3 of 16 . What should be essential type test requirement for a particular voltage class transformer but of different ratings? Requirement of Dielectric tests whether routine or type are well defined in IS 2026-1 & 3 / IEC60076 . designers use effective conductor dimensions and special types of conductor viz. CTC conductors etc.1 & 3 depending upon voltage class of transformers should be followed. Also. Transformer sound becomes disturbing when sound level is 3-6 dB above the ambient sound level. The geometry of winding.0 kg/mm2 at any point on the tank” In the early days of development. 3. Average vibrations shall not exceed 60 microns peak to peak. Regulators and Reactors.

Transformer specifications. If high tensile steel is used then thinner steel can be used for the same pitch of stiffeners. Today arcing horns are provided only on distribution transformer bushings. IEC also Page 4 of 16 . Otherwise it will be necessary to use a thick plate (32-40 mm thick) as base plate. These arcing horns were not effective against steep fronted surges as the flashover values were quite high for such surges. Is there any standard for thickness of tank sheet according to rating of Power transformer? There is no need to specify the minimum or standard thickness for tank panels. Similarly it is possible to use thin steel (12 . Some bushings are provided with spark gap with arcing horns.00. 5.12.16 mm) as tank bottom with a skid base welded to it. require 110 % V/f (Voltage /Frequency is called over fluxing factor) continuous at no-load reducing to 105 % at full load (only ANSI specifies power factor). For example power transformers side panels can be made of steel sheets of thickness 8 – 12 mm. arcing horns became redundant and no longer used in transformers. Advanced tools like thermo-vision camera do helps mapping thermal image of external structural parts of transformer during temperature rise test. When thickness is less. 6. With the advent of metal oxide surge arresters with consistent voltage cut off characteristics. These surge arresters were not giving precise cut off with surges of different wave fronts. It is not a practice to limit maximum stray losses in terms of % of total load loss as this may lead to excessive shielding in the medium and lower ratings of transformers which are commercially not viable and this unnecessarily complicates the transformer design. To take care of these uncertainties and to avoid a flash over to earth across the porcelain surface (which may damage the porcelain glaze or even porcelain) an arcing horn was provided across the porcelain with flash over voltage well below the withstand value of bushing (transformer). What is the significance of over fluxing factor and its ideal duration? IEC 60076-1 and ANSI/IEEE C57. Stray loss limit are to be reviewed in design review keeping loss capitalization issue and temperature rise in to consideration. Another disadvantage with arcing horns is the interruption of power supply with arcing horn flashover followed by power frequency current flow. 4.of tank shields and yoke shunts which control stray losses in structural parts to a great extent. what gap should be maintained? Arcing horns used to be provided on bushings during the days when surge arresters were made of silicon carbide blocks with air gaps. Any possible local overheating in structural parts in a transformer shall get detected by comparing oil DGA test results before and after temperature rise test. stiffeners will be required at more frequent intervals.

92 1. The low B value for sub-transmission transformers is required as the operator will be lowering the HV taps with constant input voltage. Customers often have their own specific requirements based on operating practice. causing continuous over fluxing in transformers.9 T at max continuous operating voltage of 110 %. utilities generally specify 1.95 Τ for standard grades & 1. How much difference in percentage impedance is acceptable among transformers to be paralleled? Page 5 of 16 . 1. these graphs are all theoretical as no one has tested transformers for these over fluxing levels. Later CIGRE published this graph along with graph from German Standard VDE 0532 / 8. 85 No. Design and operating practices of generator step up Transformers .1.72 T as max operating flux density with 1. Pittsfield engineers and first over fluxing design philosophy and withstand graph were published by them (IEEE PAS Vol. 8 Aug 1966. Engineers take countermeasures such as non..9 T. When over fluxing level at site is more than these. This led to the development and use of over fluxing (V/F) relay in GTs. Earlier days.95 .6 T for interconnecting transformers and 1. Anyway. The reason for failures was increased V/F seen by transformers due to some mistakes in generator excitation protocol. After site failure. When over fluxing occurs i. the flux can no longer hold inside the core and it overflows hitting the flitch (tie) plate. in Europe. before the oil shock.burning of inner side of LV winding and blistering of outside tank painting. 1982 Page 42 Permissible over excitation of Power Transformers.64 in Electra No 31 1973 December -Transformer Over fluxing protection Pages 65. It was the time when large generators of above 200 MW were first introduced. The saturation level of CRGO is almost same irrespective of grades. Over fluxing phenomena in transformers became a concern when some large Generator Transformers failed in USA during the first energisation during 1960's. inner winding.45 T is not uncommon. The phenomena was first studied in depth by GE.was noticed in these units. Later CIGRE revised this vide Electra No. But the fundamental change will be reduced working flux density.e. the classic over fluxing failure mode .8 T working flux density at rated voltage was common for GTs. US and Japan even 1. Dr Girgis of ABB in 2003 IEEE seminar reported 1.98 T for Hi-B and higher grades.55 T for sub transmission transformers.magnetic tie plates with slits etc.9 T for standard mitred core & 1. On safer level. causing them to overheat exponentially.93 T for step-lap core construction. That is why CEGB UK used to specify working flux density of 1. thereby building up extra over fluxing capacity automatically. tank etc. Harold Moore (ex Westinghouse) suggested 1. during factory inspection. when the secondary voltage dips due to transformer voltage regulation. B of 1. 7. But today due to higher and higher efficiency demands and the environmental concerns of transformer noise. when B exceeds 1.requires 140 % over fluxing for 5 seconds for GSU transformers. 82 May. with over fluxing capability of 125 % over fluxing for 1 minute and 140 % for 5 seconds. the working flux density will be reduced proportionately.G W Alexander & WJ Mac Nutt Pages 901-909).7 T for GTs.

It is sometimes called buried tertiary. vector group etc. To stabilize the neutral point of the fundamental frequency voltages 2. To minimize third harmonic voltage and the resultant effects on the system 3. To decrease the zero sequence impedance of the transformers with Y connected windings Stabilizing tertiary winding can be avoided in three phase transformers with three limbed cores as the unidirectional zero sequence fluxes in the limbs will induce a virtual delta winding current on tank surface and serve to some extent the functions of a separate delta winding. What will be the contribution of power transformer in Smart Grid? Smart transformers are low loss. one with impedance measured with plus tolerance and the other with impedance measured with minus tolerances are also accepted for parallel operation. Maintenance free to the maximum extent shall be suitable to work in an environment of in feed from alternate energy sources. To mitigate telephone influence due to third harmonic currents and voltages 4. should be essentially met with. Smart grid ensures easy and continuous availability of power for which reliability of transformer is of utmost importance. To minimize the residual direct current magneto-motive force on the core. no transformer should be overloaded. Purpose of the stabilizing tertiary winding is 1. These shall have bio-degradable insulating fluids and fail safe features. However one or two points of the winding that are intended to form the same corner point of the delta may be brought out for grounding or grounded internally to tank. leak proof transformers equipped with online diagnostic tools required for early detection of faults for unplanned outages. dynamically controlled shunt reactors or transformers equipped with SVC schemes etc. However. 5.Standards are silent about difference in percentage impedance for transformers to be paralleled. Additionally. Two transformers. special transformers like phase shifting transformers. What is the function of stabilizing tertiary winding? Stabilizing tertiary winding is a delta connected auxiliary winding used particularly in wye – wye connected three phase transformers. The golden rule is that during parallel operation. are also smart transformers since they help grids to maintain voltage profile and inter-grid power transfer capability Page 6 of 16 . basic requirements like voltage ratios at each tap. 9. A winding is regarded as stabilizing winding if its terminals are not brought out for connection to an external circuit. 8.

rail gauge. Such phenomenon is sometimes noticed in externally mounted / tank mounted radiator banks of large rating transformer tanks which are dome shaped at top to facilitate transport profile. Many times tank body is found hot particularly top plate during operation. oil content. etc. 7) Cable interconnection details 8) Live metal clearances with switchyard structure and bus bar conductor. PRD. Designer based on the capitalization value of no load losses / fixed no load losses selects the grade of core material to get the most optimum design. if separately mounted. To Page 7 of 16 . Decision of selecting core material is purely a transformer designer’s choice. Foundation plan with weight schedules. As shown in the figure below. Cable inlet to OLTC drive. one should use to achieve minimum losses. Such decisions should be left to designer. 11. 4) Co-ordinates of bushing terminals. What is the best core material. Design review process also helps in addressing several interfaces. based on his technology and experience of core configuration etc. 12. foundation bolts. what could be cause & care to be taken in design? Stagnant oil with reduced flow is generally the reason for higher top plate temperature. centre lines (both directions). the differences in top most plate and the oil entry point sometimes may be substantial to lead to reduced oil flow currents and higher temperatures. 9) Fire Protection system and oil drainage system. by using lower operating flux density. cable pot head mounting 6) Foot print and mounting co-ordinates of cooler bank. PRD outlet. tank earthing pads. What are the interfaces of power transformer with switchyard layout? Some of the major interfaces of transformer with switch yard layout are as follow:1) 2) 3) Permanent route for entry and exit of transformer with trailer. Up to what voltage class power transformer should have Air Cell? Any power transformer of voltage class 66 kV and above should have air cell. weight at each support point. Foot print of transformer and maximum height from rail.10. 13. Saturation flux density of all grades of CRGO is same. co-ordinates of jacking pad loading points . 10) Integration with Protection and SCADA system using auxiliary CTs and local protection like Buchholz. better core construction). control cubicle and marshalling box 5) Co-ordinates up to LV bus-duct. It is not essentially required to use HiB /domain refined grades of core material always and it is possible to achieve same value of losses without using HiB material (say. drain valve. centre of gravity of loading. It is the specific watt loss / kg that define the grade of steel. SF-6 bus duct.

15. What is the most ideal location for locating the fiber optic sensors? Fiber optic sensors are embedded in the transformer windings to directly read the winding hot spot temperatures where it is placed. One simple method to ensure Page 8 of 16 . Manufacturing and Quality: 1. the concentration in ppm and the solubility in ppm. How to ensure that transformer after manufacturing has good IR value and minimum moisture? Transformer manufacturer ensures that the insulation is perfectly dry by various in-house procedures/measurements and he compares the IR values with similar units manufactured in his production lines. To calculate the relative saturation three things are needed . Recommended connecting pipe 14.oil temperature. Location of fiber optic temperature is judiciously decided by transformer designer based on the hot spot temperature distribution of transformer winding. the relative saturation of water in oil can be determined along with the risk of low breakdown voltage from excessive moisture. From this.overcome this situation. The breakdown voltage is also influenced by the amount and nature of particles but the contribution of moisture is a key portion. Generally top zone of the transformer winding is surrounding the hot oil. a connecting pipe from top most point to oil inlet pipe of header may help reduce the stagnant oil temperature. Why do you need to know the solubility of water in electrical insulating liquids? The dielectric breakdown voltage of dielectric liquids is a function of the relative saturation of water in the liquids and not the concentration in parts per million (ppm). this zone also carries higher value of winding eddy current losses in view of radial flux at this location. Generally fiber optic sensors are placed in the second or third disc from top of the winding which are generally the hottest.

more often changes are made in basic design to compensate for the price variation in major raw materials. Co-relation with measured temperature rises and guaranteed temperature rises. giving coil numbers and mills test certificates of each coil. b.g. What is the typical manufacturing time for different voltage classes of transformers? Page 9 of 16 .g. Lightning Impulse Test: a. following major parameters are compared with reference type tested transformer: (1). step-up unit. 4.) b. Whether directed or non directed flow and this should be same as for reference transformer. commensurate with rates of capitalization of losses etc. This correlation can be extended to lamination processor’s end also by verification of records of coil numbers and cut laminations there from. Type of cooling c. (2). Disposition of windings (placement with reference to core). On random basis. disc. generator. Type of Transformer (e. handling and different test set up should be reasonably considered. Type of windings (e.) e. Type of windings (e.dryness of insulation is power factor measurement of winding insulation and the generally accepted limit is 0. How to ascertain that core material used is genuine? Authenticity of the core material can be ascertained by correlation with purchase order placed by the Manufacturer or lamination processor with packing list (bill of lading. MVA rating should be within 20% d. marginal variations owing to sampling. helical.g. f.). (3). c. 2. samples from prime coils and cut laminations may be sent to third party laboratory or laboratory with NABL accreditation for specific core loss measurement. disc. d. Transformer design is a process of continual improvements. layer etc. The same should be followed. MVA rating should be closer to reference transformer within 20%.5 % at ambient temperatures. Should there be one-to-one match between material used in type tested job and later supplied during manufacturing? It is not mandatory to compare materials used in transformer with type tested units on one-to-one basis. However. Guidelines for identification of similar transformer for dynamic short circuit withstand ability is given as Annex-A in IEC 60076-5 : Ability to withstand short circuit. helical. in voice etc. layer etc.) Temperature Rise Test: a. distribution. However. 3. Rated BIL of HV and LV windings. interconnecting etc.

But the measured values may be compared with factory values after temperature correction (for every 10⁰C reduction in insulation temperature. 6. Erection. Commissioning and Service issues: 1. the IR value doubles up approximately) 2. Buyer may random select any one unit from production batch for type testing. 4 – 6 months 6 – 8 months 9 – 12 months Can we use the transformer unit. which has undergone short circuit test? Yes. there was graph indicating the minimum recommended values of IR values for standard voltage classes of transformer windings at different insulation temperatures. giving extremely high values of resistivity for oil. Today no minimum values of IR are specified for transformers. How to ascertain that transformer offered by supplier is similar to what is type tested? We can ensure this by rigorous stage inspection and checking of way bills for the main raw materials and components. Today transformer oil used is severely hydro-cracked mineral oil.Following typical period from the day of order to delivery (Ex-work) can be considered: Power Transformer up to 132 kV class : Power Transformer up to 400 kV class : Power Transformers up to 765 kV class : 5. What to do if IR value is low after filtration at site in new units and how to improve it? In case the IR value is substantially lower than the factory value. These values were no longer valid once high resistivity oils were introduced and later editions of the standard removed these graphs. misplaced lead layout. Hence today. low IR value for tap changer insulation. then the reason for the same shall be investigated. We can use a short circuit tested transformer in regular service . The best method to improve the IR values is by vacuum treatment: The degree of vacuum shall be of the order of 2 Torr for 132 kV and 1 Torr for >132 kV with following vacuum and dry air filling cycle: Page 10 of 16 . water entry in to oil etc. Some of the reasons for low insulation resistance values can be defective bushings. at ambient temperatures. What is the thumb rule for IR value in power transformer above 66 kV Class? In the first editions of IS:1866 Maintenance of Transformers. Hence even with slightly wet winding. transformer may give high IR values due to the high resistivity of oil. devoid of all polar components.It is expected to give the same service life as any other unit in that manufacturing lot. transformer winding insulation resistance is of the order of thousands of Megohms instead of a few tens or hundreds of Mega Ohms obtained in earlier days.

are essentially the same for both the 1 Min. due to the capacitance of the insulation being measured. Page 11 of 16 . due to molecular charge shifting in the insulation. This current falls off from maximum to zero very rapidly. it will result in draining back of oil in to main tank causing Buchholz relay operation (creation of vacuum inside tank when air cell is used which can be a serious situation as air dissolved in oil will form as bubbles near to winding conductors that may lead to insulation breakdown) 4. The leakage current varies with the test voltage. Care shall be taken while filling oil in the conservator. Should the oil in transformer below drain valve be accepted? Up to what level. it will result in oil overflow through the breather pipe (operation of pressure relief device / weld crack in tank or radiator fins when air cell is used). Since leakage current increases at a faster rate with moisture present than does absorption current. What is polarization index & the significance of polarization index? The polarization index is the ratio of the insulation resistance at the end of a 10 Minute test to that at the end of 1 Minute test at a constant voltage. The total current developed when applying a steady-state DC voltage is composed of the following three components: i) Charging current. An advantage of the index ratio is that all of the variables that can affect a single Mega Ohm reading. oil should be filled in conservator? The oil in the tank below the drain valve can be used. If too high oil level is kept at the beginning. ii) Absorption current. iii) Leakage current. and 10 Min. such as temperature and humidity.66 kV 132 kV/220 kV 220 kV/400 kV > 12 Hrs Vacuum hold – dry air filling -. It may also have a component due to the surface leakage that is due especially to surface contamination. If oil level is too low. readings. the Mega Ohm readings do not increase with time as fast with insulation in poor condition as with insulation in good condition.Vacuum > 60 Hrs Vacuum hold – dry air filling – Vacuum At the end of vacuum hold period. corresponding to the ambient temperature. hot oil shall be filled to raise the temperature of winding insulation to expedite moisture removal. 3. External heating and hot oil circulation may be repeated 2~3 times as required. This transient current decays to zero more slowly. which is the true conduction current of the insulation. This results in a lower polarization index.Vacuum > 36 Hrs Vacuum hold – dry air filling -. though may contain free water. As the purpose of conservator is to contain the volume expanded with temperature (oil expands by 1 % for every 10 C change in temperature) it is important to keep oil level in conservator corresponding to the ambient oil temperature at the time of first energisation. Hence this shall be thoroughly filtered before reuse.

large transformers above 100 MVA may be inspected internally at site before bushing erection.g. But when high ratio transformers like step up transformers are energized from HV side.0 to 1. Another advantage of charging from HV side is the lower inrush current (as times of full load current) as normally HV winding is the outer most winding. Connections on OLTC are also tightened.0 = Good The polarization index for insulation liquid is always close to 1. Any movements of windings or looseness of OLTC connection leads / supports (Supports are tightened in case found loose.2. The polarization index method should not be used to assess insulation condition in new power transformers (Clause 7. However.0 = Fair Above 2. the polarization index for transformers with low conductivity liquids i. Following points are generally checked during internal inspection at site.1 to 1.0 = Dangerous 1.1 = Poor 1.) Page 12 of 16 . as a good practice.25 to 2.e. What are the key points for internal inspection of unit at site before oil filling & bushing erection? Necessity of internal inspection generally arises out of any abnormal shocks recorded by Impact recorder or discrepancy in magnetic circuit isolation (2 kV Test).. Insulation Resistance (Mega Ohm) reading /1 Min. oil with high resistivity (e.152-2013 "Guide for Diagnostic Field Testing of fluid filled Power Transformers.25 = Questionable 1. Insulation Resistance (Mega Ohm) reading The following are guidelines for evaluating transformer insulation using polarization index values: Less than 1. During inspection dry air should be continuously injected to avoid any moisture ingress. Regulators and Reactors") 5. LV side shall be protected from transferred surges by connecting lightning arresters or surge absorbers to LV side.13. 1.4 of C57.Polarization Index = 10 Min. 6. Therefore. new mineral oil) may be low in spite of good insulation condition. Is there any rule or practice for first charging with respect to HV side or LV side? There is no specific rule or practice regarding the first charging of transformers except in case of step up transformers and interconnecting auto-transformers wherein initial charging is always done from HV side as otherwise the inrush current will overload the LV side system transformers which will be of lower rating than HV side system transformers.

3. Page 13 of 16 . 5. 7. Should we connect transformer neutral earthing to main earth mat of switchyard? Yes. OTI – 85 °C (Alarm) / 95 °C (Trip) WTI – 100 °C (Alarm) / 110 °C (Trip) 8. The bottom side inspection covers should be located suitability so that the inspection can be carried out easily. 8. Sample tightness can be carried out an in case looseness is found then all the hardwares are to be checked for tightness. The core frame earthing terminals should be inspected for their tightness on the respective termination arrangement. 9. Cleaning of any sludge / dust deposited at bottom. following are the recommended values of the OTI / WTI alarm / trip settings. 9. The tank mounted CT’s assembly if any should be inspected for the tightness of the mounting mechanism and electrical terminations on the secondary plate. What are the ideal Alarm and Trip values for OTI and WTI? Considering allowed temperatures of oil and winding and avoid unnecessary tripping.2.For units with documented evidence of shocks the same should be checked for SFRA and the same to be verified with the factory test results. we should always connect transformer neutral earthing to main earth mat of switchyard. The clamps mounted on mounting arrangements and mounting hardwares should be checked for tightness. 7. Internal inspection of main unit should be started from the bottom to validate that no loose items are lying at the bottom of the tank.Any loose tapes for securing the leads or any items are located the same should be re-secured. 11. The insulating material clamps are used for the retention of the leads and maintain the clearances. The age of transformer. but sample tightness check for the hardware can be done. the tightness of the hardwares for the clamping insulation should be checked for their tightness. The various leads inside the transformer for the HV. cost and time to repair v/s new procurement are the issues to be addressed to decide scrap or repair. All the shorting links in the frame should be checked for tightness of their hardwares. 6. IV. 4. tertiary connections and neutral are routed and clamped using insulation materials clamps & hardwares. OLTC lead connections should be inspected and preferably the leads are not displaced from their original location. How to make scrap or repair decision for transformers? There is no hard and fast rule and the appropriate decision is to be taken on case to case basis. 10.

From the total weight of (copper + Core) individual weight of core laminations and copper conductor can be estimated by guessing the core / copper ratio.25 1. How to find out the weight of core. In high impedance transformer.20 1. wood) in the ratio of 50:50. With advancement of technology. find out the weight of net (copper + CRGO Steel) by dividing “factor”. However.75) this “factor” was on the higher side. in such a case. losses of the transformers have come down. the possibility of a more energy efficient transformer in lieu of huge repair cost may also be explored. But it will have copper contacts as part which has good scrap value.15 1. From the active part weight.197519957 9 2 5 5 0 0 5 winding Transformer Auto-Transformer 1. the ratio will be on higher side = 1.13 Difference between active part – (Copper + Core) can be taken as the weight of mild steel fabricated item plus oil impregnated insulation materials (paper. pressboard. This “factor” will vary depending on the period when the transformer was made. Factor Two 1965. In early days (1965 .5 ~ 4. This ratio of core to copper weight (vary 1 ~ 4) depending on  - Whether it is a two winding or an auto-transformer. change of windings and uprating with enhanced cooling may be a good proposition.If the repair cost is more than 60-65% of cost of new transformer.10 1. - Whether high impedance or low impedance transformer. In auto transformers ratio will be on lower side = 1 ~ 2. it may be worth considering scrap of the transformer. While considering repair of an old transformer. 10. one may consider scrap. steel and copper in old Transformers? Approximate weight of copper and core steel can be found out from the active part weight as shown in the rating plate of transformer. In later years. - Based on loss ratio (copper loss/iron loss) If it is high.20 1. If the age is more than 20 years and repair cost is substantial. In two winding units. the ratio will be on lower side. it came down due to improvements in design.   Page 14 of 16 . Weight of tap -changer can be neglected. core / copper ratio will be on lower side.

12.8 on the head GROUP-B: Bolts marked 8. What are the standard torque values for bolts and studs ? The Classification of bolts is as show below. and having the same lowest cold starting energizing temperature are considered to be miscible and compatible with each other. However. maintenance and evaluation of RTV silicone rubber coatings for outdoor ceramic insulators. In areas of high pollution with frequent vetting due to mist. How to decide on mixing of oil of two different makes? Generally the same grade of oil meeting the same standard can be mixed. foggy or saline as near to sea? The solutions available earlier were live line washing with demineralized water. This can be applied at factory and recoating will be required only once in its useful life of 30 years or more. 75:25 ) and individual samples and mixture samples shall be subjected to oxidation stability test. In contaminated locations with relatively dry dust. frequent application of silicone greases. (IEEE Std 1523-2002 Guide for application. based on material properties. rain or fog. 13. fool proof testing method is to prepare two oils mixtures of different combinations ( say 25:75. IEC 60815-3 -2008 Selection of Insulators-Polymeric. GROUP-A: Bolts marked 4. use composite polymeric insulators (IEC 62217-2005 Polymeric Insulators for indoor and outdoor use for voltage above 1 kV. This came in to market around 1985.e. use of porcelains with easy clean sheds and of long creep lengths (more than 31 mm/kV of system voltage). CIGRE Technical Brochures 442 & 478) In such wet locations. mixing of very old oils with new oils shall be avoided. How to avoid bushing porcelain flash over in highly contaminated locations. power factor and resistivity tests and compare the same with individual oil tests. composite polymeric insulators will loose their hydrophobicity quickly thorough repeated discharges and hence RTV coating over ceramic porcelain insulators is recommended. like dusty as in a cement plant. use porcelain insulators with RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanizing) silicone coating.8 or higher on the head or of Stainless Steel The maximum recommended torque values. IEC/TR 62039-2007) instead of conventional porcelain insulators. for both groups are as given below: GROUP-A: Maximum recommended Torque Torque GROUP-B: Maximum recommended Page 15 of 16 . either uninhibited or inhibited. Better solutions are available today for reduced maintenance cost and extended life time. core / copper ratio will be on higher side. To check the miscibility concerns. misty as near to a cooling tower. If it is low.- 11.50:50. New Transformer oil confirming to same group i.

Bolt Size M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M30 M36 Unplated Torque N-m 20 36 90 175 300 600 1050 Zn Plated Galvanized Torque N-m 25 40 110 210 360 720 1260 Bolt Size M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M30 M36 Unplated Torque Nm 35 60 145 280 490 970 1700 Zn Plated Galvanized Torque N-m 40 70 170 340 590 1160 2040 Gasketed Joints: Recommended torques for bolts/studs only for gasketed joints. Based on maxium pitch generally used for that class of bolt. Bolt Size M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 Unplated Torque N-m 20 30 50 70 100 Page 16 of 16 .