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Topological Spaces

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Chapter 1
Topological Spaces
1.1 Basic Concepts
We start with the assumption that we intuitively understand what is meant
by a set. For us, set is a collection of well defined objects. We have a set X and let
J be a collection of subsets of X satisfying:
• (T1) φ ∈ J , X ∈ J , where φ is the empty set (or say null set).
• (T2) Suppose we have an arbitrary nonempty set J and to each α ∈ J
we have a subset Aα of X such that Aα ∈ J , then our J has the property that
∪ Aα ∈ J , where ∪ Aα = {x ∈ X : x ∈ Aα for at least one α ∈ J}.
α∈J
α∈J
• (T3) If A1 , A2 are in J then A1 ∩ A2 is also in J (that is A1 , A2 ∈ J implies
A1 ∩ A2 ∈ J ).
In such a case, the given collection J is called a topology on X and the pair
(X, J ) is called a topological space.
Remark 1.1.1. If A is a member of J and x ∈ A then we say that A is a
neighbourhood (also known as open neighbourhood) of x. That is for each x in X, J
contains the collection Nx = {U ∈ J : x ∈ U } of all open neighbourhoods of x.
Suppose we are given a set X. Now our aim is to find collections B and J of
subsets of X satisfying:
(i) B ⊆ J , (ii) J satisfies (T1), (T2), (T3), and (iii) J = {U ⊆ X : x ∈ U implies
there exists B ∈ B such that x ∈ B ⊆ U }.
3
In such a case, J is said to be a topology on X generated by the collection B and B
is said to be a basis for the topology J . Each member of J is called an open subset
of X and each member of B is called an essential neighbourhood or a basic open set
in X. Since X ∈ J , by (iii) for each x ∈ X there exists B ∈ B such that x ∈ B.
Also note that if B1 , B2 ∈ B then B1 ∩ B2 ∈ J . Hence for any x ∈ B1 ∩ B2 there
exists B3 ∈ B such that x ∈ B3 ⊆ B1 ∩ B2 . Therefore B satisfies the following:
• (B1) For every x ∈ X there exists B ∈ B such that x ∈ B.
• (B2) B1 , B2 ∈ B and x ∈ B1 ∩ B2 implies there exists B3 ∈ B such that
x ∈ B3 ⊆ B1 ∩ B2 .
B1
x
B3
B2
Figure 1.1
Suppose a collection B of subsets of a given set X satisfies the conditions (B1), (B2).
Then using (iii) we can define J and such a collection J satisfies (T1), (T2),
and (T3).
Let us prove the following theorem:
Theorem 1.1.2. Suppose a collection B of subsets of a given set X satisfies:
(B1) For every x ∈ X there exists B ∈ B such that x ∈ B.
(B2) B1 , B2 ∈ B and x ∈ B1 ∩ B2 implies there exists B3 ∈ B such that
x ∈ B3 ⊆ B1 ∩ B2 .
4
Then the collection J defined as J = {U ⊆ X : x ∈ U implies there exists B ∈ B
such that x ∈ B ⊆ U } is a topology on X.
Proof. To prove (T1): From (B1), x ∈ X implies there exists B ∈ B such that
x ∈ B ⊆ X. Hence by the definition of J , X ∈ J . Now we will have to prove that
the null set φ ∈ J . How to prove? Our statement namely x ∈ U implies there exists
B ∈ B such that x ∈ B ⊆ U is a conditional statement. That is, we have statements
say p and q. Now consider the truth table
p
q
p⇒q
T
T
T
T
F
F
F
T
T
F
F
T
The so-called null set φ (or empty set) is a subset of X. Whether φ satisfies the stated
property? What is the stated property with respect to our set φ? If x ∈ φ then there
exists B ∈ B such that x ∈ B ⊆ φ, where are we in the truth table? Whether there
is x ∈ φ? The answer is no. So our statement x ∈ φ is false. In such a case whether
q is true or false it does not matter and p ⇒ q is true. So the conclusion is that the
null set φ has the stated property, therefore by the definition of J , φ ∈ J .
To prove (T2): Suppose J is a nonempty set and for each α ∈ J, Aα ∈ J . Now we
will have to prove that ∪ Aα ∈ J .
α∈J
If ∪ Aα = φ, then φ ∈ J (follows from (T1)). So let us assume that
α∈J
∪ Aα 6= φ. Let x ∈ ∪ Aα , then
α∈J
α∈J
there
exists
α0 ∈ J
such that x ∈ Aα0 .
Now x ∈ Aα0 and Aα0 ∈ J therefore by the definition of J there exists B ∈ B such
5
that x ∈ B ⊆ Aα0 . But Aα0 ⊆ ∪ Aα . Hence x ∈ ∪ Aα implies there exists B ∈ B
α∈J
α∈J
such that x ∈ B ⊆ ∪ Aα (since x ∈ B ⊆ Aα0 ).
α∈J
Therefore by the definition of J , ∪ Aα ∈ J . That is, if J is a nonempty set
α∈J
and Aα ∈ J for all α ∈ J then ∪ Aα ∈ J .
α∈J
To prove (T3): Let A1 , A2 ∈ J . Again if A1 ∩ A2 = φ then by (T1), φ ∈ J and hence
A1 ∩ A2 ∈ J .
Suppose A1 ∩ A2 6= φ.
Now
let
x ∈ A1 ∩ A2
then
x ∈ A1 and
x ∈ A2 . Now x ∈ A1 , A1 ∈ J implies there exists B1 ∈ B so that x ∈ B1 ⊆ A1 .
Also x ∈ A2 , A2 ∈ J implies there exists B2 ∈ B such that x ∈ B2 ⊆ A2 . Now
B1 , B2 ∈ B are such that x ∈ B1 ∩ B2 . Hence by (B2) there exists B3 ∈ B such
that x ∈ B3 ⊆ B1 ∩ B2 . But B1 ∩ B2 ⊆ A1 ∩ A2 . Hence B3 ∈ B is such that
x ∈ B3 ⊆ A1 ∩ A2 .
That is x ∈ A1 ∩ A2 implies there exists B3 ∈ B such that x ∈ B3 ⊆ A1 ∩ A2
implies A1 ∩ A2 ∈ J (by the definition of J ). Now J satisfies (T1), (T2), (T3) and
therefore J is a topology on X.
Remark 1.1.3. The topology J defined as in theorem 1.1.2 is called the topology
generated by B. If we want to define a topology on a set X then we search for a
collection B of subsets of X satisfying (B1), (B2) and once we know such a collection
B then we know how to get the topology generated by B. Such a collection B is
called a basis for a topology on X and the topology generated by B is normally
denoted by JB .
Definition 1.1.4. If B is a collection of subsets of a given set X satisfying (B1),
(B2) then B is called a basis for a topology on X.
6
1.2 The Metric Topology
Let X be a nonempty set and (x, y) ∈ X × X. With each (x, y) ∈ X × X we
associate a non-negative real number which we denote by d(x, y). We want to identify
d(x, y) as the distance between the elements x, y in X. So it is natural to expect that
• (M1) d(x, y) = 0 if and only if x = y;
• (M2) d(x, y) = d (y, x ) for all x, y ∈ X;
• (M3) d(x, y) ≤ d(x, z) + d(z, y) for all x, y, z ∈ X.
It is to be noted that to each element (x, y) in X × X we associate a unique element
d(x, y) in R+ = [0, ∞). That is d(x, y) is the image of (x, y) ∈ X × X. Hence d is a
function from X × X into R+ i.e. d : X × X → R+ .
If X is a nonempty set and d : X × X → R+ is a function satisfying the above
conditions (M1), (M2), (M3) then we say that d is a metric on X. In such a case, the
pair (X, d) is called a metric space.
Let us fix x ∈ X. Now we want to collect all those elements of the space X
which are not far away from x and such a set is known as a neighbourhood of x.
Well, what do you mean by “not far away from x”? The term “not far away” is a
relative term. So we fix an r > 0 (in some sense radius of our neighbourhood) and
then take an element, say y from X. If the distance between x and y is strictly less
than r, that is d(x, y) < r, then we say that y is in our neighbourhood of x. Let us
define B(x, r) = {y ∈ X : d(x, y) < r}, and call this set as one of our neighbourhoods
of x. If we change r, we get different neighbourhoods of x and B(x, r) is also known
as the ball centered at x and radius r. When X = R3 and d, the distance function,
is the usual Euclidean distance, i.e. for any x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ), y = (y1 , y2 , y3 ) ∈ R3
7
d(x, y) =
p
(x1 − y1 )2 + (x2 − y2 )2 + (x3 − y3 )2 , then B(x, r) is the usual Euclidean
ball centered at x and radius r > 0.
Remark 1.2.1. One can have different metrics on R3 (or Rn , n ≥ 1) and for
x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ) ∈ R3 , r > 0, B(x, r) may be a cube or a solid sphere or an ellipsoid
(excluding the points on the boundary) or a singleton {x} or the whole space R3 under
suitable metrics. Now consider a subset A of X. Suppose A has the property: if
x ∈ A then there exists at least one neighbourhood of x say B(x, r) which is contained
in our set A. That is, x ∈ A implies there exists r > 0 such that B(x, r) ⊆ A (such a
r > 0 depends on x ∈ A. i.e. same r may not work for every x ∈ A).
Note. Our statement namely x ∈ A implies there exists r > 0 such that B(x, r) ⊆ A
is a conditional statement. The so-called empty set (or null set) φ is a subset of our
space X. Whether empty set φ has the stated property? What is the stated property?
Well, following the same argument as given in theorem 1.1.2 we see that φ has the
stated property. Now it is easy (if not obvious) to prove:
• X has the stated property.
• A, B ⊆ X such that A, B have the stated property then A ∩ B has the stated
property.
• Consider a nonempty set J. Suppose for each α ∈ J, Aα ⊆ X and Aα has the
stated property, then ∪ Aα has the stated property. That is the collection
α∈J
Jd defined as Jd = {A ⊆ X : x ∈ A implies there exists r > 0 such that
B(x, r) ⊆ A} is a topology on X, known as the topology induced by the given
metric d.
In this sense we say that every metric space (X, d) is a topological space.
8
?
Theorem 1.2.2. In a metric space (X, d) for each x ∈ X, r > 0, B(x, r) is an open
subset of (X, Jd ).
Proof. Let y ∈ B(x, r). Then d(x, y) < r. Let s = r − d(x, y). If z ∈ B(y, s),
then d(y, z) < s = r − d(x, y). So d(x, y) + d(y, z) < r. By the triangle inequality,
d(x, z) < r. That is z ∈ B(x, r). Thus B(y, s) ⊂ B(x, r). Hence B(x, r) is open.
It is interesting to note that B = {B(x, r) : x ∈ X, r > 0} is a basis for a
topology on X and it is clear from the definition of Jd that the topology JB generated
by B is same as Jd .
Now let us give some important examples of topological spaces.
Let X be a set and let Jt = {φ, X}, JD = { A : A is subset of X },
Jf = {A :
XKA = Ac is a finite subset of X or Ac = X}, Jc = {A :
XKA is
a countable subset of A or Ac = X}. It is easy to prove that Jt , JD , Jf , Jc are
topological spaces on X, Jt is known as the trivial or indiscrete topology on X, JD
is known as the discrete topology on X, Jf is known as the cofinite topology on X,
Jc is known as the co-countable topology on X.
Recall that a set A is a countable set if and only if A is a finite set or A is a
countably infinite set. Also note that A is a countably infinite set if and only if there
exists a bijective function f from N to A, where N is the set of all natural numbers.
Also it is known that a nonempty set A is a countable set if and only if there exists
a surjective function say f : N → A.
Now let us prove that Jc = {A : XKA is a countable subset of A or Ac = X}
is a topology on X.
9
Proof. Now φc = X implies φ ∈ Jc , X c = φ and φ is a countable set implies X ∈ Jc .
Hence
φ, X ∈ Jc .
(1.1)
Let J be a nonempty set and for each α ∈ J, Aα ∈ Jα .
Claim: ∪ Aα ∈ Jc .
α∈J
Now ( ∪ Aα )c = ∩ Acα . Hence we will have to prove that either ∩ Acα = X or
∩
α∈J
α∈J
c
Aα is a
α∈J
α∈J
countable subset of X. If ∩
α∈J
Acα
= X then we are through (from (T1)).
Suppose not. This implies for at least one α0 ∈ J, Acα0 6= X, Aα0 ∈ Jc implies Acα0 is
a countable set. Since ∩ Acα ⊆ Acα0 , ∩ Acα is a countable set (subset of a countable
α∈J
α∈J
set is countable). We have proved that either ∩ Acα = X or ∩ Acα is a countable
α∈J
α∈J
set. Hence
∪ Aα ∈ Jc .
α∈J
(1.2)
Let A1 , A2 ∈ Jc implies that Ac1 is a countable set or Ac1 = X and A2 ∈ Jc implies
c
Ac2 is a countable set or Ac2 =X. Now A1 ∩ A2 = Ac1 ∪ Ac2 = X when Ac1 or Ac2 =
X or Ac1 ∪ Ac2 is a countable set since in this case both Ac1 and Ac2 are countable sets.
c
Hence A1 ∩ A2 = X or it is a countable set. This implies that
A1 ∩ A2 ∈ Jc .
(1.3)
From Eqs. (1.1), (1.2), and (1.3), Jc is a topology on X. Now let us give some
examples to illustrate the natural way of obtaining topologies once we know bases
satisfying (B1) and (B2).
Example 1.2.3. Let X be a nonempty set and B = {{x} : x ∈ X}. Then B is a
basis for a topology on X.
10
(i) For every x ∈ X there exists B = {x} ∈ B such that x ∈ B.
(ii) B1 , B2 ∈ B and x ∈ B1 ∩ B2 implies there exists B3 = {x} ∈ B such that
x ∈ B3 ⊆ B1 ∩ B2 . Hence both (B1) and (B2) are satisfied. This implies that the
collection B = {{x} : x ∈ X} is a basis for a topology on X.
Now let us find out JB , the topology, generated by B. In theorem 1.1.2 we
have proved that if we define JB as JB = {U ⊆ X : x ∈ U implies there exists
B ∈ B such that x ∈ B ⊆ U } is a topology on X.
In this case for any nonempty subset U of X, x ∈ U implies there exists
B = {x} such that x ∈ B ⊆ U. Hence by the definition of JB , A ∈ B whenever A is
a nonempty subset of X. Also the null set φ ∈ JB (recall the proof given in theorem
1.1.2). Hence A ⊆ X implies A ∈ JB implies P(X) ⊆ JB . Also by the definition,
JB ⊆ P(X), the collection of all subsets of X. This implies that JB is same as the
discrete topology JD defined on X.
Exercise 1.2.4. Let X be a nonempty set and let d be a metric on X. That is (X, d)
is a given metric space. Then prove that the collection B defined as B = {B(x, r) :
2
x ∈ X, r > 0} is a basis for Jd .
Now let us consider the special case X = R, the set of all real numbers and
d(x, y) = |x − y| for x, y ∈ R. Then d is a metric on R. What is the collection
B = {B(x, r) : x ∈ X, r > 0}. Note that B(x, r) = (x − r, x + r) = (a, b), where
0
a = x − r ∈ R, b = x + r ∈ R with a < b. That is B ⊆ {(a, b) : a, b ∈ R, a < b} = B .
a
x=
a+b
2
Figure 1.2
11
b
0
On the other hand take a member say B ∈ B . Since B ∈ B 0 there exist
a, b ∈ R, a < b such that B = (a, b). Now let x = a+b
and r = | a−b
| = b−a
> 0. Then
2
2
2
− b−a
, a+b
+ b−a
= (a, b) implies (a, b) = B(x, r) ∈ B
B(x, r) = (x − r, x + r) = a+b
2
2
2
2
0
0
implies B ⊆ B. Also we have B ⊆ B and hence B = {B(x, r) : x ∈ R, r > 0} =
0
{(a, b) : a, b ∈ R, a < b} = B . That is (a, b) : a, b ∈ R, a < b is basis for a topology
on R and JB = Jd . This topology is called the standard or usual topology on R, and
it is denoted by Js .
Exercises 1.2.5. (i) Prove that BQ = {(a, b) : a, b ∈ Q, a < b}, where Q - the set of
all rational numbers is also a basis for the usual topology on R. That is JBQ is same
as the usual topology on R.
(ii) Is B0 = {B(x, n1 ) : x ∈ Q, n ∈ N} a basis for the usual topology on R? Justify
your answer.
(iii) It is given that (X, d) is a
metric space. Now prove that B 0 = {B(x, n1 ) :
x ∈ X, n ∈ N} is a basis for a topology on X. Also prove that JB0 = Jd .
2
Definition 1.2.6. A subset A of a topological space (X, d) is said to be a closed
set if the complement XKA = Ac of A is an open set.
Use the DeMorgan’s law to prove the following theorem.
Theorem 1.2.7. In a topological space (X, J ) we have:
(i) X and φ are closed.
(ii) Suppose we have a nonempty index set J and to each α ∈ J, Aα is a closed subset
of X. Then ∩ Aα is a closed subset of X. That is arbitrary intersection of closed sets
α∈J
is closed.
(iii) If A1 , A2 are closed sets then A1 ∪ A2 is also a closed set.
Use induction to prove that finite union of closed sets is closed.
12
Now let us prove the following theorem which tells us when a subcollection B
of a given topology J on X generates the topology J .
Theorem 1.2.8. Let (X, J ) be a topological space and B ⊆ J . Further suppose for
each A ∈ J and x ∈ A there exists B ∈ B such that x ∈ B ⊆ A. Then B is a basis
for a topology on X and JB = J .
Proof. First let us prove that B is a basis for a topology on X.
(B1) Let x ∈ X. Since X ∈ J , by hypothesis, there exists B ∈ B such that x ∈ B.
(B2) Let B1 , B2 ∈ B and x ∈ B1 ∩ B2 . It is given that B ⊆ J . Hence B1 , B2 ∈ J
and this implies B1 ∩ B2 ∈ J . Now x ∈ B1 ∩ B2 and B1 ∩ B2 ∈ J implies there exists
B3 ∈ B such that x ∈ B3 ⊆ B1 ∩ B2 . From (B1) and (B2) we see that B is a basis
for a topology on X.
B1
b2
x
b1
B2
a1
a2
Figure 1.3
Now let us prove that JB = J . Let U ∈ JB .
Claim: U ∈ J . If U = φ then this implies that U ∈ J . Otherwise let x ∈ U. By the
definition of JB there exists Bx ∈ B ⊆ J such that x ∈ Bx ⊆ U . This implies that
∪ Bx = U and hence U ∈ J .
x∈U
13
Conversely, let φ 6= U ∈ J . Then for each x ∈ U there exists B ∈ B ⊆ JB
such that x ∈ B ⊆ U. This proves that ∪ Bx = U ∈ JB . Hence J ⊆ JB . Already
x∈U
we have proved that JB ⊆ J and therefore J = JB .
Now it is natural to introduce the following definition.
Definition 1.2.9. If (X, J ) is a topological space and B ⊆ J such that for each
A ∈ J and x ∈ A there exists B ∈ B such that x ∈ B ⊆ A, then we say that B is a
basis for J .
Theorem 1.2.10. Let (X, J ) be a topological space and B ⊆ J . Then B is a basis
for J if and only if every member A of J is the union of member of some subcollection
of B.
Proof. Left as an exercise.
To have a feeling of this concept do the following exercise:
Exercise 1.2.11. For a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 ∈ R, a1 < a2 , b1 < b2 let R = {(x1 , x2 ) ∈ R2 :
a1 < x1 < a2 , b1 < x2 < b2 }. That is, R is an open rectangle having sides parallel
to the coordinate axes. Let B be the collection of all such open rectangles. Now it
is easy to see that B is a basis for the topology Jd on R2 , where d is the Euclidean
2
metric on R2 .
Remark 1.2.12. Let X be a set and S be a collection of subsets of X. Suppose
∪ A = X. Then we say that S is a subbasis for a topology on X. In this case, let
A∈S
B = {A ⊆ X : A = ∩ B, for a finite subcollection F of S}. Then it is easy to
B∈F
prove that B is a basis for a topology on X. The topology JB generated by B is
called the topology on X generated by the subbasis S.
Exercises 1.2.13. (i) Let S1 = {(a, ∞) : a ∈ R}. Prove that S1 is a subbasis for a
topology on R. Find out the topology J1 generated by S1 .
14
(ii) Let S2 = {(−∞, a) : a ∈ R}. Prove that S2 is a subbasis for a topology on R.
2
Find out the topology J2 generated by S2 .
1.3 Interior Points, Limit Points, Boundary Points, Closure of a Set
Let A be a nonempty subset of a topological space (X, J ) and x ∈ A. Then x
is said to be an interior point of A if there exists an open set U such that x ∈ U
and U ⊆ A. Also the collection of all interior points of A denoted it by int(A) or A◦ .
For a nonempty subset A of a topological space (X, J ), a point x ∈ X is said to be
a limit point or an accumulation point of A if for each open set U containing x,
U ∩ (AK{x}) 6= φ.
For A ⊆ X, the derived set of A denoted by A0 is defined as A0 = {x ∈ X :
x is a limit point of A}.
A point x ∈ X is said to be a boundary point of A if for each open set U
containing x, U ∩ A 6= φ and U ∩ Ac 6= φ.
For
A ⊆ X, the boundary of A, denoted by bd(A),
is
defined as
bd(A) = {x ∈ X : for each open set U containing x, U ∩ A 6= φ and U ∩ Ac 6= φ}.
That is bd(A) is the collection of all boundary points of A.
For A ⊆ X, the closure of A denoted by A or cl(A), is defined as A = A ∪ A0 .
Examples 1.3.1. (i) Let X = {1, 2, 3} and J = {φ, X, {1}, {2}, {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {2, 3}}
Is J a topology on X? Let A = {1, 3}, B = {2, 3}. Here A ∈ J , B ∈ J , but
A ∩ B = {3} ∈
/ J . Hence J is not a topology on X.
(ii) Let X = {1,2,3} and J = {φ, X, {1}, {2}, {1, 2}} then J is a topology on X. Now
A = {2, 3} is a subset of X. 2 ∈ A and also there is an open set U = {2} such that
15
2 ∈ U and U ⊆ A. Hence 2 is an interior point of A. But 3 is not an interior point
of A. How to check 3 is an interior point of A or not?
Step 1: First check whether 3 ∈ A (if x is an interior point of A then it is essential
that x ∈ A). Yes here 3 ∈ {2, 3} = A.
Step 2: Now find out all the open sets containing 3. X is the only open set containing
3. But this open set is not contained in A. Hence 3 is not an interior point of A.
What will happen if the given set A is an open subset of a topological space X. Our
aim is to check whether an element x ∈ X is an interior point of A.
Step 1: It is essential that x ∈ A.
Step 2: Is it necessary to find out all the open sets containing x? Of course not
necessary. It is enough if we find at least an open set U such that x ∈ U and U ⊆ A.
In this case the given set A is an open set and hence there exists an open set U = A
such that x ∈ U and U = A ⊆ A. Therefore every element x of A is an interior point
of A. That is A ⊆ A◦ . By definition A◦ ⊆ A. Hence A◦ = A. That is if A is an open
set then A◦ = A. What about the converse? Suppose for a subset A of X, A◦ = A.
Is A an open set? Yes, A is an open subset of X. Take x ∈ A. Then x ∈ A◦ . Hence
by the definition of A◦ there exists at least one open set say Ux such that x ∈ Ux
and Ux ⊆ A. This implies that A = ∪ Ux . Now by the definition, J is closed under
x∈A
arbitrary union. Hence for each x ∈ A, Ux ∈ J implies ∪ Ux ∈ J implies A ∈ J .
x∈A
That is, A is an open set. Thus, we have proved:
Theorem 1.3.2. For a subset A of topological space (X, J ), A is open if and only
if A◦ = A.
Now let us prove that for any subset A of X, A◦ is an open set and if B is an
open set contained in A (B ⊆ A) then B ⊆ A◦ .
16
Theorem 1.3.3. For any subset A of a topological space (X, J ), A◦ is the largest
open set contained in A.
Proof. If A = φ then A◦ = φ. For A 6= φ, let us prove that B = A◦ is an open
set. Due to theorem 1.3.2, it is enough to prove that (A◦ )◦ = A◦◦ = A◦ . If A◦ = φ
then A◦◦ = φ and we are through. Also by definition A◦◦ ⊆ A◦ . Let x ∈ A◦ . Then
by the definition, there exists an open set Ux such that x ∈ Ux ⊆ A. Note that for
each y ∈ Ux , y ∈ Ux ⊆ A. That is y ∈ A and there exists an open set Ux such that
y ∈ Ux and Ux ⊆ A. This implies that y ∈ A◦ . That is y ∈ Ux implies y ∈ A◦ implies
Ux ⊆ A◦ . We have the following:
• x ∈ A◦ and,
• there exists an open set Ux such that x ∈ Ux , Ux ⊆ A◦ .
This implies that x ∈ A◦◦ . That is x ∈ A◦ implies x ∈ A◦◦ implies A◦ ⊆ A◦◦ . Also we
have A◦◦ ⊆ A◦ implies (A◦ )◦ = A◦ . From the theorem 1.3.2, A◦ is an open set. Also
by definition, A◦ ⊆ A.
To prove the second part assume that B is an open subset of X such that
B ⊆ A. Now we aim to prove B ⊆ A◦ . Which is obvious since for each x ∈ B there
exists an open set B such that x ∈ B and B ⊆ A. Hence by definition B ⊆ A◦ .
Consider X = {1, 2, 3}, J = {φ, X, {1}, {1, 2}} and A = {1, 2}. What is
A0 , the collection of all limit points of A. Is 1 ∈ A0 ? The answer is no. Since {1} is
an open set containing 1, but {1} ∩ AK{1} = {1} ∩ {2} = φ. Is 2 ∈ A0 ? Again the
answer is no. Since {2} is an open set containing 2 and {2} ∩ AK{2} = {2} ∩ {1} = φ.
Is 3 ∈ A0 ? First find out all the open sets containing 3.
17
Here the whole space X is the only open set containing 3 and X ∩ AK{3} =
{1, 2, 3} ∩ {1, 2} =
6 φ. That is for each open set U containing 3, the condition namely
U ∩AK{3} =
6 φ is satisfied. Hence 3 is a limit point of A. That is 3 ∈ A0 . Here A0 = {3}.
What is A, the closure of A? By definition A = A ∪ A0 = {1, 2} ∪ {3} = {1, 2, 3}.
Now let us prove that for any subset A of a topological space X,
• A is a closed set and A ⊆ A.
• Whenever B is a closed set such that A ⊆ B then A ⊆ B that is we aim to
prove:
Theorem 1.3.4. For a subset A of a topological space X, A is always a closed set
containing A and it is the smallest closed set containing A.
Proof. Let us prove that (A)c = XKA is an open set. Hence we will have to prove
that interior of (A)c is itself. Let x ∈ (A)c then x ∈
/ A. Hence there exists an open
set U containing x such that U ∩ A = φ ⇒ U ⊆ Ac . This imply that x is an interior
point of Ac , but we have to prove that x is an interior point of (A)c . So it is enough
to prove that U ⊆ (A)c .
Suppose not. Then there exists y ∈ U such that y ∈
/ (A)c implies y ∈ (A). Also
U is an open set containing y. Hence U ∩ A 6= φ. This is contradiction to U ∩ A = φ.
We arrived at this contradiction by assuming that U is not a subset of (A)c . Hence
U ⊆ (A)c , where U is an open set containing x and x ∈ (A)c . Therefore every point
of (A)c is an interior point. This implies that (A)c is an open set and hence A is a
closed set.
Now let B be a closed set containing A then we will have to prove that A ⊆ B.
That is to prove A ∩ B c = φ.
18
Suppose not. Then there exists x ∈ A ∩ B c , B c is an open set containing x.
Now if x ∈ A = A ∪ A0 is such that x ∈ A then x ∈ B (given that A ⊆ B) and we
are through. On the other hand if x ∈ A0 and x ∈
/ A then by the definition of A0 ,
B c ∩ AK{x} = B c ∩ A 6= φ (note: x ∈
/ A ⇒ AK{x} = A) is a contradiction since
A ⊆ B implies A ∩ B c ⊆ B ∩ B c = φ. Hence A ∩ B c = φ. That is A ⊆ B.
1.4 Hausdorff Topological Spaces
Definition 1.4.1. A topological space (X, J ) is said to be a Hausdorff topological
space (or Hausdorff space) if for x, y ∈ X, x 6= y, there exist U, V ∈ J such that
(i) x ∈ U, y ∈ V, (ii) U ∩ V = φ.
Note. In definition 1.4.1, in place of if it is also absolutely correct to use if and only
if. That is, definition 1.4.1 can also be read as:
A topological space (X, J ) is said to be a Hausdorff topological space (or Hausdorff
space) if and only if (iff) for x, y ∈ X, x 6= y, there exist U, V ∈ J such that
(i) x ∈ U, y ∈ V, (ii) U ∩ V = φ.
What is important to note here (that is while giving a definition) is one can
use interchangeably “if” and “if and only if”.
?
Example 1.4.2. If X = R, and Js is the standard topology on R, then (R, Js ) is a
Hausdorff space.
Example 1.4.3. Every discrete topological space (X, J ) is a Hausdorff space.
Example 1.4.4. If X is a set containing at least two elements and J = {φ, X} then
(X, J ) is not a Hausdorff space.
Example 1.4.5. If X = R, B = {(a, ∞) : a ∈ R} then B is a basis for a topology
JB on R. It is easy to see that (R, JB ) is not a Hausdorff space.
19
Example 1.4.6. Bl = {[a, b) : a, b ∈ R, a < b}, Jl = JBl is known as the lower limit
topology on R and Js ⊆ Jl . Hence (R, Jl ) is a Hausdorff space.
Note. Weaker topology is Hausdorff implies stronger is also Hausdorff.
?
Let X be an infinite set and Jf be the cofinite topology on X. Also let
x, y ∈ X, x 6= y. If U ∈ Jf
and x ∈ U
then U c is finite, because U c 6= X.
Also y ∈ V ∈ Jf implies V c is finite. If U ∩ V = φ, then X = (U ∩ V )c = U c ∪ V c and
hence X is a finite set. Which gives a contradiction. Therefore U ∩ V 6= φ. Hence Jf
is not a Hausdorff space.
Example 1.4.7. Let X = {a, b, c} and J = {φ, X, {a}, {b}, {a, b}}. Then (X, J ) is
not a Hausdorff space.
Example 1.4.8. B = {U1 × U2 × · · · × Un × R × R × · · · : each Ui is open in R,
i = 1, 2, . . . , n, n ∈ N} is a basis for a topology J (known as product topology) on
w
Rw , where Rw = {x = (xn )∞
n=1 : xn ∈ R ∀ n}. Now X = R , x = (xn ) ∈ X and
y = (yn ) ∈ X such that x 6= y. Therefore there exists k ∈ N such that xk 6= yk .
Let =
|xk −yk |
2
> 0 and Uk = (xk − , xk + ), Vk = (yk − , yk + ). Let
U = R × R × · · · × R × Uk × R × R · · · and V = R × R × · · · × R × Vk × R × R · · · .
Clearly, x ∈ U , y ∈ V and U ∩ V = R × R × · · · × R × φ ×R × R × · · · = φ. Hence
X = Rw is a Hausdorff space.
∞
Note. Π ( −1
, 1 ) is not an open set in the product topology on Rw .
n n
?
n=1
Definition 1.4.9. A sequence {xn } in a topological space (X, J ) is said to converge
to a point x ∈ X if for each open set U containing x there exists n0 ∈ N such that
xn ∈ U, ∀ n ≥ n0 . In symbol we write xn → x as n → ∞.
Note that xn → x as n → ∞ if and only if for each open set U containing x there
exists n0 ∈ N such that xn ∈ U, ∀ n > n0 .
20
Example 1.4.10. If X 6= φ, J ={φ, X}, and {xn } is a sequence in X. Then {xn }
converges to every element of X.
Example 1.4.11. If X be an infinite set, Jf = {A ⊆ X : Ac is finite or Ac = X},
then Jf is not Hausdorff. Let {xn } be a sequence in X and x ∈ X. Now U ∈ Jf
and x ∈ U ⇒ U c is finite. If U c = φ then U = X. Otherwise U c is nonempty and
finite and hence J = {n : xn ∈ U c } is a finite set. If J = φ let n0 = 1, otherwise let
n0 = max{n : n ∈ J}. Then xn ∈ U, ∀ n > n0 . Therefore xn → x as n → ∞. So,
(xn ) converges to every element of X.
Theorem 1.4.12. Let (X, J ) be a Hausdorff space and let A ⊆ X. Then an element
x ∈ A0 if and only if for each open set U containing x, U ∩ A is an infinite set.
Proof. Assume that x ∈ A0 and suppose for some open set U containing x,
U ∩ (AK{x}) is a nonempty finite set. Let U ∩ (AK{x}) = {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn }. For each
i, xi 6= x and (X, J ) is a Hausdorff space implies there exist open sets Ui and Vi
such that xi ∈ Ui , x ∈ Vi and Ui ∩ Vi = φ. Note that xi ∈
/ Vi for all i = 1, 2, . . . , n
n
and x ∈ V = ∩ Vi , V is an open set. Also x ∈ U. Therefore x ∈ U ∩ V. But
i=1
(AK{x}) ∩ (U ∩ V ) = φ which is a contradiction. Hence U ∩ A is an infinite set.
Conversely, if for x ∈ X, U ∩ A is an infinite set for each open set containing
x then in particular U ∩ (AK{x}) 6= φ, for each open set containing x. Hence x is a
limit point of A. That is x ∈ A0 .
Exercise 1.4.13. Let (X, J ) be a topological space such that for each x in X,
{x} is closed in X. Then prove that an element x ∈ A0 if and only if for each open
set U containing x, U ∩ A is an infinite set.
2
Note. If X is a Hausdorff space, and if A is a finite subset of X, then A0 = φ.
?
21
Definition 1.4.14. A topological space (X, J ) is said to be metrizable if there
exists a metric d on X such that Jd = J .
Theorem 1.4.15. Let (X, d) be a Hausdorff topological space. Then {x} is closed
for each x ∈ X.
Proof. If {x}c = φ, then X = {x} is a closed set. Suppose {x}c 6= φ, this implies
that for each y ∈ {x}c , y 6= x. Now (X, J ) is a Hausdorff space implies there exist
open sets Ux , Vy in X such that x ∈ Ux , y ∈ Uy and Ux ∩ Vy = φ. Therefore Vy ⊆ {x}c
implies y ∈ ({x}c )o . This implies that {x} is closed.
Theorem 1.4.16. Let (X, J ) be a topological space, Y ⊆ X and let JY = {A ∩ Y :
A ∈ J } then JY is a topology on Y .
Proof. (i) φ ∈ JY . Now φ ∈ JX implies φ ∩ Y = φ ∈ JY .
(ii) Since X ∈ JX ⇒ X ∩ Y = Y ∈ JY .
Let Ai ∈ JY for i ∈ I. Now Ai ∈ JY implies there exists Bi ∈ J = JX such that
Ai = Bi ∩ Y. Now Bi ∈ J for each i ∈ I, J is a topology on X implies ∪ Bi ∈ J .
i∈I
Hence ∪ Ai = ( ∪ Bi ) ∩ Y is open in JY .
i∈I
i∈I
(iii) Let A1 , A2 , . . . , An ∈ JY . Then there exists Bi ∈ JX such that Ai = Bi ∩ Y .
n
Therefore ∩ Bi ∈ JX . Therefore A1 ∩A2 ∩· · ·∩An = (B1 ∩Y )∩(B2 ∩Y )∩· · ·∩(Bn ∩Y )
n
i=1
= ( ∩ Bi ) ∩ Y ∈ JY , and this implies that A1 ∩ A2 ∩ · · · ∩ An ∈ JY . From (i), (ii),
i=1
and (iii) JY is a topology on Y.
Definition 1.4.17. Let (X, J ) be a topological space, and let JY = {A∩Y : A ∈ J }
then JY is a topology on Y . This topology JY is called the relative topology on Y
induced by J .
22
Note. Let A ⊆ Y ⊆ X. We use A to denote the closure of A in X, and AY to denote
the closure of A in Y .
?
Result 1.4.18. For A ⊆ Y, AY = A ∩ Y.
Proof. It is always true that AY ⊆ A. Now AY = closure of A in Y , AY ⊆ Y and
hence AY ⊆ A ∩ Y . Let x ∈ A ∩ Y. This implies that x ∈ A and x ∈ Y. Then for each
open set U containing x, U ∩ A 6= φ. Hence (U ∩ Y ) ∩ A = U ∩ A 6= φ. Thus x ∈ AY .
Therefore A ∩ Y = AY .
Theorem 1.4.19. Let (X, J ) be a topological space and A, B be subsets of X. Then
(i) A ∪ B = A ∪ B, (ii) A ∩ B ⊆ A ∩ B, (iii) A = A, (iv) (A∪B)◦ ⊇ A◦ ∪B ◦ ,
(v) (A ∩ B)◦ = A◦ ∩ B ◦ , (vi) (A◦ )◦ = A◦ .
Proof. (i) An element x ∈ A if and only if for each open set U containing x such
that U ∩ A 6= φ. Let x ∈ A ∪ B. This implies that for every neighbourhood U
containing x,
U ∩ (A ∪ B) 6= φ ⇒ (U ∩ A) ∪ (U ∩ B) 6= φ.
(1.4)
/ B. Then for some open sets U, V containing x such that
Suppose x ∈
/ A and x ∈
U ∩A = φ and V ∩B = φ. Let U0 = U ∩V . Then U0 ∩(A∪B) = (U0 ∩A)∪(U0 ∩B) = φ,
a contradiction to Eq. (1.4). Therefore x ∈ A or x ∈ B. This proves that
A ∪ B ⊆ A ∪ B.
(1.5)
Now let x ∈ A ∪ B. This implies that x ∈ A or B or both. Hence for each
neighbourhood U of x, U ∩A 6= φ or U ∩B 6= φ. This implies that (U ∩A)∪(U ∩B) 6= φ
implies U ∩ (A ∪ B) 6= φ. This shows that x ∈ A ∪ B. Therefore
A ∪ B ⊆ A ∪ B.
23
(1.6)
From Eqs.(1.5) and (1.6) A ∪ B = A ∪ B.
(ii) Let x ∈ A ∩ B. Then for every open set U containing x, U ∩ (A ∩ B) 6= φ. Hence
U ∩ A 6= φ and U ∩ B 6= φ. This implies x ∈ A and x ∈ B. Hence A ∩ B ⊆ A ∩ B.
(iii) A is the smallest closed set containing A implies A ⊆ A. Also A is a closed set
containing A. But A is the smallest closed set containing A. Hence A ⊆ A. So we
have A = A.
(iv) Now x ∈ A◦ ∪ B ◦ ⇒ x ∈ A◦ or x ∈ B ◦ or both. Without loss of generality
assume that x ∈ A◦ . Then there exists U ∈ J such that x ∈ U ⊆ A. This implies
that x ∈ U ⊆ (A ∪ B). Hence x ∈ (A ∪ B)◦ . That is x ∈ A◦ ∪ B ◦ implies x ∈ (A ∪ B)◦ .
Hence (A ∪ B)◦ ⊆ A◦ ∪ B ◦ .
(v) Let x ∈ (A ∩ B)◦ . Then there exists U ∈ J such that x ∈ U ⊆ A ∩ B. This implies
x ∈ A◦ and x ∈ B ◦ . Hence A◦ ∩ B ◦ ⊆ (A ∩ B)◦ .
Now let x ∈ A◦ ∩ B ◦ . Then x ∈ A◦ and x ∈ B ◦ . Hence there exists U ∈ J such that
x ∈ U ⊆ A and V ∈ J such that x ∈ V ⊆ B, hence x ∈ U ∩ V ⊆ A ∩ B. Hence
x ∈ (A ∩ B)◦ . This implies (A ∩ B)◦ = A◦ ∩ B ◦ .
(vi) Now A◦◦ is the largest open set contained in A◦ implies A◦◦ ⊆ A◦ . Also A◦ is an
open set contained in A◦ . Hence A◦ ⊆ A◦◦ . So we have proved that A◦ = A◦◦ .
Example 1.4.20. For A = Q, B = Qc , A ∪ B = R and (A ∪ B)◦ = R, A◦ = φ,
B ◦ = φ, R 6= φ. Hence (A ∪ B)◦ 6= A◦ ∪ B ◦ .
A = R, B = R, A ∩ B = φ = φ. A ∩ B = R. Hence A ∩ B 6= A ∩ B.
Definition 1.4.21. Let (X, J ) be a topological space. Then a set B ⊆ Y is open
in Y if and only if B = A ∩ Y, for some A ∈ J .
Example 1.4.22. The set [0, 1) is open in Y = [0, ∞). Note that A = (−1, 1)∩[0, ∞)
= [0, 1). Now Ac = Y KA = [1, ∞) is open in (Y, JY ) if and only if for each x ∈ [1, ∞)
24
there exists U ∈ JY such that x ∈ U ⊆ [1, ∞). But 1 is not an interior point of
Ac . Hence Ac is not open and therefore A is not closed. Whereas [1, ∞) is open in
[1, ∞) ∪ Z.
Exercises 1.4.23. (i) Let X = R and Jf be the cofinite topology on R. Let Y = Q
what is Jf /Y =?
2
(ii) Prove that for each x ∈ R, the sequence (xn ) = ( n1 ) → x in (R, Jf ).
Result 1.4.24. Let (X, J ) be a topological space and B is a basis for J then for
each Y ⊆ X, BY = {B ∩ Y : B ∈ B} is a basis for JY .
Proof. Let U ∈ JY and x ∈ U. U ∈ JY implies U = V ∩ Y for some V ∈ J . Now
x ∈ V, V ∈ J and B is a basis for J this implies that there exists B ∈ B such that
x ∈ B ⊆ U. Therefore B ∩Y ⊆ V ∩Y = U. Now B ∩Y ∈ BY such that x ∈ B ∩Y ⊆ U.
Therefore BY is a basis for JY .
Note. A ⊆ X and B is a basis for J , then x ∈ A◦ if and only if there exists B ∈ B
such that x ∈ B ⊆ A.
?
1.5 Continuous Functions
Definition 1.5.1. Let (X, J )
and
(Y, J 0 )
be
topological spaces
and
let
f : (X, J ) → (Y, J 0 ). Then f is said to be continuous at a point x ∈ X if for
each open set V containing f (x) there exists an open set U containing x such that
y ∈ U implies f (y) ∈ V . If f is continuous at each x ∈ X then we say that f is a
continuous function.
Theorem 1.5.2. Let (X, J ),
(Y, J 0 )
be topological spaces. Then a
function
f : X → Y is continuous if and only if for each open set V in Y, f −1 (V ) is
open in X.
25
Proof. Let f be continuous and V be an open set in Y .
Claim: f −1 (V ) = {x ∈ X : f (x) ∈ V } is open in X.
If f −1 (V ) = φ then f −1 (V ) is open in X. If f −1 (V ) 6= φ, let x ∈ f −1 (V ). Then
f (x) ∈ V. Now f is continuous at x, V is open containing f (x) implies there exists
an open set U such that x ∈ U
and
x0 ∈ U
implies f (x0 ) ∈ V. That is
f (U ) ⊆ V. This implies U ⊆ f −1 (f (U )). Therefore x is an interior point of f −1 (V ).
Hence f −1 (V ) is open in X.
To prove the converse, assume that f −1 (V ) is open in X whenever V is open
in Y. Now take x ∈ X and an open set V in Y such that f (x) ∈ V. Now V is open in
Y implies f −1 (V ) is open in X. Also f (x) ∈ V implies x ∈ f −1 (V ) = U. That is U is
an open set in X containing x such that y ∈ U implies f (y) ∈ f (f −1 (V )) ⊆ V. Hence
f is continuous at each x ∈ X.
Theorem 1.5.3. A function f : X → Y continuous if and only if f −1 (A) is closed
in X whenever A is closed in Y .
Proof. Assume that f : X → Y is a continuous function. Take a closed set A in
Y. Since A is a closed set in Y, Ac is an open set in Y. Therefore f is a continuous
function implies f −1 (Ac ) = [f −1 (A)]c is an open set in X. This proves that f −1 (A) is
a closed set in X.
To prove the converse, assume that f −1 (A) is closed in X whenever A is closed
in Y. Take an open set V in Y. Now V is an open set in Y implies f −1 (V c ) = [f −1 (V )]c
is a closed set in X. Therefore f −1 (V c ) is a closed set in X, and hence f −1 (V ) is an
open set in X. This gives that f is a continuous function.
26
Example 1.5.4. Let X = Rw = {(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn . . .) : xn ∈ R, n ∈ N} and let
B = {U1 × U2 × · · · × Uk × R × R · · · : k ∈ N, each Ui is open in R, i = 1, 2, . . . , k}.
For A, B ∈ B, A ∩ B = (U1 ∩ V1 ) × · · · × (Uk ∩ Vk ) × R × R × · · · ∈ B. Then B
is a basis for a topology on Rw . The topology J on Rw induced by B is called the
product topology on Rw . Bb = {U1 × U2 × · · · × Uk × Uk+1 × · · · each Uk is open in
∞
R, ∀ k ∈ N} = { Π Uk : Uk is open in R ∀ k}. Then Bb is also a basis for a topology
k=1
on Rw . Let Jb be the topology on Rw induced by Bb . This topology on Rw is called
the box topology on Rw .
Example 1.5.5. Define f : R → (Rw , Jb ) by f (t) = (t, t, t, . . . ) and U = (−1, 1) ×
∞
, 1 ) × ( −1
, 1 ) × · · · = Π ( −1
, 1 ). Then U ∈ Jb , f −1 (U ) = {t ∈ R : f (t) ∈ U }
( −1
2 2
3 3
n n
= {t ∈ R : (t, t . . .) ∈
n=1
∞
, 1)
Π ( −1
n n
n=1
= U } = {t ∈ R : |t| <
1
,
n
∀ n ∈ N} = {0}, and
{0} is not an open set in R. Hence f is not a continuous function. But the same
f : R → (Rw , J ) is a continuous function, when we consider the product topology J
on Rw .
Theorem 1.5.6. A function f : X → Y is continuous if and only if for every subset
A of X, f (A) ⊆ f (A) (where it is understood that X, Y are topological spaces).
Proof. Now assume that f : X → Y is continuous. To prove for A ⊆ X, f (A) ⊆
f (A). Now f (A) is a closed set in Y and f : X → Y is a continuous function
implies f −1 (f (A)) is a closed set in X. Also A ⊆ f −1 (f (A)) ⊆ f −1 (f (A)). That
is f −1 (f (A)) is a closed set containing A. Hence A ⊆ f −1 (f (A)). This gives that
f (A) ⊆ f (f −1 (f (A))) ⊆ f (A).
Conversely assume that for A ⊆ X, f (A) ⊆ f (A). Let F be a closed set in
Y and A = f −1 (F ). Now f (A) ⊆ f (A) implies f (f −1 (F )) ⊆ f (f −1 (F )) ⊆ F = F.
Hence f −1 (f (f −1 (F ))) ⊆ f −1 (F ). This gives that f −1 (F ) ⊆ f −1 (F ). This proves that
27
f −1 (F ) is a closed set in X whenever F is a closed set in Y. Therefore f : X → Y is
a continuous function.
Remark 1.5.7. Intuitively what do we mean by a continuous function? In the above
theorem, for any subset A of X, if a point x is closer to A then the image f (x) is
closer to f (A). Here x ∈ A means x is closer to A and hence f (x) ∈ f (A). Now
we want that f (x) is closer to f (A). That is f (x) ∈ f (A). So a function f : X → Y
is continuous if and only if for every subset A of X, x is closer to A implies f (x) is
closer to f (A).
Definition 1.5.8. Let X, Y be topological spaces. Then a function f : X → Y is
said to be a homeomorphism if and only if
(i) f is bijective
(ii) f : X → Y , f −1 : Y → X are continuous.
Example 1.5.9. (i) f : [0, 1] → [a, b] defined by f (t) = (1 − t)a + tb is a
homeomorphism.
(ii) f : (0, 1) → (1, ∞) defined by f (t) =
(iii) f : (0, 1) → (0, ∞) defined by f (t) =
1
t
is a homeomorphism.
t
1−t
is a homeomorphism.
(iv) Let X = (R, Js ), Y = (R, Jf ). Let F 6= φ be a closed in Y. Then F is a finite
set or F = R. In any case f −1 (F ) = F is closed in X. Hence f is continuous but the
identity map f −1 : Y → X is not continuous.
Example 1.5.10. Let X = [(−1, −1), (1, −1)] be the line segment joining the points
(−1, −1) and (1, −1) in R2 and Y = {(x, y) ∈ R2 : −1 ≤ x ≤ 1, y ≥ 0, x2 + y 2 = 1}.
Then X, Y are subspaces of the Euclidean space R2 .
√
Define f : X → Y as f ((x, y)) = f (x, −1) = (x, 1 − x2 ) then f is a homeomorphism.
That is f is bijective and U is open in X if and only if f (U ) is open in Y.
28
x
2
+ y2
1
x-axis
( 1, 1)
(1, 1)
( x, 1)
Figure 1.4
Exercise 1.5.11. Let A and B be two distinct points in R2 and γ be a curve joining
A and B as shown below: That is γ : [0, 1] → R2 is a one-one continuous function.
B
γ (t )
A
t
0
1
Figure 1.5
Then prove that γ : [0, 1] → {γ(t) : t ∈ [0, 1]} is a homeomorphism. That is [0,1] and
{γ(t) : t ∈ [0, 1]} are equivalent topological spaces. That is, there is a homeomorphism
2
between these two topological spaces.
Exercise 1.5.12. Prove that f : X → Y is a homeomorphism if and only if
(i) f is bijective
2
(ii) f (A) = f (A), for A ⊆ X.
29

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