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Victorious Academy

Chapter # 4
Question: Define Microscopy?
Use of microscope is known as microscopy. First compound microscope was
developed by Zacharias Janssen in Holland in 1595. It was a simple tube with
lenses on both sides.

Question: Define Magnification & Resolving Power?
Magnification is the increase in the apparent size of an object and it is an
important factor in microscopy.
Resolving Power or Resolution is the measure of the clarity of an image.

Question: Define Light Microscope and Electron Microscope?
Light Microscope:
It works by passing visible light.
It uses two glass lenses One enlarge the image while other magnifies the image
into viewer’s eye or film.
A photograph taken through microscope is called micrograph.
Light microscope can magnify an object only about 1500 times without
causing blurriness.
Electron Microscope:
In this microscope, object and lens are placed in a vacuum chamber and a beam
of electrons is passed through object.
Electromagnetic lenses enlarges and focus the image onto a screen or film.
It can magnify objects about 250,000 times.
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He called them cells (cellulae). The followings are the postulates of cell theory presented by Schleiden and Schwann: i) All animals and plants are made up of cells and cell products.Victorious Academy There are two types of electron microscope. In 1838 Mathias Schleiden (a German botanist) said that all plants were made up of cells. proposed an important extension of cell theory. Then in 1839 Theodre Schwann said that all animals are also composed of cells. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). These animals and plants may be unicellular or multicellular. Louis Pasteur provided experimental proof of this idea. I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 2 . iii) New cells are formed by pre-existing cells by cell division.Purkinji used the term protoplasm for the materials found in the cell. Cell Theory: On invention of electron microscope cell was studies in more detail. ii) Cells are structural and functional unit of living organisms. In 1862. Then it was also known that cells have complicated structures. Robert Brown discovered nucleus in the cell. a German physician. In 1840 J. In 1855 Rudolf Virchow. Question: Explain the history of formulation of cell theory? In 1665 an English Scientist Robert Hook first studied thin slices of cork and leaves under microscope. He proposed that all living cells arise from preexisting cells. He found small boxes like chambers.

Victorious Academy Question: Write a detailed note on cell wall? Location: It is outer most boundary of plant cell. ii) It gives shape to the cell. Composition: Its composition is different in different plants. Nature of cell wall: Cell wall is permeable in nature because it allows all the materials to pass through. In fungi it is composed of chitin. Functions of cell wall: i) It provides protection to the cell. It is thick. iv) It provides rigidity to the cell. It is absent in animals cell. Majority composed of cellulose (dead cells). Thickness: It may be thick as outer wall of trachieds or as parenchyma tissues. ii) Secondary cell wall is formed by deposition of many primary cell walls. Tissues: i) Parenchyma tissues are composed to thin wall and its function is storage. iii) It provides support to the cell. Types of cell wall: i) Primary cell wall is a thin wall which form first whorl. Question: Write a detailed note on cell membrane? I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 3 . ii) Cotenchyma tissues are slightly thick and their function is conduction. iii) Sclerenchyma tissues are thick wall and their function is protection.

Composition: Basically is composed of lipids and proteins. Function: i. nucleolus etc. Question: Write a detailed note on nucleus? Location: In animals cell it is present in center of the cell. ii. ii. I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 4 . iii) It provides support to animal cell.Victorious Academy Location: It is outer most layer in animal’s cell while in plant cell it is present inside the cell wall. It consists of two layers of lipids in which protein molecule are completely embedded. It controls all the activities of the cell. It plays important role in cell division or cell reproduction. Function: i) All the transportation of cell is done by cell membrane. iii. Nuclear pores are used for transportation of materials from cytoplasm to nucleus. Structure: i. Nucleoplasm is a jelly like substance which contain chromosomes. It give the shape and support to nucleus. In plants it is present at side due to presence of large vacuole. ii) It provides the shape to the animal cell. Thickness: It is few micron meter thick. A nuclear membrane is present outside of the nucleus.

Chromotids: They are two in numbers and attached on centromere. Question: Write a note on mitochondria? Location: I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 5 . It provides all necessary chemicals which are required for all the reactions. in onion they are 16. Function: i. In human they are 46. Question: Write a detailed note on Cytoplasm? Location: It is jelly like substance and present between nucleus and cell membrane. Organic substances like carbohydrates. Centromere: It is present in the center of chromosomes. It provide site for all the biochemical reactions occurring in the cell.Victorious Academy Question: Write a note on chromosomes? Shape: Chromosomes are thread like structures. ii. ii. fats and proteins etc. Composition: It is composed of two major components: i. Composition: They are composed of protein and DNA. Presence of DNA shows that they are living. Number of chromosomes: Chromosomes are constant in any organisms and never change through out the life cycle. in radish they are 18 etc. Inorganic substances like water and salts.

They involve in cell secretions. Shape: They are tube like structures Types: I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 6 . These sacs are attached to each other. Structure: i. Function: . They are small rounded particles called cristae Function: They are called power house of the cell. Structure: Golgi complex is present in the form of smooth membrane which is called cisternae.Victorious Academy They are located in cytoplasm. Outer membrane of mitochondria is smooth. Question: Write a note on Golgi bodies or Golgi complex? Location: It is located inside the cytoplasm and scattered in all directions of the cell. Number: The number of mitochondria depends upon the function of organisms. Inner membrane is greatly folded in the mitochondrial materials. iii. They contain respiratory enzymes which house oxides the food and energy. Question: Write a detailed note on Endoplasmic Reticulum? Location: They are present between cell membrane and nucleus. ii. Shape: They are round or oval in shape. This energy is used to perform different release activities of life.

blue. ii) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: They have ribosomes. They involve in protein synthesis. Question: Write a detailed note on Ribosomes? Location: They are present in cytoplasm on rough endoplasmic reticulum. They do not involve in protein synthesis. They help in transport of materials. petals. purple and white etc. Shape: They are present in the form of granules. Function: i. red. Structure: They are non-membranous occur freely on rough endoplasmic reticulum. ii. Function: They are involved in protein synthesis. They help in protein synthesis. I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 7 . They help in formation of lipids.Victorious Academy They are of two types: i) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: They do not have ribosomes. Green (chlorophyll). Colour: The colour of plastids may vary e. fruits and roots etc.g. yellow. iii. Question: Write a detailed note Plastids or Chloroplasts? Location: It is present in leaves.

Types of Plastids: Plastids are of three types Chloroplast Chromoplast Leucoplast Question: Write a detailed note on Centriole? Location: It is present near nucleus in the form of pairs. They help in formation of cilia and flagella. They help in formation of spindles and play important role in cell division. ii). It is composed of protein and other chemicals. Structure: They are present in the form of triplicate micro tubules.Victorious Academy Structure: It is in the form of semi-fluid matrix called stroma. Function: i). Granum is a place where photosynthesis takes place so it play vital role in plant cell. They are absent in higher plants. Question: Write a detailed note on vacuole? Location: In plant cell a big vacuole is present in the center of the cell. Shape: Plant vacuole is in the shape of large structure while animal vacuoles are oval in shape. I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 8 . It is in the form of stack membranous system in which each membrane is called geranium. And in animal cell many small vacuoles are present in cytoplasm.

Cell wall is composed of cellulose. Ribosomes are of large size and present in endoplasmic reticulum or in cytoplasm. iii. Membrane bounded cell organelles are present.Victorious Academy Function: i) Main function of vacuole is excretion of waste materials from cell.g.g. Question: Describe Cell as an Open System? A cell works as an open system i.e. iii. Cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan. v. ii. The organism of prokaryotic cells are called prokaryotes e. bacteria. Question: What do you know about Cell Size and Surface Area to volume I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 9 . ii. Chromosomes are present in cytoplasm. it takes in substances needed for its metabolic activities through its cell membrane. v. The organisms of eukaryotic cells are called eukaryotes e. animal and plants. Cell either utilizes the products or transports them to other cells. Eukaryotic Cell: i. iv. ii) In lower organisms food vacuole serves the process of digestion. Chromosomes are present in nucleus. Membrane bounded cell organelles are not present. Then it performs the metabolic processes assigned to it. Products and by-products are formed in metabolism. The byproducts are either stored or are excreted out of cell. iv. Ribosomes are of small size and freely scattered in cytoplasm. Question: Write down the difference between Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell? Prokaryotic Cell: i.

The smallest cells are bacteria called mycoplasmas. this process is called facilitated diffusion. · A Hypertonic solution has relatively more solute · A hypotonic solution has relatively less solute. but not all molecules. and the longest cells are some muscle cells and nerve cells. The bulkiest cells are birds eggs. with diameter between 0. Question: What is the passage of molecules into and out of cells? We know cell membranes act as barriers to most.0 um. · Isotonic solutions have equal concentration of solutes.1 um to 1. In this condition the outward pressure on cell wall I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 10 . Cytoplasm presses firmly against the interior of cell wall. Diffusion: Diffusion is a process through which molecules move from higher concentration to lower concentration. Cell size and shape are related to cell function. oxygen and glucose etc can across cell membranes by diffusion. That is why they are called semi-permeable membranes. This is also a type of passive transport as there is no need to spend energy in this process as well. Cell does not spend energy to carry out diffusion. Water Balance Problems: When water enters into the cell and its vacuole the size of cell increases. Facilitated Diffusion: When a transport protein molecule moves a substance from higher to lower concentration. Osmosis: Osmosis is the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from a solution of lesser solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration. That is why this process is also called passive transport. Most cells lie between these extremes.Victorious Academy Ratio? Cells vary greatly in size. Carbon dioxide. which expands a little.

The turgor of cells is responsible for maintaining shapes of non. Filtration: Filtration is a process by which small molecules are forced to move across semi permeable membrane with the aid of hydrostatic (water) pressure or blood pressure. heart and blood vessels. Active Transport: Movement of molecules against the concentration gradient is called active transport. It is found in lungs. This process needs expenditure of energy. Question: Define and Explain the tissues of animals and plants? 1-Animal’s Tissues: These are of following types: Epithelial Tissue: These tissues covers the outside of body and lines organs and cavities. The shrinking of cytoplasm is called plasmolysis. In a hypertonic environment a plant cell loses water and cytoplasm shrinks.woody plants and soft portions of trees and shrubs.Victorious Academy exerted by internal water is known as turgor pressure and the phenomenon is called turgor. It has following further types: Squamous epithelium consists of single layer of flat cells. I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 11 . Its two forms are phagocytosis (cellular eating) and pinocytosis (cellular drinking) Exocytosis: It is the process through which bulky material is exported. Endocytosis: It is the process of cellular ingestion of bulky materials by the infolding of cell membrane.

gall blader etc. It is found in alimentary canal. Ciliated Columnar epithelium has elongated cells with cilia.Victorious Academy Cuboidal epithelium consists of single layer of cube-shaped cells. bone and blood. It is present in trachea and bronchi etc. These tissues mainly composed of nerve cells which are specialized cells to conduct messages. small glands etc. They are responsible for the movements of bones Smooth Muscles are found in alimentary canal and blood vessels. Columnar epithelium has elongated cells. It is present in linings of oesophagus and mouth and also cover the skin. It supports and binds other tissues. They have further three types: Skeletal Muscles are attached to bones. Nervous Tissue: Nervous tissues forms a communication system and performs the communication tasks. They have cells scattered through an extracellular matrix. They produce heart beat. Stratified squamous epithelium has many layers of flat cells. The adipose tissue is also connective tissue found in kidneys and under skin. They are responsible for movement of substances. Connective Tissues: They service connecting function. I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 12 . Their examples are cartilage. It is found in kidney tubes. It is most abundant tissue in animals. Cardiac Muscles are present in heart. Muscle Tissue: These consists of bundles of long cells called muscle fibers.

In leaves they are called mesophyll and provide the site for photosynthesis. Permanent Tissues: They originate from meristematic tissues. They have large vacuoles for storage of food. These cells are thin walled. They are responsible for increase in girth of plant parts. Support Tissues are of two types.Victorious Academy 2-Plant’s Tissues: These are of following types: Meristematic Tissues: These tissues are composed of cells which have ability to divide. They cause increase in length of plant when they divide. Compound Tissues: They have following types: I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 13 . Mature cells cannot elongate and most of them are dead. Ground Tissues made up of parenchyma cells. Second is Sclerenchyma Tissues are composed of cells with rigid secondary cell walls. The cells of these tissues do not have the ability to divide. have large nucleus and small or no vacuoles. First is Collenchyma Tissues are made up of elongated cells. They are flexible and function to support the organs in which they found. Lateral meristems are located on the lateral sides of roots and shoots. They have following types: Epidermal Tissues act as a barrier between environment and internal plant tissues. They have following types: Apical meristems are located at the tips of roots and shoots.

One is Vessel Elements and other is Tracheids. Companion Cells make proteins for sieve tube cells. Phloem Tissue is responsible for the conduction of dissolved organic matter (food) between different parts of plant body. It contains Sieve Tube Cells. Two types of cells are present in them. I-8/3 Campus Cell# 0344-5292227 G-13/4 Campus Cell# 0308-7894560 Page 14 .Victorious Academy Xylem Tissue is responsible for transport of water and dissolved substances from roots to the aerial parts.