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The Effect Molecular Weight on the Rate of Diffusion of

Potassium permanganate (KMnO4), Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and
Methylene blue.

Anna Carmela Santoalla
Group 4 Sec.Y-3L

October 12, 2015

A scientific paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in General Biology 1
laboratory under Prof. Christia A. Guevara, 1st sem., 2015-2016
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the diffusion rate of a certain chlorinated hydrocarbon or organic compound vary depending on the factors that may affect them. The result of both tests shows that substances with lower molecular weight diffuses faster than substance with higher molecular weight. MacCraith. INTRODUCTION Molecules that are concentrated in an area tend to collide and distribute gradually until they spread out evenly. a drop of Potassium permanganate (KMnO4). ammonium chloride (NH 4Cl) appeared as white smoke. In the glass rod test. the different substances’ concentration difference. After several minutes. Molecules can diffuse or move randomly in liquids or in gases (Capco and Yang 1966). For the agar-water gel test. The distance measured from the cotton ball up to the white smoke shows that NH3 has diffused faster than HCl. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and methylene blue was placed into a petri dish of agar-water gel with three wells. the distance of diffusion. the system’s temperature. Kirwan and McLoughlin. and this movement of molecule from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated is called diffusion (Campbell.2 ABSTRACT The relationship of molecular weight and time with the rate of diffusion was determined using the glass rod test and the agar-water gel test. Heavier molecule moves more slowly than the lighter molecule because greater force is needed to move large particles. As shown by past experiments. the surface area. and the medium of diffusion. (Howley. O’Dwyer. After measuring the diameter of the colored area every three minutes for half an hour. moistened with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) were placed in both ends of the glass rod. two cotton balls. 2003). These factors are the substance’s molecular weight or particle size. 1946). therefore lighter molecules . it is shown that Potassium permanganate has the fastest average rate of diffusion and methylene blue has the slowest rate.

The two substances were used to moisten two cotton balls which were plugged in each end of a glass rod in order to measure the distance of each cotton from the ring of white smoke that will appear few minutes later. Results showed that on the glass tube test. Thus. ammonia diffused faster. potassium permanganate diffused the fastest. The distance measured was then used to determine which of the substances have a higher rate of diffusion. (Duka. Diaz. 2009). the faster the diffusion and vice-versa This experiment. to describe how the molecular weight affects the substance’s distance and rate of diffusion.3 diffuse faster at a certain temperature. potassium dichromate (MW= 294g/mol) and methylene blue (MW=374) is placed in a petri dish of a agar-water gel. while on the agar-water gel test. To conclude whether or not the molecular weight of a substance is indirectly proportional . The effect of molecular weight in the rate of diffusion can also be observed when a drop of potassium permanganate (MW=158g/mole).05 g/mol. The specific objectives were 1. in this set-up the diameter of the colored area were the one measured to determine the partial rate of diffusion. n. The effect of one of the factors.46 g/mol and ammonium hydroxide (NH 4OH) with a molecular weight of 35. However. molecular weight of a substance. conducted on October 5. and 2. 2015 on the Institute of Biological Sciences in the University of the Philippines Los Baños aimed to determine the effect of molecular weight of substances on its rate of diffusion.d). to the rate of diffusion was observed in the experiment of using hydrochloric acid (HCl) with a molecular weight of 36. the lower the molecular weight of a substance.(Meyertholen. Villa.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Glass rod set-up A two feet glass rod was attached horizontally to a ring stand using a rubber band as shown in Figure 1. when ring of white smoke starts to appear inside the tube.4 to its rate of diffusion. Potassiumm dichromate and methylene blue was carefully placed in each wells of the agar-water gel petri dish at the same time. Agar-water gel set-up To test the rate of diffusion of using substances that can be seen as they diffuse and a medium which will permit diffusion. After placing one drop of the . the average distance of HCl and NH4OH was then calculated. Several minutes later. The distances and its ratio were recorded in a table to be analyzed.) was measured from each cotton up to the area where the smoke appeared using a ruler. Then.was simultaneously plugged at both ends of the glass rod at the same time. the distance (in cm. two same sized cotton balls -one moistened with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the other with ammonium hydroxide (NH 4OH). After repeating the same set-up for four times. a drop of Potassium permanganate (KMnO4).

1 Set up for demonstration of diffusion .5 Figure 1.

the product of the two substances. Results showed that the white smoke was formed closer to the cotton ball containing HCl with an average distance of 15.6 three substances in each well. Every three minutes. the average rate of diffusion was computed by getting its mean. compared to the average distance of NH4OH which is 21. Ammonia with the molecular weight of 17g/mole diffused faster than HCl with the . The mean of the partial rates of each substance was plotted in a bar graph while the partial rates of each substance against time elapsed was plotted in a line graph. which appeared as white smoke. for zero minute.4 centimeters. the diameter of the colored area of each substance are measured and this step is repeated for thirty minutes.7 centimeters. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Table 1. the cover was placed immediately at the petri dish and the diameter of the colored area was measured in mm. The partial rates of diffusion (mm/min) of each substance were computed using the formula: Partial rate (Rp) = di – di-1 ti – ti-1 where: di = diameter of colored area at a given time di-1 = diameter of colored area immediately before di ti = time when di was measured ti-1 = time immediately before ti Using the obtained partial values.1 showed the distance (in centimeters) of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) from ammonium chloride (NH 4Cl).

3 mm) which means that it has the highest diffusion rate.141 mm/min.3 shows that the average rate obtained were 0. potassium permanganate.096 mm/min and 0.3 and figure 1.2 and 1. potassium dichromate and methylene blue in an agar-water gel set-up every three minutes for half of an hour. Table 1.4 shows the partial rate of diffusion of the three substances against the time elapsed. 2004).7 molecular weight of 36 g/mole since the rate of diffusion of substance is inversely proportional to its particle size (Silberberg 2000). molecules diffuse down to where there is a lower concentration (BBC. followed by potassium dichromate (6. potassium dichromate (MW=294 g/mole) and methylene blue (MW=374 g/mole). 0.3. Table 1. Potassium permanganate has the greatest measured diameter (8. Among the three substances.1 mm) and methylene blue (5 mm). Since heavier molecule moves slower.3 and figure 1. Results showed that the diameters of the three substances increased as shown in figures 1. it also diffuses slower than lighter molecule (Star and Taggart. 2009). exhibited the highest rate of diffusion. It is shown that potassium permanganate and potassium dichromate have changing partial rate of diffusion at times. followed by . Table 1. respectively. having the lowest molecular weight.033 mm/min for potassium permanganate (MW=158 g/mole). unlike methylene blue that has a constant partial rate of diffusion. Potassium permanganate (158 g/mole) diffused faster than potassium dichromate (294 g/mole) and methyleneblue (374 g/mole) since it has the lowest molecular weight among the three substances.2 shows the measured diameters of the colored areas of potassium permanganate. From a more concentrated region.

0 0.6 1.2 3 15.2 19.4 Average ratio: 1.7 37.6 1.6 1.2 0.0 31.8 21.4 0.4 0.1.5 0.5 2 16.8 0.5 1.0 35.375 .0 18.4 0.0 44.4 4 13.5 0.8 27. Distance (cm) (d) Ratio Total Distance Trial (D) dHCl dNH3 dHCl dNH3 NH3 D D HCl 1 17. Distance (cm) of hydrochloric acid and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) from ammonium chloride (NH4Cl).8 Table 1.

2.1 6.2 8. The diameter (mm) of the colored area of potassium permanganate (KMnO4).9 Table 1. potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O2) and methylene blue at a regular three Diameter (mm) Time (minute) 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 Potassium Potassium dichromate Methylene Blue (MW permanganate (MW 294 g/ mole) 374 g/mole) (MW 158 g/mole) 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 7 6 7.2 6.3 minute interval for thirty minutes.3 6. 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 .1 8.4 6 8 6 8.

2. A petri dish of agar-water gel showing the colored areas of the substances which are the same in diameter during the zero-three minutes. .10 Figure 1.

Partial rates of diffusion (mm/min) obtained from potassium permanganate . A petri dish of agar-water gel showing the colored areas of the substances which differed in diameter after 30 minutes. Table 1.3.11 Figure 1.3.

33 0 0 0.33 0 0 0 0.2 0. Partial rates of difussion (mm/min.) Time elapsed Potassium permanganate (MW Potassium Methylene Blue 158g/mole) dichromate (MW (MW 374 g/mole) 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 Average rate of 0.096 0.03 294 g/mole) 0.03 0 0 0.33 0.03 0.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 diffusion 0.33 0.33 0 0 0.12 (KMnO4).141 0.033 (minute) (mm/min) . potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O2) and methylene blue.13 0.03 0.

potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and methylene blue against its molecular weight.8642 0158molecu2l9a4rweight374 Figure 1. A bar graph showing the average rate of diffusion of potassium permanganate (KMnO4).a v e r a g e r a t e o f d i f u s i o n 13 00.4.11642 00. ...

4.5 tim e p a rtilra teo fd ifu sio n 14 Figure 1. A line graph showing the rate of potassium permanganate (KMnO4). potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and methylene blue against the time elapsed.0 2 5 p o a s i u m p r m a n g a n t e t d i c h o t .0 1 5 .0 0 3 5 m e t h y l e n b l u e .. .

The partial rate of diffusion of each substances were computed. the product of the reaction between ammonia (NH 3) and HCl appeared inside the tube and was marked in order to measure its distance from the cottons. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The effect of the molecular weight to the diffusion rate of a substance has been determined using the glass rod test and the agar-water gel test. For the agar-water gel test. having the highest molecular weight had the lowest rate of diffusion.15 dichromate.in a petri dish of agar-water gel with three wells. Results showed that ammonium hydroxide (MW=35. and methylene blue (MW=374g/mol). the molecular weight has an effect on the rate of diffusion of a substance. A white smoke or ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). having the second lowest molecular weight. a drop of potassium permanganate (KMnO4). potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and methylene blue were placed simultaneously. and were plugged at the ends of a glass rod fastened horizontally to a ring stand. In the glass rod test. The diameters of the colored area of the substances. Methylene blue.05g/mol) exhibited a higher diffusion rate because it has a greater distance from the ring of white smoke than hydrochloric acid (MW=36. Therefore .46g/mol). were measured every three minutes for thirthy minutes. and results showed that KMnO4 (MW=158g/mol) has the highest diffusion rate. two cotton balls of the same size were moistened using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ammonium hydroxide (NH 4OH). followed by K2Cr2O7 (MW=294g/mol). The results concurred with the hypothesis that the molecular weight of a substance .

10th ed. Biology: You and the Natural World Series. I. Capco. M. Retrieved on July 30. A study of the factors affecting the diffusion of chlorinated hydrocarbons into polysiobutylene and polyethylene-co-propylene for evanescent wave sensing.d). 2004. Diaz. pp. Taggart.uk/schools /gcsebite size/science/add_aqa_pre_2011/cells/cells3. Issue 2: pp 271-278 Meyertholen. McLoughlin. P. 9th ed. C. M. 2012 from http://www. Phoenix Publishing House . Inc. B.A. 205 Starr. R. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. pp.D MacCraith. K.a. Biology I Laboratory Manual: An Investigative Approach. N. (n. Therefore. Volume 31. Diffusion. 2003.austince. Yang.O.Q.co. Retrieved October 4. LITERATURE CITED (n. Diffusion. C. 94. Villa. P. Institution of Biological Sciences University of the Philippines Los Baños.. 35-36 Howley R. 1996. 87. Pp 74-75 . McGraw-Hill. Singapore: Thomson Brooks/Cole.shtml Duka. E. 2015 from http://www. Chemistry 2nd Edition. Vibrational Spectroscopy.ed u/~emeyerth/diffuse2.. 2009.bbc.htm Silberberg. Laguna: Genetics and Molecular Biology Division. 2 nd ed. G. substances with higher molecular weight diffuse slower and substances with lower molecular weight diffuse faster. 2000. O’Dwyer. C.. S. USA. Kirwan. pp.).16 has an effect to the rate of diffusion.