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Republic of the Philippines

Naval State University
Naval, Biliran


Comte’s significant contributions to advance sociology to the frontiers of human knowledge earned for him the title “Father of Sociology”. Joan Delda Instructor Auguste Comte (1798-1857) The legitimacy of sociology started when the term was coined by Auguste Comte. states that each of our leading conceptions. each branch of knowledge. The law of three stages. all human intellectual development.Submitted By: OLIVER B. a French philosopher. The nature. the metaphysical or abstract. method and scope of sociology. The plan for social reconstruction. Positivism. JAGUINES BSCpE – IIA Student Submitted To: Mrs. They are namely: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)  Classification and ordering of social sciences. sociologist have sought to be more scientific in their methods and more systematic in their observations.  Theological or Fictitious Stage: . Ma. and the scientific or positive.  His contribution to sociology can be divided into four categories. pass successively through three different theoretical conditions – the theological or fictitious. The law of human progress. and from that time on.

For example. Monotheism means believing in one God or God in one. primitive men saw God everywhere in nature. The theological stage of thinking may be divided into three sub-stages such as a) Fetishism . At this stage.e. God of air. human mind gave up the taken for granted approach. During this period. reason and rationality was growing. The primitive man and children do not have the scientific outlook. etc. This is otherwise known as animism. One can observe uniformities or laws about natural as well as social . the early man believed that all phenomena of nature are the creation of the divine or supernatural. Scientific knowledge is based on the last and the most developed form of theological thinking. Facts are collected by observation and classification of phenomena. The nature of enquiry was legal and rational in nature.means believing in many Gods. therefore it is characterized by unscientific outlook. The dawn of 19th century marked the beginning of this stage. People tried to believe that God is an abstract being.was the primary stage of theological stage of thinking. People worshipped inanimate objects like tress. For example. Positivism is a purely intellectual way of looking at the world. Reason replaced imagination. God of water. It is believed that an abstract power or force guides and determines the events in the world. Classical Hindu Indian society where the principle of transmigration of soul. In this stage. such a casual explanation would be in terms of theological or fictitious explanation. These objects are considered as Fetish. They supposed that excess or deficiency of rain due to Godly wrath.During the primitive stage. notions of pursuant has were largely governed by metaphysical uphill. c) Monotheism . a piece of wood.  Positive or Scientific Stage: This positive stage is also known a scientific stage. For example. Metaphysical thinking discards belief in concrete God. b) Polytheism . the conception of rebirth. They failed to discover the natural causes of various phenomena and hence attributed them to supernatural or divine power. human mind tried to establish cause and affect relationship. Each God had some definite function and his scope and area of action was determined. During this period primitive people believed that there is a living spirit in the nonliving objects. inform of abstract forces. Primitive people believed that different Gods control different natural forces.  Metaphysical or Abstract stage: Metaphysical stage is an extension of theological stage. Soul is the spark of divine power i. It is characterised by scientific knowledge. God of rain and God of fire. etc. Positivism emphasises on observation and classification of data and facts. stones.

1818. He explained the social and political relationship in terms of the material needs that are basic to human experience. Marx is seen as one of the three founders of the social sciences. He is popularly known as the British Aristotle and often called the second founding father of . Along with the Emile Durkheim and Max Weber. economics. which was in contrast with the conditions of poverty in which he spent most of his mature years. His contribution includes the concepts of dialectical materialism and alienation. Karl Marx (1818-1883) Karl Marx was born on May 5. Marx’s theories. fairly conventional upper Middle class atmosphere. in Tier. which have come to be grouped under the term Marxism.   His contribution unlocks the mysteries of human behavior and development. Positivistic thinking is best suited to the need of industrial society.phenomena. centered on the intersection of society. and politics. Prussia and was reared in a comfortable. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)  Herbert Spencer was a theorist whose valuable insights have often been drowned in a sea of irrelevance and spacious reasoning.

2) In an organism consciousness is concentrated in a small part of the aggregate. psychology. 5) In an organism the parts exist for the benefit of the whole.sociology. in spite of such elaborate description. the whole exists merely for the benefit of the individual. . societies have no specific external form. They are as follows. He has contributed to various fields of knowledge like philosophy. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)  Social Statics (1850) First Principles (1862) The study of Sociology (1873) The Principles of Sociology in three volumes (1876-96) The Man verses the State (1884) Spencer observed some similarities between biological and social organism: 1) Both society and organisms are distinguished from inorganic matter by visible growth. In both. in Derby in England. 2) Both grow in size and this growth is accomplished by increasing complexity of structure. Spencer points out the ways in which societies and organism differ from each other. Herbert Spencer was born an April 27. the differentiation of structure is followed by a similar differentiation of function. a small state an empire. He was a man of original and independent thinking. Spencer wrote a number of books. 5) The life of society.  Differences: Having out lined these similarities. anthropology and sociology. like the life of an organism is far larger than the life of any of the units of parts. 3) In the organism and in society there is an interdependence of parts. such as a physical body with limbs or face. the parts are fixed and bound together in close contact while. Spencer's name was associated with the birth of sociology in England. 3) Unlike organisms. 1820. integrated whole whereas society is a whole composed of discrete and dispersed elements. in a society parts are separated and dispersed. Spencer points out that his analogy mainly serves the purpose of scaffolding which is removed when the building is completed and that the scaffolding itself has no value. The differences are as follows. Spencer's ideas have left an indelible impression on the succeeding writers. The progressive differentiation of structure in both is accompanied by progressive differentiation of functions. 1) The organism is a concrete. In a society. 4) In an organism. biology. a child grows up to a man. a small community becomes a great city. while in society consciousness is diffused. However.

He had some major works which became a dominant force in the development of Sociology.  Spencer advocated a strategy of non-influence in human affairs and society for he believed that social legislation to solve existing social problems would only interfere with the natural selection process. Mostly he was a teacher of sociology in the University of Bordeaux and Paris. the French genius occupies an important place. can be harnessed and controlled. once identified. .Spencer has given much importance to the term organism that the scaffolding is usually mistaken for the real structure. His most important contribution to sociology was his insistence that social laws. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) Among the contemporary Sociologists Emile Durkheim. He was born in 1858 at Epinal in France. Lester Ward (1841-1913)   He believed that social progress is possible only through intelligent social action. He also supported the idea of equality of women as well as the equality of classes and races in society and believed in universal education as means of achieving this equality. and advocated the use of scientific knowledge and investigation to guide men in restructuring society towards improvement.

 He is remembered for his important theoretical work on suicide. can be understood within a larger social context. Most of his theories were devoted to the study of social order. (a) Le Suicide (The Suicide)-1897 (b) De La Division du Travill Sociale (The Social Division of Labour)1893 (c)Les Forms Elementaries de La-yie Religiouse (The Elementary Forms of religious life)—1912 (d) Education at Sociology (Education and Sociology)-1922. one of his many pioneering contributions to sociology. His opinion was that social disorders were not the necessary parts of the modern world and could be reduced by social reforms. Some of the important works of Durkheim’s are the following. . but rather. He is also remembered for his insistence that behavior cannot be fully understood in individualistic terms.