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Design Guide for Short Circuit Calculation

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SECTION: TITLE

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SHEET i OF iii

DESIGN GUIDE

FOR

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

414, Veer Savarkar Marg

Prabhadevi

MUMBAI 400 025

FLOPPY NO

FILE NAME

REV.NO

: TCE.M6-EL-CD-DOC-003

: M6-700-6621.DOC

R0

ISSUE

INITIALS

SIGN

PPD.BY

BHR/BS

Sd/-

CKD.BY

HDM

Sd/-

APP.BY

PKS

Sd/-

DATE

INITIALS

SIGN

INITIALS

SIGN

INITIALS

SIGN

R0

1992.03.30

FORM NO. 020R2

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SECTION:REV SHT

SHEET ii OF iii

REVISION

REV. NO.

DATE

DESCRIPTION

ISSUE

R0

FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:CONTENTS

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

CONTENT

SR.NO.

TITLE

SHEET NO.

1.0

SCOPE

2.0

ABBREVIATIONS USED

3.0

REFERENCE DIAGRAM

4.0

DATA

5.0

PROCEDURE

6.0

DISCUSSION

7.0

REFERENCE

8.0

9.0

GENERATOR MANUFACTURER

10.0

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SECTION:WRITE-UP

SHEET 1 OF 19

1.0

SCOPE

1.1

The scope of this design guide is to provide a detailed method to calculate the fault

currents when a 3 phase fault occurs at any point in the following sections of the

power plant electrical network.

a)

the main bus duct till generator transformer and the section upto the grid.

b)

The unit auxiliary transformer section consisting of tap off section of the

busduct upto the unit auxiliary transformer.

1.2

The fault currents calculated would be required to assign the rating of the

equipment operating in the electrical network indicated above such as Extra High

Voltage Circuit Breaker, Bus Duct and Generator Circuit Breaker (if provided)

2.0

ABBREVIATIONS USED

GT

:

UAT :

EHVCB:

GCB :

SEB :

pu

:

Generator Transformer

Unit Auxiliary Transformer

Extra High Voltage Circuit Breaker

Generator Circuit Breaker

State Electricity Board

Per Unit

3.0

REFERENCE DIAGRAM

3.1

EHVCB and GCB is given in Annexure-1.

4.0

DATA

To calculate the fault currents, the ratings/data of the following equipment/system

are required.

4.1

GRID : Following details/data of the grid to which the generator is connected are

required.

i)

ii)

iii)

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SECTION:WRITE-UP

SHEET 2 OF 19

4.2

Generator

4.2.1

The data required from the generator manufacturer to carryout the fault calculations

are listed in Annexure-2.

4.2.2

manufacturer, in the absence of this confirmation, tolerances as per IEC-34 or

relevant standards shall be applied.

4.3

Generator Transformer

4.3.1

a)

b)

c)

Rated maximum 3 phase MVA of the transformer

Reactance and resistance values of the transformer.

The resistance of the transformer shall be found using the full load copper losses in

case the values of the resistances are not directly available.

4.3.2

tolerances are not furnished by the manufacturer, the tolerances as per relevant

standards shall be applied.

4.4

Bus Ducts

4.4.1

The values of resistance and reactance of the busduct are very small quantities of

the order of micro ohms. Hence these parameters need not be considered for

calculation.

5.0

PROCEDURE

5.1

5.2

The base MVA and base kV shall preferably be taken as the rated MVA and rated

kV of the generator.

5.3

Base Impedance = ------------------------ OHMS

Base MVA (3 ph)

5.4

P.U. Impedance = -----------------------------------Base Impedance in ohms

ISSUE

R0

FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

5.5

SECTION:WRITE-UP

SHEET 3 OF 19

P.U. Impedance on any other MVA and kV can be converted to the P.U. Impedance

on base MVA & base kV as follows:

Zpu (New)

Zpu (Old)

Zpu (new)

=

=

P.U. Impedance on any other MVA and kV

Zpu (old) x

-------------- x ----------MV (old)

kV2 (new)

6.0

DISCUSSION

6.1

the asymmetrical fault current and the momentary current has been given in

Annexure-3 for a typical 500 MW plant having a generator circuit breaker. The

calculation steps have been explained in detail and the same procedure shall be

adopted for units of other ratings also.

6.2

While specifying the rating of the equipment operating in the electrical network

considered in this design guide such as GCB and EHVCB, etc., the results obtained

from the calculations shall be indicated in the data sheet-A of the relevant

specification.

7.0

REFERENCES

7.1

The general theory of electrical machines- Adkins B. Chapman & Hall Ltd. 1962.

7.2

ANSI/IEEE Std. C.37.5-1979 IEEE Guide for calculation of fault currents for

application of AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers rated on a total current basis.

7.3

7.4

rated on a symmetrical current basis.

7.5

7.6

7.7

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-2

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

SHEET 5 OF 19

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

ANNEXURE-2

DATA REQUIRED FROM THE GENERATOR MANUFACTURER

Sl.No. Machine Parameters

Symbol

Unit

1.

kV

2.

Rated MVA

MVA

MVA

3.

cos

4.

Amps

5.

Frequency

Hz

6.

Ra

ohms

7.

Xd

p.u.

8.

Xd

p.u.

9.

Xd

p.u.

10.

p.u.

11.

p.u.

12.

Sec

13.

Sub-transient Time Constant

Td

Sec

14.

Ta

Sec

15.

Sub-transient Time Constant

Tq

Sec

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

SHEET 6 OF 19

ANNEXURE-3

SAMPLE CALCULATION

1.0

This section outlines the detailed procedure for calculation of fault current in the

generator-generator transformer, UAT tap off section. Reference to the figure in

Annexure-1 shall be made.

The calculations are split into 5 parts.

1.1

Part-1 : Calculates 3 phase fault currents at any point between the generator and

generator transformer when generator alone is contributing to the fault.

1.2

Part-2 : Calculates 3 phase fault current at any point between GT and EHVCB

when grid/generator is contributing to the fault when the value of 3 phase

symmetrical fault current is known.

1.3

Part-3 : Calculates the 3 phase fault currents at the point considered in part 1 when

grid alone is feeding the fault.

1.4

Part-4 : Calculates the 3 phase fault currents on the UAT tap off part of the busduct

when both the grid and generator are feeding the fault.

1.5

Part-5 : Gives a summary of sizing the equipment performing in this section of the

electrical network considered.

2.0

2.1

For conservation fault estimation, the saturated value of the reactances are

considered.

2.2

(3 to 4 cycles) even after the instant of short circuit.

2.3

The switching angle A defines the point in the AC cycle at which the short circuit

occurs. The fault current at = 00 for unloaded generator case gives the maximum

DC component & = 900 gives the zero DC component. Hence = 00 is assumed.

The power angle is the angle between E the generated voltage and Vt the terminal

voltage of the generator is equal to zero since the value of E and Vt are same for

unloaded generator.

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

SHEET 7 OF 19

2.4

The fault current fed from generator will be maximum when the value of and

are nearly equal. This is applicable for loaded as well as unloaded cases prior to

occurrence of the fault. For engineering applications the value of fault current

under generator unloaded conditions is adequate.

2.5

The calculations are done using general theory of electrical machines which is

based on a general machine concept. This is required to incorporate the finite effect

of saliency present in the turbo-generators which takes into consideration the

differences between the values of direct and quadrature axis reactances and time

constants and thus give accurate results.

2.6

The generator circuit breaker shall be sized such that the maximum values of the

symmetrical short circuit current, DC component shall be taken from part 1 and part

3 of the calculation.

2.7

Equivalent system (grid) X/R ratio at typical locations (for quick approximations)

are given below.

Type of Circuit

X/R

1.

rated 100 MVA and larger

40-60

2.

rated 25 to 100 MVA for each three-phase bank.

30-50

3.

transformers rated 100 MVA or larger for each threephase bank, where the transformers provide 90 percent or

more of the total equivalent impedance to the fault point.

30-50

4.

transformers rated 10 MVA to 100 MVA for each threephase bank, where the transformers provide 90 percent or

more of the total equivalent impedance to the fault point.

15-40

5.

types of circuits, such as; transformers rated 10 MVA or

smaller for each three-phase bank, transmission lines,

distribution feeders, etc.

15 or less

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

SHEET 8 OF 19

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

General Calculations

Base kV

=

21 kV

Base MVA =

659 MVA

Base Impedance =

(Base kV)2

(21)2

------------- = ------- = 0.669

Base MVA 659

Following table furnish the parameters of generator, generator transformer and grid.

Refer Annexure-2 for details required for generator.

a)

GENERATOR

Sl.

No.

Parameter

Actual Value

P.U. Value

P.U Value

with tolerance

1.

Vt = Terminal Voltage

21.0 kV

1.0

1.05

2.

MVA

659

1.0

1.0

3.

Rated Current

18,118A

1.0

1.0

4.

Power factor

0.85

5.

Rated frequency

50 Hz

6.

Xd

2.16

1.728

7.

Xq

2.16

1.728

8.

Xd

0.271

0.2168

9.

Xd

0.193

0.1544

10.

Xq

0.212

0.1696

11.

Ra at 750 C

0.00176 ohms

0.00263

0.00263

12

Td

0.98 sec

13.

Td

0.03 sec

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

SHEET 9 OF 19

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

14.

Tq

0.075 sec

15.

Ta

0.2 sec

SR.

No.

Parameter

b)

GENERATOR TRANSFORMER

1.

Actual Value

P.U. Value

P.U

Value

with tolerance

HV Volts (LL)

400 kV

2.

LV Volts

21 kV

3.

MVA

630 MVA

4.

Impedance, Zt

15%

0.1569

0.1412

5.

Resistance, Rt

0.005 ohms

0.0075

0.0075

6.

Inductance, Xt

0.141

c)

GRID

1.

Voltage level

400 kV

2.

Fault current

40 kA

3.

Fault MVA

27712 MVA

4.

Grid X/R

40

Notes:

a)

tolerance on generator terminal voltage and 10% negative tolerance on

transformer reactance are considered in this particular example. However

the tolerances shall be taken as per relevant standards when the

manufacturer does not indicate the tolerances in his data sheets.

b)

from transformer winding resistance test.

c)

d)

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

SHEET 10 OF 19

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

659

Grid fault impedance in pu = ------------ = 0.02378 pu

27712

PART-1

Vt peak

(2)1/2 x Vt 00

(2)1/2 x 1.05 00

= 1.4849 pu

2 XdXq

Factor, Xm = --------------- =

(Xd + Xq)

2 x 0.1544 x 0.1696

------------------------- =

(0.1544 + 0.1696)

0.1616 pu

2 XdXq

= --------------- =

(Xq - Xd)

2 x 0.1544 x 0.1696

------------------------- =

(0.1696 - 0.1544)

3.4456 pu

Factor, Xn

2ft

= 00

& = 00

The steady state value of the voltage before short circuit can be analysed to be made up of

2 components namely Direct and Quadrature axes.

The direct axis component Vd

= (2)1/2 Vt sin

The direct axis component Vd = 0 since the value of = 00

and Vq = - 1.4849 pu.

The complete expression for the fault current in each phase consists of 2 components Ia1 &

Ia2 whose equations are given below for phase a. The value of fault currents in the other

two phases b & c can be calculated substituting by (- 2/3) and ( - 4/3)

respectively.

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

SHEET 11 OF 19

Equation 1 :

Ia1 = [ Vq/xd +(Vq/Xd Vq/Xd) e- t/Td + (Vq/Xd Vq/Xd) e t/Td] cos (t +)

- Vq/Xm e-t/Ta cos - Vq/Xn e-t/Ta cos (2t + )

Equation 2 :

Ia2 = - [ Vd/xq +(Vd/Xq Vd/Xq) e- t/Tq ] sin (2t +)

+ Vd/Xm e-t/Ta sin - Vd/Xn e-t/Ta sin (2t + )

The total fault current in phase a : Ia = Ia1 + I a2

The equation 2 reduces to zero since Vd = 0

Equation 1 consists of 3 parts

Part a :

Iac1 = [ Vq/xd +(Vq/Xd Vq/Xd) e- t/Td + (Vq/Xd Vq/Xd) e t/Td] cos (wt +)

is called the AC fundamental

Part-b :

Iac2 = (- Vq/Xn) e-t/Ta cos (2wt + )

is called the second harmonic component

Part c :

Idc = (- Vq/Xm) e-t/Ta cos

is called the DC component of the fault current.

Total AC component of the fault current = (Part a + Part b) pu

Total symmetrical Iac (rms) = (Iac1 + Iac2) / 2 pu

Iac peak = Iac x 2 pu

% DC component = (Idc /Iac peak) x 100

Total Iac asymmetrical

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

SHEET 12 OF 19

Iac1

Iac2

Idc

=

=

=

- 6.8669 pu

0.3192 pu

6.80699 pu

Iac1 + Iac2

Symm Iac rms = --------------------- = 4.6299 pu

2

(Iacrms2 + Idc2)1/2

Iactual

I base x I pu

8.23 pu

18118 x 4.6299

83.88 kA

18118 x 8.23

149.11 kA

Idc

18118 x 6.80699

123.33 kA

% DC

123.33 x 100

= ----------------------- 2 x 83.88

103.97%

A computer package SMS is available which calculates the fault currents which have been

computed above manually.

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SHEET 13 OF 19

PART-2

a)

Grid Feed

The symmetrical fault current fed from the

400 kV grid Iacgrms =

40 kA

40

Iacg (peak)

40 x 2

X/R

56.57 kA

0.127 sec

2FL / R

L

40

Time constant , = ------ = ----------R

2 x 50

t = EHVCB opening time

Idc

= 60 milliseconds

Idc

Idc

=

35.27 kA

Idc x 100

% DC component = -------------- =

Iacg (peak)

35.27

-------- x 100 = 62.35%

56.57

b)

53.33 kA

Generator Feed

The generator feed to the fault current when a fault occurs after EHVCB can be

computed by using equation 1 referred in part A of the calculations. However the

value of reactances such as Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq etc. get modified as Xd + Xt,

Xd + Xt, Xd+Xt, Xq+Xt, Xq+Xt etc. respectively where Xt is the GT reactance.

The armature time constant Ta which is approximately equal to Ld/Ra becomes

(Ld + Lt)/(Ra + Rt)

where Ld = Xd/ 2f and Lt = Xt / 2f

Substituting the values in equation 1 we get,

ISSUE

R0

FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

Iac rms=

2.833 x 18118 =

51.33 kA

Idc

2.569 x 18118 =

46.545 kA

SHEET 14 OF 19

These values are on 21 kV side of the GT

I

The values on 400 kV side of the GT = -----------(400 + 21)

The value of Iac rms on 400 kV side = 51.33 x 1 / 19.05 = 2.69 kA

Similarly on 400 kV side Iac asymm = 3.64 kA

Idc

= 2.44 kA

% DC component

4.2325 x 100

= -------------------- 2 x 4.67

64.08%

Comparing grid feed and generator feed for the fault considered, we find that the

grid feed is much larger than the generator feed because of the impedance of the

GT. Hence EHVCB should be sized to perform for grid feed.

ISSUE

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FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

SHEET 15 OF 19

PART 3

The fault current fed from grid alone when a 3 phase fault occurs anywhere

between the generator and generator transformer LV bushing is calculated in this

section.

400 kV

The grid impedance = ---------------=

5.774 ohms

3 x 40

Zg =

5.744 ohms

40

But Z2 = R2

Rg2 =

Rg2 =

+

Zg2

X2

- Xg2

Rg2

(5.774)2

= ----------------(1600 + 1)

0.020824 ohms

Assuming 630 MVA and 400 kV the rating of transformer as base MVA and base

kV on EHV side of the transformer, the base impedance.

4002

= ----- =

253.97 ohms

630

The fault impedance of the grid in p.u.

5.774

= ---------= 0.02273 p.u.

253.97

ISSUE

R0

FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SHEET 16 OF 19

5.7722

= ---------= 0.02273 p.u.= Xg

253.97

The fault resistance of the grid in p.u.

0.020824

= -------------- = 0.000082 p.u.

253.97

The p.u. impedance of the GT

= 0.1412 p.u.

The total fault impedance = 0.1412 + 0.02273 = 0.16393 p.u.

Fault MVA

Base MVA

= -------------------Fault impedance

630

= ---------- = 3847.79 MVA

0.16393

on 21 kV side

Ig peak = 105.79 x 2

0.02273

Lg = ------------- pu

2 x 50

Similarly Lt

3847 .79

= ------------ =

3 x 21

105.79 kA

149.605 kA

0.1408

= ------------2 x x 50

(Lg + Lt)

calculate DC component

T = ---------(Rg + Rt)

0.00051

= ------------ = 0.06726 secs

0.00758

t

60 x 10-3 sec

Idc

(Igpeak) x e-t/C

ISSUE

R0

FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

Idc

Idcg

61.3 kA on 21 kV side

% DC component =

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

SHEET 17 OF 19

61.3

---------- x 100

149.605

41%

ISSUE

R0

FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

SHEET 18 OF 19

PART-4

This part calculates the fault currents on the UAT tap off portion of the busduct.

The total fault current will be equal to the sum of the fault currents fed from the

generator and the grid.

Hence the total fault current will be equal to the sum of the fault currents calculated

in Part 1 and Part 3.

Total Iac symm

149.11 + 122.27

Total Idc

= 271.36 kA

ISSUE

R0

FORM NO. 120 R1

TCE.M6-EL-700-6621

GENERATOR SYSTEM FAULT CALCULATION

SECTION:

ANNEXURE-3

SHEET 19 OF 19

PART-5

SUMMARY OF SIZING EQUIPMENT PERFORMING IN THE SECTION

OF THE NETWORK UNDER CONSIDERATION

1. GCB : Symmetrical Breaking Capacity

123.33

% DC component = ------------------ x 100 = 82.3%

106 x 2

Asymmetrical breaking capcity

106 x 2.55

162.62 kA

= 271 kA

GCB shall be sized for the above values of the short circuit current. The generator

circuit breaker as per IEEE C 37.013 1989 meeting the above rating shall be

specified.

2. EHVCB:

40 kA

% DC component

63%

54 kA

= 40 x 2.55

= 102 kA

3. BUSDUCT

a)

generator & grid feed shall be taken)

Short time current

Momentary rating

b)

=

=

271 kA (Peak)

Portion of the busduct from UAT tapoff point till UAT HV terminals.

This portion of the bus duct is susceptible to fault currents fed from both generator

and EHV grid.

Hence short time current = 84 kA + 106 kA = 190 kA for 1 sec.

Momentary rating

=

190 x 2.55

= 485 kA (Peak)

ISSUE

R0

FORM NO. 120 R1

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