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Virtual keyboard

A virtual keyboard is a software component that allows a user to enter characters. [1] A virtual
keyboard can usually be operated with multiple input devices, which may include a touchscreen, an
actual computer keyboard and a computer mouse.

A virtual keyboard is a computer keyboard that a user operates by typing on or within
a wireless- or optical-detectable surface or area rather than by depressing physical
keys. Such a system can enable the user of a small handheld device, such as a cellular
telephone or a PDA (personal digital assistant) to have full keyboard capability.
In one technology, the keyboard is projected optically on a flat surface and, as the user
touches the image of a key, the optical device detects the stroke and sends it to the
computer. In another technology, the keyboard is projected on an area and selected
keys are transmitted as wireless signals using the short-range Bluetooth technology.
Theoretically, with either approach, the keyboard could even be projected in space and
the user could type by moving fingers through the air.
The term virtual keyboard is sometimes used to mean a soft keyboard , which appears
on a display screen as an image map . In some cases, a software-based keyboard can
be customized. Depending on the host system and specifc software, the user (who
may be someone unable to use a regular keyboard) can use a touch screen or
a mouse to select the keys.

On a desktop computer, a virtual keyboard might provide an alternative input mechanism for users
with disabilities who cannot use a conventional keyboard, or for bi- or multi-lingual users who switch
frequently between different character sets or alphabets, which may be confusing over time.
Although hardware keyboards are available with dualkeyboard layouts (e.g. Cyrillic/Latin letters in
various national layouts), the on-screen keyboard provides a handy substitute while working at
different stations or on laptops, which seldom come with dual layouts.
Virtual keyboards are commonly used as an on-screen input method in devices with no physical
keyboard, where there is no room for one, such as a pocket computer, personal digital
assistant (PDA), tablet computer or touchscreen-equipped mobile phone. Text is commonly inputted

On the Internet. Virtual keyboards can be categorized by the following aspects:  Physical keyboards with distinct keys comprising electronically changeable displays integrated in the keypads  Virtual keyboards with touchscreen keyboard layouts or sensing areas [3]  Optically projected keyboard layouts or similar arrangements of "keys" or sensing areas [4][5]  Optically detected human hand and finger motions[6]  Virtual keyboards to allow input from a variety of input devices. Westpac’s online banking service uses a virtual keyboard for the password entry. than it is to monitor real keystrokes. However it is possible.[2] Virtual keyboards are also used as features of emulation software for systems that have fewer buttons than a computer keyboard would have. touchpads and wired gloves. [7] touchscreens.Multitouch screens allow the possibility to create virtual chorded keyboards for tablet computers. Security considerations[edit] Virtual keyboards may be used in some cases to reduce the risk of keystroke logging. switch or other assistive technology device. simplicity and unambiguity of manual data input. for example by recording screenshots at regular intervals or upon each mouse click.[10] For example. An optical virtual keyboard was invented and patented by IBM engineers in 2008.[11][12] .either by tapping a virtual keyboard or finger-tracing. such as a computer mouse. allowing users to type their own languages on foreign keyboards. particularly in Internet cafes. as does TreasuryDirect (see picture).[6] It optically detects and analyses human hand and finger motions and interprets them as operations on a physically non-existent input device like a surface having painted keys. optimized for the current application and for the user's physiology maintaining speed. In that way it allows to emulate unlimited types of manually operated input devices such as a mouse or keyboard. All mechanical input units can be replaced by such virtual devices. It is more difficult for malware to monitor the display and mouse to obtain the data entered via the virtual keyboard. various JavaScript virtual keyboards have been created.

This makes it much easier for an observer to read the data from the screen. by changing its colour briefly. and see which characters the mouse moves to. In the worst case.The use of an on-screen keyboard on which the user "types" with mouse clicks can increase the risk of password disclosure by shoulder surfing. thus allowing the observer time to read each character even after the mouse starts moving to the next character. e. the implementation may leave the focuson the most recently clicked "key" until the next virtual key is clicked.  A user may not be able to "point and click" as fast as they could type on a keyboard. .g.  Some implementations of the on-screen keyboard may give visual feedback of the "key" clicked. because:  An observer can typically watch the screen more easily (and less suspiciously) than the keyboard. thus making it easier for the observer.