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Mailam Engineering College
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi, Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai
& Accredited by National Board of Accreditation (NBA), New Delhi)

Mailam (Po), Villupuram (Dt). Pin: 604 304
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Web Programming – MC9235
UNIT II

WORLD WIDE WEB

Overview – Web Security, Privacy, and site-blocking – Audio and Video on the web –
Creating and Maintaining the Web – Web site creation concepts – Web Page Editors –
Optimizing Web Graphics – Web Audio Files – Forms, Interactivity, and Database-Driven
Web sites – File Transfer and downloading – FTP – Peer to Peer – Downloading and
Installing software.

2– Marks Questions with Answers
1. What do you mean by World Wide Web?
WWW is a distributed system of inter linked pages that include text, pictures, sound
and other information. It enables easy access to the information available on the internet.
2. Write short notes on HTTP?
Http is application protocol with the lightness
the distributed collaborative hypermedia information system.

and

speed

necessary

for

3. What is FTP?
The basic Internet File Transfer Protocol. FTP, which is based on TCP/IP, enables the
fetching and storing of files between hosts on the Internet.
4. What is GUI?
Graphical User Interface. Refers to the techniques involved in using graphics, along
with a keyboard and a mouse, to provide an easy-to-use interface to some program.
5. What is URL?
URL stands for Uniform Resource Locater. Three are two types of URL
 Absolute URL – This include complete path to the file location including all the names
of directories and sub directories.
 Relative URL – These are like shorthand that tells the browser to go backward one or
more directories to find the file.
6. Define SCML?
The Source Code Markup Language (SCML) is a formatting language that can be
used to create templates for source code that needs to be output by Flick.
7. What is Mailing List?
A group of users with a shared interest, whose e-mail address are kept in an
Prepared By
Ms. A.Subathra Devi, Asst. Prof. / MCA

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electronic list that can be used to send e-mail to each member on the list.
8. What are the key elements in a protocol. ?
 Syntax - Includes data format and Signal levels
 Semantics – Includes control information for co-coordinating & Error handling
 Timing – Includes speed matching and sequencing
9. What is HTML?
Hypertext Markup Language. This is a file format, based on SGML, for hypertext
documents on the Internet. It is very simple and allows for the embedding of images,
sounds, video streams, form fields and simple text formatting. References to other objects
are embedded using URLs. HTML is a plain text file with commands <MARKUP TAGS> to tell
the web browsers how to display the file.
10. How do you change the color of background or text in HTML?
<body bgcolor="#rrggbb">
<body text="#ffffff" link="#ff0000" vlink="#ff0000" alink="#ff0000">
11. How do you use a picture as the background in HTML?
<body background="bgimage.jpg">
12. How do you add music to a web page?
<embed src="yourmusicfile.mid" autostart="true" loop="true" width="2" height="0">
</embed>
13. Define Web Security.
There are a lot of dangers in putting up a Web page. From invasions of privacy to
actual hackers cracking your security. Learn how to secure your Web server and site as well
as hacks and patches to keep yourself safe.
14. What are the necessities of using HTML forms?


Gathering user information
Conducting Surveys
Interactive services

15. What are the sequences of steps for each HTTP request from a client to the
server?




Making the connection
Making a request
The response
Closing the connection
Define MIME.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is an open standard for sending multipart,
multimedia data through Internet email.
16. List the predefined MIME content types.

Prepared By
Ms. A.Subathra Devi, Asst. Prof. / MCA

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Text
Multipart
Message
Image
Audio
Video
Model
Application

17. Define HTML.
It is a simple page description language, which enables document creation for the
web.
18. What is meant by loop back address?
A zone that enables the server to direct traffic to itself. The host number is almost
always 127.0.0.1.
19. What is web hosting?
Web Hosting is a service that provides internet users with online computer systems
for storing information, images, video, or any content accessible via the internet or web. For
Internet users to view online information, the web hosting company places the website
pages (html, php, etc files) on a web server which is stored inside a data center. Data
centers are connected to the internet with extremely reliable high speed connections so that
the world has access to the web files 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Web users access the
web pages through the website's IP address or the website's domain name.
20. What is a web host?
A web host provider (or web host) is the company that host's and maintains the web
server that stores the website's pages.
21. Does the web host own my site?
No, the content that is within your site is yours and yours alone!
22. How much does web hosting cost?
Web hosting costs vary dramatically depending on what type of website you plan on
running, how many visitors the site receives, and any additional features you may require.
For a simple site with html, cgi, and php web pages, the pricing can range from $15.00 per
month to upward of $30.00 per month for a virtual web hosting account. If the website gets
millions of visitors a day, you may require a dedicated server which can cost anywhere
between $100.00 per month to $500.00 per month. This fee is to maintain a reliable high
speed connection and enough bandwidth or data transfer per month for the website users to
effective navigate through the website.
23. Can I host my website myself?
Yes. It's preferable to have a high speed connection to the internet (DSL, Cable, or
T1) and you can dedicate one computer to be a web server. Also, the internet provider may
incur an extra charge for hosting.
However, this is the least efficient web hosting method since it puts heavy additional
requirements on your home or office internet connection line and exposes you to security
risks. It is important to note that the computer dedicated to being a web server must
remain on 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for the website to be online all the time.
Prepared By
Ms. A.Subathra Devi, Asst. Prof. / MCA

a small personal website with light traffic will require 50 . for example. The amount of transfer the visitor uses counts towards your allocated monthly amount of data transfer. client. An FTP client is a piece of software that allows a user to authenticate and establish a connection to the remote web hosting server to upload files for the website. 26. 29. How much disk space and bandwidth do I need for hosting my web site? There is no definite answer for this question since it is highly dependent on your current and future web hosting needs for the website in question. if the website offers videos or large resolution images." A good purpose will be specific and represent a new activity that adds significant value to the Web. JIC Design offers domain name registrations and includes a domain name free with specific web hosting plans.4 24. However. it takes up space on the web server's hard drive(s). images. for example. usually monthly. When a visitor browses a website. scripts and so forth. A domain name can be registered with any ICANN-approved domain registrar. What is the most common mistake Web developers make? A lack of understanding of the audience for the Web site. a common error is when some sites that depend on an in-person visit neglect to identify the city and state in which the store or physical event is located. What is disk space or storage space? Disk space or storage space refers to the amount of space you are allowed to store in your web hosting account. A. or File Transfer Protocol. if the visitor retrieves an image that is 2KB and one HTML page at 4KB. How do I transfer my website files from my local computer to the remote web hosting server? The most common method to upload files from a local computer to your web hosting server is by using an FTP. How do I get my own domain name? It's important to realize that domain registration is separate from web hosting and these two services can be provided by two different companies. For example. For example. 27. 30. the Advanced Web Hosting Plan is a possibility. Having symbols. images. The size of the files you upload into your web hosting will respectively determine how much storage space you will use up. then the total data transfer for that session is approximately 6KB. links on certain words. JIC Design offers a Starter Web Hosting Plan suitable for this type of website. 25. The developers forget that the Web site is global. The audience needs to Prepared By Ms.Subathra Devi. Asst. and modes of representing the information based on clicking on links makes a site hard to navigate. HTML pages. scripts and other files to view the web page. When you upload website files. / MCA . graphics. "to sell our line of products. Then state specific. Another common audience error is to assume that they know about the navigation cues on a site. Understanding your audience means knowing their needs and expectations. he or she has to download the HTML. However. measurable objectives that the site should accomplish. What is bandwidth or data transfer? Bandwidth or data transfer are terms referring to the amount of data that can be transferred in and out within a given period of time. How do I get started developing a Web site? Your Web site's purpose might be. 28.100 MB of storage space (disk space) and 1 GB of monthly data transfer. Prof.

the scheme should be selfevident. considers them. XML-based formats have become the default for most office-productivity tools. 33.5 be able to find out the navigation scheme of a site. It is a textual data format and is used in interchanging data over the Internet. unfortunately. 31.  It is a platform independent language. I hope people who call themselves "Web designers" understand this. including Microsoft Office. and it can be combined with any application which is capable of processing XML irrespective of the platform it is being used on. Web design as encompassing far more than that--including issues such as hypertext navigation. it has a clean layout and organization. What does XML stand for? In computer lingo XML stands for Extensible Markup Language. has come to represent only page layout and graphics issues. even to a brand new user. and taking advantage of the unique qualities of the Web for your Web's purpose. thematic issues that have to do with the Web's purpose.com's full coverage news area is absolutely fantastic--it accomplishes a specific purpose using the unique qualities of the Web. OpenOffice.org. and Apple's iWork. If the developers start blabbing on about technology--how cool Javascript (or frames. A. and organizational issues about the Web site's file organization. Prepared By Ms. Asst. Web design." Web development encompasses a whole set of processes. but I think many do not. and one of those processes is Web design.  cookies are easy to implement.  XML is fully compatible with applications like JAVA.  you can configure cookies and expire when the browser ends. 34. meeting their needs. DHTML) is for example--don't hire them. Write some advantages of XML.Subathra Devi. 35. The message is then sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server. What do you think are the best Web sites? Those that unabashedly focus on their purpose and have a strong sense of their audience. The browser stores the message in a text file. What is meant by cookies? A message given to a Web browser by a Web server. Prof. Yahoo.  It is as easy as HTML. 32. 37. What should I look for in a Web developer (or agency) I might hire? Ask the developers. What are the advantages of using cookies?  cookies do not require any server resources. Ideally. 36. "How can our needs be met with Web-based communication?" If the developers can articulate issues such as identifying your audience. What is the difference between "Web development" and "Web design. / MCA .

Is a strong medium of making backward links. Advantages of batch processing  It allows sharing of computer resources among many users. There are ways such as unlocking parental controls and editing it or going onto websites that allow to bypass areas where you're not allowed to go to.  It avoids idling of computing resources with minute-by-minute human interaction and supervision. Prof. Disadvantages Of Real Time Processing  The system must always be online. there will be no loss of data even between systems that use totally different formats. some websites don't really work or the effect doesn't really take place. There is no similarity between them.google. you could try either of them 42. However.com is a search engine and http://www. Usually ppl got confused in search engine and in web directory both is different. meaning that you can create your own tags.  There will be (in most cases) no processing lag caused by the system. 38. How do you get to blocked websites? There are specific websites that help bypass websites. Disadvantages  It is difficult to provide the desired priority scheduling. A. or use the tags which have already been created. 41. 40. For Example-:http://www. What is a Web directory? Basically web directory is a site where we can submit and fetch link on the basis of their categories. What are the Advantages & Disadvantages of real time processing & batch processing? Advantages of Real Time processing  The system is immediately updated.info is a web directory. Prepared By Ms. 39. then XML can work on any platform and has no boundaries. It can be deployed on any network if it is amicable for usage with the application in use.  It shifts the time of job processing to when the computing resources are less busy.Subathra Devi. If the application can work along with XML. lots of programming skills. / MCA . It is also vendor independent and system independent.linksgallery. While data is being exchanged using XML. Asst.6      XML is an extremely portable language to the extent that it can be used on large networks with multiple platforms like the internet. and it can be used on handhelds or palmtops or PDAs. Promote it the social media sites. What do you need to become a hacker? Exstensive knowledge of computer and software security. and ingenuity. XML is an extendable language. How do you improve the visibility of a website? Apply SEO for the website so that it will create back links.

Subathra Devi. How do you create an XML document? Open Microsoft excel. it will connect to that user's connection. You can use any basic text editor to create or with xml files. After launching the program. peripherals. What is difference between elements and attributes in XML? Elements are used to encapsulate pieces of data. for example notepad can be used to create and edit xml files. 46. 50. Define Web Browser A web browser displays a web document and enables users to access web documents. Once the computer finds another network member on-line. This means that you have a web page that grabs information from a database and inserts that information into the web page each time it is loaded. the user enters the IP address of another computer belonging to the network. and attributes are generally used to provide accompanying information about an element. How Does Internet P2P Work? The user must first download and execute a peer-to-peer networking program. / MCA . How do you create an Animated Image or Slideshow? This can be done very easily in JavaScript using the set interval command and other piece of code in order to reproduce the HTML code therefore creating a slideshow. allowing shared access to various resources such as files. What is Database Driven Web pages? One of the most common types of dynamic web pages is the database driven type. I've added a link under related links. When the user clicks a hyperlink. How does audio and video effects to website? [UQ Nov/Dec 2010] Prepared By Ms. What is meant by Peer-to-Peer? A peer-to-peer computer network is one in which each computer in the network can act as a client or server for the other computers in the network. This message requests the server to retrieve the requested information and send it back to the web browser through the telecommunications network. 47. Asst. 45.) without human intervention. A. You can also use a dedicated xml editor to achieve the same and to also carry out extra tasks like validation and binding. then go to 'save as' than click save as xml document. 49. rather than to encapsulate raw data itself. Dynamic Drive has a page on this with open source scripts you can use. and sensors without the need for a central server. then do your work etc. 44. Prof. If the information stored in the database changes. 48. the web page connected to the database will also change accordingly (and automatically. the browser initiates a message to a web server.7 43.

how they built? [UQ Nov/Dec 2010] A database-driven website is a website that uses a database to gather. and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose look and feel are almost identical to the legitimate one Prepared By Ms. The three most popular formats (those most likely to work on your readers' machines) are WAVE. each with it’s own advantages. The content management system can be designed and tailored to your specific requirements. The web pages that are created when a database website design solution is used are actually called "dynamic web pages" as opposed to "static" web pages. Prof. with the file extension . and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.wav) was invented for Windows by Microsoft. display. invented by Apple and SGI. passwords. Phishing emails may contain links to websites that are infected with malware.. The information contained in the database is usually kept up to date by using a website content management system. online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure the unsuspecting public. Video on the Web Today. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites. However. what is database driven website. Database driven sites can be built using several competing technologies. <video width="320" height="240" controls="controls"> <source src="movie. Phishing is typically carried out by e-mail spoofing or instant messaging. and theoretically any of them could be used in a web page.au) was invented by NeXT and Sun. / MCA .8 There are many computer formats for sound. they reproduce recorded sounds (or computer generated sounds). Some of those technologies/tools include:      PHP JSP ASP PERL Cold Fusion 52. which is widely supported.. AU.ogg" type="video/ogg"> </video> 51. Both are now widely accepted on many platforms. WAVE (Waveform Audio File Format. or manipulate information. They also tend to be big files for just a little sound. different browsers may have different plug-ins. HTML defines a new element which specifies a standard way to embed a video/movie on a web page: the <video> element.Subathra Devi. auction sites. A. and MIDI. but is far less popular than AU and WAVE. Asst. AU (Audio File Format. There is also a recorded sound format called AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format).mp4" type="video/mp4"> <source src="movie. WAVE and AU are like sound recordings. WAVE and AU files are good for a short sound effect such as a short greeting or perhaps a cow moo. What is a phishing web site? [UQ Nov/Dec 2011] Phishing is attempting to acquire information such as usernames. and are common on web pages. file extension . most videos are shown through a plug-in (like flash).

 MS Access for low traffic web sites.Subathra Devi.9 53. and phone calls are designed to steal money.  This sequence is usually non-linear. Cybercriminals can do this by installing malicious software on your computer or stealing personal information off of your computer.  MySQL for low-cost database-access. or convince you to download something off of a website. or phone calls Phishing email messages. A. Part -B 1. / MCA . however readers can follow a linear sequence. Explain the World Wide Web Concepts in details. Cybercriminals also use social engineering to convince you to install malicious software or hand over your personal information under false pretenses. What does a phishing email message look like? Here is an example of what a phishing scam in an email message might look like. What is the typical database technologies used for running a database driven website? [UQ Nov/Dec 2011]  MS SQL Server or Oracle for high traffic database-driven web sites. websites. links. Prof. 55. How to recognize phishing email messages. call you on the phone. They might email you. Asst.  The Hypertext Concept  The hypertext is a way of presenting information in such a way that the sequence of the information is left up to the reader. 54. Prepared By Ms.

which is used to transfer Web pages across the Internet to Web browsers such as Netscape Navigator. Web Browser    A web browser displays a web document and enables users to access web documents.  Uniform Resource Locators (URL) and Transfer protocols These are the web addresses.10  The hypertext works by means of hyperlink. found in many URLs.  A protocol is a standardized means of communication among machines across a network. Protocols allow data to be taken apart for faster transmission. it is not necessary. Some Web servers omit the need to type www.  Here. Web Server  This is a program that waits patiently for the browser to request a web page.Subathra Devi.edu/101/url101. Prepared By Ms. which are highlighted or underlined words (or graphics) that one can click to bring another document into view.  The resource locator is an addressing system that precisely states where a resource is located.  This message requests the server to retrieve the requested information and send it back to the web browser through the telecommunications network. Internet Explorer. or Lynx. retrieves it and sends it to the browser or sends an error message if the file is not found.html  The first portion of the URL (http) designates the protocol that is used to locate the file or resource on the Web.edu) designates the host name of the computer you are accessing. is an acronym for World Wide Web. While using www is conventional. Prof. eg: http://www. http represents the HyperText Transfer Protocol.uiuc.uiuc. transmitted. server/ domain name. / MCA . the browser initiates a message to a web server.  It is divided into four parts: protocol.cites.  The server looks for the requested information.  The portion of the URL following the protocol (www.  When the user clicks a hyperlink. The designator www. A. and then reassembled at the destination in the correct order. path and the resource name.cites. Asst.

 ActiveX controls. interpret the HTML and display the document. Asst. possibly fetching additional HTML documents in the process. protocols.  The main purpose of applets and scripts is to speed up web page interactivity. URL). so that the computer can execute them. tools. platform independence. and the ability to interact with a variety of formats. 101 is a directory under the root directory of the host you are accessing. The file url101. In this example. and languages makes it a universal language. Prof. A. / MCA . like Java.  XML       XML XML XML XML XML XML stands for EXtensible Markup Language is a markup language much like HTML was designed to carry data. We must define our own tags is designed to be self-descriptive is a W3C Recommendation. 2. are used to embed executable programs into a web page.Subathra Devi.11  A URL may have any number of directories following it. It can accept user input and/or cause additional HTML documents to be fetched by  Providing safety. not to display data tags are not predefined.  JavaScript is a language that allows HTML to embed small programs called scripts in web pages. Prepared By Ms.  URL.html is located in the 101 directory.g.   Java and Java Script  Java is a language for sending applets over the web. VBScript and ActiveX Controls  VBscript resembles Microsoft’s Visual Basic and is used to add scripts to pages that are displayed by Internet explorer.  The basic model for HTML execution is to fetch a document by its name (e.  An HTML document (program) is ASCII text with embedded instructions (markups) which affect the way the text is displayed. What are Web Languages that are used to create web sites in details?  HTML (HyperText Markup Language)  It is the universal language understood by all WWW (World Wide Web) clients.

 It specializes in linking to other web sites and categorizing those links. and sites are often limited to inclusion in only one or two categories. The categorization is usually based on the whole web site.). A.  Corporations are replacing their internal homepages with portals.  A web directory is not a search engine. chat rooms.  All portal services are free but some requires registering and choosing a password.12  XML is not a replacement for HTML. Prepared By Ms. XML was designed to transport and store data.       <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> <note>  These tags are "invented" by the author of the XML document.  Portals   A portal is a web site that wants to be the start page.Subathra Devi. Prof. e-mail accounts and news services. with focus on how data looks. instead it lists web sites by category and subcategory. <h1>. Web directories and Search Engines  A web directory or link directory is a directory on the World Wide Web. That is because the XML language has no predefined tags. with focus on what data is. XML and HTML were designed with different goals.  The tags used in HTML (and the structure of HTML) are predefined. search engines. XML allows the author to define his own tags and his own document structure.  With XML we invent our Own Tags. etc. and does not display lists of web pages based on keywords.  HTML was designed to display data.  A portal site includes web guides. The tags in the example below (like <to> and <from>) are not defined in any XML standard. / MCA . while XML is about carrying information. HTML documents can only use tags defined in the HTML standard (like <p>. Asst. rather than one page or a set of keywords. HTML is about displaying information.

Home Pages  The homepage or main page is the URL or local file that automatically loads when a web browser starts and when the browser's "home" button is pressed. usually with a short summary containing the document's title and sometimes parts of the text.  Unlike Web directories. Searching  Web search engines work by storing information about many web pages.  In some countries. the engine examines its index and provides a listing of best-matching web pages according to its criteria. which they retrieve from the WWW itself. databases. search engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input.  Most search engines support the use of the boolean operators AND.  The term is also used to refer to the front page.  Information may consist of web pages. or individual. or open directories. webserver directory index. and have editors review submissions for fitness. Some search engines provide an advanced feature called proximity search which allows users to define the distance between keywords. / MCA . which are maintained by human editors. the term "homepage" commonly refers to a complete website (of a company or other organization) rather than to a single web page.13  Web directories often allow site owners to directly submit their site for inclusion. OR and NOT to further specify the search query. Web crawling 2.  A search engine operates. Asst. Indexing 3. Japan. images and other types of files. such as Germany. Prepared By Ms. Prof.  A Web search engine is a search engine designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. Some search engines also mine data available in newsgroups.  When a user enters a query into a search engine (typically by using key words). and South Korea. in the following order 1. organization. and formerly in the US. or main web page of a website of a group. company. A. These pages are retrieved by a Web crawler— an automated Web browser which follows every link it sees.Subathra Devi.

 In this way. Upon each return visit to that site. called cookie.txt.  When we request another page from the server. the significance of choosing a homepage is almost non-existent.  These files typically contain information about our visit to the web page. the server gives a cookie that acts as the identification card. the domain Security Policy is applied to the local computer.  Domain Security Policy will override any changes made to Security Policy at the desktop level.14  Also. Discuss about Web Security. A.  Another aspect of web security specifies what information web sites can store on the computer.  Many software companies now automatically set their company's website as the user's homepage. 3. Privacy. Asst. and Site-Blocking  Web Security and Privacy Concepts   Stand-alone computers have Security Policy associated with them that can be modified by users with the appropriate rights. with more and more people knowing how to navigate the internet easily.  Cookies are most commonly used to track web site activity. Prof. a web server can gather information about which web pages are used the most. / MCA . such as the name and interests.  Browsers have security policies. to track our use of the web site. or systems that enable us to specify which web sites can take what types of actions on our computer.  When a computer joins a domain.  Web security defines what the browser will allow web pages to run or store on the computer. the browser sends the cookie back to the server. Prepared By Ms.Subathra Devi. When we visit some sites. Cookies  Cookies are messages that web servers pass to the web browser when we visit Internet sites. as well as any information we've volunteered.  The browser stores each message in a small file. and which pages are gathering the most repeat hits. the browser passes that cookie back to the server.

15  Cookies are also used for online shopping. Third-party rating: Enable multiple. web servers can use only information that you provide or choices that you make while visiting the web site as content in cookies. control over the kinds of material to which they and their children have access. Services may devise Prepared By Ms. PICS will devise a set of standards that facilitate the following: Self-rating: Enable content providers to voluntarily label the content they create and distribute. but it also facilitates other uses for labels. A.  PICS members believe that individuals. and not possible to use a cookie to deliver a virus. Accepting a cookie does not give a server access to the computer or any of the personal information (except for any information that we may have purposely given.  Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) o o  The PICS specification enables labels (metadata) to be associated with Internet content.  It was originally designed to help parents and teachers control what children access on the Internet. / MCA .  Security concerns in cookies Only the web site that creates a cookie can read it.Subathra Devi. as well as any items in the electronic shopping cart.  PICS is a cross-industry working group whose goal is to facilitate the development of technologies to give users of interactive media.  Servers also use cookies to provide personalized web pages. Servers can read only cookies that they have set. as with online shopping). groups and businesses should have easy access to the widest possible range of content selection products. and a diversity of voluntary rating systems. When we return. so that user don't need to re-enter this information each time we visit the site. so other servers do not have access to the information. independent labeling services to associate additional labels with content created and distributed by others. the server uses the information in the cookie to create a customized page for us. such as the Internet. Online stores often use cookies that record any personal information we enter. it is not possible to execute code from a cookie. When we select preferences at a site that uses this option. the server places the information in a cookie. Additionally. including code signing and privacy.  The PICS platform is one on which other rating services and filtering software has been built.  In order to advance its goals. Prof. Also. Asst.

It supports burning to CDs or copying files to portable media players that support WMA format.  WinAmp – plays MP3 and windows media files. Prof. Asst.  Streaming enables the computer to play the beginning of an audio or video file while the rest of the file is still downloading. / MCA . including most audio files and CDs.  Safesurf is a parents’ group trying to make the internet a safe and useful tool for children.  Windows Media Player – plays both regular and streaming audio and video files.Subathra Devi. Discuss how Audio and video on the web. Popular Audio and Video players  RealOne Player – plays most popular audio formats and video files.  Quick Time – plays audio and video files stored in the Quicktime format. including streaming audio and video.  RSAC is a nonprofit corporation and its mission was to issue a rating system for computer games. as well as many other popular music formats. and it later extended its game-rating system to the Internet.  Since audio and video files are large. movie.  Microsoft’s Content Advisor includes only RSAC’s system.16  their own labeling systems. many sites features music. o Ease-of-use: Enable parents and teachers to use ratings and labels from a diversity of sources to control the information that children under their supervision receive. Content-Rating Services: Safesurf and RSAC (Recreational Sotware Advisory Council)  The two rating systems that are built into Netscape Netwatch are Safesurf and the Recreational Software Advisory. CDs. streaming was invented. so we can create our own music CDs.  However the audio or video files are large in size and take a long time to download. A. and the same content may receive different labels from different services. Supports burning audio files on CDs. and television clips which can be viewed or download. Prepared By Ms.  If the file arrives more slowly than the computer plays it. 4. the playback has gaps while the computer waits for more data to play. and streaming audio.  With the increased popularity of broadband connections.

transfers MP3s to portable media players. A.  With improved video compression techniques and faster internet connections the rich multimedia content can be downloaded or played within seconds. Prof. whereas other videos require RealOne player or Quicktime player. the images were often blocky and tiny. view the web pages as stored on the web server. Live video with webcams Another source for video broadcasts is the ever-popular webcam. so that we have an idea what information will be on at least the home page and other key pages. meaning a video clip just a few seconds long could take ten minutes or more to download. where the content is played as it is downloaded. Prepared By Ms. o Many videos play in windows media player.  Using browser. Check the contents and the links  Publish the web site by putting all of its files on a web server. o These are digital video cameras broadcast from a specific location o o Webcam images are usually updated between every few seconds. copies and creates CDs.  Even using streaming media.  Using the browser.Subathra Devi.17  MusicMatch – plays MP3s and CDs. create the pages of the site and save them as HTML files. o We can view the prerecorded video clips using the right player. and supports internet radio broadcasts. although some sites use streaming video for their webcams. What are the steps for Web site Creation? Basic steps in creating a site  Plan the structure of the site. 5.  Using the text editor or web page editor. Use a graphics editor to create or view graphics for the pages. view the HTML files created.  Prerecorded video  o Several video formats are in use on the internet. Asst. Playing video on the Internet  The video files are very large in size. / MCA .

and repeat the steps.Subathra Devi.18  Publicize the site. A. get feedback. Asst. Planning the Site The planning process involves answering these questions. Prof. / MCA . get new ideas.  Who is the audience for the site?  What can you put on the site that will interest people?  How can we make it easy for people to navigate the site?  How the pages are stored on the site?  What are the tools needed to develop the site? Issues to be aware of when planning the web site:  Text size  Colors  Writing for an international audience  Privacy  Maintenance  Accessibility Tools needed to develop the site  Text  Pictures  Animated graphics  Audio files  Video files  Animation files  Forma and database information  Text editor Prepared By Ms.

Eg: Adobe Photoshop and Macromedia fireworks  Illustration programs – focus on creating images.small programs with simple features that focus on converting images from one format to another.Subathra Devi. Asst. / MCA . Prof. Common programs for creating GIF and JPEG files Generally. Briefly discuss about Optimizing web graphics and its file formats. Graphics programs are of three varieties:  Paint and photo programs – Enables to read different image files and customize them for web use. Graphics program that are widely available:  Microsoft Paint  Adobe PhotoShop  Adobe ImageReady  Macromedia Fireworks  Paint Shop Pro  Lview pro Optimizing Images  The Best method to decrease file size for a WEB image is to decrease the quality. This does NOT mean the image will not look good on a computer monitor. Graphics File formats  Vector images consist if lines and various shapes outlined and filled with colors or shadings. Prepared By Ms. Eg: Adobe Illustrator and CorelDraw.19  Drawing programs  Clip art gallery  Sound or video equipment 6. Web documents commonly use bitmap images in two formats: Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) and Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG).  Bitmap images consist of colored dots. principally vector graphics and have features for optimizing the bitmap files. or pixels.  Graphics Utilities . A.

h4. (usually no more than 1/2 of the original size .p1. / MCA . A FTP client may connect to a FTP server to manipulate files on that server.  Minimize the image dimensions by using the smallest practical image height and width. FTP is a file transfer protocol for exchanging and manipulating files over any TCP-based computer network. FTP is a popular choice for exchanging files independent of the operating systems involved. The format for the IP and port is "h1.h3. a different connection is required which is called the data stream. Thus. the FTP client opens a dynamic port (49152–65535). For example. As there are many FTP client and server programs available for different operating systems. A connection to this port from the FTP Client forms the control stream on which commands are passed to the FTP server from the FTP client and on occasion from the FTP server to the FTP client. FTP servers by default listen on port 21 for incoming connections from FTP clients. Physical size will not change (Avoid resize until final step). center the subject in the picture by cropping the borders.  This step alone will normally reduce the file size to 1/5 of the original. Prof.e resizing . the client sends a PORT command. which means it uses a separate connection for control and data. sends the FTP server the dynamic port number on which it is listening over the control stream and waits for a connection from the FTP server.h2. followed by the chosen data port.  Using 'resize' to reduce file size is NOT very effective. 7.Used alone results in an image that is not really optimized very well. In order to use active mode. the process of setting up the data stream is different.  Connection methods FTP runs exclusively over TCP. Depending on the transfer mode.p2". Asst. What is FTP. When the FTP server initiates the data connection to the FTP client it binds the source port to port 20 on the FTP server. In active mode.Subathra Devi. and how do I use it to transfer files? [UQ Nov/Dec 2010&2011] File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network protocol used to transfer data from one computer to another through a network. for the actual file transfer to take place.even if we take the viewing size below 320 x 240 :( Resize should be used to obtain the 'physical' size you desire i. A.  Minimizing and flattening colors. For example. Each field is a decimal representation of 8 bits of the host IP. such as the Internet. a Prepared By Ms.20  Digitized images are normally at a much higher quality (resolution / dots per inch) than a monitor can display. FTP uses out-of-band control.  The Second best method (optional) is to 'crop' off any 'dead' area. with the IP and port as argument.  Minimizing or avoiding certail types of Image content.

Subathra Devi. 192×256 + 2 = 49154. the control session can be disconnected by the firewall. the FTP server opens a dynamic port (49152–65535). the control stream sits idle. hopefully to completion. and efficiently.21 client with an IP of 192. after a communications interruption.52)". "reget" (meaning "get again") that will cause an interrupted "get" command to be continued. In some commandline clients for example.0. The FTP protocol supports resuming of interrupted downloads using the REST command. the client sends the PASV command to which the server would reply with something similar to "227 Entering Passive Mode (127.  To encourage indirect or implicit use of remote computers.are:  To promote sharing of files (computer programs and/or data). in this example. Prof. causing an error to be generated. Asst. there is an often-ignored but valuable command. The syntax of the IP address and port are the same as for the argument to the PORT command. Data format While transferring data over the network. the FTP server operates exactly the same as passive mode.2". Although the FTP protocol supports the APPE command to append data to a file on the server.1. several data representations can be used.0.168. the client does not know the exact position at which a transfer got interrupted. It has to obtain the size of the file some other way.192. The port fields should be interpreted as p1×256 + p2 = port. The objectives of FTP. This can cause problems with large data transfers through firewalls which time out sessions after lengthy periods of idleness. sends the FTP client the server's IP address to connect to and the port on which it is listening (a 16 bit value broken into a high and low byte.  To transfer data reliably. listening on port 49154 for the data connection will send the command "PORT 192.0. While the file may well be successfully transferred.  To shield a user from variations in file storage systems among different hosts. In this case the FTP client binds the source port of the connection to a dynamic port between 49152 and 65535.192.168. In passive mode. / MCA . The two most common transfer modes are:  Prepared By Ms.1. While data is being transferred via the data stream. however it only transmits the port number (not broken into high and low bytes) and the client is to assume that it connects to the same IP address that was originally connected to. To use passive mode.1. like explained before) over the control stream and waits for a connection from the FTP client. for example over a directory listing or using the SIZE command. Extended passive mode was added by RFC 2428 in September 1998. Resuming uploads is not as easy. or. In extended passive mode. The client passes the number of bytes it has already received as argument to the REST command and restarts the transfer. A.0.

except they are encoded in EBCDIC rather than ASCII. the sending machine sends each file byte for byte and as such the recipient stores the bytestream as it receives it. a Windows machine saves it in a Windows format). ASCII characters will be translated to their EBCDIC equivalents. List of FTP commands Commands used by the FTP client software as opposed to the user are often described as raw FTP commands.g. When a file is sent using an ASCII-type transfer. for example. Some browsers allow only the downloading of files. This allows manipulation of remote files over FTP through an interface similar to that used for local files.org/). The receiving machine saves these in a text file in the appropriate format (for example. Prepared By Ms. when transferring from an IBM mainframe to a system using ASCII.: ftp(s)://<login>:<password>@<ftpserveraddress>:<port>. and characters are sent using their ASCII character codes.gimp. Translating between text formats might entail substituting the end of line and end of file characters used on the source platform with those on the destination platform. e. A. e. the individual letters. This is done via an FTP URL. FTP and web browsers Most recent web browsers and file managers can connect to FTP servers. although they may lack the support for protocol extensions such as FTPS.g. a Windows machine receiving a file from a Unix machine will replace the line feeds with carriage return-line feed pairs. but offer no way to upload files to the server. Prof. the ASCII mode server  Local mode . most FTP clients use ASCII mode. / MCA .Abort an active file transfer. Some clients try to determine the required transfer-mode by inspecting the file's name or contents.22  ASCII mode  Binary mode: In "Binary mode".Subathra Devi.this transfers bytes.this is designed for use with systems that are word-oriented rather than byte-oriented. or by determining whether the server is running an operating system with the same text file format. The FTP specifications also list the following transfer modes:  EBCDIC mode .  ABOR . By default. numbers.g. which is stored by the receiving computer in its own format. ftp://ftp. which not all FTP servers are capable of handling.. any form of data that is not plain text will be corrupted. Asst. Thus. It might also involve translating characters. EBCDIC characters used on the mainframe will be translated to their ASCII equivalents. (The FTP standard calls this "IMAGE" or "I" mode) In "ASCII mode". which takes the form ftp(s)://<ftpserveraddress> (e. Hence if an ASCII transfer is used it can be assumed plain text is sent.  ACCT . and when transferring from the system using ASCII to the mainframe. Most web-browsers require the use of passive mode FTP.Account information. A password can optionally be given in the URL. for example. a Unix machine saves it in a Unix format.

 NLST .Return the last-modified time of a specified file.Use to upload multiple files to remote.  OPTS .  CWD .Sets the transfer mode (Stream. else information of the current working directory is returned.Delete file.  CDUP .Send FTP Client Name to server.23  ALLO .No operation (dummy packet.  CLNT .  FEAT .Append.Enter long passive mode. else a general help document is returned.Use to download multiple files from remote.Returns a list of filenames in a specified directory.  NOOP .Use to download a file from remote  HELP .Returns information of a file or directory if specified.  EPSV .Mount File Structure.Change working directory. Prof.Change to Parent Directory. used mostly on keepalives).  LPRT . Block.Select options for a feature.Make directory (folder).  MPUT . A. / MCA . GET .  APPE . or Compressed).Returns usage documentation on a command if specified.Get the feature list implemented by the server.Specifies an extended address and port to which the server should connect.Specifies a long address and port to which the server should connect  MDTM .  LIST .  MODE .Enter extended passive mode  EPRT .  MNT .  LPSV .  DELE .  MGET . Prepared By Ms.Subathra Devi.Allocate sufficient disk space to receive a file. Asst.  MKD .

 TYPE .  PUT .Rename from.Enter passive mode.  REST .  PORT .  RETR .Store file uniquely.Returns the current status.Store (upload) a file. A.24  PASS . Prof.Mount file structure.Set file transfer structure.Retrieve (download) a remote file.  USER .  STOU .  PASV .  PWD .  RNFR .  QUIT .Unmount file structure.  SYST . Asst.  STAT .Subathra Devi.Sends site specific commands to remote server.Return system type.Remove a directory.  SIZE . / MCA .Authentication username 8.Disconnect.  STOR . Returns the current directory of the host.  RMD .Return the size of a file.  SMNT .Authentication password.Rename to.  REIN .  STRU .Sets the transfer mode  UMNT . Discuss the concepts of Peer-to-peer Prepared By Ms.Specifies an address and port to which the server should connect.Print working directory.  RNTO .Restart transfer from the specified point.  SITE .Re initializes the connection.Use to upload a file to remote.

games and other software. but a P2P network can also mean Grid Computing or Instant messaging. Generally.Subathra Devi. A. Examples of distributed computing can be found at GRID. for example. / MCA . This. Asst. such as MSN Messenger or AOL Instant Messenger. Prof. or abbreviated P2P. videos. How Peer-to-peer File-sharing Clients Work: Prepared By Ms. images. This project has evolved into the largest computational chemistry project in history. The P2P network itself relies on computing power at the ends of a connection rather than from within the network itself. allow users to chat via text messages in real-time. P2P networks are used for sharing files.ORG where United Devices is hosting virtual screening for cancer research on the Grid MP platform. Collaborative Computing: Also referred to as distributed computing. P2P is often mistakenly used as a term to describe one user linking with another user to transfer information and files through the use of a common P2P client to download MP3s. The category classification is based on the network and application. Collaborative computing is most popular with science and biotech organizations where intense computer processing is required.25 Peer-to-peer Architecture Often referred to simply as peer-to-peer. While most vendors offer a free version of their IM software others have begun to focus on enterprise versions of IM software as business and corporations have moved towards implementing IM as a standard communications tool for business. Types of P2P Networks Peer-to-peer networks come in three flavors. This differs from client/server architectures where some computers are dedicated to serving the others.000. Affinity Communities are based on users collaborating and searching other user's computers for information and files. peer-to-peer architecture is a type of network in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. Instant Messaging: One very common form of P2P networking is Instant Messaging (IM) where software applications. is only one type of P2P networking. Napster.000 PCs around the world to generate more than 100 teraflops of power. Affinity Communities: Affinity communities is the group of P2P networks that is based around file-sharing and became widely known and talked about due to the public legal issues surrounding the direct file sharing group. Peer-to-peer networks are generally simpler but they usually do not offer the same performance under heavy loads. it combines the idle or unused CPU processing power and/or free disk space of many computers in the network. United Devices has harnessed the power of more than 2. however. Most distributed computing networks are created by users volunteering their unused computing resources to contribute to public interest research projects.

Passwords Passwords are the easiest and most common authentication process that are used. don't write it down anywhere. network security. A. In this scenario the P2P software simply seeks out other Internet users using the same program and informs them of your presence online. Not only does this keep the company free and clear from legal issues regarding music downloading and sharing but it also keeps the corporate bandwidth usage down. not only on desktop computers but also at the network level. P2P Security Concerns: One major concern of using P2P architecture in the workplace is. In just seconds updated files and data can be shared with peers and confidential files can be blocked for security. This central server indexes all users who are currently online connected to the server. if you are connected to the Internet you can launch the utility and you are then logged into a central indexing server. Use passwords that are unpredictable. In securing your network against attacks and viruses there are two main strategies where focus is on controlling the network access or the focus is put on controlling the files. P2P promotes the ease of working together when you're not physically located in the same office. they don't even require a hacker to access the system through your account. Set long passwords and use numbers and special characters when setting your password. Do not use easily predictable words for your passwords. A second method of protection is a software solution which would provide file surveillance to actively search for files based on their type. However certain rules should be followed when setting a password for your computer or Network. you will begin downloading the file. Remember your passwords.26 Once you have downloaded and installed a P2P client. 9. but the P2P architecture has no single fixed server responsible for routing and requests.Subathra Devi. Once the file download is complete the connection will be broken. A second model of P2P clients works in the same way but without a central indexing server. P2P at Work: P2P is not only popular with home users but many small business have come to rely on this cost-effective solution for sharing files with co-workers and clients. Additionally. Security concerns stem from the architecture itself. You can then choose a result from the search query and your utility when then attempt to establish a connection with the computer hosting the file you have requested. The utility queries the index server to find other connected users with the file you are looking for. A protocol-based approach is where system administrators use a software or hardware solution to watch for and block intrusive network traffic being received through the P2P clients. Prof. / MCA . companies can also block access to Internet music and video files to assist in maintaining a work-oriented P2P network. Today we find most blocking and routing handles by a specific server within network. their signature or even their content. of course. building a large network of computers as more users install and use the software. Briefly explain the types of authentication? 1. Asst. Hackers use various tools to know your Prepared By Ms. If a successful connection is made. When a match is found the central server will tell you where to find the requested file. The first step in securing your P2P network is to adopt a strict usage policy within the workplace. their name. The P2P client will contain an area where you can search for a specific file. This server does not host any files for downloading.

Face recognition systems Face recognition system. Many of us have a habit of naming our networks after the protagonist from our favorite movie. 2. gives an output which decides whether you will be allowed to enter into the network or not. Biometrics Biometrics is often considered as a far more secure way of authentication than passwords or digital certificates. The above listed methods are just a few of the widely used authentication methods. Asst.27 passwords. the measures that we take for safeguarding our computer or network are more important than the method itself. Fingerprint detection Almost available in all laptops that are manufactured today. Each valid card for a particular network.Subathra Devi. A simple dimension calculation of the face is done by the computer and the logic used in doing so. 4. then it is always desirable to set your network visibility status to the invisible mode. indeed gives them a lot of trouble. 3. The programming logic inserted into each card is different and it is one of the safest methods of authentication. It is even safer than smart cards. but a long password with a number of special characters. A. Prepared By Ms. This should be avoided and networks should have sensible names that cannot be easily determined. Prof. 7. but fingerprints can never match. may amuse you. when inserted into the circuitry it has been made for. Everyone knows that even the iris pattern of two people may even match. Captcha keys are randomly generated alphabets and numericals presented in such a form. but of late many people working in the field of security have questioned its user friendly nature and the security it can provide. fingerprint detection is another safe method of computer security authentication. In fact. 5. 6. Smart Cards Smart Cards are among the very few hardware authentication processes in which a simple card with an embedded circuitry is used for accessing the network. The physical and behavioral traits of a person are taken into consideration in this type of authentication. computer administrator combine your personal details with other user credentials to generate a public key. which may be misplaced. / MCA . has been often found to be prone to errors. that only a human can recognize. Captcha Keys This is the process of authentication that is used to verify whether a human or a computer bot has logged into the system. Digital Certificates Using a certain algorithm. If you are a network administrator in charge of a closed secure network. This public key or digital certificate is used for the authentication purpose in the network.

Dreamweaver also supports W3C Recommendations and does pretty well with its WYSIWYG features . built in CSS editor. For Windows and Mac. Ruby. much more. Inc.  Expression Web Designer. Asst. Loyal following of devoted users. XHTML editor. and other software programs. $30-$40 upgrade. by Bare Bones Software Top-ranking HTML editor for Macs. If you like to design your pages using HTML then you will probably us a text editor of some sort.far superior to FrontPage. Prof. Examples: Web Authoring / HTML Editors / XHTML Editors  Arachnophilia.28 10. includes. and individuals for Web site building. Syntax coloring. Integrates with Macromedia HomeSite. spell checker. accessible to those not knowing HTML. Write a short note on web page editors. Perl. by Adobe (formerly by Macromedia) Another top-ranking HTML program. PHP. Free trial download.]  CoffeeCup HTML Editor. spell checkers. by Microsoft Prepared By Ms. Local preview server for preview of code generated by PHP. Perl. CoffeeCup Image Mapper.[Software by Bare Bones Software. or download a free trial from their Web site. programming editor for Windows. HTML editor with WYSIWYG. Free. educational. drag-and-drop capabilities. XHTML conversion tool. and gaining in popularity among Web site developers. Prices 01-2008: around $125 full. Syntax coloring and function navigation support for HTML. A. XML. those using HomeSite (for PCs. Lutus. by CoffeeCup Software. support for PHP and other programming languages. For Mac. Although I haven't personally used it. Prices 01-2008: around $399 full. color coding and much more. spell check.  Dreamweaver. maintenance and especially for managing large sites. macros. SQL. They come with a wide variety of options including templates. Lutus HTML editor.Subathra Devi. $49 educational. JavaScript. more. built in sitemapping tool. below) and BBEdit compare them as similar. and markup support for CSS. Includes search/replace features. and similar. [UQ Nov/Dec 2010] This is a program that you use to create Web pages. will tidy up your markup. For Windows. has customization available. / MCA . companies. Adobe Fireworks. More. has built-in FTP service. Try their Lite version. It can be something as simple as the text editor that came with your computer or it can be something that creates the page right in front of you as you point and click away. and YAML. large corporations. too. $199 upgrade.]  BBEdit.[Software by P. XHTML. function navigation. Includes FTP. Supports ASP and PHP. Built-in support for Dreamweaver. by P. Excellent HTML editor.

convert text to HTML. edit multiple files. syntax definitions. Spell checker. Editor note May 2007: GoLive development will continue as a standalone software product (announced by Adobe November 2006). A. you'll still find support information at Microsoft's site. better support for Web standards than its predecessor. Add utilities. Free trial download. Asst. Search/replace. file manager. by Microsoft Editor Note May 2007: FrontPage was replaced with Expression Web Designer as of this note. sorting. Perl. Much better CSS support. Prices 01-2008: around $29. part of the Expression family that includes Expression Web Designer. free upgrade for registered HTML-Kit 1. Free Lite version.  HTML-Kit Tools (Formerly HTML-Kit). Watch their site for the latest. although Adobe is also encouraging users to switch to Dreamweaver. Awards from PCMagazine and others. and more. $19. HTML Tidy. For Windows.  FrontPage. unlimited undo/redo. CSS. clip libraries. Editor note February 2006: Adobe and Macromedia merged. Accessible for new users. PHP. Prices 01-2008: around $33. dictionaries. Excellent HTML editor. XHTML. powerful search/replace.[Software by Helios Software Solutions. ColdFusion. Supports PHP. even though devoted HomeSite fans continue to hope for updates.] Prepared By Ms. CGI scripts.0 users. For Windows. and more for greater functionality.00 full. For Windows. bookmarks.Subathra Devi. more.95 Standard. $29 upgrade. Prices 01-2008: around $65 full. Expression Graphic Designer. free trial download. and Expression Interactive Designer. by Fookes Software Top-rated text and HTML editor shareware. by Macromedia Top-ranking HTML software for PCs.]  TextPad. Around US $27. Prices 01-2008: around $99 full. SQL. ASP. by Adobe A direct competitor with Dreamweaver. HomeSite development has been stagnant for some time. strip tags. too. JavaScript. For Windows. Prof. integrates well with Dreamweaver.[Software by Chami. W3C HTML and CSS references. drag and drop files. among the top favorites used by Web site developers.  GoLive.[Software by Fookes Software. more. such as CSS.[Software by Adobe. Includes many plugins. Also allows easy converting of Adobe InDesign® layouts into Web pages. and a powerful Web authoring tool with WYSIWYG capabilities. SSI. more. by Helios Software Solutions Powerful. macros. comparison utility. by Chami Popular Web developer tool for HTML and more. PHP.]  HomeSite. / MCA . free upgrade to TextPad 5 from Textpad 4. Cold Fusion and other programs.95 Pro.]  NoteTab. general purpose editor for plain text files. Simple to use and helpful with HTML. For Windows and Mac.29 Expression Web Designer replaces FrontPage and is a new product by Microsoft.

Most network analysis vendors. The majority of computers sold to consumers today come pre-equipped with all necessary wireless. Popular program with Web site developers. and ease of integration with other networks and network components. and spoofed MAC addresses are just a few of the problems addressed in WLAN troubleshooting. Expandability and Cost. and Speed. Productivity. Highly recommended by WebsiteTips. the overall security objectives remain the same as with wired networks: preserving confidentiality. For a given networking situation. by NewsGator Technologies Top-rated editor for PCs (5 stars with ZDNet. and Fluke. more). and maintaining availability of the information and information systems. Wireless Network technology.30  TopStyle CSS. The disadvantages of using a wireless network are Security. and others. 11. XHTML Editor. the attacker can read it. because communications takes place "through the air" using radio frequencies. NoteTab.Subathra Devi. Wireless Vulnerabilities. unknown stations. Deployment. Prof. However. Asst.95 full. wireless technology also creates new threats and alters the existing information security risk profile. Unauthorized access points. Prices 012008: around $79. or encrypted with a weak algorithm. such as Network Instruments. The objective of this paper is to assist managers in making such decisions by providing them with a basic understanding of the nature of the various threats associated with wireless networking and available countermeasures. the risk of interception is greater than with wired networks. Threats and Countermeasures Prepared By Ms. Range. free upgrade within version 3. Network General. For Windows. Macromedia Dreamweaver. too). Free Lite Version. thereby compromising confidentiality. For example. HTML. [UQ Nov/Dec 2011] Wireless networking presents many advantages Productivity improves because of increased accessibility to information resources. wireless Networks may not be desirable for a number of reasons. The popularity of wireless Networks is a testament primarily to their convenience. A.95 upgrade prior to version 3. $24. PCMagazine. Reliability.com and used for this Web site. and less expensive. faster. The Lite version is already included in HomeSite (and possibly other programs. Wireless Networks present a host of issues for network managers. Discuss the vulnerability of internet technology for security threats. CSE HTML Validator. Network configuration and reconfiguration is easier. Most of these have to do with the inherent limitations of the technology. / MCA . while replete with the conveniences and advantages described above has its share of downfalls. Although wireless networking alters the risks associated with various threats to security. If the message is not encrypted. The benefits of wireless Networks include: Convenience. Mobility. Networks technology. CNet. broadcasted SSIDs. Integrates seamlessly with Macromedia HomeSite. offer WLAN troubleshooting tools or functionalities as part of their product line. cost efficiency. ensuring integrity. Download trial or purchase online.

NET server controls. Asst. Access points that provide a connection to the organizational network and/or the Client devices (laptops.  Supported in Visual Studio with powerful rapid application development (RAD) tools for designing and programming your forms. A. The Web Forms page works as a container for the static text and controls you want to display.31 The wireless networks consist of four basic components: The transmission of data using radio frequencies. For details about ASP. including HTML. you can design your Web Forms pages to run on a specific browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer 5 and take advantage of the features of a rich browser client. including a managed environment. PDAs. type safety. etc.NET technology in which code that runs on the server dynamically generates Web page output to the browser or client device. Web Forms pages are:  Based on Microsoft ASP. WML. Microsoft Visual C#.NET. and inheritance. Prepared By Ms. Alternatively. XML. JavaScript). Components of Web Forms In Web Forms pages.NET server controls. Each of these components provides an avenue for attack that can result in the compromise of one or more of the three fundamental security objectives of confidentiality. A Web Forms page automatically renders the correct browser-compliant HTML for features such as styles. Web Forms page output may contain almost any HTTP-capable language. / MCA .  Compatible with any browser or mobile device. If you have worked with tools like Visual Basic and Visual C++ in the past. and ECMAScript (JScript.NET Framework. or both simultaneously.  Built on the Microsoft . and availability. you will recognize this division between the visible portion of a form and the code behind the form that interacts with it. Describe the use of forms in web documents and the technology by which the forms handled at the server.NET.NET common language runtime. Using the Visual Studio Web Forms Designer plus ASP. integrity. including Microsoft Visual Basic. you can design the form as you would in any Visual Studio application.  Compatible with any language supported by the . Prof. and Users. A Web Forms page presents information to the user in any browser or client device and implements application logic using server-side code.Subathra Devi. The visual element is referred to as the Web Forms page. or ASP. This provides all the benefits of the framework. the user interface programming is divided into two distinct pieces: the visual component and the logic. and so on. and Microsoft JScript .). [UQ Nov/Dec 2011] Introduction to Web Forms Pages Web Forms pages to create programmable Web pages that serve as the user interface for your Web application. The page consists of a file containing static HTML. 12. layout.

What Web Forms Pages Help You Accomplish Web application programming presents challenges that do not typically arise when programming traditional client-based applications.dll file.NET class file that represents the page. a server has no memory of pages that it has processed. A.NET automatically generates a . a large amount of dynamic content. In a Web application. they can communicate. and compiles it to a second . effectively. Prepared By Ms. / MCA . this becomes a problem that has to be solved in application code. the server repeats the entire sequence. Among the challenges are:  Implementing a rich Web user interface. ASP. The generated class for the . Consequently.  Separation of client and server. For more information. If the user requests the same page again.dll file. Prof. Put another way.  Stateless execution. It is particularly difficult to create a rich user interface for applications likely to run on many different browser and client device platforms. the .aspx page inherits from the code-behind class that was compiled into the project . Asst. sends it to the browser. The first time a user browses to the . it finds the page. but typically exchange only small chunks of simple information. but somewhat differently. processes it.aspx page file is also compiled. the client (browser) and server are different programs often running on different computers (and even on different operating systems). The . A user interface with a complex layout. When a user requests the Web page URL.Subathra Devi. and then. Therefore. reprocessing the page from scratch. the two halves of the application share very little information.32 Web Forms File Structure The code-behind class files for all Web Forms pages in a project are compiled into the project dynamic-link library (. When a Web server receives a request for a page.aspx page. discards all page information. if an application needs to maintain information about a page.dll files run on the server and dynamically produce the HTML output for your page. and full-featured user-interactive objects can be difficult and tedious to design and implement using basic HTML facilities.dll) file.

mp3" loop="true" hidden="true"></embed> <STRONG> <FONT color=mediumslateblue size=6> <EM> <marquee>Welcome to Online Fresh Flower Bocque Shopping</marquee> </EM> </FONT> </STRONG> </BODY> </HTML> frame.*> <frame src="frame. In many cases.html"> <frameset cols=100%.  Complications with scalability. making it difficult to create an application that will run equally well on all of them. 13. Reading from and writing to a data source in a traditional Web applications can be complicated and resource-intensive. [UQ Nov/Dec 2010] h. Web applications are accessible to many users using different browsers. Create an online shopping webpage using HTML forms and other technologies necessary for that. This is often the single failure point for applications under a heavy growth cycle. A.Subathra Devi. Prof.html <HTML> <HEAD> </HEAD> <BODY> Prepared By Ms.html"> </frameset> </frameset> </HTML> title. Asst.  Complications with data access. Browsers have different capabilities. In many cases Web applications designed with existing methods fail to meet scalability goals due to the lack of compatibility between the various components of the application.html <HTML> <HEAD> </HEAD> <frameset rows=13%.html <HTML> <HEAD> </HEAD> <BODY> <embed src="Hosanna.*> <frame src="title.33  Unknown client capabilities. / MCA .

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[Ref. No. / MCA .: 11] 4. No. Describe the use of forms in web documents and the technology by which the forms handled at the server.Subathra Devi. Asst. [Ref. [Ref. A. Discuss the vulnerability of internet technology for security threats. No. Prof. Create an online shopping webpage using HTML forms and other technologies necessary for that.35 3.: 12] 5.: 13] Prepared By Ms.