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Counters

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**Then a counter is a specialized register or pattern generator that produces a specified output
**

pattern or sequence of binary values (or states) upon the application of an input pulse signal

called the "Clock". The clock is actually used for data transfer in these applications. Typically,

counters are logic circuits that can increment or decrement a count by one but when used as

asynchronous divide-by-n counters they are able to divide these input pulses producing a clock

division signal.

Counters are formed by connecting flip-flops together and any number of flip-flops can be

connected or "cascaded" together to form a "divide-by-n" binary counter where "n" is the number

of counter stages used and which is called the Modulus. The modulus or simply "MOD" of a

counter is the number of output states the counter goes through before returning itself back to

zero, ie, one complete cycle.

Then a counter with three flip-flops like the circuit above will count from 0 to 7 ie, 2n-1. It has

eight different output states representing the decimal numbers 0 to 7 and is called a Modulo-8 or

MOD-8 counter. A counter with four flip-flops will count from 0 to 15 and is therefore called a

Modulo-16 counter and so on.

An example of this is given as.

3-bit Binary Counter = 23 = 8 (modulo-8 or MOD-8)

4-bit Binary Counter = 24 = 16 (modulo-16 or MOD-16)

8-bit Binary Counter = 28 = 256 (modulo-256 or MOD-256)

**The Modulo number can be increased by adding more flip-flops to the counter and cascading is a
**

method of achieving higher modulus counters. Then the modulo or MOD number can simply be

written as: MOD number = 2n

4-bit Modulo-16 Counter

**Multi-bit asynchronous counters connected in this manner are also called "Ripple Counters" or
**

ripple dividers because the change of state at each stage appears to "ripple" itself through the

counter from the LSB output to its MSB output connection. Ripple counters are available in

standard IC form, from the 74LS393 Dual 4-bit counter to the 74HC4060, which is a 14-bit

ripple counter with its own built in clock oscillator and produce excellent frequency division of

the fundamental frequency.

Asynchronous Counter

Asynchronous counter can have 2n-1 possible counting states e.g. MOD-16 for a 4-bit counter,

(0-15) making it ideal for use in Frequency Division. But it is also possible to use the basic

asynchronous counter to construct special counters with counting states less than their maximum

output number by forcing the counter to reset itself to zero at a pre-determined value producing a

type of asynchronous counter that has truncated sequences. Then an n-bit counter that counts up

to its maximum modulus (2n) is called a full sequence counter and a n-bit counter whose

modulus is less than the maximum possible is called a truncated counter.

But why would we want to create an asynchronous truncated counter that is not a MOD-4,

MOD-8, or some other modulus that is equal to the power of two. The answer is that we can by

using combinational logic to take advantage of the asynchronous inputs on the flip-flop. If we

take the modulo-16 asynchronous counter and modified it with additional logic gates it can be

made to give a decade (divide-by-10) counter output for use in standard decimal counting and

arithmetic circuits.

This signal causes all of the Q outputs to be reset back to binary "0000" on the count of 10. A decade counter requires resetting to zero when the output count reaches the decimal value of 10. Both outputs QB and QD are now equal to logic "1" and the output from the NAND gate changes state from logic "1" to a logic "0" level and whose output is also connected to the CLEAR (CLR) inputs of all the J-K Flip-flops. We now have a decade or Modulo-10 counter. A counter with a count sequence from binary "0000" (BCD = "0") through to "1001" (BCD = "9") is generally referred to as a BCD binary-coded-decimal counter because its ten state sequence is that of a BCD code but binary decade counters are more common.Such counters are generally referred to as Decade Counters. when DCBA = 1010 and to do this we need to feed this condition back to the reset input. Decade Counter Truth Table . Once QB and QD are both equal to logic "0" the output of the NAND gate returns back to a logic level "1" and the counter restarts again from "0000". Asynchronous Decade Counter This type of asynchronous counter counts upwards on each leading edge of the input clock signal starting from "0000" until it reaches an output "1010" (decimal 10). ie.

Decade Counter Timing Diagram Using the same idea of truncating counter output sequences. noting that the binary equivalent of 12 is "1100" and that output "QA" is the least significant bit (LSB). the above circuit could easily be adapted to other counting cycles be simply changing the connections to the AND gate. For example. this means that when you are designing truncated asynchronous counters you should determine the lowest power of two that is greater than or equal to your desired modulus. For example. lets say you wish to . a scale-of-twelve (modulo-12) can easily be made by simply taking the inputs to the AND gate from the outputs at "QC" and "QD". Since the maximum modulus that can be implemented with n flip-flops is 2n.

Simple 1Hz timing signal using an 18-bit asynchronous ripple counter/divider. 50. 10. The 74LS390 is a very flexible dual decade driver IC with a large number of "divide-by" combinations available ranging form divide-by-2. For example. The two IC's would be cascaded together to form a "divide-by-128" frequency divider as shown. We could quite easily produce a 1Hz square wave signal from a standard 555 timer chip but the manufacturers data sheet tells us that it has a typical 1-2% timing error depending upon the manufacturer. So by choosing a higher timing frequency of say 262. divide-by-5 or any combination of both. 4. 5. One easy alternative method would be to use two TTL 7493's as 4-bit ripple counter/dividers. or mod-40. However the data sheet also tells us that the maximum operating frequency of the 555 timer is about 300kHz and a 2% error at this high frequency would be acceptable.144kHz and an 18-bit ripple (Modulo-18) counter we can make a precision 1Hz timing signal as shown below. and 100.count from 0 to 39. and at low frequencies a 2% error at 1Hz is not good. 25. can be used as frequency dividers to reduce a high clock frequency down to a more usable value for use in digital clocks and timing applications. Using dual flip-flops such as the 74LS74 we would still need four IC's to complete the circuit. one 7493 could be configured as a "divide-by-16" counter and the other as a "divide-by-8" counter. Now suppose we wanted to build a "divide-by-128" counter for frequency division we would need to cascade seven flip-flops since 128 = 27. n = 6 giving a maximum MOD of 64 as five flip-flops would only equal MOD-32. Then the highest number of flip-flops required would be six. assume we require an accurate 1Hz timing signal to operate a digital clock. 20. Since 128 = 16 x 8. . Frequency Dividers This ability of the ripple counter to truncate sequences to produce a "divide-by-n" output means that counters and especially ripple counters. Of course standard IC asynchronous counters are available such as the TTL 74LS90 programmable ripple counter/divider which can be configured as a divide-by-2.

Asynchronous counters are sometimes called ripple counters because the data appears to "ripple" from the output of one flip-flop to the input of the next. Then. This is why the Asynchronous Counter is generally not used in high frequency counting circuits were large numbers of bits are involved. but by using high frequency crystal oscillators and multi-bit frequency dividers. the more flip-flops that are added to an asynchronous counter chain the lower the maximum operating frequency becomes to ensure accurate counting. a sort of domino effect. Unfortunately one of the main disadvantages with asynchronous counters is that there is a small delay between the arrival of the clock pulse at its input and it being present at its output due to the internal circuitry of the gate. if the delay of the separate stages are all added together to give a summed delay at the end of the counter chain the difference in time between the input signal and the counted output signal can be very large. Then to summarise: Asynchronous Counters can be made from Toggle or D-type flip-flops. . To overcome the problem of propagation delay Synchronous Counters were developed. precision frequency generators can be produced for for a range of applications ranging from clocks or watches to event timing and even electronic piano/synthesizer music applications. Also. the outputs from the counter do not have a fixed time relationship with each other and do not occur at the same instant in time due to their clocking sequence. They are called asynchronous counters because the clock input of the flip-flops are not all driven by the same clock signal. They can be implemented using "divide-by-n" circuits.This is of course a very simple example of how to produce accurate frequencies. In large bit ripple counter circuits. Each output in the chain depends on a change in state from the previous flip-flops output. Truncated counters can produce any modulus number count. In asynchronous circuits this delay is called the Propagation Delay giving the asynchronous ripple counter the nickname of "propagation counter" and in some high frequency cases this delay can produce false output counts. In other words the output frequencies become available one by one.

propagation delay by successive stages may become undesirably large. and as a result the asynchronous counter suffers from what is known as "Propagation Delay" in which the timing signal is delayed a fraction through each flip-flop. Binary 4-bit Synchronous Counter . we saw that the output of one counter stage is connected directly to the clock input of the next counter stage and so on along the chain. with the Synchronous Counter. we will look at the Synchronous Counter and see that the main characteristic of an synchronous counter is that the clock input of each flip-flop in the chain is connected to all of the flip-flops so that they are clocked simultaneously. Synchronous Counters are faster using the same clock signal for all flip-flops. changes in the output occur in "synchronization" with the clock signal. no propagation delay. Counting errors at high clocking frequencies. the external clock signal is connected to the clock input of EVERY individual flip-flop within the counter so that all of the flip-flops are clocked together simultaneously (in parallel) at the same time giving a fixed time relationship. Counting a large number of bits. Binary Synchronous Counter In the previous Asynchronous binary counter tutorial. extra feedback logic is required.Disadvantages of Asynchronous Counters: An extra "re-synchronizing" output flip-flop may be required. To count a truncated sequence not equal to 2n. This delay gives them the nickname of "Propagation Counters". In the next tutorial about Counters. In other words. However. This results in all the individual output bits changing state at exactly the same time in response to the common clock signal with no ripple effect and therefore.

Because this 4-bit synchronous counter counts sequentially on every clock pulse the resulting outputs count upwards from 0 ( "0000" ) to 15 ( "1111" ). 4-bit Synchronous Counter Waveform Timing Diagram. Then the synchronous counter follows a predetermined sequence of states in response to the common clock signal. this type of counter is also known as a 4-bit Synchronous Up Counter. the modulo's or "MOD" number still applies as it does for asynchronous counters so a Decade counter or BCD counter with counts from 0 to 2n-1 can be built along with truncated sequences. If we enable each J-K flip-flop to toggle based on whether or not all preceding flip-flop outputs (Q) are "HIGH" we can obtain the same counting sequence as with the asynchronous circuit but without the ripple effect. since each flipflop in this circuit will be clocked at exactly the same time.It can be seen that the external clock pulses (pulses to be counted) are fed directly to each J-K flip-flop in the counter chain and that both the J and K inputs are all tied together in toggle mode. flip-flop A (LSB) are they connected HIGH. logic "1" allowing the flip-flop to toggle on every clock pulse. The J and K inputs of flip-flop B are connected to the output "Q" of flip-flop A. As there is no propagation delay in synchronous counters because all the counter stages are triggered in parallel the maximum operating frequency of this type of counter is much higher than that of a similar asynchronous counter. but the J and K inputs of flip-flops C and D are driven from AND gates which are also supplied with signals from the input and output of the previous stage. As synchronous counters are formed by connecting flip-flops together and any number of flipflops can be connected or "cascaded" together to form a "divide-by-n" binary counter. advancing one state for each pulse. Therefore. but only in the first flip-flop. .

synchronous counters count on the rising-edge which is the low to high transition of the clock signal and asynchronous ripple counters count on the falling-edge which is the high to low transition of the clock signal. Synchronous Counters use edge-triggered flip-flops that change states on either the "positiveedge" (rising edge) or the "negative-edge" (falling edge) of the clock pulse on the control input resulting in one single count when the clock input changes state. We could quite easily rearrange the additional AND gates to produce other counters such as a Mod-12 Up counter which counts 12 states from"0000" to "1011" (0 to 11) and then repeats making them suitable for clocks. After reaching the count of "1001". Decade 4-bit Synchronous Counter The additional AND gates detect when the sequence reaches "1001".Decade 4-bit Synchronous Counter A 4-bit decade synchronous counter can also be built using synchronous binary counters to produce a count sequence from 0 to 9. the count starts over at "0000" producing a synchronous decade counter. (Binary 10) and causes flipflop FF3 to toggle on the next clock pulse. the counter recycles back to "0000". Thus. A standard binary counter can be converted to a decade (decimal 10) counter with the aid of some additional logic to implement the desired state sequence. Generally. Flip-flop FF0 toggles on every clock pulse. We now have a decade or Modulo-10 counter. .

The sequence of the count is controlled by combinational logic.c's such as the TTL 74LS193 or CMOS CD4510 are 4-bit binary Up or Down counters which have an additional input pin to select either the up or down count mode. They are called synchronous counters because the clock input of the flip-flops are clocked with the same clock signal. Overall faster operation may be achieved compared to Asynchronous counters. This type of counter is normally referred to as a Down Counter. the count decreases by one for each external clock pulse from some preset value.the point at which a carry must occur to the next bit. Synchronous counters usually have a carry-out and a carry-in pin for linking counters together without introducing any propagation delays. 4-bit Count Down Counter . The memory section keeps track of the present state. (CTD). but this makes it easier to link counters together because the most significant bit (MSB) of one counter can drive the clock input of the next. Special dual purpose i. it is sometimes necessary to count "down" from a predetermined value to zero and to produce an output that activates when the zero count or other pre-set value is reached. In a binary or BCD down counter. Advantages of Synchronous Counters: Synchronous counters are easier to design. Due to the same clock pulse all outputs change simultaneously. Synchronous counters are also called parallel counters as the clock is fed in parallel to all flip-flops. This works because the next bit must change state when the previous bit changes from high to low . Count Down Counter As well as counting "up" from zero and increase. Then to summarise: Synchronous Counters can be made from Toggle or D-type flip-flops. With all clock inputs wired together there is no inherent propagation delay. or increment to some value. Synchronous binary counters use both sequential and combinational logic elements.It may seem unusual that ripple counters use the falling-edge of the clock cycle to change state.

Synchronous 3-bit Up/Down Counter . rather than by the Q output as in the up counter configuration. Bidirectional counters. but their is another more "Universal" type of counter that can count in both directions either Up or Down depending on the state of their input control pin and these are known as Bidirectional Counters. are capable of counting in either direction through any given count sequence and they can be reversed at any point within their count sequence by using an additional control input as shown below. As a result. instead of changing from 1 to 0. each flip-flop will change state when the previous one changes from 0 to 1 at its output. In the 4-bit counter above the output of each flip-flop changes state on the falling edge (1-to-0 transition) of the CLK input which is triggered by the Q output of the previous flip-flop. Bidirectional Counter Both Synchronous and Asynchronous counters are capable of counting "Up" or counting "Down". also known as Up/Down counters.

3.1.5. both up and down counters are incorporated into single IC that is fully programmable to count in both an "Up" and a "Down" direction from any preset value producing a complete Bidirectional Counter chip.5. Then the 3-Bit counter advances upward in sequence (0. bidirectional counters can be made to change their count direction at any point in the counting sequence. An additional input determines the direction of the count. Common chips available are the .2.2.7) or downwards in reverse sequence (7.1.6. Nowadays.3.0) but generally.6.4. The circuit above is of a simple 3-bit Up/Down synchronous counter using JK flip-flops configured to operate as toggle or T-type flip-flops giving a maximum count of zero (000) to seven (111) and back to zero again. either Up or Down and the timing diagram gives an example of the counters operation as this Up/Down input changes state.4.

A counter is a device that generates some patterned binary value depending on a clock or some other pulsed input. DA. is preset so that exactly one data bit in the . Consider the circuit below. But what if we were to connect the output of this shift register back to its input so that the output from the last flip-flop. and this is the principal operation of a Ring Counter. There are three simple types of counters ripple and synchronous. the 74F569 is a fully synchronous Up/Down binary counter and the CMOS 4029 4-bit Synchronous Up/Down counter. 74HC190 4-bit BCD decade Up/Down counter. the same sequence of data will exit from the last flip-flip in the register chain after a preset number of clock cycles thereby acting as a sort of time delay circuit to the original signal. [[ Ring Counter Navigation Tutorial: 6 of 6 The Ring Counter In the previous Shift Register tutorial we saw that if we apply a serial data signal to the input of a serial-in to serial-out shift register. 4-bit Ring Counter The synchronous Ring Counter example above. We would then have a closed loop circuit that "recirculates" the DATA around a continuous loop for every state of its sequence. we can convert a standard shift register into a ring counter. Then by looping the output back to the input. QD becomes the input of the first flip-flop.

This then places a single logic "1" value into the circuit of the ring counter. a "CLEAR" signal is firstly applied to all the flip-flops together in order to "RESET" their outputs to a logic "0" level and then a "PRESET" pulse is applied to the input of the first flip-flop ( FFA ) before the clock pulses are applied. But in order to cycle the data correctly around the counter we must first "load" the counter with a suitable data pattern as all logic "0's" or all logic "1's" outputted at each clock cycle would make the ring counter invalid. This type of data movement is called "rotation". To achieve this. and like the previous shift register.register is set to logic "1" with all the other bits reset to "0". So on each successive clock pulse. the counter circulates the same data bit between the four flipflops over and over again around the "ring" every fourth clock cycle. the effect of the movement of the data bit from left to right through a ring counter can be presented graphically as follows along with its timing diagram: Rotational Movement of a Ring Counter .

it is also known as a "modulo-4" or "mod-4" counter with each flip-flop output having a frequency value equal to one-fourth or a quarter (1/4) that of the main clock frequency. as in our example above. So a "n-stage" Johnson counter will circulate a single data bit giving sequence of 2n different states and can therefore be considered as a "mod-2n counter". A "mod-n" ring counter will require "n" number of flip-flops connected together to circulate a single data bit providing "n" different output states. Johnson Ring Counter The Johnson Ring Counter or "Twisted Ring Counters". is another shift register with feedback exactly the same as the standard Ring Counter above. The "MODULO" or "MODULUS" of a counter is the number of states the counter counts or sequences through before repeating itself and a ring counter can be made to output any modulo number. except that this time the inverted output Q of the last flip-flop is now connected back to the input D of the first flip-flop as shown below. making ring counters very inefficient in terms of their output state usage.Since the ring counter example shown above has four distinct states. 4-bit Johnson Ring Counter This inversion of Q before it is fed back to input D causes the counter to "count" in a different . only four of the possible sixteen states are used. However. a mod-8 ring counter requires eight flip-flops and a mod-16 ring counter would require sixteen flip-flops. For example. The main advantage of this type of ring counter is that it only needs half the number of flip-flops compared to the standard ring counter then its modulo number is halved.

. By connecting simple logic gates such as the AND or the OR gates to the outputs of the flip-flops the circuit can be made to detect a set number or value. "1100". A 3-stage Johnson Ring Counter can also be used as a 3-phase. "0100"(4).way. the Johnson counter counts up and then down as the initial logic "1" passes through it to the right replacing the preceding logic "0". "0111". 3 or 4-stage Johnson ring counters can also be used to divide the frequency of the clock signal by varying their feedback connections and divide-by-3 or divide-by-5 outputs are also available. Standard 2. A 4-bit Johnson ring counter passes blocks of four logic "0" and then four logic "1" thereby producing an 8-bit pattern. B and NOT-B. "1110". As the inverted output Q is connected to the input D this 8-bit pattern continually repeats. "0000" and this is demonstrated in the following table below. "1000". "0001"(1). "0010"(2). "1000"(8) and repeat. 120 degree phase shift square wave generator by connecting to the data outputs at A. and this is shown below. ring counters can also be used to detect or recognise various patterns or number values within a set of data. "0011". The smaller 2-stage circuit is also called a "Quadrature" (sine/cosine) Oscillator/Generator and is used to produce four individual outputs that are each "phase shifted" by 90 degrees with respect to each other. Instead of counting through a fixed set of patterns like the normal ring counter such as for a 4-bit counter. For example. The standard 5-stage Johnson counter such as the commonly available CD4017 is generally used as a synchronous decade counter/divider circuit. "0001". Truth Table for a 4-bit Johnson Ring Counter Clock FF FFA FFC FFD Pulse No B 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 0 4 1 1 1 1 5 0 1 1 1 6 0 0 1 1 7 0 0 0 1 As well as counting or rotating data around a continuous loop. "1111".

to drive a 2-phase full-step stepper motor for position control or the ability to rotate a motor to a particular location as shown below. A to D are phase shifted by 90 degrees with regards to each other. they can be used with additional circuitry. Count Sequence As the four outputs.2-bit Quadrature Generator Output A B C D QA+QB 1 0 0 0 QA+QB 0 1 0 0 QA+QB 0 0 1 0 QA+QB 0 0 0 1 2-bit Quadrature Oscillator. Stepper Motor Control .

The data pattern contained within the shift register will recirculate as long as clock pulses are applied. All 0's or all 1's doesn't count. Types of Counters Ring Counters If the output of a shift register is fed back to the input. other good websites explain in more detail the types and drive requirements of stepper motors.2-phase (unipolar) Full-Step Stepper Motor Circuit The speed of rotation of the Stepper Motor will depend mainly upon the clock frequency and additional circuitry would be require to drive the "power" requirements of the motor. However. such as the CD4017 5-Stage. we must load a data pattern. decade Johnson ring counter with 10 active HIGH decoded outputs or the CD4022 4stage. For example. the data pattern will repeat every four clock pulses in the figure below. divide-by-8 Johnson counter with 8 active HIGH decoded outputs. Johnson Ring Counters are available in standard TTL or CMOS IC form. a ring counter results. As this section is only intended to give the reader a basic understanding of Johnson Ring Counters and its applications. Is a continuous logic level from such a condition useful? [1] We make provisions for loading data into the parallel-in/ serial-out shift register .

prior to shifting yields a viewable pattern. [4] An alternate method of initializing the ring counter to 1000 is shown above. but was self decoding. Another disadvantage of the ring counter is that it is not "self starting". but requires decoder gates. In actual practice. in particular. The waveforms for all four stages look the same. initialization should never be required again. The ring counter had more stages. The shift waveforms are identical to those above. The requirement for initialization is a disadvantage of the ring counter over a conventional counter. The most generally useful pattern is a single 1. The result is a binary count. If not. [3] The circuit above is a divide by 4 counter. How may stages would we need for a divide by 10 ring counter? Ten stages would recirculate the 1 every 10 clock pulses. the conventional binary counter is less complex without the decoder. repeating every fourth clock pulse. See figure below. At a minimum. like a conventional synchronous binary counter would be more reliable. . Comparing the clock input to any one of the outputs. They are nothing more than toggle flip flops connected in a chain to divide each others output frequency by two. the flip-flops could eventually be corrupted by noise. the ring counter looks attractive. [6] The waveforms decoded from the synchronous binary counter are identical to the previous ring counter waveforms. if most of the logic is in a single shift register package. above. saving the decode gates above. shows a frequency ratio of 4:1. except for the one clock time delay from one stage to the next. destroying the data pattern.configured as a ring counter below. A "self correcting" counter. In theory. The counter sequence is (QA QB) = (00 01 10 11). Any random pattern may be loaded. [5] The above binary synchronous counter needs only two stages. They are called ripple counters because the new count ripples through them. The data pattern for a single stage repeats every four clock pulses in our 4-stage example. Ripple Counters Ripple counters are the simplest type of counters. If we need the decoded outputs. it must be initialized at power-up since there is no way to predict what state flip-flops will power up in. [2] Loading binary 1000 into the ring counter.

For example in a simple up counter the decoder would always output the current count plus one. a register made out of flip flops and a decoder made out of logic gates. Synchronous Counters Synchronous counters are simple state machines made out of flip flops and logic gates. A register is a simple group of flip flops that are all clocked at the same time.The major disadvantage of ripple counters is that because of new count "rippling" through the flip flops all the bits of the count arrive at different times. The decoder. In this way they can hold the counters output value until the next clock cycle. decodes the current count and generates the correct value for the next count to the flop flops. They have two parts. The major advantage of Synchronous Counters is that all the bits of their output change at the same time. .

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