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What is a computer?
An electronic device which is capable of receiving data in a particular form and of
performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of
procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information.

Structure of a computer

This unit contains devices with the help of which we enter data into computer. This unit
makes link between user and computer. The input devices translate the information into the
form understandable by computer.

Following are few of the important input devices which are used in a computer:
Keyboard, Mouse, Joy Stick ,Light pen, Track Ball, Scanner, Graphic Tablet
Microphone, Magnetic Ink Card Reader(MICR) ,Optical Character Reader(OCR),
Bar Code Reader, Optical Mark Reader(OMR).

The QWERTY keyboard was invented in 1875, by Christopher Latham Scholes.

A standard keyboard has 101 keys.

The Computer mouse was invented in 1960, by Douglas Engelbart

Output unit consists of devices with the help of which we get the information from
computer. This unit is a link between computer and users. Output devices translate the
computer's output into the form understandable by users.
Following are few of the important output devices which are used in a computer.
Monitors, Graphic Plotter, Printer

CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. CPU performs all types of data processing
operations. It stores data, intermediate results and instructions (program). It controls the
operation of all parts of computer.
CPU itself has following three components

Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU)

Memory Unit

Control Unit


MEMORY UNIT: Computer memory is the storage space in computer where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are . interprets them. Memory Address Register (MAR): The memory address register holds the address of the next piece of memory to be www. Memory Data Register (MDR): The memory data register (also known as the memory buffer register or data buffer) holds the piece of data that has been fetched from memory.  It obtains the instructions from the memory. www. and directs the operation of the computer.ALU is the part of a computer that performs all arithmetic computations. CONTROL UNIT: This unit controls the operations of all parts of computer but does not carry out any actual data processing operations. CPU Special Registers The CPU contains a number of special-purpose registers: Instruction Register (IR): The instruction register holds the instruction currently being executed.bscacademy.  It manages and coordinates all the units of the computer.  It does not process or store data.  It communicates with Input/Output devices for transfer of data or results from storage. Functions of this unit are:  It is responsible for controlling the transfer of data and instructions among other units of a computer.bsc4success. such as addition and multiplication and all comparison operations.

5 Fifth Generation The period of fifth generation: 1980-onwards. ULSI microprocessor based www. 2 Second Generation The period of second generation: 1959-1965. 3 Third Generation The period of third generation: 1965-1971. Transistor based.bsc4success. Generation & Description 1 First Generation The period of first generation: 1946-1959.Program Counter (PC): The program counter holds the location of the next instruction to be fetched from memory. www. Accumulator: The accumulator is an internal CPU register used as the default location to store any calculations performed by the arithmetic and logic unit. 4 Fourth Generation The period of fourth generation: 1971-1980. Generation of Computers Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used.N. Vacuum tube based.bscacademy. There are totally five computer generations known till date. VLSI microprocessor . Integrated Circuit based. It is automatically incremented between supplying the address of the next instruction and the instruction being executed.

 PARAM 8000 is considered India's first supercomputer.  Charles Babbage is called the "Father" of the computer. Software technology is different from .  World’s first Supercomputer were introduced in the 1960s. No. 5 Supercomputer It is an extremely fast computer which can execute hundreds of millions of instructions per www.  Performance of a supercomputer is measured in floating point operations per second (FLOPS).bscacademy. www. 4 Main Frame It is a multi-user computer system which is capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. 3 Mini Computer It is a multi-user computer system which is capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. Type Specifications 1 PC (Personal Computer) It is a single user computer system having moderately powerful microprocessor 2 WorkStation It is also a single user computer system which is similar to personal computer but have more powerful microprocessor. The First mechanical computer designed by Charles Babbage was called Analytical Engine.bsc4success.Types of computer: Sr. by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC).  Supercomputer with fastest speed is NUDT Tianhe-2 manufactured by China in 2013. It was indigenously built in 1990 by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing.

 Latest Supercomputer in India developed by Indian Institute of Science.  What is open source software? Open source software is software whose source code is available for modification or enhancement by anyone. Computer Hardware Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of a computer i.keyboard. Computer Software Software is a set of programs. Example: Mac OS X. Skype. the components that can be seen and touched. Adobe Flash www. DVD etc.5 FLOPS world rank 79. Examples of Hardware are following:  Input devices -. Photoshop.bscacademy. which is designed to perform a well-defined function. motherboard. Example: Linux.Cray XC40) speed 901.CPU. copying and republishing restrictions. monitor etc. mouse etc. CD.printer.Hard disk. Internet Explorer www. MYSQL. Windows 7. Firefox. Bangalore name SahasraT (SERC . A program is a sequence of instructions written to solve a particular problem.  Secondary storage devices -. Apache.  Internal components .  Output devices -. PHP. RAM etc. Thunderbird  What is Closed Source Software? Closed source software can be defined as proprietary software distributed under a licensing agreement to authorized users with private modification.

com . is System software is computer software System Software System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software.bscacademy. Purpose Application www.Types of software Difference between application software and system software Subject Definition Application Software Application software is computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks.

System software is essential for a computer The number of system software is less than application software. The number of application software is much more than system software. provide a platform for running application software.bsc4success. Operating System www. It executes all the time in computer.Purpose Classification Environment Essentiality Number computer software designed software designed to operate to help the user to perform the computer hardware and to specific tasks. It is general-purpose software.  Client Server  Batch Processing Operating System  Real time Operating System  Multi-processing Operating System  Multi-programming Operating System  Distributed Operating System It executes as and when required. Application is not essential for a computer. It is specific purpose .  Package Program.  Customized Program  Resource Sharing.bscacademy.  Time www.

 Different software applications can be loaded on a hardware to run different jobs. Both are complimentary to each other. Both of them must work together to make a computer produce a useful output.  It is specialised software that controls and monitors the execution of all other programs that reside in the computer.  If hardware is the 'heart' of a computer system.  To get a particular job done on the computer.bscacademy.  A software acts as an interface between the user and the hardware.bsc4success. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. including application programs and other system software.  An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the software and the computer hardware. MEMORY . relevant software should be loaded into the hardware  Hardware is a one-time expense.  Software development is very expensive and is a continuing expense.  It is an integrated set of specialised programs that are used to manage overall resources and operations of the computer.  Software cannot be utilized without supporting hardware. then software is its 'soul'.An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. Relationship between Hardware and Software  Hardware and software are mutually dependent on each other.  Hardware without set of programs to operate upon cannot be utilized and is www.

It is used to hold those parts of data and program which are most frequently used by CPU. Advantages The advantages of cache memory are as follows:  Cache memory is faster than main www.  It stores the program that can be executed within a short period of time. www.  It consumes less access time as compared to main memory.bsc4success.Cache Memory Cache memory is a very high speed semiconductor memory which can speed up .bscacademy.  It stores data for temporary use.

Disadvantages The disadvantages of cache memory are as follows:  Cache memory has limited capacity. Name of register Function 1 Memory Address(MAR) Holds address of the active memory www. Difference between Primary memory and Secondary memory Primary memory Secondary memory Speed Fast Slow Cost Expensive Cheap Capacity Low capacity Large capacity www. 2 Memory Buffer(MBR) Holds information on its way to and from memory. 3 Program Control(PC) Holds address of the next instruction to be executed.  It is very expensive. Function of different register SI .bscacademy. 5 Instruction(I) Holds an instruction while it is being executed. 6 Input/Output(I/O) Communicates with I/O devices. 4 Accumulator(A) Accumulates result and data to be operated from.

PROM. required to initially boot It allows reading and writing. even when the device is powered off. RAM is volatile i. Types The two main types of RAM are The types of ROM include static RAM and dynamic RAM. the computer.Relation with Processor  Works directly with the Not connected directly to processor the processor Primary memory is divided into two subcategories RAM and . its contents are Volatility It is non-volatile i.bscacademy.bsc4success.e. EPROM and DRAM www. lost when the device is powered its contents are retained off. Difference between RAM and ROM Stands for RAM ROM Random Access Memory Read only memory RAM allows the computer to read ROM stores the program Use data quickly to run applications. Difference between SRAM and DRAM SRAM www. It only allows reading.e.

 EPROM (Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory) During programming. www. an electrical charge is trapped in an insulated gate .Definition It is a type of www. The process of re-programming is flexible but slow. Speed Faster Slower Size Bigger Smaller Capacity Less 5 to 10 times more than SRAM Applications Generally in smaller Commonly used as the main applications like CPU memory in personal computers cache memory and hard drive buffers Access Easy Power Consumption Less Harder More Rom has mainly three types: PROM.  EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory) The EEPROM is programmed and erased electrically. ultra-violet light is passed through a quartz crystal window(lid). This exposure to ultra-violet light dissipates the charge. bits in the form of charge.EPROM and EEPROM. For erasing this charge.bsc4success. SRAM It is also a type of RAM.  PROM (Programmable Read only Memory) PROM is read-only memory that can be modified only once by a user.bscacademy. It can be erased and reprogrammed about ten thousand times. DRAM essentially uses latches makes use of capacitors to store to store charge.

It has storage capacity of 700 MB or approximately 90 minutes of standard audio. Characteristic of Secondary Memory  These are magnetic and optical memories  It is known as backup memory. After storing data it is converted into CD- ROM.Secondary Memory This type of memory is also known as external memory or non-volatile. CD It stands for Compact Disk. It is slower than main memory.bsc4success. It has the storage capacity of few mega bytes to tera byte.  Computer may run without secondary memory. DVD www. Hard disk It is used as main storage device of the computer. CD-ROM It cannot be erased or updated CD-RW it can be erased and used for multiple times. DVD etc. For example : Hard disk. It uses 2-4 metallic disk (platter).com www. Types of CD are CD-R is a blank CD in which data can be stored once.  It is non-volatile memory. These are used for storing data/Information permanently.bscacademy.  It is used for storage of data in a computer.  Data is permanently stored even if power is switched .  Slower than primary memories. CD-ROM. The disk is usually made of aluminum.

High level languages are near to human languages. Low-level languages are difficult to learn. Low-level languages are far from human languages. Programs in high-level languages are slow in execution. Machine Language Machine language or machine code is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Computer languages A programming language is a special language use to develop applications.It stands for Digital Versatile Disk. scripts. A pen drive can be connected with the computer through USB port. which are generally portable across multiple systems. or other set of instructions for computers to execute. Programs in low-level languages are fast in execution.7GB to 17GB. It has faster read/write speed compared to magnetic memory. It has the storage capacity of 4. Difference between High-Level & Low-Level Language High-level Learning Understanding Execution Modification Uses www. Pen drive has storage capacity of few MB-GB. It is a semi-conductor memory. These languages are normally used These languages are normally to write application programs. www. Its shape and size is similar to CD but the difference in storage capacity is due to different chemical component and data is compressed before storing. used to write hardware Language Low-level languages High-level languages are easy to learn. It is mainly used for transferring data. Assembly Language Assembly language is a low-level programming language for a computer or other programmable device specific to a particular computer architecture in contrast to most high-level programming languages. Programs in high-level languages Programs in low-level are easy to modify. A pen drive is a plug and play device. languages are difficult to .bscacademy.bsc4success. Pen drive It is a flash memory.

C++. A program written in high-level or assembly language cannot be run on a computer directly. Difference between source code and objet code S. C.     Examples of High level languages are BASIC. No. For example. The C is a general-purpose. machine language through compilers.Object code is written in level or assembly language. LISP is an example of a special purpose programming language designed to create artificial intelligence.bsc4success. Fortran: The name FORTRAN is an acronym for FORmula TRANslation.bscacademy. Object code is difficult to modify 4 Source code contains fewer Object code contains more statements than object code. Prolog and JAVA COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Language for business data processing.Special purpose language A special purpose language is a program language that was designed for a specific function. Language translator Language translator is a program that translates a program of high level language of computer understands only machine . imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis M. www. statements than source code. procedural. It must be converted into machine language before execution. Pascal. Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories to develop the UNIX operating system. Source code is easy to Object code is difficult to understand. Source code 1 2 Object code Source code is written in high. COBOL. because it was designed to allow easy translation of math formulas into code. understand 3 Source code is easy to www.

com . Inserting elements from other software.   The advantage of interpreters over compilers is that an error is found immediately. such as font type. Microsoft word Word Processing Software Word processing software is used to manipulate a text document. underlining or italicizing. www. moving and deleting text within a document. Copying. 2. bolding. Open find box. The disadvantage of interpreter is that it is not very efficient. editing. Formatting text. Correcting spelling and grammar. Creating and editing tables. such as a resume or a report. Interpreter An interpreter is a program that converts one statement of a program into machine at one time.Types of translators 1. Microsoft word shortcut keys: Shortcut Ctrl + N Ctrl + W Ctrl + S Ctrl + P Ctrl + F www. Or. such as illustrations or photographs.bsc4success. pasting.bscacademy. Some of the functions of word processing software include:       Description Starts a new blank document Close the active document Save a document Display the print dialog box. 3. So the programmer can correct errors during program development. Compiler A compiler is a program that converts the instruction of a high level language into machine language as a whole. Assembler An assembler is translating program that translates the instruction of a assembly language into machine language. The compiler converts the source program into machine code as a whole. saving and printing documents.

Quickly create a bullet point. Internet is network of Computers which is open for all. Open Help. Decrease selected font -1pts if 12pt or lower. Moves one word to the right.bscacademy. Decrease selected font . Cut selected text.Ctrl + Page Up Ctrl + Page Down Backspace Ctrl + Backspace Deletes Ctrl + Delete Ctrl + Z Ctrl + Y Ctrl + X Ctrl + C Ctrl + V Ctrl + A Ctrl + B Ctrl + I Ctrl + U Ctrl + Shift + L Ctrl + Shift + F Ctrl + Shift + > Move to the previous edit location Move to the next edit location Deletes one character to the left Deletes one word to the left Deletes one character to the right Deletes one word to the right Undo last action. Moves to the beginning of the line or paragraph. Prints the document. Select all contents of the page. Internet 1.bsc4success. Increase selected font +1pts up to 12pt and then increase font +2pts. Underline the selected text. Ctrl + ] Ctrl + Shift + < Ctrl + [ Ctrl + <left arrow> Ctrl + <right arrow> Ctrl + <up arrow> Ctrl + <down arrow> Ctrl + Shift + F6 Ctrl + Shift + F12 F1 F7 F12 Shift + Alt + D Shift + Alt + T Computer network and security Difference between Internet and Intranet. Spellcheck and grammar check selected text or document. Insert the current date. Redo the last action performed. Insert the current time. Change the font. www. Italic highlighted selection. Bold highlighted selection. Save As. Moves one word to the left. Increase selected font +1pts. Switches to another open Microsoft Word document. if above 12. Copy selected text. Moves to the end of the paragraph. Paste. decreases font by www.

bsc4success. www. Intranet 1. Contains only specific group purpose information. 5. WANs and MANs. 5. MAN network has lower speed compared to LAN. 2. 4. Intranet can be accessed from Internet but with restrictions. All the devices that are part of MAN are span across buildings or small town. Internet is WAN 2. Visitors traffic is unlimited. LAN network has very high speed mainly due to proximity of computer and network devices. 2. Limited number of Users. Unlimited number of users. 5. 3. 3. LAN (Local Area Network) is a group of computers and other network devices which are connected together. LAN connection speeds can be 10Mbps or 100Mbps or 1000Mpbs also. Difference Between LAN. All the devices that are part of LAN are within a building or multiple building. All the devices that are part of WAN have no geographical boundaries. 4. 4. WAN (Wide Area Network) is a group of computers and other network devices which are connected together which is not restricted to a geographical location.2. 3. 4. MAN and WAN LAN 1. MAN uses Guided Media or Unguided media. 2. 6. Intranet is network of Computers designed for a specific group of users. Mostly any of LAN or MAN or WAN. www. Contains unlimited source of information. LAN uses Guided Media MAN . MAN connection speeds can be 10Mbps or 100Mbps. Collection of various LANs.bscacademy. 5. Internet itself contains a large number of intranets. WAN 1. Limited visitors traffic. MAN ((Metropolitan Area Network) is a larger network of computers and other network devices which are connected together usually spans serveral buildings or large geographical area. 6.

 There are seven layers in the OSI model. Its long distance communications.bscacademy. 5. and to facilitate clear comparisons among communications tools. which may or may not be provided by public packet network. The purpose of the OSI reference model is to guide vendors and developers so the digital communication products and software programs they create will www. Difference Between Virus and Worm www. WAN speed varies based on geographical location of the servers. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model   OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is reference model for how applications can communicate over a network. WAN mainly uses Guided Media or Unguided media. each having a different task. WAN connects several LANs .3. WAN connection speeds can be 10Mbps or 100Mbps.

bsc4success. It has to rely on users transferring infected files/programs to other computer systems. Usually not. It can use a network to replicate itself to other computer systems without user intervention. Worm is faster than virus. detect. such as ruining the file allocation table on your hard disk. it deletes or modifies files. trojans. and other malicious software like worms. and remove software viruses. Trojan horse In . Worms usually only monopolize the CPU and memory. Sometimes a virus also changes the location of files. www. whose speed is more? Definition Worm The virus is the program code that attaches itself to application program and when application program run it runs along with it. Yes. Virus is slower than worm. The worm is code that replicate itself in order to consume resources to bring it down. adware.Virus How does it infect computer system? How can it spread? Does it infect files? a It inserts itself into a file or It exploits a weakness in an executable program. and more.bscacademy. application or operating system by replicating itself. What is Anti-Virus Software? Anti-virus software is a program or set of programs that are designed to prevent. Eg.The code red worm affected 3 lakhs PCs in just 14 Hrs. search for. a Trojan horse is a program in which malicious or harmful code is contained inside apparently harmless programming or data in such a way that it can get control and do its chosen form of damage.