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10th Edition

Managing Organizational Behavior
Moorhead & Griffin

Chapter 12


© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
All rights reserved.

Prepared by Charlie Cook
The University of West Alabama

• Discuss the path-goal theory of leadership. • Trace the early approaches to leadership. • Describe Vroom’s decision tree approach to leadership © 2012South-Western. a part of Cengage Learning 12–2 . • Describe the LPC theory of leadership.Chapter Learning Objectives After studying this chapter you should be able to: • Characterize the nature of leadership. • Discuss the emergence of situational theories and models of leadership.

motivation.The Nature of Leadership Leadership – Is a process which involves the use of non-coercive influence – Is a property—the set of characteristics attributed to someone who is perceived to use influence successfully – Is influence—the ability to affect the perceptions. a part of Cengage Learning 12–3 . attitudes. beliefs. and/or behavior of others © 2012South-Western.

g. Establishing some structure for accomplishing plan requirements. for stockholders. a part of Cengage Learning 12–4 . bureaucratic. new products that customers want. Copyright © 1990 by John P. often the distant future. a Division of Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group. new approaches to labor relations that help make a firm more competitive) References: Reprinted with the permission of The Free Press. and then planning and organizing to solve these problems Motivating and inspiring. 1990. for customers.. human needs OUTCOMES Produces a degree of predictability and order and has the potential to consistently produce major results expected by various stakeholders (e. allocating the resources necessary to make those needed results happen Establishing direction. staffing that structure with individuals. always being on time. Inc.1 Distinctions Between Management and Leadership Activity Management Leadership CREATING AN AGENDA Planning and budgeting. Monitoring results vs. often to a dramatic degree. Energizing people to overcome major political. being on budget) Produces change. but often unfulfilled. Kotter. providing policies and procedures to help guide people.g. and has the potential to produce extremely useful change (e. Communicating the direction by words and deeds to all those whose cooperation may be needed to influence the creation of teams and coalitions that understand the vision and strategies and accept their validity EXECUTING PLANS Controlling and problem solving. and creating methods or systems to monitor implementation Aligning people. plan in some detail. and strategies for producing the changes needed to achieve that vision DEVELOPING A HUMAN NETWORK FOR ACHIEVING THE AGENDA Organizing and staffing. Kotter. by John P.12. and resource barriers to change by satisfying very basic. © 2012South-Western. Establishing detailed steps and timetables for achieving needed results. from A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management. Developing a vision of the future.. delegating responsibility and authority for carrying out the plan. All rights reserved. identifying deviations.

a part of Cengage Learning 12–5 .Early Approaches to Leadership • Trait Approaches to Leadership –Attempts to identify stable and enduring character traits that differentiate effective leaders from non-leaders focusing on: • Identifying leadership traits • Developing methods for measuring them • Using the methods to select leaders © 2012South-Western.

a part of Cengage Learning The Ohio State Studies The Leadership Grid 12–6 .Behavioral Approaches to Leadership • Attempts to identify behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from nonleaders Early Studies in Behavioral Approaches to Leadership The Michigan Studies © 2012South-Western.

a part of Cengage Learning 12–7 . and demonstrating a strong interest in performance –Employee-centered behavior • Attempting to build effective work groups with high performance goals © 2012South-Western.Early Behavioral Approaches to Leadership: The Michigan Studies • Results indicated two fundamental leader behaviors: –Job-centered behavior • Paying close attention to the work of subordinates. explaining work procedures.

a part of Cengage Learning 12–8 .Early Behavioral Approaches to Leadership: The Ohio State Studies • Defined two independent dimensions of leadership: – Leader consideration behaviors • Showing concern for subordinates’ feelings and respecting subordinates’ ideas – Leader initiating-structure behaviors • Clearly defining leader-subordinate roles such that subordinates know what is expected of them © 2012South-Western.

a part of Cengage Learning 12–9 .Early Behavioral Approaches to Leadership: The Leadership Grid (Formerly the Managerial Grid) • Provides a means for evaluating leadership styles and then training managers to move toward an ideal style of behavior © 2012South-Western.

Schmidt that underlies research in this field © 2012South-Western.The Emergence of Situational Leadership Models • Situational Models –Assume that appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation to another situation –Seek to identify how key situational factors interact to determine appropriate leader behavior • The Leadership Continuum Model –The model of Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. a part of Cengage Learning 12–10 .

© 2012South-Western. a part of Cengage Learning 12–11 .

3 Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum Source: An exhibit from “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern” by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt.12. Harvard Business Review (May–June 1973). all rights reserved. a part of Cengage Learning 12–12 . Copyright by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. © 2012South-Western. Reprinted by permission of the Harvard Business Review.

a part of Cengage Learning 12–13 .The LPC Theory of Leadership • LPC Theory of Leadership (Fiedler) – Contends that a leader’s effectiveness depends on the situation – Assumes a task or relationship focus for leaders • High LPC (Least Preferred Coworkers) leaders are more concerned with interpersonal relationships • Low LPC leaders are more concerned with task relevant problems – Posits that situational favorableness factors determine proper leadership focus • Leader-member relations • Task structure • Leader position power © 2012South-Western.

Situational Leadership Models (cont’d) • Path-Goal Theory (Evans and House) –Focuses on the situation and leader behaviors in suggesting that leaders can readily adapt to different situations –Assumes that leaders affect subordinates’ performance by clarifying the behaviors (paths) that will lead to desired rewards (goals) –Defines types of leader path-goal behaviors: • Directive • Supportive • Participative • Achievement-oriented © 2012South-Western. a part of Cengage Learning 12–14 .

a part of Cengage Learning 12–15 .Situational Leadership Models (cont’d) © 2012South-Western.

The Path-Goal Theory… (cont’d) • Situational Factors Affecting the Leader Behavior Choice –Personal characteristics of subordinates • Locus of control • Perceived ability –Characteristics of the environment • Task structure • The formal authority system • The primary work group © 2012South-Western. a part of Cengage Learning 12–16 .

Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach • Decision Tree Approach to Leadership (Vroom. Yetton. a part of Cengage Learning 12–17 . and Jago) –Attempts to prescribe how much participation subordinates should be allowed in making decisions © 2012South-Western.

a part of Cengage Learning 12–18 .Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach (cont’d) • Decision Tree Choices: –Time-driven decision must be made on a timely basis –Development-driven decision can be used to improve/develop subordinates’ decision-making skills • Endpoint Decision Styles for Managers –Decide –Delegate –Consult individuals –Consult group –Facilitate group © 2012South-Western.

a part of Cengage Learning 12–19 .© 2012South-Western.