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Dynamic Data Analysis - v4.12.

03 - © KAPPA 1988-2012

Chapter 5 – Wellbore models - p167/558

5 – Wellbore models



Until we are able to beam the fluid directly from the pore space into the ship cargo bay we will
need to use this route called the wellbore. Wellbore effects are seen very differently,
depending where you stand:

For the Pressure Transient Analysts anything related to the wellbore is a nuisance. Wellbore
effects will spoil the early part of the pressure response, and may even persist throughout
the whole test or shut-in survey.
So to the PT-Analyst Wellbore Effects = BAD.

Production Analysts are a little luckier, because they work on a time scale where transient
effects are not that important, and addressing wellbore effects amounts to connecting a lift
curve. In fact, playing with the lift curves and implementing ‘what if’ scenarios is part of
their jobs.
So to the Production Analyst Wellbore Effects = OK.

This Manichean split can be presented another way:

The steady-state component of wellbore effects is a key element of the well productivity. It
may be modeled using lift curves, or VLP curves, and this in turn requires flow correlations
that are present in both Production Logging and Well Performance Analysis, a.k.a. Nodal
Analysis™ (Trademark of Schlumberger).
Correction to datum may be either applied to the data in order to correct the real pressure
to sandface, or integrated in the model in order to simulate the pressure at gauge level.
Correction to datum and integration of VLP curves are detailed in the PTA (QA/QC) and the
Well Performance Analysis chapters of this book.

The transient component of wellbore effects often ruins the life of the PT-Analyst. The
action at the origin of a sequence of flow (opening and shut-in of a valve, change of a
choke) is occurring at a certain distance from the sandface, and any wellbore volume
between the operating point and the sandface acts as a cushion. This induces a delay
between what we want to see and what effectively occurs at the sandface.
In welltest operations, it is highly recommended to reduce this nuisance as much as
possible by means of downhole shut-in tools.
In Production Analysis it is not much of an issue, as transient wellbore effects occur at a
time scale of little interest for rate decline.

This chapter deals with the modeling of some of the simplest transient wellbore models,
and is mainly applicable to Pressure Transient Analysis only.

1 – Wellbore storage 5.B.Dynamic Data Analysis . 5. More exactly.© KAPPA 1988-2012 5.03 . At a point in time. multiplying C by 10 will translate the curve to one log cycle to the right. 5. where S is the Skin factor. and in the absence of any other interfering behaviors. The horizontal position of the curve is only controlled by the wellbore storage coefficient C.v4. The wellbore storage equation was introduced in the ‘Theory’ chapter: qsf  qB  24C Wellbore storage equation: pwf t Not surprisingly. Pure wellbore storage is characterized by the merge of both Pressure and Bourdet Derivative curves on the same unit slope.B. Taking a larger C will move the unit slope to the right.1 Loglog analysis Fig. the Derivative will leave the unit slope and transit into a hump which will stabilize into the horizontal line corresponding to Infirnite Acting Radial Flow.B Chapter 5 – Wellbore models . Fig. . The below figure illustrates the behavior of the sandface rate during the opening and shut-in of a well. hence increase the time at which wellbore storage will fade. the constant wellbore storage model assumes that the wellbore storage factor C is constant.2 with various constant wellbore storage constants is illustrated below.B. the wellbore storage introduces a time delay between the rate we impose at the operating point (typically the choke manifold at surface) and the sandface rate.12.p168/558 Constant Wellbore storage The simplest wellbore model is the constant wellbore storage As introduced in the ‘Theory’ chapter. The form and the width of the hump is governed by the parameter group Ce 2S .

Dynamic Data Analysis .B.v4.© KAPPA 1988-2012 Chapter 5 – Wellbore models .3 – Cartesian plot of pressure vs.p169/558 Fig. Below is shown a Cartesian plot of pressure versus time. elapsed time The early time straight line corresponding to the pure wellbore storage is given by: Wellbore Storage Straight line: p  qB t  mt 24C So one can get the wellbore storage constant with: Specialized plot result: C qB 24m . Fig. t.B.12. 5.2 – Wellbore storage loglog response 5. 5.03 .B. This Cartesian plot may show either P or P vs.2 Specialized analysis (Cartesian plot) A unique slope on the loglog plot corresponds to a linearity of the pressure response on a Cartesian plot.

You can see on the linear history plot that all responses seem to be the same.01. bi-linear. loglog plot Fig.p170/558 Sensitivity analysis on the wellbore storage coefficient The figure below presents the response with wellbore storage values.03 .© KAPPA 1988-2012 5. Early time well responses such as linear. Wellbore storage will also tend to mask other flow regimes that can be present in a well test. 5. semilog and history plot . 5. however. Wellbore storage tends to masks infinite acting radial flow on a time that is proportional to the value of C.B.1 (stb/psi). The value of C has a major effect.5 – Effect of wellbore storage.12. Fig.001. spherical and hemispherical flow will disappear if the storage effect is considerable. which is actually exaggerated by the logarithmic time scale.Dynamic Data Analysis .B. Wellbore storage does not affect the late time pseudo steady state response. 0. When the influence of wellbore storage is over both the pressure change and the derivative merge together. 0. 0. Effects of heterogeneous reservoirs can also be masked by wellbore storage.4 – Effect of wellbore storage.B.3 Chapter 5 – Wellbore models . The wellbore storage effect on other well and reservoir models are covered in the individual chapters of these models. C of 0.003.v4.03 and 0.

The matching consists in setting the wellbore storage straight line on the FINAL value of wellbore storage. When the well is flowing the pressure in the wellbore will decrease. In this place the oil compressibility will be progressively dominated by the compressibility of the produced gas.C Chapter 5 – Wellbore models .Dynamic Data Analysis . combined with a robust nonlinear regression.v4. The figures below illustrate increasing and decreasing wellbore storage as modeled by the Hegeman model of changing wellbore storage. The main characteristic of these models is that the transition occurs at a given value of t. some assumption for a transition function (Hegeman. There are three main ways today to model changing wellbore storage:    5. in the case of tight gas. and is NOT related to the value of the pressure. has the capacity to adjust to virtually any single trend early time response. but this model.1 Analytical. falling liquid level during a fall-off. Fair. Though it occurs in any gas test. pick a second position corresponding to the INITIAL value of storage. the wellbore storage will be increasing during the production and decreasing during the shut-in. In both cases.p171/558 Changing wellbore storage The most frequent case of changing wellbore storage is related to the compressibility change of the wellbore fluid. pressure dependent storage model Analytical models Most analytical formulations of changing wellbore storage involve an initial value of wellbore storage Ci.03 . time related wellbore storage PVT correction using the pseudotime function and a constant storage value Numerical. change of completion diameter of a rising or falling liquid level. . this behavior will be visible. etc.© KAPPA 1988-2012 5. and then pick the median time when the transition occurs. etc) and a time at which this transition occurs. accepting that the early time response cannot be matched and may induce a (cumulative) incorrect value of the skin factor. The opposite will occur during the shut-in. hence an increase of the wellbore storage which will evolve in time. In some cases the wellbore effect will be so extreme that any modeling is hopeless. Another typical example is an oil well flowing above bubble point pressure in the reservoir.C. where the high pressure gradient in the formation results in a high pressure drop in the wellbore. a final value Cf. phase redistribution. where the increase of pressure will result in a decrease of the wellbore storage. At a stage (sometimes immediately) there will be a point in the wellbore above which the pressure gets below bubble point. In this case the engineer will focus on matching the derivative response after the wellbore effect has faded. A classic example is gas.12. Other sources of changing wellbore storage may be various PVT behaviors. and become a nuisance. The initial model generation will seldom match the response perfectly. and the gas compressibility will increase. In this fixed volume this will result in an increase of the wellbore storage parameter.

2 Combining pseudo-time and a constant storage model In a tight reservoir. They may end up with an initial. even when the use of such model is not justified. So. combining changing wellbore storage and radial composite will match any rubbish data. In the case of production. This is related to the choice of transition function and does not mean that this model is physically better. There will be a wellbore storage at early time and a wellbore storage at late time. final storage and transition time that makes no physical sense.C. This is not correct when the model is pressure related.1 – Increasing storage Chapter 5 – Wellbore models . the superposition of a time related solution will be incorrect on all flow periods except the one on which the model was matched.  These models are time related.© KAPPA 1988-2012 Fig. the Hegeman model is sharper and has more capabilities to match real data. There is no physics behind them. 5.03 . the real wellbore storage at early time will correspond to the storage at late time of the build-up. and the reverse.C. Pseudo-time is defined by Pseudo-time: t ps t    I  pwf   d t 0 where I  p  1   p ct  p  . They are the early time version of the radial composite model at intermediate time. 5.v4. Actually it does not mean that ANY of these models are correct.C. This aspect is often ignored and/or overlooked.p172/558 Fig. and they should be used with care for the following reasons:  The models are just transfer functions that happen to be good at matching real data. Actually.Dynamic Data Analysis . However the changes in ct can also be included in the diffusion equation and pseudo-time can be used during the extraction of the period to be analyzed.  These models are ‘dangerous’ to the extent that they work beautifully to match ‘anything that goes wrong’ at early time. the pressure changes can be large and the assumption that ct is constant leads to a distortion in the early time of the loglog plot. 5. The response can in most cases be matched using the changing wellbore storage option described above.2 – Decreasing storage In practice.12.

Fig. 5. This is by far the most relevant way to simulate pressure related wellbore storage. and the match with the non linear numerical model with pressure dependent wellbore storage. There is a workaround to this: use the pressures simulated by the model.3 Numerical pressure dependent wellbore storage The principle is to use a wellbore model which. where models were limited to a set of fixed drawdown type-curves. This amounts to the same thing once the model has matched the data. The use of pseudo time is detailed in the chapter on ‘Gas’. In order for the model to be stable.p173/558 The following figures show a loglog response before and after pseudo time correction. the data to match the model.12.C. 5.C.4 – With pseudo-time There are two drawbacks to this approach:  This method modifies. The method was the only one available at the time of type-curve matching. the extracted buildup corrected for pseudo time and matched with this model. and not the opposite. and vice versa. the possibility of comparing several PVT models on the same data. and there is no hole.© KAPPA 1988-2012 Chapter 5 – Wellbore models . at any time. once and for all. as the pressure at a considered time requires the pseudotime function.Dynamic Data Analysis . the wellbore storage has to be calculated implicitly at each time step. for example.C. and not the real pressures.  In order to calculate the pseudotime function one needs the complete pressure history. This excludes. The figure below illustrates a buildup matched with the changing wellbore storage model (Hegeman). As the problem is not linear. However it is a bit more complicated for the calculation. . or if the pressure is only acquired during the shut-in. this can only be done using a non linear model. 5. When there are holes in the data.3 – Without pseudo-time Fig.03 . it will not be possible to calculate the pseudotime from the acquired pressure. uses the pressure to define the wellbore storage parameter.v4.

C.7 – Match with non linear numerical model: Pressure dependent wellbore storage .C.5 – Changing wellbore storage match Fig.© KAPPA 1988-2012 Chapter 5 – Wellbore models .03 .12. 5. 5.Dynamic Data Analysis .v4.6 – Pseudo time match Fig. 5.C.p174/558 Fig.