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# chapter six

Design of heads and covers
Contents
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Introduction ...............................................................................................
Hemispherical heads under internal pressure .....................................
ASME equation for hemispherical heads ..............................................
Example problem 1....................................................................................
6.4.1 Thin-shell theory ............................................................................
6.4.2 ‘‘Exact’’ theory ................................................................................
6.4.3 ASME equation (assuming E ¼ 1) ..............................................
6.5 ASME design equation for ellipsoidal heads .......................................
6.6 ASME equation for torispherical heads.................................................
6.7 Example problem 2....................................................................................
6.7.1 Solution for ASME head using Eq. (6.15)..................................
6.8 ASME design equations for conical heads............................................
6.9 ASME design equations for toriconical heads......................................
6.10 Flat heads and covers................................................................................
6.10.1 Case 1 ...............................................................................................
6.10.2 Case 2 ...............................................................................................
6.11 ASME equation for unstayed flat heads and covers...........................
6.12 Example problem 3....................................................................................
6.12.1 Considering simply supported edges ........................................
6.12.2 Considering clamped edges .........................................................
6.12.3 Considering unstayed plates and covers...................................
References .............................................................................................................

6.1 Introduction
Heads are one of the important parts in pressure vessels and refer to the
parts of the vessel that confine the shell from below, above, and the sides.
The ends of the vessels are closed by means of heads before putting them
into operation.

All Rights Reserved. New York. (Modified from ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.Figure 6. Inc.) where w is the radial displacement.1 Different types of heads. and "R ¼ dw dR ð6:3Þ The stress–strain relationship is given by "R ¼  1 1 S  ðS þ S Þ ¼ ½SR  2S  E R E Copyright 2005 by CRC Press. ð6:4Þ . ASME.

Inc. d ¼ d Copyright 2005 by CRC Press. ð6:5Þ . " ¼  1 1 S  ðSR þ S ¼ ½ð1  ÞS  SR  E  E "R ¼ dw w .3 the force equilibrium gives   d d dSR 2S R dR þ 2S R dR þ SR þ dR ððR þ dRÞdðR þ dRÞd 2 2 dR  SR dRðRdÞðRdÞ ¼ 0 With S ¼ S .Figure 6. " ¼ dR R w ¼ R" "R ¼ dw d ¼ ðR" Þ dR dr 1 ð1  Þ d  d ½S  2S  ¼ ðRS Þ  ðRSR Þ " R E dR E dR or ð1  Þ d d ðRS Þ   ðRSR Þ  SR þ 2S ¼ 0 dR dR From Figure 6.2 Hemispherical head. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved.     dSR dR R2 þ 2RDRÞd2  SR R2 d2 ¼ 0 2RS dRd þ SR þ dR 2 2RS dRd2 þ SR R2 d2 þ 2RSR dRd2 þ R2 dSR dS ðdRÞ2 dRd2 þ 2R R dR dR d2  SR R2 d2 ¼ 0 2S ¼ 2RSR  R ¼ dSR dR 1 d ðR2 SR Þ R dR S ¼  1 d  2  R SR 2R dR Substituting. Inc. .Figure 6.3 Equilibrium of a hemispherical element. we have ð1  Þ d 1 d d  d  2  ðRSR Þ  SR  R SR ¼ 0  ðR2SR Þ   2 dR R2 dR dR R dR Copyright 2005 by CRC Press.

! ð6:9Þ .which gives d 1 d  3  R SR ¼ 0 R dR R2 dR SR ¼ A B þ 3 R3 ð6:6Þ With the boundary conditions specified as SR ¼ P at R ¼ Ri SR ¼ 0 at R ¼ Ro ð6:7Þ A B AR3o þ 3 or B ¼ 3 Ro 3 0¼ Therefore A R3 1  o3 SR ¼ 3 Ri ! and A R3 P ¼ 1  o3 3 Ri ! This gives 3R3i P AR3o . Inc. All Rights Reserved. B¼ 3 3 3 Ro  Ri ! PR3 R3 SR ¼ 3 i 3 1  o3 Ro  Ri R A¼ ð6:8Þ and PR R3 S ¼ S ¼ 3 i 3 1 þ o3 2R Ro  Ri Copyright 2005 by CRC Press.

5 ASME design equation for ellipsoidal heads For an internal pressure P.Thus sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2ð160 þ 28Þ  3803 ¼ 413:4 mm Ro ¼ 2ð160Þ  28 Therefore t ¼ Ro  Ri ¼ 413:4  380 ¼ 33:4 mm Therefore the assumption of this shell theory is valid here.3 ASME equation (assuming E ¼ 1) Using Eq. the thickness t of the ellipsoidal head is given by t¼ PDK 2SE  0:2P ð6:11Þ1 where D ¼ diameter of the shell to which the head is attached. K is given by the following expression: K¼ a.10) t¼ 28  380 ¼ 33:8 mm 2ð160Þð1Þ  0:2ð28Þ The ASME estimate is conservative in this case.4. 6. and K ¼ stress intensity factor. E ¼ joint efficiency. (6. S ¼ allowable stress. 6.

ð6:13Þ1 . All Rights Reserved. Inc. the thickness of the torispherical head is given by t¼ PLM 2SE  0:2P Copyright 2005 by CRC Press. 6.6 ASME equation for torispherical heads For an internal pressure P.2 1 2þ 6 b ð6:12Þ where a and b are the semi-major and semi-minor axes of the ellipse.

For the ASME head.where L ¼ spherical cross radius. Based on plastic analysis. S ¼ allowable stress. and M ¼ shear intensity factor. the knuckle region of the head is prone to buckling under internal pressure.06L is known as ASME head. E ¼ joint efficiency. M. the stress intensity factor 1 3þ M¼ 4 rﬃﬃﬃ! L r ð6:14Þ where r is the knuckle radius.1 the following expression is used for t: r. (6.77 (from Eq. M ¼ 1. or r ¼ 0.14)) and the thickness t is then given by t¼ 0:885PL SE  0:1P ð6:15Þ It turns out that for large ratios of R/t. The special case when the knuckle radius is 6 percent of the spherical crown radius.

r .

2 r .

2 t ln ¼ 1:26177  4:55246 þ 0:66299  2:24709 þ þ 28:9133 l D D D r.

r .

2 P ln þ : 0:66299  2:24709 þ 15:62899 D D S r.

r .