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chapter six

Design of heads and covers
Contents
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Introduction ...............................................................................................
Hemispherical heads under internal pressure .....................................
ASME equation for hemispherical heads ..............................................
Example problem 1....................................................................................
6.4.1 Thin-shell theory ............................................................................
6.4.2 ‘‘Exact’’ theory ................................................................................
6.4.3 ASME equation (assuming E ¼ 1) ..............................................
6.5 ASME design equation for ellipsoidal heads .......................................
6.6 ASME equation for torispherical heads.................................................
6.7 Example problem 2....................................................................................
6.7.1 Solution for ASME head using Eq. (6.15)..................................
6.8 ASME design equations for conical heads............................................
6.9 ASME design equations for toriconical heads......................................
6.10 Flat heads and covers................................................................................
6.10.1 Case 1 ...............................................................................................
6.10.2 Case 2 ...............................................................................................
6.11 ASME equation for unstayed flat heads and covers...........................
6.12 Example problem 3....................................................................................
6.12.1 Considering simply supported edges ........................................
6.12.2 Considering clamped edges .........................................................
6.12.3 Considering unstayed plates and covers...................................
References .............................................................................................................

6.1 Introduction
Heads are one of the important parts in pressure vessels and refer to the
parts of the vessel that confine the shell from below, above, and the sides.
The ends of the vessels are closed by means of heads before putting them
into operation.

Copyright 2005 by CRC Press, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

from symmetry. ðS ¼ S ).2 Hemispherical heads under internal pressure The force due to internal pressure is resisted by the membrane stress in the shell (see Figure 6. Because of the geometrical symmetry. the membrane stresses in the circumferential and the meridional directions are the same. The hoop and meridional strains are indicated by " and " " ¼ w ¼ " R Copyright 2005 by CRC Press. 6. The heads may be of various types such as:       Flanged Ellipsoidal Torispherical Hemispherical Conical Toriconical The different types of heads are shown in Figure 6. The carbon steel hemispherical heads are not so economical because of the high manufacturing costs associated with them.1. We have PR2 ¼ 2RSt and S¼ PR 2t ð6:1Þ where S is the membrane stress. All Rights Reserved. ð6:2Þ . They also may be integral with the shell in forged or cast construction. and are denoted by S. They are thinner than the cylindrical shell to which they are attached. The geometry of the head is selected based on the function as well as on economic considerations. and require a smooth transition between the two to avoid stress concentration effects. Inc.2).The heads are normally made from the same material as the shell and may be welded to the shell itself. Conical and toriconical heads are used in hoppers and towers. The elliptical and torispherical heads are most commonly used. The head geometrical design is dependent on the geometry of the shell as well as other design parameters such as operating temperature and pressure. and methods of forming and space requirements. The thickness values of the elliptical and torispherical heads are typically the same as the cylindrical shell sections to which they are attached.

All Rights Reserved. New York. (Modified from ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.Figure 6. Inc.) where w is the radial displacement.1 Different types of heads. and "R ¼ dw dR ð6:3Þ The stress–strain relationship is given by "R ¼  1 1 S  ðS þ S Þ ¼ ½SR  2S  E R E Copyright 2005 by CRC Press. ð6:4Þ . ASME.

Inc. d ¼ d Copyright 2005 by CRC Press. ð6:5Þ . " ¼  1 1 S  ðSR þ S ¼ ½ð1  ÞS  SR  E  E "R ¼ dw w .3 the force equilibrium gives   d d dSR 2S R dR þ 2S R dR þ SR þ dR ððR þ dRÞdðR þ dRÞd 2 2 dR  SR dRðRdÞðRdÞ ¼ 0 With S ¼ S .Figure 6. " ¼ dR R w ¼ R" "R ¼ dw d ¼ ðR" Þ dR dr 1 ð1  Þ d  d ½S  2S  ¼ ðRS Þ  ðRSR Þ " R E dR E dR or ð1  Þ d d ðRS Þ   ðRSR Þ  SR þ 2S ¼ 0 dR dR From Figure 6.2 Hemispherical head. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved.     dSR dR R2 þ 2RDRÞd2  SR R2 d2 ¼ 0 2RS dRd þ SR þ dR 2 2RS dRd2 þ SR R2 d2 þ 2RSR dRd2 þ R2 dSR dS ðdRÞ2 dRd2 þ 2R R dR dR d2  SR R2 d2 ¼ 0 2S ¼ 2RSR  R ¼ dSR dR 1 d ðR2 SR Þ R dR S ¼  1 d  2  R SR 2R dR Substituting. Inc. .Figure 6.3 Equilibrium of a hemispherical element. we have ð1  Þ d 1 d d  d  2  ðRSR Þ  SR  R SR ¼ 0  ðR2SR Þ   2 dR R2 dR dR R dR Copyright 2005 by CRC Press.

! ð6:9Þ .which gives d 1 d  3  R SR ¼ 0 R dR R2 dR SR ¼ A B þ 3 R3 ð6:6Þ With the boundary conditions specified as SR ¼ P at R ¼ Ri SR ¼ 0 at R ¼ Ro ð6:7Þ A B AR3o þ 3 or B ¼ 3 Ro 3 0¼ Therefore A R3 1  o3 SR ¼ 3 Ri ! and A R3 P ¼ 1  o3 3 Ri ! This gives 3R3i P AR3o . Inc. All Rights Reserved. B¼ 3 3 3 Ro  Ri ! PR3 R3 SR ¼ 3 i 3 1  o3 Ro  Ri R A¼ ð6:8Þ and PR R3 S ¼ S ¼ 3 i 3 1 þ o3 2R Ro  Ri Copyright 2005 by CRC Press.

1) membrane stress S¼ PR 2t or t¼ PR 28  380 ¼ ¼ 33:25 mm 2s 320 taking the radius as the inside radius. 6. What is the required thickness using the shell theory and ‘‘exact’’ theory.6.1 This is a compromise between a thin-shell equation and ‘‘exact’’ equation.4. E ¼ 1)? 6. and the ASME equation (assume joint efficiency.3 ASME equation for hemispherical heads ASME Section VIII Division 1 provides the following equation for internal pressure. Inc. This allowable stress is 160 MPa. All Rights Reserved.4. (6.2 ‘‘Exact’’ theory Using Eq. 6. S is the allowable shear. and E ¼ is the joint efficiency. (6.4 Example problem 1 A hemispherical head having an inside radius of 380 mm is subjected to an internal pressure of 28 Megapascals (MPa).1 Thin-shell theory From Eq.9) PR3 R3 S ¼ ðS ¼ S Þ ¼ 3 i 3 1 þ o3 Ro  Ri 2Ri which simplifies to sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2ðS þ PÞR3i Ro ¼ 2S  P Copyright 2005 by CRC Press. The design thickness of a hemispherical head is given by t¼ PR 25E  0:2P ð6:10Þ where R is the inside radius. ! .

5 ASME design equation for ellipsoidal heads For an internal pressure P.Thus sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2ð160 þ 28Þ  3803 ¼ 413:4 mm Ro ¼ 2ð160Þ  28 Therefore t ¼ Ro  Ri ¼ 413:4  380 ¼ 33:4 mm Therefore the assumption of this shell theory is valid here.3 ASME equation (assuming E ¼ 1) Using Eq. the thickness t of the ellipsoidal head is given by t¼ PDK 2SE  0:2P ð6:11Þ1 where D ¼ diameter of the shell to which the head is attached. K is given by the following expression: K¼ a.10) t¼ 28  380 ¼ 33:8 mm 2ð160Þð1Þ  0:2ð28Þ The ASME estimate is conservative in this case.4. 6. and K ¼ stress intensity factor. E ¼ joint efficiency. (6. S ¼ allowable stress. 6.

ð6:13Þ1 . All Rights Reserved. Inc. the thickness of the torispherical head is given by t¼ PLM 2SE  0:2P Copyright 2005 by CRC Press. 6.6 ASME equation for torispherical heads For an internal pressure P.2 1 2þ 6 b ð6:12Þ where a and b are the semi-major and semi-minor axes of the ellipse.

For the ASME head.where L ¼ spherical cross radius. Based on plastic analysis. S ¼ allowable stress. and M ¼ shear intensity factor. the knuckle region of the head is prone to buckling under internal pressure.06L is known as ASME head. E ¼ joint efficiency. M. the stress intensity factor 1 3þ M¼ 4 rffiffiffi! L r ð6:14Þ where r is the knuckle radius.1 the following expression is used for t: r. (6.77 (from Eq. M ¼ 1. or r ¼ 0.14)) and the thickness t is then given by t¼ 0:885PL SE  0:1P ð6:15Þ It turns out that for large ratios of R/t. The special case when the knuckle radius is 6 percent of the spherical crown radius.

r .

2 r .

2 t ln ¼ 1:26177  4:55246 þ 0:66299  2:24709 þ þ 28:9133 l D D D r.

r .

2 P ln þ : 0:66299  2:24709 þ 15:62899 D D S r.

r .

.7. and S ¼ allowable stress.7 Example problem 2 What is the required thickness of a torispherical head attached to a shell of diameter 6 mm. (6. The allowable stress is 120 MPa and the internal pressure is 345 KPa.06).1 Solution for ASME head using Eq. D ¼ diameter of the shell to which the head is attached. 6. Inc. 6. All Rights Reserved. to have a crown radius of 6 mm and a knuckle radius of 360 mm? (ASME head r/L ¼ 0.2  P2 0:26879  104  0:44262 ln þ 1:88783 D D S where L ¼ crown radius. r ¼ knuckle radius.15) t¼ 0:885PL SE  0:1P Copyright 2005 by CRC Press.

6 mm. 6.1 With  as the semi-apex angle of the cone t¼ PD 2 cos ðSE  0:6PÞ Copyright 2005 by CRC Press. With S ¼ 120 MPa. All Rights Reserved. or t ¼ (60000)(0. ð6:17Þ .assuming E ¼ 1. The design is therefore dictated by stability of the knuckle region of the head. (6. we have t¼ 0:885ð0:345Þ6 ¼ 0:0153 m ¼ 15:3mm ð120Þð1Þ  ð0:1Þð0:345Þ The thickness is small compared to the diameter of the head and should be checked for buckling at the knuckle region of the head. We also have r 0:36 ¼ ¼ 0:06 D 6 P 0:345 ¼ ¼ 0:002875 S 120 P ¼ 5:8517 S   P 2 ln ¼ 34:2424 S ln ð6:16Þ We have using Eq.00393.6 mm is required.8 ASME design equations for conical heads ASME Code Section VIII Division I provides the following equation for thickness t of conical heads subjected to an internal pressure P. Hence a minimum thickness 23.16)  t ¼ 1:26177  4:55246ð0:06Þ þ 28:93316ð0:06Þ2 þ l   0:66299  2:4709ð0:06Þ þ 15:68299ð0:06Þ2 ð 5:8517Þ   þ 0:26879  104  0:44262ð0:06Þ þ 1:88783ð0:06Þ2 ð34:2424Þ ln ¼ 1:26177  0:27315 þ 0:10416  5:8517½0:66299  0:13483 þ 0:05646 þ 34:824½0:26879  104  0:02656 þ 0:0680 ¼  5:53897 This gives t/L ¼ 0. Inc.00393) ¼ 23.

(6.where D is the inside diameter of cone measured perpendicular to longitudinal axis. . tc in the cone region is calculated using conical head equations and that in the head transition section is calculated using torispherical head equations.14) A pressure vessel designer generally has flexibility in selecting head geometry. using Eq. Most common is of course the torispherical head. (6. and knuckle radius. the thickness. All Rights Reserved. The designer selects a head configuration that minimizes the total cost of the plate material and its formation. (6. which is characterized by inside diameter.4 Toriconical head. Copyright 2005 by CRC Press. Figure 6.4 for the conical region we have. Accordingly. S is the allowable stress. Inc.13) tk ¼ PLM 2SE  0:2P ð6:19Þ where L¼ D1 2 cos  and 1 3þ M¼ 4 rffiffiffi! L r from Eq.17). tc ¼ PD1 2 cos ðSE  0:6PÞ ð6:18Þ and for the torispherical region using Eq. and E is the joint efficiency 6.9 ASME design equations for toriconical heads A toriconical head is a blend of conical and torispherical heads. Referring to Figure 6. crown radius.

10. The maximum deflection occurs at the center of the plate where the value is2.1 Case 1 A simply supported circular plate of radius R and thickness t subjected to uniform pressure P. 6. and ðS Þmax ¼ 3ð1 þ Þ PR2 8 t2 occurring at the center and the top surface of the plate.10 Flat heads and covers Flat heads or covers are used widely as closures to pressure vessels.3 ðSr Þmax ¼ 3PR2 4t2 ð6:24Þ occurring at the edge and at the top surface. The stress is a maximum at the bottom surface2. or may be attached by bolts.3 max ¼ 5 þ  PR4  1 þ  64D ð6:20Þ Et3 12ð1  2 Þ ð6:21Þ where D¼ where t ¼ plate thickness. Inc. They are either integrally formed with the shell. Figure 6. The deflection at the center of this plate is a maximum and this value is given by2.10. All Rights Reserved.3 max ¼ PR4 64D ð6:23Þ The maximum radial and tangential stresses are given by2.6.2 3ð3 þ Þ PR2 8 t2 ð6:22Þ Case 2 A circular plate is clamped around outer periphery and subjected to uniform pressure P. Copyright 2005 by CRC Press.5 shows some typical designs of covers. ð6:25Þ .3 ðSr Þmax ¼ ðS Þmax ¼ 6.

. New York. (Modified from ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Inc.) Copyright 2005 by CRC Press.Figure 6.5 Cover plate designs. All Rights Reserved. ASME.

5 each with a typical value of C. (6. is given by rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi CP t¼d SE ð6:26Þ1 The cases are shown in Figure 6. We wish to determine the thickness of the head if the allowable stress in the material is limited to 120 MPa.12 Example problem 3 A circular plate of diameter 1 m. . and an allowable stress S with a joint efficiency E. 6.1 Considering simply supported edges Using Eq.11 ASME equation for unstayed flat heads and covers The thickness of unstayed flat heads and covers subjected to a pressure P. Inc. forms the cover for a cylindrical pressure vessel subjected to a pressure of 0.22) we have Smax ¼ 3ð3 þ Þ PR2 8 t2 or 120 ¼   9:9 500 2 ð0:04Þ 8 t 500 120ð8Þ :ð1=2Þ ¼ ¼ 49:24 t ð9:9Þð0:04 t ¼ 10:16 mm Copyright 2005 by CRC Press.12.33.04 MPa.6.10 to 0. 6. All Rights Reserved. for a variety of cases characterized by the constant C. The value of C could range anywhere from 0.

3 Considering unstayed plates and covers See Figure 6. P ¼ design pressure. McGrawHill. Copyright 2005 by CRC Press.10 sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 0:10ð0:04Þ t ¼ 1000 ¼ 5:77 mm ð1Þð120Þ For C ¼ 0.5. Formulas for Stress and Strain. and Young. (6.J. New York.26) rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi CP t¼d SE where C ¼ 0. We have from Eq.. 1959. Theory of Plates and Shells. and Woinowsky-Kreiger... 2nd ed. S. 2. Timoshenko.33 depending on construction. W.12.6. 1975. Inc. then S ¼ 120 MPa.10–0. McGraw-Hill. For C ¼ 0. .C. and E ¼ butt weld joint efficiency. ASME. All Rights Reserved.P.2 Considering clamped edges Sr jmax > S jmax 500 120ð4Þ ð1=2Þ ¼ ¼ 63:25 t 0:12 t ¼ 7:91 mm 6. 3.. Assuming E ¼ 1. Roark. S. R.12. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. S ¼ allowable tensile stress.33 sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 0:33ð0:04Þ ¼ 10:49 mm t ¼ 1000 ð1Þð120Þ References 1. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. d ¼ diameter of the head.. New York. 5th ed.