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KEY CONCEPTS

vector sum of linear momenta of all the bodies in an isolated system is

conserved.

Flight of rockets, jet planes, recoiling of a gun etc. are explained on the

basis of this principle.

where mg = real weight of the man. Acceleration = (+a), when the lift is

accelerating upwards and

Acceleration = (a) when the lift is accelerating downwards.

when lift is moving in uniform motion then a = 0, w = mg = real weight.

in free fall, a = g W = m(g g) = 0

i.e. apparent weight becomes zero.

inextensible string passing over a light frictionless pulley, acceleration of

the system is given by

m 1 m 2 g

and

m 1 m 2

2m 1m 2g

m 1 m 2

37

XI Physics

Impulse I F av t p 2 p 1

is zero. In this case system is either at rest or in uniform motion.

Friction is the opposing force that comes into play when one body is

actually moving over the surface of another body or one body is trying to

move over the surface of the other.

Two causes of friction are : roughness of surfaces in contact; (ancient

view)

Force of adhesion between the molecules of the surfaces in contact.

(Modern view)

1.

external force is applied.

2.

3.

friction is somewhat less than the force of limiting friction.

when F = external force and R = normal reaction

the direction of R. The relation between and is = tan

the horizontal, such that a body placed on hte plane just begins to slide

down. = tan

circle.

XI Physics

38

provided by the force of friction between the tyres and the road. The

maximum velocity with which a vehicle can go round a level curve without

skidding is v

rg.

To increase speed on turn, curved roads are usually banked i.e. outer

edge of the curved road is raised suitably above the inner edge. If is the

angle of banking, then

2

tan

v

rg

When frictional force is ignored, the optimum speed is 0 = (rg tan )1/2

given by max

rg s tan 1/ 2

1 s tan

When a cyclist takes a turn. He bends a little inwards from his vertical

position, while turning. Angle of bending from vertical position is given by

2

v

tan

rg

2

m

mg cos , where is the angle

r

of string with vertical line for looping with optimum speed :- (when tension

at highest point is zero)

in the string at any position is T

J

Mg cos

Mg sin

39

XI Physics

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

90 180, 2gr L

5 g r

gr

2 g r

5 gr

tension in the rope is T = m(g + a)

When the person climbs down the rope with acceleration a, tension in the

rope is T = m(g a)

When a body slides down a smooth inclined plane of inclination with the

horizontal, its acceleration down the plane is a = g sin

support, with the help of strings as shown in Fig. when mass m2 is pulled

down with a force F, then

T2 = F + m2g

and

T1 = F + (m1 + m2) g

T1

m1

T2

m2

F

When the same system of two masses attached to a string passes over

a frictionless pulley at the edge of an inclined plane, as shown in Fig.

equation wil be...

XI Physics

40

m1 a = T m1 g sin

m2 a = m2 g T

R = m1g cos

a

R

m2g sin

T

a

m2g

The action and reaction forces are as shown in Fig.

m1

m3

m2

F

F12

F21 F23

F32

F

Common acceleration, a m m m

1

2

3

Equation of motion of first body is

F F12 = m1 a

F12 = F21 = F1

F21 F23 = m2 a

F23 = F32 = F2

F32 = m3 a

m1

F

m3

m2

F12 F21

F23 F32

we get

F1

m 2 m 3 F

m1 m 2 m 3

41

XI Physics

F2

m 3F

m1 m 2 m 3

vertical loop of radius r is h

5

r

2

Circular Motion

h

h

around a circular path is defined as the angle subtended by the radius

vector at the centre of the circular path in the given time.

displacement of the object i.e. = d/dt. Its S.I unit is rad/s.

path with a constant speed, then the motion of the object is said to be a

uniform circular motion.

undergoing uniform circular motion. It always acts along the radius towards

the centre of the circular path. The magnitude of centripetal acceleration

2

is, a

4 r

4 r

2

T

The rate of change of angular velocity () is called its angular acceleration

() i.e.

2

d

d

2

dt

dt

tangential acceleration. It is given by aT = r, where is the angular

acceleration.

The direction of tangential acceleration is along the tangent to curved

path.

XI Physics

42

has two linear accelerations.

(i) centripetal acceleration, ac = 2/r ; (ii) tangential acceleration, aT = r ;

Resultant acceleration of the body is

a

ac aT

tan

and

aT

ac

aT

o

ac

1 MARK QUESTIONS

1.

A passenger sitting in a car at rest, pushes the car from within. The car

doesnt move. Why?

2.

Give the magnitude and directions of the net force acting on a rain drop

falling with a constant speed.

3.

Why the passengers in a moving car are thrown outwards when it suddenly

takes a turn?

4.

5.

6.

7.

Comments.

8.

9.

43

XI Physics

10.

Why is it difficult to catch a cricket ball than a tennis ball even when both

are moving with the same velocity?

11.

of 25ms1.

( 37500 N-S)

12.

13.

What provides the centripetal force to a car taking a turn on a level road?

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

20.

21.

The outer edge of a curved road is generally raised over the inner edge.

Why?

22.

Explain why the water doesnt fall even at the top of the circle when the

bucket full of water is upside down rotating in a vertical circle?

23.

Why does a speedy motor cyclist bends towards the centre of a circular

path while taking a turn on it?

24.

If the net force acting upon the particle is zero show that its linear momentum

remains constant?

2 MARKS QUESTIONS

1.

A man getting out of a moving bus runs in the same direction for a certain

distance. Comment.

2.

the force acting on particle.

(F = mg)

3.

4.

Nm1. What will be its initial acceleration if it is released from a point 20

cm away from the origin?

(a = 10 ms2)

XI Physics

44

5.

is the speed of the recoil of the gun.

(2.5 ms1)

6.

rope of mass m by applying a force P at the free end of the rope. Find the

force exerted by the rope on the block.

P

F M

M m

7.

Three forces F1, F2 and F3 are acting on the particle of mass m which is

stationary. F2 is perpendicular to F1 if F1 is removed, what will be the

acceleration of particle?

(a = F1/m)

8.

A spring balance is attached to the ceiling of a lift. When the lift is at rest

spring balance reads 49 N of a body hang on it. If the lift moves :(i)

Downward

(ii)

(iii)

(24N, 74 N, 49N)

9.

10.

11.

A bob of mass 0.1 kg hung from the ceiling of room by a string 2 m long

is oscillating. At its mean position the speed of the bob is 1 ms1. What is

the trajectory of the oscillating bob if the string is cut when the bob is :(i)

(Parabolic)

(ii)

(vertically downwards)

13.

14.

Is larger surface area break on a bicycle wheel more effective than smaller

surface area brake? Explain?

3 MARKS QUESTIONS

1.

is required to give the block a velocity of 200 cms1 in 4 s?

45

XI Physics

2.

horizontal surface. Find the coefficient of friction and angle of friction?

(0.22, 1224)

3.

plane of 1 in 50 with an acceleration of 2 ms2. The force of friction per

quintal is 0.5 N.

(40200N0)

4.

100m. Mass of the plane is 10000 kg and coefficient of friction between

the plane and the ground is 0.2. If the acceleration of the plane is uniform

during take off, Calculate the minimum force required by the engine for the

take off.

(27.13 N)

5.

d. If the time taken to slide on a rough 30 inclined surface is n times large

to cover the same distance on a smooth incline. Find the coefficient of friction?

1 3 1 1 n

2

6.

What is the acceleration of the block and trolly system as in fig., if the

coefficient of kinetic friction between the trolly and the surface is 0.04?

Also calculate tension in the string. Take g = 10 ms2, mass of string is

negligible.

(0.957 ms2, 27.13 N)

20 kg

3 kg f.

7.

connected by strings on smooth horizontal surface and pulled by a force

of 60 N. Find the acceleration of the system and tensions in the string.

8.

a string which is passed over a pulley as shown in fig. Calculate T1, T2,

T3 when the system is :-

XI Physics

46

(i)

Stationary

(ii)

T1

F

M1

T2

M2

T3

M3

9.

(i)

(98 N 78.4 N, 49 N)

(ii)

(118 N, 94.4N, 59 N)

force of 50 N horizontally is applied at the mid point. P of the rope.

Calculate the angle of rope makes with the vertical. Neglect the mass of

rope. (g = 9.8 ms2)

( = 40)

50N

W = 60N

10.

coefficient of friction between the wheels of a race car and the road is 0.2,

what is :(i)

The optimum speed of the race car to avoid wear and tear of the

tyres and

(ii)

(28.2 ms1, 38.2 ms1)

47

XI Physics

11.

rest on a horizontal surface. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the

block and surface is 0.25. The bullet remain embedded in the block and

combination moves 20 m before coming to rest. Find the speed of the

bullet strike the block?

(4000 m/s)

12.

to a height of 10 m. Find the impulse and the average force between the

marble and the floor. The time during which they are in contact is 0.1 s.

Take g = 9.8 ms2.

(4.2N ; 42N)

5 MARKS QUESTIONS

13.

of conservation of linear momentum from Newtons third law of motion.

14.

Why circular roads are banked? Derive an expression for angle of banking

for safe circular turn?

15.

lowest point for Looping a vertical loop.

16.

Show that the area under the force-time graph gives the magnitude of the

impulse of the given force for the following case when (i) force is constant

(ii) variable force.

17.

plane? (Sliding only)

XI Physics

48

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