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Recovering the Humankind's Past and Saving the Universal Heritage

by Paolo Matthiae, Davide Nadali, Andrea Vitaletti, Emanuel Demetrescu

- Paul Bahn (ed.) (2014), The History of Archaeology: An Introduction, Routledge, London.

- Lucas Gavin (2005), The Archaeology of Time, Routledge, London. <

- Lucas Gavin (2012), Understanding the Archaeological Record, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


- Ian Hodder (2004), Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge. <>
- Roger Matthews (2003), The Archaeology of Mesopotamia: Theories and Approaches, Routledge,
- Colin Renfrew and Paul Bahn (eds.) (2005), Archaeology: The Key Concepts, Routlegde, London.
Module 1: The recovery of the human past and the protection of the universal heritage.
Course Program and Goals of the week - We will start our enquiry discussing how ancient societies kept
memory of their own past, an aspect which, in fact, was fundamental to their identity. Shifting towards
modern times, we will then reflect how the material past is preserved and how we refer to it.
Lecture Week 1 - The recovery of the human past and the protection of the universal heritage.
- Colin Renfrew and Paul Bahn (2008), Archaeology: Theory, Methods and Practice, Thames and Hudson,
- Bruce G. Trigger (2014), A History of Archaeological Thought, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Homework available since 27 Nov .: Quiz week 1

Module 2 : The birth of archaeology and its role in the contemporary world.
Course Program and Goals of the week - The study of the planet's past marked the first serious
reflections on humankinds past, although archaeology was in fact considered the practice to collect
objects. New Archaeology represents the first major revolution, promptly followed by the more
structured and aggressive Processual Archaeology". The opening towards different disciplines implied the
loss of innocence for archaeology, bringing at the same time scientific methods into the reconstructions
of the past.
Lecture Week 2 - The birth of archaeology and its role in the contemporary world
- Alain Schnapp (1996), The Discovery of the Past: The Origins of Archaeology, British Museum Press,
- Bruce G. Trigger (2007), Understanding Early Civilizations: A Comparative Study, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge. <,

Homework available since 4 Dic .: Quiz week 2

Module 3: The fascination of archaeology in its practices and in interpretation
Course Program and Goals of the week - Field archaeology entails discovery, but is a matter of fact that
discovering brings a great responsibility because it is a process of destruction. Digging means observing,
recording, interpreting. Archaeological excavation is an harmonious trade-off between an intellectual and a
manual labor. In fact, archaeological interpretation is a path shifting between identity and alterity.
Lecture Week 3 - The fascination of archaeology in its practices and interpretations
- Mark A. Abramiuk (2012), The Foundations of Cognitive Archaeology, MIT Press, Cambridge-London.
Link GoogleBokoks <

- Ian Hodder (2012), Entangled: An Archaeology of the Relationships Between Human and Things,
Blackwell, Malden.
- Colin Renfrew (2012), Cognitive Archaeology from Theory to Practice. The Early Cycladic Sanctuary
at Keros, The Annual Balzan Lecture, Olschki, Firenze.
- Lambros Malafouris (2013), How Things Shape the Mind: A Theory of Material Engagement, MIT Press,
Cambridge-London. <

Homework available since 11 Dic .: Quiz week 3

Module 4: Archaeology in research practice
Course Program and Goals of the week -Material remains of the past and their state of recovery vary
according also to environments. Surface surveys lead to a more intense knowledge of territories, visualizing
archaeological landscapes in a variety of ecological situations. The objectives of archaeological research
have been moulded in the historical development of the discipline. Historical sources have always been a
source of inspiration for research, opening new problems. Chronology is a construct depending on dating
tools, and scientific methods have been employed in determining an absolute chronology.
Lecture Week 4 - Archaeology in research practice
- Edward C. Harris (1989), Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy, Academic Press, London (second
- Philip Barker (1993), Techniques of Archaeological Excavation, Routledge, London (3rd revised edition).
- Gilberto Artioli (2010), Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage: An Introduction to the Application
of Materials Science to Archaeometry and Conservation Science, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

Homework available since 18 Dic.: Quiz week 4

Module 5: Contemporary archaeology and public perception
Course Program and Goals of the week - This module focuses on scientific research and knowledge
dissemination. The specificities of the past pose a problem in respect of popularization and simplification.
The operational chain is made of exploration, dig, publication, conservation, dissemination, protection.
However, the need for a legitimacy of the present has led also to political readings of the retrieval of the
past. Present cultural identity is grounded in the retrieved past.
The past of the other has often been refused throughout history down to modern times. Our
perception of the past is made manifest in its material and virtual reconstruction starting from ruins.
Further, excessive exploitation of the past represent a modern destruction. The archaeological excavation

of Ebla (Syria) will be analyzed as case study. It is in fact an example of a research framed within historical
archaeology, which, in the course of fifty years of research, turned into a global perspective.
Lecture Week 5 - From Archaeology to History
- Morgens Trolle Larsen (1996), The Conquest of Assyria: Excavations in an Antique Land, Routledge,

- Paolo Matthiae (2010), Ebla. La citt del trono, Einaudi, Torino.

- Tony J. Wilkinson (2003), Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East, University of Arizona Press,
Homework available since 25 Dic.: Quiz week 5
Module 6: Digitizing Cultural Objects and 3D Virtual Reconstruction
Course Program and Goals of the week - This module deals with a first insight to the importance of ICT
in the preservation, monitoring and valorization of cultural heritage. The module will show how sensors
and WSN can prevent monuments and archeological sites from structural damages and how 3D modeling
and augmented reality can assure immersive fruitions experiences even from remote, helping to spread
knowledge and social responsibility among citizens.
Lecture Week 6 - Digitizing Cultural Objects and 3D virtual reconstruction
- F. Remondino (2011) Heritage recording and 3d modeling with photogrammetry and 3d scanning. Remote
Sensing, 3(6):11041138.
-Lock, Gary R, (2003), Using computers in archaeology: towards virtual pasts. Psychology Press.
- G. De Felice, M. G. Sibilano, and G. Volpe ( 2008), Linformatica e il metodo della stratigrafia. In Atti del
Workshop (Foggia, 6-7 giugno 2008)
- N. DellUnto, D. Ferdani, A.-M. Leander Touati, M. Dellepiane, M. Callieri, and S. Lindgren (2013),
Digital reconstruction and visualization in archaeology case-study drawn from the work of the swedish
pompeii project. 2013 Digital Heritage International Congress, pages 621628.
- M. Dellepiane, N. DellUnto, M. Callieri, S. Lind- gren, and R. Scopigno (2013), Archeological
excavation monitoring using dense stereo matching techniques. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 14(3):201
- F. I. Apollonio, M. Gaiani, and B. Benedetti ( 2012), 3d reality-based artefact models for the management
of archaeological sites using 3d gis: a framework starting from the case study of the pompeii archaeological
area. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39(5):12711287, ISSN 0305-4403. doi:
10.1016/j.jas.2011.12.034. 00003.
Homework available since 1 Jan.: Quiz week 6
Module 7: Sharing Digital Culture Objects over Internet
Course Program and Goals of the week - In the seventh module, Andrea Vitaletti will go trough a
concrete example of all the opportunities offered by technology in order to reconstruct and valorise cultural
heritage. In detail, he will show students the phases and techniques required to realise Ebla 3D model and
other tools such as augmented reality to allow remote fruition both for research and cultural purposes. The
theme will also represent the opportunity to explain how important are social processes as ''crowdfunding1''
and ''crowdsourcing2'' to preserve and give value to our patrimony. In this framework, technologies
represent an enabling instrument to encourage innovative models of monitoring and fruition and to allow

strategies of collective care for cultural heritage.

Lecture Week 7 - Sharing Digital Cultural Objects
An Introduction to RDF is available at link_1 and link_2:
The Five star open data is available here
All the material regarding EDM is available at the European Data Model (EDM) Documentation web site.
In particular:
The EDM Primer is the 'story' of EDM and explains how the classes and properties may be used together to
model data and support European functionality
The EDM Mapping Guidelines give guidance for providers wanting to map their data to EDM
Slides of the video lectures (zip)
Homework available since 8 Jan.: Quiz week 7
1 crowdfundingnoun [U] /kradfnd./ specialized business, internet & telecoms the practice of
getting a large number of people to each give small amounts of money in order to provide the finance
for a business project, typically using the internet: Crowdfunding provides locally sourced finance for
renewable energy projects around the country. crowdfund verb [T] /kradfnd/ specialized.
2 Crowdsourcing noun [U] /kradss/ the act of giving pieces of work to a large group of people or
to the general public, for example, by asking for help on the Internet, rather than having the work done
within a company by employees.
Module 8: The past as a universal heritage of humankind
Course Program and Goals of the week - This module deals with some basic issues and principles. All
heritages are equal among them. Heritages are a property of humankind and don't belong to single
countries. Heritages need to be protected and preserved in their context. But many threats are posed to
heritages: illegal digging is a serious risk, as well as actions due to hatred for the other and his heritage.
As a consequence of what stated above, damages to heritage are a crime against all humankind.
International Organizations are engaged in protecting the heritage, the future of which represents a
contribution to dialogue and peace.
Lecture Week 8 - The Past As a Universal Heritage of Humankind
- J.D. Kila (2012), Heritage Under Siege: Military Implementation of Cultural Property Protection
Following the 1954 Hague Convention, Brill Academic Pub, Leiden
- J.D. Kila and J.A. Zeidler (eds.) (2013), Cultural Heritage in the Crosshairs: Protecting Cultural
Property During Conflict, Brill Academic Pub, Leiden. <

Homework available since 15 Jan.: Quiz week 8

Final Exam. Due by Feb. 2.

Grading policy:
The evaluation model for this course is:
1. Weekly Evaluation (written quiz) - there will be 8 quizzes, which together are worth 40% of the
final grade (each individual quiz is worth 5% of the grade).
2. Final Examination (written quiz) - 60% of the final grade
3. Collaborative activities
Here we are with the Collaborative Activity!
In this activity each group has to choose only one place or one site or one monument of historical and
archaeological importance. Each member of the group can propose one element. The members of the group
have to elect their subject matter of the research. The final result must be only one shared element which
will be the focus of the entire group.
The choosen item has to be evaluated and described according to the entries of the classification
The aim of the collaborative activity consists in explaining the reason of your choice, how your subject
matter of the research can affect people and why you think it must be protected and valorized.
The participation is upon registration which is available from December 6th to December 10th (16:00
Deadline is December 10th (16:00 UTC+01:00).
Registrations after the deadline will not be considered.
PHASE 1 (10/12 - 21/12)
Download the classification form you will use for the group work
Create the forum group (the coordinator is in charge of it)
Use the forum group to propose and select your subject matter of the research
Each group must work with only one element
Describe and valorize following the criteria listed in the classification form
The final project has to be upload in a directory labeled with the number of the group, i.e. Project_01,
Project_02, Project_03 etc.
The availability of the directory will be notified through a specific announcement.
PHASE 2 (22/12 08/01)
During the second part of the activity each group will give a score between 1 (insufficient) and 5
(excellent) using an evaluation form we will provide you with.
Following the previous phases, Sapienza will conduct a webinar where professors will present the
best ten evaluated projects.
Recovering the Humankind's Past and Saving the Universal Heritage Course Team